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6.

Yarn Sizing
6.5 Numerical Problems
1) 100 kg bone dry warp yarns were sized to the add on of 8% and dried
to an overall (yarn and dry size) moisture content of 10%. Calculate
the final weight of the sized yarns.
Solution:
Bone dry warp = 100 kg
Pick – up = 8%
So,

Mass of dry size
100 = 8
Mass of bone dry warp

or,

Mass of dry size
100 = 8
100 kg

or, Mass of dry size = 8 kg
Total mass of bone dry (size +yarn) = 108 kg
Moisture content = 10%
So, 10 =

W
100 , where W is mass of water
W  108

or, W = 12 kg
So, final weight of sized yarn is = (108+12) kg = 120 kg

1

is sized with a paste of 15% concentration. where W= mass of water and D= oven dry mass of yarn D or.76) kg = 10.43  92 92 = 1.085 D = 20 kg or.5 .29    100    100-15   12.76kg Therefore.2) A 20 kg cotton warp.43  10  1. D + 0.843  8 18.57 kg Wet pick up (WPU) = Add on % = 10/15 = 0.02 – 1. D = 18. Total mass of yarn = oven dry mass of yarn + mass of water or.5%. 2 .29 kg Mass of water within size paste picked up by yarn =  100-Concentration%  12.843 kg 100 Now.43 kg = 12.45 kg  100  Total mass of water in the yarn after pick-up = Mass of water in the size paste + Mass of water originally present in yarn = (10.02 kg Water to be retained (for 8% moisture content in yarn and size film) = 8 1. the mass of water to be evaporated = (12. If a 10% add on the bone dry weight of the yarn is aimed then what should be the wet pick up? How much water has to be evaporated so as to leave 8% moisture content in warp and size film? Solution: Moisture regain (MR) of cotton is 8. having moisture regain of 8.29    = 10. W = 0.667 Concentration % Total mass of size paste picked up by yarn = 0. mass of water (W) = (20 -18.5 % or.45 + 1.667× 18. W 100  8.26 kg.57) kg = 12.43) kg = 1.085× D .43 kg Dry size added = D add on % 100  18.

Lf  Length of yarn(Ly )-Length of fabric(L f ) Length of fabric(L f ) Ly 1103 m =1002. W =0.08 = 0. length of sized yarn = (Ly) =1.1D = 1 kg or. 10  or. Dry size = D x 0. D+0. Mass of dry size 100  8 Mass of oven dry yarn (D) or. sizing zone and drying zone respectively. 4) The stretch in a sizing machine is 3%. Solution: Size add on = 8%.909 kg Now.103 So.1  Length of fabric is 1002. Moisture regain = 10% So. D = 0. total mass of unsized yarn = 1 kg So.073kg = 73 gm. So. W 100  10 . Solution: Total stretch in sizing can be calculated using the following multiplicative expression. D+W = 1 kg or. 5% and 2% in the creel zone.7 m 3 100 .103×1000 = 1103 m Crimp % =10% So.   Total stretch = 1  3   5   2    1    1   100   100   100  = 1. If the warp crimp in the woven fabric is 10% then determine the length of fabric that could be produced from 1000 m length warp sheet in each of the warpers beam.7 m 1. where W= mass of water and D= oven dry mass of yarn D or.1 1. add on is 8%.1D Now. If the moisture regain of the yarn is 10% then determine the oven-dry mass of the size added per kg of the unsized yarn.3) A 40 tex cotton yarn has add on of 8%.

then calculate the number of drying cylinder required. Solution: Oven dry mass of yarn= WPU  150  6000  20 kg = 18 kg 1000 1000 Add on % 12  = 0.84 kg 100   Mass of water in size paste of 12 kg= 12   So.667 Concentration % 18 Total mass of size paste = WPU × Oven dry mass of yarn = 12 18 kg = 12 kg 18 Mass of dry size = Mass of size paste ×concentration Total mass of yarn and dry size = (18 + 12×0.16 kg So. 2 cylinders will be needed.16 kg 9 = 2.5) A sizing machine is running at 150 m/min with 6000 ends. for moisture content of 10% Mass of water to be retained in yarn and size film = 1  20.18+) kg = 20. If yarn count is 20 tex (without moisture) and residual moisture content in the sized yarn and film after drying is 10%.24 kg  100-Concentration%   = 9. The add on requirement is 12% and concentration of the size paste is 18%. So.84 .24) kg/min = 7. 4 .6 kg/min Drying capacity of one cylinder = 4 kg/min. water to be evaporated = (9.2. if one drying cylinder can evaporate 4 kg water per min.

What is the reliability of the yarns at 2000 cycles if the reliability curve is exponential? Failure rate = number of failure/cycle = = Total number of failure r = Total number of cycles  t = 6 1025  1550  2232  3785  5608  7918 = 2.712 10-4 per cycle Average life ( ) = Reliability =e =e   1  = 3686 t  (according to exponential failure where pdf of failure is = 2000 3686 = 0. 2232.581 5 1  e  t  ) .6) Determine the failure rate of sized yarns if the six yarns tested for abrasion breaks broke after 1025. 5608 and 7918 cycles. 3785. 1550.

5) = R9(85. it is assumed that all the failures have taken place at the mid-point of duration i.0041 9  75  19  80 R1(5. Failure rate (R) = Number of failures Mid point of observation  number of failures +End point of observation  number of survivers 35  0.5) =  0.5) =  0.5) = 19  0.0032 8  65  28  70 7  0.0022 5  45  42  50 8 R7(65. 5th cycle.0118 19  85  0  90 6 .e.5) =  0. As the exact cycle number is not known for these 35 failures. From the table it is observed that 35 failures have occurred between the 1st and 10th cycle.5) =  0.5) = R2(15.042 35  5  65 10 6 R3(25.0035 6  25  52  30 5 R5(45. Number of cycles 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90 Number of failures 35 7 6 5 5 6 8 9 19 Number of survivors 65 58 52 47 42 36 28 19 0 Life history curve is obtained by plotting failure rate (Y axis) against number of cycles (X axis).7) Draw the life history curve for the sized yarns from the following information.0055 7 15  58  20 5 R4(35.0024 5  35  47  40 6 R6(55.5) =  0.0024 6  55  36  60 9 R8(75.5) =  0.

Failure rate Abrasion cycle 7 .