Due to high cost of wind turbines and the need of
research and development in lab scale systems, this paper
introduces the design and control steps of one kilowatt wind
emulator using a variable speed DC-motor system controlled
by a full wave controlled Rectifier Bridge. The dynamics of
wind turbine system is considered in the proposed emulation
system.The dynamics of the designed system is presented
under deterministic and stochastic wind speed profiles. The
paper also illustrates the design steps of current control
loops PI-controllers to control the DC motor torque.

© All Rights Reserved

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Due to high cost of wind turbines and the need of
research and development in lab scale systems, this paper
introduces the design and control steps of one kilowatt wind
emulator using a variable speed DC-motor system controlled
by a full wave controlled Rectifier Bridge. The dynamics of
wind turbine system is considered in the proposed emulation
system.The dynamics of the designed system is presented
under deterministic and stochastic wind speed profiles. The
paper also illustrates the design steps of current control
loops PI-controllers to control the DC motor torque.

© All Rights Reserved

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ISSN:2319-6890)(online),2347-5013(print)

1 March. 2016

M. E. Abdallah*, O. M. Arafa*

* Electronics researchinstitute. Dokki,Giza, Egypt

eng.msa12@yahoo.com,oarafa2004@yahoo.com

Abstract :Due to high cost of wind turbines and the need of

research and development in lab scale systems, this paper

introduces the design and control steps of one kilowatt wind

emulator using a variable speed DC-motor system controlled

by a full wave controlled Rectifier Bridge. The dynamics of

wind turbine system is considered in the proposed emulation

system.The dynamics of the designed system is presented

under deterministic and stochastic wind speed profiles. The

paper also illustrates the design steps of current control

loops PI-controllers to control the DC motor torque.

KeywordsWind Energy,Wind

System,DC Motor Drive.

Turbine

Emulation

I. I ntro d u ct io n

A wind turbine emulator (WTE) is equipment which is used

for producing the real wind turbine characteristics in the

laboratory. This emulator emulates the dynamic and static

behaviour of the real wind turbine without the need of natural

wind resource and actual wind turbine.

For the purpose of research tests, a system is

designed to emulate the wind turbine characteristics. The

emulator can be used to drive the DFIG in a similar way like

an actual wind turbine; by generating torque similar to the

aerodynamic torque at a given wind speed. The purpose of

wind turbine characteristic emulation is to study and develop

the WECS in the laboratory without the need for high cost real

wind turbine. Squirrel cage induction motor (SCIM),

permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and DC motor

are usually used for emulating mechanical power

characteristics of wind turbines in the laboratory I-VII. These

motors are controlled to have power curves similar to the wind

turbine characteristics.

The objectives of this paper are:

1) Modeling and emulating 1KW wind turbine which

can be used in the laboratories,

2) Obtaining

Power-speed

and

torque-speed

characteristics from the modeled turbine and

3) Controlling separately excited DC motor model to

obtain the wind turbine characteristics (DC motorbased emulation).

II. Wind turbine model

Wind turbine is the prime mover of the WECS. So, the

modeling and emulation of wind power is important in

studying and improving different wind systems. The

mechanical output power of the wind turbine is given by

equation (1),VIII.

IJER@2016

1

(1)

2 (, )3

2

Where is the air density in (Kg/3 ), is the radius of the swept

area in (m), is the power coefficient and is the wind speed

in (m/sec). The power coefficient is defined as the ratio of the

turbine mechanical power to the power available by the wind.

This coefficient is a function of TSR () and the blades pitch

angle () in (deg). TSR is the ratio of the blade tip speed to the

wind speed as illustrated in equation (2).

=

(2)

The aerodynamic mechanical torque of the wind

turbine is given by (3).

=

2

1 R3 Cp (, )vw

(3)

2

function of the tip speed ratio, , and the blade pitch angle, .

The Cp (,) curve can be derived from field test on the wind

turbine. An empirical equation is used to model the Cp , and

surface, based on the turbine characteristics, is given by

equation (4),I-III, X.

Tm =

C5

1

C3 . C4 e i + C6 .

(4)

i

Where the parameters 1 to 6 are constants and is given by

equation(5)

Cp , = C1 . C2 .

1

1

0.035

=

3

(5)

+ 0.08

+ 1

Table 1 gives a typical value of the parameters 1 to

6 II. These parameters change from one turbine to another

based on the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine. Figure

1 shows the power coefficient characteristic for different values

of of the turbine with the parameters shown in Table 1.

The maximum value of the power coefficient ( = 0.48) is

achieved at = 0 deg and = 8.108. Also, Figure 2 shown

the power coefficient curve at = 0.

