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‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
237

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 237

 ‫א‬
 

 
 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬   ‫א‬         ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

 ‫א‬   ‫؛‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
 K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  

        ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

?‫?א‬  ? ‫א‬‫א‬ ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬     ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬       
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫؛‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 237

 ‫א‬
 
 

 
 
  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WK‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J
  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J
  ،‫א‬

  E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J
  ….. ‫א‬  J

 

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 

   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬E5V0F‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E10F‫א‬ 10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ErepeatersF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬Eerror propagationF    W‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬، K   .

   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬     ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E‫א‬‫א‬F‫ א‬ J  ‫ א‬ J  ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     ،‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   : ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  J   ‫א‬  J   K‫א‬  J   .

   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J    ،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J     ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬     W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  W    J     J  K‫א‬  J     .

   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   E ‫א‬F ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   .

   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 1   .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  Introduction to Digital Communication   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬     K‫א‬٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    3W‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   -1-   .

1 ‫الشكل‬    W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬Ehalf duplexF‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬Efull duplexF‫א‬Z   K‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1 J1‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬EAnalog to Digital conversion A/DF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -2-   . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬1 J1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ESourceF‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE1 J1‫א‬‫א‬FKEDestinationF‫א‬EChannelF     Source     Destination   Channel      ‫نظام اتصاالت‬: 1 .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  237  ‫א‬     EsamplingF‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KEquantizationF‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ Digital F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Eto Analog conversion D/A   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Ebinary dataF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KECoders and DecodersF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  {‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،EcodewordsF   K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2 J1‫א‬     ‫ مثال لنظام نقل رقمي‬2 .1 ‫الشكل‬ ‫א‬،Esource codingF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KK‫א‬Echannel codingF  ،‫א‬‫א‬   -3-   .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2 J1 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  E1V0VF10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ‫א‬‫א‬ELF‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬  ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬- ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ETime Division Multiplexing TDMF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬   ،EFrequency Division Multiplexing FDMF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-     W‫א‬‫א‬  Elarge bandwidthF   EsynchronisationF‫א‬ -   -4-   .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  237  ‫א‬       W‫א‬‫א‬3–1   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬K‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  WEformattingF‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EquantizationF‫א‬EsamplingF  ،EAnalog/Digital Conversion: A/D or ADCF‫א‬   ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EModulationFW‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ESource EncodingF ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EChannel EncodingF‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ EMultiplexingF‫א‬L‫א‬  ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EDemultiplexingF‫א‬L‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬LESpreadingF‫א‬‫א‬ EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ESynchronizationF‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -5-     .

736 274.048 CEPT1 8.448 CEPT2 ‫א‬‫א‬ 34.064 1.176 DS0 DS1 DS2 DS3 DS4 2.26 CEPT4  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EFourier TransformF  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    4 J1  W    G( f )   g (t ) e  j 2  ft dt   ‫א‬t  ‫א‬f    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬g(t)   ‫א‬‫א‬G(f)  Direct Fourier F‫א‬‫א‬  WEInverse Fourier TransformF‫א‬KETransform -6-   .312 44. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EData RateFE‫א‬F‫א‬   E‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  EMbpsF  ‫א‬ 0.368 CEPT3 139.544 6.

