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Justification: Individual (30%)

Write a justification of not more than 1000 words on the choice of materials collaborated and
produced by your group. Your justification should include the following :
Principles of selection and adaptation of teaching and learning materials for the
language classroom
Factors in selection and evaluation
Technical skills and knowledge involved for producing, developing, presenting
and evaluating materials produced
Substantiate with relevant literature

Teaching and learning materials is one of the fundamentals part in primary ESL
classroom. Importantly, it acts as resources to teacher to deliver instruction. Each teacher
requires a range of tools to draw upon in order to assist and support student learning (Alan
Cunningsworth, 1984). Based on this, teaching and learning materials brought major changes in
teaching of English rather than using textbook usage only. My team already discussed on the
selection of teaching material for this task and we decided to choose and produce diorama for
primary ESL classroom. A diorama is a carefully staged model which can be used for a variety of
purposes. Primary school pupils depend fully on teaching aid in order to construct their

understanding. Therefore, the teacher needs to know how to select suitable teaching materials
for the pupils.

1.1 Principles of selection and adaptation of teaching and learning materials for the language
The choice to use diorama in our lesson is that diorama is a visual material in the form of
Three-dimensional aid. Pupils are able to see the material. According to Mannan (2013), the
visual materials support them in that matter, as they serve as metal scaffolds for the pupils and
help teachers to correlate and coordinate accurate concepts making the learning more concrete
(R. Garcia Maria, 2012). Therefore, it will surely help to empower pupils imagination about the
lesson that they are going to teach materials to facilitate learning of English as Second
Language in primary classroom. Using diorama the pupils have opportunities to learn by doing.
By using real objects, pupils can touch the objects and the object can be seen by them. Pupils

understand and remember the meaning of the word better when they have touched the object it
represents (Azalina Yunus and H. Gaudart, 1996). The main advantage of using real objects in
to the classroom is to make the learning experience more memorable for the learner. For
examples, if the teacher is going to teach vocabulary of fruit and vegetable it can be more
affective if the can see the objects at the same time as hearing the new word (N.O. Argawati,

1.2 Factors in selection and evaluation

There are some factors that we already considered before making the teaching material
diorama. Provided with ample time and trusted resources it is one of the best teaching materials
that we can come out with. One of the factors to be considered is:
1.2.1 Level
For the age of pupils, it is suitable for all young learners. But we
designed it specifically for Year 4 pupils in accordance to the
lesson plan. The theme of Under the Sea is suitable for our
diorama in which it correlates to the Year 4 English KSSR
textbook. It can be the source of reference to English teachers.
Moreover, our teaching materials test pupils ability in speaking
and pronunciation skills. The content of the knowledge will be on
vocabulary and basic knowledge which suitable for Year 4 level.
The suitable level of material is appropriate which is for mixed
ability pupils where it fits to all levels.
1.2.2 Clarity
We have come to an agreement to design the diorama in perfectly
rectangular shape and in bigger size. All the materials such as the
animals in the ocean will be in suitable size so that pupils can
touch, see and hold it. It is important to fit all type of learners
which is visual and kinesthetic learners. Actually, we already
thought of using speakers/audio to make it more interactive so
that when pupils touch the button the audio will spell out the

animals name. But due to limited skill of technology, we were not

able to carry it out.
1.2.3 Practicality
Our creative ideas in designing the diorama are to make it look
like briefcase shaped so that teacher can easily to bring them to
classes. The weight of the diorama would not be too heavy which
will be less than 2 kilogram. All the materials and resources will
be in appropriate size. In addition, the design of diorama is not
complicated which is very simple and not complex.

1.3 Technical skills and knowledge involved for producing, developing, presenting and
evaluating materials produced
For diorama projects, the steps of the producing the teaching materials is not complex.
Moreover, the materials that we use to produce the teaching aids are mostly from recycled
items. For example, the base of the model was taken from used box. But the material must be
rigid and firm so that the box can withstand the objects inside. The scene within the diorama is
painted with the view inside the ocean. We decided to paint the background of the ocean view
because it will bring originality compared to using printed background. The creative skills are
added because most of us are minor arts education. The added feature in the diorama must be
included to make the scene inside of ocean more natural and detailed. For example, coral reefs,
sand, and wrecked ship.
When preparing the diorama, we discovered some difficulties which were on how to
make it more interactive so that the pupils can interact and remember it easily. Then, we had
come out with an idea to teach preposition by using visuals. According to Chitravelu,
Sithamparam and Teh (2005), visuals arouse interest, stimulate interaction and help pupils see
events and bring to life situations which would be abstract and difficult to explain in words
(especially when pupils have limited knowledge of English). Many types of visual can be usefully
exploited for the teaching of grammatical forms and their meanings.

A good teacher is not a teacher who can prove he is right but a good teacher is the one
who do his best to get the pupils learn the most from his knowledge. Joshi (2015), states that
traditionally classroom situation is teachers stand in front of the students, giving explanations,
informing, and instructing. They usually use chalk to write something on the blackboard. The
use of multimedia in classroom is a new way of conveying information. It enables the teachers
to provide a learning environment with the element of fun-learning for the pupils. These
arguments show that a teacher should go beyond the boundaries in their creativity in producing
and exploring the materials to be used in the primary classroom. I believe that being a noble
teacher needs commitment, enthusiasm, patience and love as a teacher is a doctor, a lawyer, a
chef, a tour guide and a guidance while pupils are in school. By using the materials at the right
time, a teacher will be able to manage his class well and also provide pupils with meaningful
learning experience.