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1350-1600 The Renaissance and Reformation

Renaissance
Georgio Vasari coined the term renaissance, meaning rebirth
Rediscovery of Greek and Roman art, literature, philosophy, and political/historical
thought
Individualism born; people took credit for their work (medieval idea of all glory
going to god change)
First took place in Italian city states → printing press caused spread to other parts
of Europe
Northern renaissance was more religiously focused while Italian renaissance was
primarily secular
Renaissance led to the protestant reformation
Italian City States








City states of Renaissance Italy were center of political, social, and cultural life in
13-1400
Middle ages- under control of Holy Roman Empire
Old nobility relied on land ownership, conflict w new merchant families that
became wealthy as a result of the economic booms occurring in the 12 and 13th
centuries
Ciompi Revolt
o Popolo were the urban underclass
o Popolo staged violent struggle against government
o Shook Florence → small period when poor established control over
government
o Lead to struggle in other cities
 Milan- rise of tyrant or signor/ Sforza Family came to power
 Florence and Venice were still republics- Medici’s came to power
Internal fighting as well as external fighting with other states
Rise of few dominant states
o Florence, Milan, Venice, Papal States, and Naples
Italy was more economically sound- had banks and merchants
Wealthy merchants became patrons of artists – demanding portraits
Location of Italy showed mix of Latin and Greek culture
Good trade route
Collapse of western Roman Empire in 5th century

Humanism

Francisco Petrarch
o Father of Humanism
o Coined term dark ages- cultural decline following the collapse of roman
empire in 5th century
o Humanism – program of study that based on what students in the classical
would’ve learned
o Studied Cicero- Roman politician and philosopher

High Renaissance o Center of renaissance moved from Florence to Rome Late Renaissance o Also called mannerism art o Distorted figures and confusing themes that reflected growing sense of crisis Leonardo da Vinci o Renaissance man Raphael o School of Athens o Uninvolved in conflict Michelangelo o David o Pope Julius II  Tomb  Sistine Chapel The Northern Renaissance     More about Christianity Christian Humanists Erasmus and Sir Thomas More o Erasmus wanted to reform church o Thomas More coined term utopia Northern Renaissance Culture o Albrecht Duhrer  Artist that moved peasants o England cultural hub o Shakespeare . o Civic o o o Goal of Petrarch and his followers became to write in this “ciceronian style” Humanists Wealthy young Florentines inspired by Petrarch Revival of Greek Women began to pick up skills of reading and writing.skills that previously only nuns had Renaissance Art          Shift towards individualism lead to importance of artists Patrons began to show interest in art as a means to show off their wealth Naturalistic style o Chiaroscuro o Single-point perspective Architecture o Increasing influence of classical motifs  Symmetrical decorations  Classical columns  Dome Late fifteenth century.

 Printing Press o Johannes Gutenberg o Spread bible .