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      j 2ft g ( t )  G ( f ) e    df   ‫א‬t  ‫א‬f    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬g(t)   ‫א‬‫א‬G(f)     ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EpropertiesF  E‫א‬F‫א‬h(t)g(t)  h(t)g(t)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H(f)G(f)  ‫א‬ba    ‫تحويل فوريي‬  ‫اإلشارة‬  ‫الخاصية‬  Fourier transform Signal Property ‫الخطية‬ Linearity:  ‫إزاحة زمنية‬ G( f )e  j 2ft 0   g(t‐t0)  Shift in time  domain  ‫إزاحة ترددية‬ G(f‐f0)  g (t )e -7- j 2f 0 t   Shift in  frequency  domain    .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  237  ‫א‬     ‫تغيير السلم الزمني‬     ‫اشتقاق‬ (j2πf)n G(f)    Time scaling    derivation  g (t ) * h (t )   ‫تالفيف‬ Convolution  ‫الجذاء‬ G( f ) * H ( f )     Product     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫تحويل فوريي‬ ّ ‫القيمة‬/‫الدالة‬ Fourier Transform Function / value ‫الخاصية‬ property  ‫ثابت‬ δ(f)  1  Constant  ‫دالة دلتا‬     δ(f‐f0)  e -8- j 2f 0 t Delta function    ّ ‫أس‬ ‫مركب‬   .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  237  ‫א‬     Complex exponent    (ejat + e −jat) / 2.  ‫سلسلة نبضات‬ Impulse train    G( f )  2 df  g (t )     2 dt   ‫مبرھنة بارسفال‬ Parseval’s Theorem   ‫فوريي بالنسبة ألھم الدوال التي سنراھا في‬‫א‬‫א‬ . ‫دالة جيب التمام‬ Cosine function  ‫دالة جيب‬  1/jπf    Sign function  ‫دالة درجية‬ 1/j2πf   + ½  δ(f)    Unit step.‫الفصول المقبلة‬ Step function u(t):  u(t) 1  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J   t 0 -9-   .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  237  ‫א‬       Ex=fTFsinc(x)rect(t/T)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J                    Rectangular function rect(t/T):                 rect(t/ 1           ‐T/2             0           +T/2                  t        function sinc(x):  sinc(x) =  sine (x)/x                                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J                   tri(t/T) Triangular function tri(t/T):          ‐T       0    +T       t    Sin2(fT) (Fourier transform of the triangular function)      .10 -   .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      :EK‫א‬ba‫א‬) ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻠﺜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤﺔ‬               ejθ = cos(θ) + j ∙ sin(θ).11 -   . .

414 θ = tan‐1 (1/1) = tan‐1 (1) = π/4  =>  z  = 1.12 -   .414  ejπ/4 .    2  r   a  b a tan b 2 -1  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ z = r cos(θ) + jr sin(θ). ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  237  ‫א‬     cos(θ) = ( ejθ + e−jθ) / 2 sin(θ) = (ejθ − e−jθ) /  2j polar F‫א‬‫א‬Erectangular formF‫א‬‫א‬ zKEcomplex numbersF‫א‬‫א‬Eform  K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬   Z = a + jb        W W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ a = r cos(θ)  b = r sin(θ).  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   z  =  r ej θ z = 1+j :‫א‬‫א‬W1 J1‫م‬    r  =  √( 12 +12)  =  √2 = 1.

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 2 .13 - .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  Pulse Modulation   ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    9W‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   .13 - .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      ESamplingF‫א‬1 J2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬1 J1 J2  ESampling Theorem or Shannon TheoremF ،2fmfs fm ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(base band signal)‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  E1 J2Ffs ≥ 2fm  ‫א‬‫א‬fsW  ‫א‬‫א‬fm   Ts‫א‬  E2 J2FTsZ1/fs  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬ (1   1/2fm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (2   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (3   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(aliasing error)‫א‬ Nyquist F‫א‬‫א‬2fm‫א‬   ،Efrequency .14 - .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬     fs min= fN = 2fm  (3-2) TN = 1 / 2fm   ENyquist frequencyF fN     W  K‫א‬TN ‫א‬P(t)V(t)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K1 J2‫א‬‫א‬KEsampled signalFVs(t)‫א‬‫א‬   E3-2)   Vs(t) = V(t) * P(t)         .15 - .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬       ‫א‬  ‫א‬  (‫א‬‫א‬)  (‫א‬)         V(t)                                                                        V(f)             ‐ fm     0      fm                   f  (a/)    (a)            P(t) = a0+ ∑an cos 2π nfs t                                                                          P(f)                                2fs   3fs  ‐ fs                                   (b/)                 Ts  2Ts ……                 t      (b)   VS(t) = V(t) P(t)              = V(t) a0 + ∑an V(t) cos(2π nfst)                            (c)          VS(f) = a0V(f) + ∑an V(f – nfs)                    ‐fm   fm     fs‐fm   fs+fm   2fs                                                     3fs                    (c/)   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1‐2‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬Ea’F‫א‬‫א‬EaF  ‫א‬Eb’F‫א‬EbF  ‫א‬Ec’F‫א‬EcF .16 - .

