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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

Chapters 11: Power Series (Worked Solutions)
1. MI/PU2Promo/11 (i)
y = x + 1+ x2
Diff: 1+ x 2 + x dy 2x = = 1+ dx 2 1+ x 2 1+ x 2 dy 1+ x 2 = x + 1+ x 2 dx dy 1+ x2 =y (shown). dx

(ii)

Diff:

1+ x

2

d 2y dx d 2y
dx
2

2

dy 1 + ⋅ 1+ x 2 dx 2
+ x
+x

(

)

1 2

⋅ (2 x ) =

dy dx

(1 + x 2 )
(1 + x 2 )

dy dy = 1+ x 2 dx dx

d 2y dx
2

dy =y dx

(shown).

Diff:

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ d 2 y dy ⎤ dy d 3y d 2y 1+ x 2 + (2 x )⎥ + ⎢ x 2 + .1⎥ = ⎢ dx ⎥ dx dx 3 dx 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ dx ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(

)

(1 + x )⋅ d
2

3

y

dx 3

+ 3 x.

d 2y dx 2

=0

Diff:

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ d 4y d 3y d 3 y d 2 y ⎤ dy 1+ x 2 + (2 x )⎥ + ⎢3 x ⋅ 3 + .3 ⎥ = ⎢ dx 4 dx 3 dx dx 2 ⎥ dx ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(

)

(1 + x )⋅ d
2

4

y

dx 4

+ 5 x.

d 3y dx 3

+3

d 2y dx 2

=0 d 2y dx 2 d 3y dx 3

When x = 0,
d 4y dx 4 = −3 .

y = 1,

dy = 1, dx

= 1,

= 0,

Maclaurin’s Series:
x= 1 is suitable as the terms 3

y = 1+ x +
n

1 2 1 4 x − x + .... 2 8

⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ → 0 for all n ≥ 4. ⎝3⎠

Chapter 11 Power Series (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

2.

SAJC/ Promo /7 (i) tan y = ln (1 + x ) Differentiate with respect to x dy 1 = sec 2 y dx 1 + x dy (1 + x ) = cos 2 y − − − − − (1) dx Differentiate with respect to x d 2 y dy dy (1 + x ) 2 + = −2 cos y sin y dx dx dx 2 d y dy dy (1 + x ) 2 + = − sin 2 y dx dx dx 2 d y dy (1 + x ) 2 + (1 + sin 2 y ) = 0 − − − − − (2) dx dx When x = 0 , y = tan −1 (ln 1) = 0 (1 + 0 ) dy = cos 2 0 ⇒ dy = 1 dx dx 2 d y d2y (1 + 0 ) 2 + 1 = − sin 0 ⇒ 2 = −1 dx dx 2 x y = 0 + (1)x + (− 1) + 2 2 x y = x− + 2 tan y = ln(1+x) ⇒ y=tan-1(ln(1+x))

(ii)


0.5 0

tan −1 ( ln (1 + x ) ) dx
0.5

0

⎛ x2 ⎞ x − ⎟ dx ⎜ 2⎠ ⎝
0.5

⎡ x 2 x3 ⎤ 5 = ⎢ − ⎥ ≈ 0.104 or 48 ⎣ 2 6 ⎦0

Chapter 11 Power Series (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

3.

TPJC/ Promo /5

4.

TJC/ Promo /8 y = 4 + sin 2 x ⇒ y 2 = 4 + sin 2 x dy ⇒ y = cos 2 x dx 2 d 2 y ⎛ dy ⎞ ⇒ y 2 + ⎜ ⎟ = −2sin 2 x dx ⎝ dx ⎠
2 2 d3y ⎛ dy ⎞ d y ⎛ dy ⎞ d y ⇒ ⎜ ⎟ 2 + y 3 + 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2 = −4cos 2 x dx ⎝ dx ⎠ dx ⎝ dx ⎠ dx 3 2 d y ⎛ dy ⎞ d y ⇒ y 3 + 3 ⎜ ⎟ 2 = −4 cos 2 x dx ⎝ dx ⎠ dx

Chapter 11 Power Series (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

(i)

When x = 0, y = 2,

1 d3y 61 dy 1 d 2 y =− , =− = , 2 3 8 dx 32 dx 2 dx

Maclaurin’s series of y: 2 3 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ x ⎛ 61 ⎞ x y = 2 + x + ⎜ − ⎟ + ⎜ − ⎟ + ...... 2 ⎝ 8 ⎠ 2! ⎝ 32 ⎠ 3!

