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Petroleum Chemistry

MSc. Petroleum Engineering


2015/16
Dr. Tannaz Pak

Module Details
Credits : 20
This module covers the key concepts of reservoir fluid types and properties.
The module is delivered in two parts:

Reservoir Fluid Characterisation Delivered by TP


Thermodynamics

Fluid properties

Pressure Volume Temperature (PVT) correlations


Phase behavior studies

Hydrocarbon fluid
composition

Flow Assurance Delivered by PF


Corrosion mechanisms
Scaling mechanisms
Inhibition of corrosion and scaling
Monitoring of corrosion and scaling

Ground Rules
In order to have more successful lectures we need to agree on a
set of rules
1. Attendance : Attend all the lectures unless you ready cant!

2. Be on time!
3. No mobile phones !
4. Be active, answer the questions you are asked!

Colour scheme of the text in the slides

The keywords are highlighted in red,


During the lectures you need to read the highlighted words,

The full sentences and the text are there for you to read later
when you study.

Assessment
Component 1:
Coursework (30%)
You will submit a report (2,000 words or equivalent) based on the
construction and analysis of compositional reservoir fluid model
using an industry standard simulator.

Component 2: Written Final Exam (70%).

Online Reading List:


You will find a reading list for this module by going to:
https://teesside.rl.talis.com/index.html
And searching for:
Petroleum Chemistry

First Part:

Reservoir Fluid Characterisation

Why do we study reservoir fluids?


Field development studies
Economic evaluation of the reservoir

What types of reservoir fluid analysis are performed ?

Experimental ?
Modelling ?

Elements of a Petroleum System:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Source rock: A deposit which is rich in organic matter, that had been subject to
high pressure and temperature over geological time scales.
Migration path way: A permeable path that allows the hydrocarbons to migrate
from the source rock to the reservoir rock, due to increasing overburden pressure.
Reservoir Rock
Trap
Surface
Gas
Oil

Cap rock

Reservoir
Water

This is where oil/gas is stored

Source rock

This is where oil/gas is formed

Elements of a Petroleum System:


Elements of a petroleum system:
1. Source rock
2. Migration path way
3. Reservoir: A porous and permeable layer(s) of rock that can store hydrocarbons
4. Trap (seal): An impermeable layer of rock which stops the hydrocarbons from
escaping to the surface.
Surface
Gas
Oil

Cap rock

Reservoir
Water

This is where oil/gas is stored

Source rock

This is where oil/gas is formed

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Hydrocarbon Origins
Hydrogen and carbon are sourced from organic material such as decaying plants
and animals that have accumulated while sediments deposited in basins.
The deposited organic matters have been altered by heat, bacterial action and
pressure over geological time.
Surface
Gas
Oil

Cap rock

Reservoir
Water

Source rock
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YHsxXEVB1M

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Reservoir Fluids
Reservoir fluids are mainly composed of hydrocarbons and water.

During production the reservoir fluid goes from high pressure and
temperature to low P and T.
Well 2
Well 1

The behaviour of reservoir fluid


depends on:
Its chemical composition
T and P

subsurface : high pressure and high temperature conditions


surface : low pressure and low temperature conditions
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Reservoir Fluid Phases


Gas: Small to medium size molecules, Oil : Larger molecules

Two-phase reservoir contains only oil and brine (water)


At reservoir T and P

Well

Cap-rock
Well

Oil

Cap-rock

Oil

Pinitial > Pbubble

Pinitial > Pbubble


Water

Water
B
Well oil, gas and brineP (water)
Three-phase reservoir contains
initial < Pbubble

At reservoir T and P

Cap-rock
B
Well

Gas

Cap-rock

Gas

OilPinitial < Pbubble

Oil

Water

Water

For volumetric and flow calculations it is essential to know how many fluid phases a
reservoir contains at a specific T and P : Two-phase or Three-phase?

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Reservoir Simulation
A tool to examine the fluid flow within the reservoir over time.
Geological Model:

Fluid Model:

3D digital representation of geological layers


of the reservoir

Constructed based on detailed experimental


analysis of reservoir fluid samples

Injection Well
Liquid
Critical Point

Pressure

C
100%
85%

75%

Production Well

65%

0%

Gas

Temperature

With these two components integrated you can have fluid flow simulations and
predict future productions.

Reservoir Fluid Behaviour


Using fluid flow simulations performed on a reservoir model, a
reservoir engineer is able to suggest field development
scenarios.
Example: At some specific point in time (say after 10 year
production, the reservoir will become three phase).
Example: The production of a gas reservoir may decline after a
while due to some liquid formation and blockage of the
reservoir pore space.

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Reservoir Fluid Characterisation - Overview


Reservoir Fluid Components
Reservoir Fluid Composition
Phase Behaviour
PVT (Pressure-Volume-Temperature) Correlations
Phase Diagram
Equation of State (EOS)
Reservoir Fluid Properties and related correlations
API Gravity
Formation Volume Factor
Viscosity
Compressibility, etc.
Constructing Fluid Models to feed in Reservoir Simulator

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Quiz!

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T.Pak@tees.ac.uk

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