17 -     (4   . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      sample‫א‬‫א‬F (gating)‫א‬   ‫א‬ KE‫א‬ hold ‫א‬  K1‐2    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬   –fmfm‫א‬V(t)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬V(f) (1    K     V(f)       ‐fm         0        +fm                       f         2fm ‫א‬‫א‬W2 J2‫א‬    (4-2)  (5-2)  P(t) (2    ‫א‬ (3   P(t) = a0+ ∑ an cos 2π n fs t   VS(t) = S(t) P(t)            = a0V(t) + ∑an V(t) cos(2π nfst)  cos(2π nfst)V(t)‫א‬ .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬5–2‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬n‫א‬nfs‫א‬‫א‬،cos(2π nfst)‫א‬  (6-2)   VS(f) = a0V(f) + ∑an V(f – nfs)     E1–2‫א‬‫א‬FW ‫א‬FEaF1 J2‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬Ea’F1 J2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ a0Ebase band signal oranalog signal ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬a0V(t)   K5‐2   fs ≥ 2fm،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬1 ،   ‫א‬ (2     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    α 0 V(t)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (3  ‫א‬ V(f)F‫א‬fs‫א‬Ts‫א‬    ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬fs‫א‬Ts‫א‬،  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬V(f)F ‫א‬fs ═2fm‫א‬K‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬     EAliasingF‫א‬2 J1 J2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،3 J2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ fs <  .18 - .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K ،K  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   KEAliasing errorsF‫א‬           Vs(f) Vs(f)   ‐fm fs fs‐fm fs+fm f fs+fm f a) Vs(f)   ‐fm fs‐fm fs ‫مناطق تداخل بين تكرارات الطيف األساسي‬ b) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W3–2‫א‬ EbF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EaF‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Vs(f) ‫א‬EaF‫א‬3–2‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EbF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K .19 - .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬‫א‬ Elow pass filter LPFF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (1 ‫א‬Eanti‐aliasing filterF‫א‬‫א‬   K2fm‫א‬   Ecut off frequency fcut offF‫א‬ ‫א‬ (2 (7-2)        fmax‫א‬‫א‬ fcut off ≤ fmax    ‫א‬ ، N‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  tp   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬fs   E8 J2F   N = fs tp = tp / Ts     ETypes of samplingF‫א‬W3 J1 J2    K‫א‬    EIdeal samplingFW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1 J3 J1 J2   ‫א‬‫א‬KEunit weighted pulsesF‫א‬‫א‬   K4–2‫א‬‫א‬KEPAMF‫א‬ .20 - .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ V (t) V(f) t -fm fm (a)  t   f (a’)    t  nTs  P( f )  n   Ts -fs t 1 T   ( f  nfs) 0 fs f 2fs (b’) (b) Vs(t) = V(t) Pδ(t) Vs ( f )  t 1 V ( f  nfs) T -fm fm fs-fm fs+fm …….21 - . (c ) (c’) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W4 J2‫א‬   Eb F‫א‬‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬EconvolutionF‫א‬‫א‬KEc F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Eb’ F‫א‬‫א‬Ea’F‫א‬  KEc’ F .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      ENatural samplingF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2 J3 J1 J2 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬5 J2‫א‬K‫א‬   Vs(t) gate   stable clock   One   Shot  ‫א‬‫א‬W5 J2‫א‬    W‫א‬ ‫א‬Estable oscillatorF (1  ‫א‬‫א‬EmultivibratorF‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ (2   ‫א‬ cutoff FELPFF‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ (3  K‫א‬‫א‬EfmFEfrequency fcut      Eflat‐top samplingF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3 J3 J1 J2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE6 J2‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ sample F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KE7 J2‫א‬‫א‬FKEand hold circuit .22 - .