Table 1: parameters of the power coefficient equation

1

2

3

4

5

6

0.5176

116

0.4

5

21

0.0068

doi : 10.17950/ijer/v5s3/304

Page 185

Volume No.5, Issue No.3, pp : 185- 189

ISSN:2319-6890)(online),2347-5013(print)

1 March. 2016

Wind turbine

model

Scaling factor

Wind speed

(m/sec)

T*

Pitch angle ( )

Torque

Scale factor

Torque

controller

Electric

load

Rotor speed

(rad/sec)

By looking at the wind turbine power and torque

equations, (1) and (3), it can be noticed that the inputs are the

wind speed, the blades pitch angle and the rotor speed and the

output is the aerodynamic torque. As a result, the wind turbine

model must have the same inputs, outputs and characteristics.

The role of the used motor (DC, PMSM or SCIM) is

to generate the reference torque requested by the wind turbine

model. The complete strategy is illustrated in Figure 3. The

torque scaling factor, St ,is used when the wind turbine model

ratings are higher than the machine rating. The value of St is

given by equation (6). This allows the reproduction of the

actual turbine aerodynamic characteristics but on the used

machine scale to avoid the machine damage.

Pmachine

(6)

Pturbine

Where Pmachine is the nominal machine power and Pturbine is

the nominal turbine power.

The Simulink model of the 3 KW wind turbine is

shown in Figure 4. This model is developed by equations (1)(5), with R = 1.5m and = 1Kg/m3 . The next two sections

are explaining wind turbine emulation in detail using DC

motor and PMSM respectively.

St =

motor

A separately excited 1 KW DC motor is used to emulate the

turbine characteristics mentioned in section II. The DC motor is

controlled to follow the reference torque given by the wind

turbine at certain wind speed, certain blade pitch angle and

certain rotor speed. The basic idea to emulate real wind turbine

is that the generated torque and speed of the DC motor should

comply accord with the aerodynamic characteristics of the wind

turbine, which means machine torque has to be controlled

according to the model output torque. The controller used for

this is a proportional integral controller as it is easy in design

and implementation.

A. Control scheme

In the wind turbine emulation system, the DC motor must

operate with closed loop torque. In this system, the DC motor

imposes torque in the electrical generator shaft according to a

reference signal torque produced by turbine model.

The parameters of the used machine are shown in

Table 2. The field circuit of the motor is supplied by the rated

voltage to give the rated flux without any control. The way of

controlling the DC machine and emulating the wind turbine is

illustrated in Figure 5.

3 Phase balanced

power supply

Va

50 HZ

380 V

Tref

from the wind

turbine

Kt

ref

+-

PI

Vref

constant

-1

cos

Vb

Electric

load

Vc

Vdc

Firing angle

ia

Armature current

rectifier

using three-phase full wave controlled rectifier

IJER@2016

doi : 10.17950/ijer/v5s3/304

Page 186

Volume No.5, Issue No.3, pp : 185- 189

Rated armature voltage,

Rated power

Rated speed,

Rated armature current,

Armature resistance,

Armature inductance,

Rated filed voltage,

ISSN:2319-6890)(online),2347-5013(print)

1 March. 2016

()

+ 1

1

1

=

=

+

1 () ()

.

.

1 1

1

(14)

=

+

. = + .

. .

K i and K p can be determined based on the value of . This

means that drives the current response of the system because

it directly affects the controller gains. As a result, using small

values of gives a faster closed-loop response but it also

increase the current overshot and vice versa, XI. By trying

different values of to meet the response requirements which is

20% maximum overshoot and settling time = 0.1 sec,

equals 103 .

After is selected the values of the PI controller are obtained

by using equation (14) as following:

1

1

=

=1

= 5000

.

. 103

(15)

5

=

120 V

1 Kw

1450 r.p.m

8.3 A

5

73 mH

240 V

0.88 A

Field resistance,

280

Field inductance,

15.29 H

Mutual inductance,

System inertia,

System friction coefficient,

1.068 H

0.014 Kg.2

0.01 N.m.s

7310 3

B.

shown in Figure 6. So, to control the armature current,ia , the

voltage across the inductor,va , must be controlled. The

transfer function of the armature current loop in S-domain is

()

1

(7)

=

=

() +

Where va is the voltage drop across the inductor as illustrated

in equation (8).

(8)

=

Where r is the rotor speed in (rad/sec) and K e is the voltage

constant which equals the torque constant,K t , and can be

calculated as presented in equation (9).

= =

(9)

The transfer function of the armature current loop can

be written as shown in equation (10) where the circuit time is

constant and K is value corresponding to the inverse of the

armature resistance.

1

=

=

=

+

1 + 1 + .

(10)

1

=

()

And selecting a first order system filter as follows:

1

=

1 +

So,

1

1

+ 1

= .

=

1 + . ( + 1)

(11)

(12)

(13)

5

=

=

= 73

. 1 . 103

(16)

Va

La

Ra

Rf

Va

ia

if

Ke.r

Vf

Lf

motor

IV. Simulation results

The WTE presented in Figure 3 is implemented and simulated

in Matlab/Simulink, as shown in Figure 7 and the result is

shown considering deterministic variable wind speed and

stochastic wind speed profiles. Figure 8 shows the wind turbine

characteristics at different wind speeds and also the figure

shows the load torque characteristic, the electrical generator

characteristic with the rotor speed, used to test the model.