≈ 2+

x x 2 61 3 − − x 2 16 192

(ii)

When x = 0.5, by part (i) result, y ≈ 2.19466 (to 5 d.p.) 2.20033 − 2.19466 This gives an estimated error = × 100% = 0.258% 2.20033

5.

VJC/ Promo /6

6.

JJC/Promo/7
(i)

y = ln(e x + 1)

Or,

e y = ex + 1
Diff. wrt x,

ey

dy = e x (shown) dx

dy ex = dx 1 + e x dy ⇒ (1 + e x ) = ex dx

∴ ey

dy = e x (shown) dx

(ii)

Diff again wrt x,

ey

d2y ⎛ dy ⎞ + e y ⎜ ⎟ = ex 2 dx ⎝ dx ⎠

2

or,

d 2 y (1 + ex )ex − ex (ex ) ex = = dx2 (1 + ex )2 (1 + ex )2

Chapter 11 Power Series (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

When x = 0, y = ln 2 , dy dy 1 e ln 2 = e0 ⇒ = dx dx 2
e
ln 2

d 2 y ln 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ d2y 1 + e ⎜ ⎟ = e0 ⇒ 2 = 4 dx 2 dx ⎝2⎠

2

The Maclaurin’s series for y is

1 1 y ≈ ln 2 + x + 4 x 2 2 2 1 1 = ln 2 + x + x 2 2 8
(iii) Using the expansion for cosx from MF15,

ln(e x + 1)cos x = cos x ln(e x + 1) ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ≈ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ ln 2 + x + x 2 ⎟ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 8 ⎠ ⎝ x2 1 1 x + x 2 − ln 2 2 8 2 1 ⎛1 1 ⎞ = ln 2 + x + ⎜ − ln 2 ⎟ x 2 2 ⎝8 2 ⎠ ≈ ln 2 +
7. RJC/ Promo /12

Let y = e −

1+ x

ln y = − 1 + x

--- (1)

Differentiate (1) with respect to x: −1 1 dy dy = ⇒ 2 x +1 =−y y dx 2 x + 1 dx Differentiate (2) with respect to x: ⎛ d2 y ⎞ 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ dy 2 x +1⎜ 2 ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟=− dx ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 x + 1 ⎝ dx ⎠
⎛ d 2 y ⎞ dy ⎛ dy ⎞ 2 ( x + 1) ⎜ 2 ⎟ + = − x +1⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dx ⎠ ⎝ dx ⎠ dx ⎛ d2 y ⎞ dy ⎛ dy ⎞ 4 ( x + 1) ⎜ 2 ⎟ + 2 = − 2 x +1⎜ ⎟ dx ⎝ dx ⎠ ⎝ dx ⎠

--- (2)

⎛ d2 y ⎞ dy 4 ( x + 1) ⎜ 2 ⎟ + 2 = y dx ⎝ dx ⎠ d2 y dy 4 ( x + 1) 2 + 2 − y = 0 (shown) --- (3) dx dx
Chapter 11 Power Series (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

Differentiate (3) with respect to x: d3 y d2 y d 2 y dy 4 ( x + 1) 3 + 4 2 + 2 2 − =0 dx dx dx dx d3 y d 2 y dy 4 ( x + 1) 3 + 6 2 − =0 dx dx dx dy 1 d2 y 1 d3 y 7 At x = 0 , y = e −1 , = − e −1 , 2 = e −1 and = − e−1 3 dx 2 dx 2 dx 8 By Maclaurin’s Theorem,

⎛ 1 −1 ⎞ ⎜ e ⎟ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎛ 1 −1 ⎞ −1 x + y = e + ⎜− e ⎟x + ⎝ 2! ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1 1 7 3⎞ ⎛ x ⎟ ≈ e −1 ⎜1 − x + x 2 − 2 4 48 ⎠ ⎝

⎛ 7 −1 ⎞ ⎜− e ⎟ ⎝ 8 ⎠ x3 + … 3!

e 2x −

1+ x

= e2 x e −

1+ x

⎡ = ⎢1 + 2 x + ⎣ ⎛ ≈ ( e −1 ) ⎜ 1 + ⎝
8.