23 - . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ V(f) V(t) t -fm (a) fm (a’) P(t)  X X (b’) (b) Vs(t)=P(t) * V(t) +3fs -fs -fm fm fs (c’) (c)  ‫א‬W6 J2‫א‬  Eb’F‫א‬EbFEa’F‫א‬‫א‬EaF Ec’F‫א‬EcF   .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W7 J2‫א‬    W‫א‬  ‫א‬EFETF‫א‬‫א‬ (1   ‫א‬ (2   K‫א‬‫א‬، (3 ‫א‬C‫א‬EsampleF‫א‬EFETF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (4   KEholdF ‫א‬‫א‬K8 J2‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     .24 - .

25 - . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W8 J2‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬2 J2 Ebase bandF‫א‬‫א‬PAM‫א‬‫א‬ (1 ‫א‬‫א‬FKfs‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E4 J2 ‫א‬ sin c( x)  sin x ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (2 x   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Kx   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (3  E9 J2F B T  K1      ‫א‬τ cut off F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K1‫א‬  K‫א‬0.5‫א‬10K1KEfrequency fcut off .

0K1 = 0.5‫א‬‫א‬EF   K‫א‬ 25 KHz ‫א‬‫א‬EF      2 J2  K8KHz0‫א‬V(t)  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF       . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬        WPAM‫א‬‫א‬   PCM‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬   TDM‫א‬‫א‬       1 J2 fs =  ‫א‬ V(t)  Kτ = 40μs،5KHz  E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F   KK1 = 1.26 - .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬          3 J2 ‫א‬1 J2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬V(t)  K6KHz‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WF  K‫א‬      4 J2 K4 kHz dc،‫א‬V(t) ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K٪50‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E‫א‬F    ‫א‬‫א‬EF       5 J2 KE10000 HzF‫א‬10000‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K4KHzEguard band‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .27 - .

25ms 500 Hz‫א‬  K‫א‬18KHz‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K      8 J2 K2 KHz1 KHz ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬0.1ms  K35KHz     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3 J2  (TDM of PAM signals) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  KEsequentiallyF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬   .28 - . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬        6 J2  K٪25fm fs‐ fm ،fm‫א‬،fs=9KHz    7 J2 0.

29 - . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬          ‫א‬W9 J2‫א‬    W‫א‬ ،TsE>‫א‬F‫א‬ (1  K‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (2   KKKK‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (3   ،E F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (4   K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (5    W‫א‬‫א‬1 J3 J2   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1 J1 J3 J2    ‫א‬‫א‬ (1) V1(t)‫א‬  9 J2‫א‬‫א‬  KV2(t)   .

30 - . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬          ‫א‬‫א‬W10 J2‫א‬   ‫א‬21‫א‬‫א‬    ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KETsF‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2F signal ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  E>‫א‬FKsignal #4#1 ‫א‬‫א‬EcommutatorF‫א‬    K‫א‬EdecommutatorF  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  11  J2‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬     .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬         ‫تجميع أكثر من إشارتين بطريقة التقسيم الزمني وباستعمال جامع ومفكك‬ :11-2 ‫ الشكل‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   (3) ‫א‬Esampling theoremF‫א‬   (fN = 2fm).31 - . ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (4) 7‫א‬7 11 J2‫א‬ (5)   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ τ= Ts/7‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ (6) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K12 J2   .

32 - Ts  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .5    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    k  . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬        ‫א‬‫א‬7W12 J2‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1F    K1  Tframe ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1F   fs = fN= 2fm    ‫א‬‫א‬  N‫א‬ B  0.

5   0.           Ts =            .5   0.5   0.5k   1/2fm . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬k ‫א‬W13 J2‫א‬    W‫א‬ fm‫א‬،k EF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E F    1   2fm            (10-2)         fs = 2fm.33 -   E F .     1   2fm Tframe =     ‫א‬‫א‬k E F   ‫א‬           (11-2)                 τ =     Tframe  k      0.5k (12-2)   B =             =                    =                 =     Tframe  τ   Ts   Ts/k  k          0.

34 - .5 k (2fm) = k X fm          BT = k fm        for the ration B =    1  τ     (13-2)             BT = 2k fm.   = E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬X‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   E14 J2FBT = L X fm   fs = 2fm J  W   L = number of spaces + sync + data pulses    fs > 2fm      E15 J2FBT = L x   Fs  2    W9 J2‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ PAM‫א‬7  K‫א‬‫א‬،BW = 1 kHz . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬     =                = 0.

35 - . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ PAM‫א‬7W10 J2‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬،12 J2‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬714 J2‫א‬    Fs = 1.25 fN  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬      W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2 J1 J3 J2  (Multiplexing of dissimilar channels) K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ sub and super F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KEcommutation .

5 kHz8 kHz  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  80 kHz‫א‬ J  40 kHz‫א‬ J  10 kHz18 J  1250 Hz‫א‬8 J  625 Hz16 J   K14 J2‫א‬‫א‬16‫א‬‫א‬   .36 - (2 . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     (1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬       Efixed rateF‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      K16 kHz،15.

37 - . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬        ‫א‬32‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W15 J2‫א‬    ‫؟‬‫א‬  W‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K625 ‫א‬ E   ‫א‬10000‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E    ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬10 kHz18‫א‬  J  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬440 kHz‫א‬  J    ،‫א‬‫א‬440 kHz‫א‬  J    ،‫א‬‫א‬880 kHz‫א‬  J    ،‫א‬‫א‬440 kHz‫א‬  J    .

38 - .2 ms‫א‬‫א‬   . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬     ،‫א‬10 kHz‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬       ،‫א‬1250 Hz‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J   K16625 Hz‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J   ‫א‬1250 Hz‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K0.1 ms‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬1250 ،‫א‬625‫א‬625 Hz‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K0.

39 - .5 fN‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬    W12 J2  Kfs = 2fN11 J2‫א‬   . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      W11 J2 2 τ‫א‬‫א‬6PAM/TDM  ‫א‬Kτ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Kτ  KE>‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ 1  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KkHz      K‫א‬‫א‬616 J2‫א‬   Kfs = 1.

40 - . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬4 J2  (Pulse Analog Modulation)   W1 J4 J2 ‫א‬:‫א‬‫א‬ EpositionF‫א‬Eduration or widthF‫א‬‫א‬EamplitudeF‫א‬  K‫א‬  (Pulse Amplitude Modulation: PAM)‫א‬  ‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬STs(t)  ‫א‬ Pulse height = V α Vs  t‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬VsW  K‫א‬Vα  (Pulse Width Modulation: PWM)‫א‬    ‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬STs(t)  ‫א‬   Pulse width =  Vs  t‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬VsW  K‫א‬    (Pulse Position Modulation: PPM)‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬STs(t)  ‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬ .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬       Pulse position = td Vs  t‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬VsW  K‫א‬ td     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬16 J2‫א‬      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬17 J2‫א‬  :‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬E  K‫א‬‫א‬  o    ‫א‬2 J4 J2  (Pulse Amplitude Modulation: PAM)‫א‬1 J2 J4 J2 ‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬STs(t)  ‫א‬   ‫א‬،‫א‬    .41 - .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬       ‫א‬2 J2 J4 J2  (Pulse Width Modulation: PWM)  (Pulse Duration Modulation: PDM) ‫א‬‫א‬STs(t)  ‫א‬‫א‬ EF‫א‬  K‫א‬   ،‫א‬،‫א‬  ،‫א‬،‫א‬    K‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬18 J2‫א‬    K‫א‬18 J2‫א‬  W‫א‬  ‫א‬،  STs(t)=1،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (1   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،STs(t)=2 (2   ،STs(t)=1 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (3  ‫א‬   19 J2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .42 - .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬19 J2‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬3 J2 J4 J2  (Pulse Position Modulation: PPM) ‫א‬‫א‬STs(t)  ‫א‬‫א‬ EF‫א‬  K‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  o   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o     W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬21 J2‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬20 J2‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ .43 - .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬       S1(t)‫א‬‫א‬PAM K1   S2(t)‫א‬Eramp generatorF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2    S3(t) S2(t) S1(t) K3    S3(t) = S2(t) + S1(t)   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  S3(t)‫א‬‫ א‬K4  Vcc ‫א‬‫א‬(comparator)‫א‬Esaw toothF‫א‬‫א‬ K5   .44 - . S4(t) PWM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬0 S3(t) > Vref  ES5(t))‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EdifferentiatorF K6   KS6(t)PPM .