Simply, The DC motor emulates the wind speed

characteristics if and only if at given wind speed the rotor speed

is one of the points of intersection, between the load

characteristic and the turbine characteristic, shown in Figure 8

according to the wind speed. Actually, the rotor speed will be a

little bite smaller than the points indicated in Figure 8 due to

the presence of mechanical losses in the shaft and electrical

losses in the DC motor.

1+

using the following equation:

IJER@2016

doi : 10.17950/ijer/v5s3/304

Page 187

Volume No.5, Issue No.3, pp : 185- 189

ISSN:2319-6890)(online),2347-5013(print)

1 March. 2016

speed

Figure 7 : Matlab simulation of WTE system

turbine characteristics at different wind speeds

Figure 9the corresponding turbine rotor speed is shown

inFigure 10. As presented in these two figures the rotor speed

is little a bite smaller than the values shown in Figure 8. As a

result, the system accurately emulates the wind turbine

characteristics. Also, Figure 11shows the electromechanical

torque produced by the motor and how it increases with

increasing the wind speed.

emulated torque exactly follows the reference torque produced

by the wind turbine model, as presented inFigure 13. Figure

14presents the rotor speed for this stochastic wind speed

profile. Figure 15presents the load power and the input

electrical power supplied to the DC motor. The difference

between the two powers, as illustrated above, is due to the

losses in the armature circuit and the losses due to rotor

friction.

Figure 12: Stochastic wind speed profile

IJER@2016

doi : 10.17950/ijer/v5s3/304

Page 188

Volume No.5, Issue No.3, pp : 185- 189

ISSN:2319-6890)(online),2347-5013(print)

1 March. 2016

the static and dynamic behavior of a given wind speed profile

by controlling the electro mechanical torque of the motor. The

matching factor used in the simulation gives the ability to

emulate the characteristic of large wind turbine using a low

power DC motor which is essential in studying and improving

the wind energy conversion systems.

The designed steps illustrated in this paper can be used to

design any DC motor to make this task.

by the DC machine

speed at stochastic wind speed profile

system at stochastic wind speed profile

V. conclusion

The designedsystemillustrated in this paper can emulate the

dynamic behavior of a typical wind turbine under both

stochastic and deterministic wind speed profiles. The one

kilowatt motor used in this simulation work tracks perfectly

IJER@2016

REFERENCES

Low Power Wind Turbine with a DC motor in Matlab/Simulink,

PESC07, Orlando, FL, June 2007, pp. 859 864.

II. S. Kouadria, S. Belfedhal, E.M. Berkouk, Y. Meslem,

Development of real time wind turbine emulator based on DC motor

controlled by PI regulator, 8th International Conference (EVER),

Monte Carlo, March 2013, pp. 1 5.

III. S. Kouadria, S. Belfedhal, Y. Meslem, E.M. Berkouk,

Development of real time Wind Turbine Emulator based on DC

Motor controlled by hysteresis regulator, International Renewable

and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC), Ouarzazate, March

2013, pp. 246 250.

IV. Weihao Hu, Yue Wang, Xianwen Song, Zhaoan Wang,

Development of wind turbine simulator for wind energy conversion

systems based on permanent magnet synchronous motor,

International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, Wuhan,

Oct. 2008, pp. 2322 2326.

V. Liyong Yang, Sufang Yan, Zhigang Chen, Weipeng Liu, A

novel wind turbine simulator for wind energy conversion systems

using an permanent magnet synchronous motor, International

Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Busan, Oct.

2013, pp. 2156 2158.

VI. H. Voltolini, M.H. Granza, J. Ivanqui, R. Carlson,

Modeling and simulation of the Wind Turbine Emulator using

induction motor driven by torque control inverter, 10 th IEEE/IAS

International Conference on Industry Applications (INDUSCON),

Fortaleza, Nov. 2012, pp. 1 6.

VII. A.G. Abo-Khalil, A new wind turbine simulator using a

squirrel-cage motor for wind power generation systems, IEEE Ninth

International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems

(PEDS), Singapore, Dec. 2011, pp. 750 755.

VIII. W. Li, D. Xu, W. Zhang, H. Ma., Research in wind turbine

emulation based on DC motor, in 2nd IEEE conference industrial

Electronics and Applications, 2007, pp. 2589-2593.

IX. T. Thiringer and J. Linders, control by variable rotor speed

of a fixed pitch wind turbine operating in a wide speed range, IEEE

trans. energy conv., Vol. 8, pp. 520526, Sept. 1993.

X. J.D.M. De Kooning, B. Meersman, T.L. Vandoorn, L.

Vandevelde, Evaluation of the Maximum Power Point Tracking

performance in small wind turbines, IEEE Power and Energy Society

General Meeting, San Diego, CA, pp. 1 8.

XI. Cesar Hernaez, Sensorless speed and position estimation

of a PMSM, Master Thesis, Aalborg University, Department of

Energy Technology, 2014.

doi : 10.17950/ijer/v5s3/304

Page 189

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