1 1 1 1 7 ⎞ 2 3 ⎤ ⎛ ( 2 x ) + ( 2 x ) + …⎥ ( e−1 ) ⎜1 − x + x 2 − x3 ⎟ 2 6 2 4 48 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ 3 5 11 3 ⎞ x + x2 + x ⎟ 2 4 16 ⎠

HCI/Promo/12 y = x tan −1 x dy x = tan −1 x + dx 1 + x2 (1 + x2 ) dy = (1 + x2 ) tan −1 x + x dx 2 dy 2 d y 2 x + (1 + x ) 2 = 2 x tan −1 x + 1 + 1 dx dx 2 (1 + x2 ) dxy + 2 x dy − 2 y − 2 = 0 d 2 dx 3 d y d2 y d2 y dy dy 1 + x2 ) 3 + 2 x 2 + 2x 2 + 2 − 2 = 0 ( dx dx dx dx dx 3 2 (1 + x 2 ) dxy + 4 x dxy = 0 d 3 d 2 4 3 2 (1 + x 2 ) dxy + 6 x dxy + 4 dxy = 0 d 4 d 3 d 2 When x = 0, y = 0 dy =0 dx d2 y =2 dx 2

Chapter 11 Power Series (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

d3 y =0 dx3 d4 y = −8 dx 4 Maclaurin’s Series for y is y =

2 2 ( −8 ) 4 1 x + x + ... = x 2 − x 4 + ... 2! 4! 3

Method 1: x − tan −1 x x 2 − x tan −1 x lim = lim x →0 x →0 x3 x4 1 ⎛ ⎞ x 2 − ⎜ x 2 − x 4 + ... ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ = lim 4 x →0 x 1 = lim + ... x→ 0 3 1 = 3 Method 2: 1 ⎛ ⎞ x − ⎜ x − x3 + ... ⎟ −1 x − tan x 3 ⎝ ⎠ lim = lim 3 3 x →0 x →0 x x 1 1 = lim + ... = x →0 3 3 9. NJC/ Promo /7

1 cos y = 1 − e x 4

1 ⇒ cos 2 y = 1 − e x 4
dy 1 = − ex dx 4

2(cos y )(− sin y ) ∴ sin 2 y

dy 1 x = e ---(1) dx 4

Differentiate (1) implicitly w.r.t x:
1 d2 y ⎛ dy ⎞ ∴ sin 2 y 2 + 2 cos 2 y ⎜ ⎟ = e x ---(2) dx 4 ⎝ dx ⎠
2

When x = 0 ,
cos y = 1 − 1 4 ⇒ ⎛ 3⎞ π y = cos −1 ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟= 6 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Chapter 11 Power Series (Worked Solutions)

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Jurong Junior College \ H2 Mathematics

2009 Nov-Dec Holiday Homework

dy 1 ⎛ π ⎞ dy 1 From (1): sin 2 ⎜ ⎟ = (1) ⇒∴ = dx 2 3 ⎝ 6 ⎠ dx 4
2 d2 y 1 ⎛π ⎞d y ⎛ π ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 From (2): sin 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2 + 2 cos 2 ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = 4 ⇒∴ dx 2 = 3 3 ⎝ 6 ⎠ dx ⎝ 6 ⎠⎝ 2 3 ⎠ 2

Maclaurin series: y ≈ dy 1 1 ≈ + x dx 2 3 3 3

π
6

+

1 2 3

x+

1 6 3

x2 .

Equation of tangent: π 1 y= x+ 6 2 3

Chapter 11 Power Series (Worked Solutions)

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