45 - . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬20 J2‫א‬ .

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 237

 ‫א‬
 
 

 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬21 J2‫א‬

- 46 -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 237

 ‫א‬
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5 J2
 (Demodulation of PAM and PWM and PPM) 

 W‫א‬‫א‬1 J5 J2

 ،ELPFF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬ (1

 
 K‫א‬PAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬22 J2‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،EinstantaneousF‫א‬ (2
Eshaped transfer characteristicsF‫א‬   

  ،EequalizerF‫א‬

 
 K‫א‬PAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬23 J2‫א‬
 
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬3

  K PAM  PAM ‫א‬‫א‬ 

E

 ‫א‬‫א‬2 J5 J2

  EintegratorF‫א‬‫א‬ PAM ‫ إلى‬PWM ‫א‬

- 47 -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 237

 ‫א‬
 
 

‫א‬   Esample  pointF ‫א‬    EintegrationF ‫א‬  
  ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬

  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

  W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬24 J2‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

  K‫א‬PAM‫א‬ E

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬3 J5 J2

  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

،PWM‫א‬‫א‬PPM ‫א‬ 
  KPAM ‫ إلى‬PWM ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 24 J1‫א‬‫א‬ 

 KPAMPPMPWM‫א‬24 J2‫א‬
- 48 -

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 3 .49 -   .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬    ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   Pulse Code modulation   E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬    K‫א‬٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    9W‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   .49 -   .

2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1–3   EF‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1–3‫א‬    ‫א؟‬–‫א‬1 J1 J3  W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .50 -   .3   ،‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   .

51 -   . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1–3‫א‬  W‫א‬  K‫א‬، .

M = 2N     WN‫א‬ M‫א‬‫א‬ (2‐3)…….N = Log2M = 3.6 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  255F‫א‬  ،ECode WordF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF    ‫א‬‫א‬3 J1 J3 N،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬M   ،‫א‬‫א‬ (1 J3)……….32 Log10M      (1   .5   ،Equantization intervalF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬n2n2‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E28F256‫א‬n=8   K2550  0‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬– .4  ،‫א‬‫א‬Equantization levels E‫א‬FE10 J0F‫א‬‫א‬ .3 Code F‫א‬ESampleFEEncoderF   KE8FEWord F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬– .2 ‫א‬EPCMF‫א‬EPAMF‫א‬‫א‬ .1 cut frequency F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Epass filter  Efm   ،fsfN fs‫א‬ .52 -   . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬2 J1 J3 Band F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .

64  128 = 27 = 2NEN=7F‫א‬  K100       1–3  N=100 N‫א‬    2–3       8       ‫א‬  K3        ‫א‬‫א‬W2 J3‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (2   KELow Pass Filter LPFF‫א‬ .53 -   . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬    W1–3 M=256Enormalized PCMF‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  N = log256= log28=8 bit       W2–3   K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ K7‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬6.

7 ED/A converterF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ quantization F‫א‬  2–3‫א‬،Einterval   W‫א‬ (1   +V‐V‫א‬‫א‬    V   ‫א‬V2    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬N  (2‐5)   ………   . n=8    ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬5 J1 J3 ‫א‬‫א‬ . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      ‫א‬4 J1 J3 ‫א‬‫א‬EPCMF‫א‬ (1 PAM F‫א‬‫א‬EAnalog signalF‫א‬  KEsignal   Kfm‫א‬‫א‬   fN=2fm (2  fs=fN=2fm‫א‬  Rb = Nfs = 2Nfm‫א‬  BT = Rb = 2NfmW‫א‬     W3 J3  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  fm=4 KHZ.54 - 2V volts   2N   .

.55 -   . S N Q  2 2 N            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   EcharacteristicFENon linear amplifierF‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  K‫א‬‫א‬3–3‫א‬   . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬       ‫א‬‫א‬     2v V  / 2  n    volts  2 2n 2   ‫א‬‫א‬  (6 J3)……………NQ= V2/22N      watts      N S Q   ‫א‬L‫א‬   V2 SQ  V 2   2 N NQ 2    2 2 N      (7 J3)…………….

56 -   . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      E‫א‬      E  ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬3 J3‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E   ‫א‬‫א‬EcompressorF‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬FEexpanderF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ .

57 -   . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬EcompanderFL‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬  KECOMpressor/exPANDERF      ‫א‬6 J1 J3 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ (1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (2   ‫א‬ (3  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬    K‫א‬     W4 J3  ‫א‬K   ‫א‬E‫א‬F   10‫א‬EF   ‫א‬EF   ‫א‬L‫א‬EF   PS/QN J   N=10 bitSNR= 22N J   40dB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬7 J1 J3  W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (1   .

. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬   (3‐8)……… V0  V0 max  Vi   ln1   Vimax   ln(1   )          for Vi  0         ‫א‬Vi   ‫א‬V0  ‫א‬‫א‬Vimax   ‫א‬‫א‬V0max  E255F Ecompression parameterF‫א‬        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W4–3‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (3   ‫א‬   W‫א‬  Vr    Vi max  V0 max   (1   )  forVr  0 V    (3‐9)………. ie         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Vie   .58 -   .

 V0max = 5V.59 -   ..5‫א‬  J   ٪50‫א‬  J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   .(3‐10)     Ax     V0 max   1  lg A        0 < X  < 1/A….6       W5 J3‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   Vimax =8V. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬ L‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KEcodec: coder/decoder   (4    WA law (Europe) codec’‫א‬–‫א‬’    1  lg Ax   sign   V0  V0 max   1  lg A        1/A   <  X  <1…….(3‐11)  A = 87. =255  8v4v2v‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬8 J1 J3  M‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    M‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬   M‫א‬ (1 (2 (3  98    ٪12.

60 -   .0 J1..0 4‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K160   . 5. 20 .. V fs normalizes I/P analog voltage     ،‫א‬L‫א‬   actual out put  normalized value full scale voltage  analog voltage  of digital word   of D/A converter        Vo  X (t )  V fs    K‫א‬L‫א‬  W‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 0. 10. where Vfs  2.5.scale voltage of A/D converter   Vi X (t)  . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬2–3   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Enormalized valuesF  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ actual I/P analog voltage full ..0‫א‬‫א‬Eunipolar encodingF‫א‬‫א‬   1.0 ‫א‬‫א‬Ebipolar encodingF‫א‬‫א‬   KH1.

125  ‐2/8=‐0.9375  14/16=0.375  ‐4/8=‐0.6875  10/16=0.0625  0     15  14  13  12  11  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  0      ‫א‬   1111  1110  1101  1100  1011  1010  1001  1000  0111  0110  0101  0100  0011  0010  0001  0000     ‫א‬‫אא‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1 J3‫א‬  K4‫א‬       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1–2–3   E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬   the range of the normalized signal X (t ) is (1 0  X  1 ‫א‬‫א‬  1 ‫א‬‫א‬ .375  5/16=0.1875  2/16=0.4375  6/16=0.625  4/8=0.125  0  ‐1/8=‐0.875  13/16=0.625  9/16=0.375  2/8=0.75  5/8=0.75  11/16=0.125  1/16=0.25  1/8=0.5  7/16=0.5  3/8=0.5625  8/16=0.61 -   .25  ‐3/8=‐0.75  ‐7/8=‐0.625  ‐6/8=‐0.875  ‐8/8=‐1   ‫א‬  15/16=0.25  3/16=0.875  6/8=0. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  7/8=0.5  ‐5/8=‐0.8125  12/16=0.3125  4/16=0.

9375 16 1  2 3  1  2 2  1  21  1  2 0  15 1000 LSB.MSB 1111 0 1111‫א‬‫א‬ 1.  u  1 -   1 2N  W  1. ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬  J3‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ N  2 4  16 4   (2  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1   W‫א‬‫א‬E1.00.0     ‫א‬‫א‬  EXnF  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   0 16 8  0.0‫א‬‫א‬F1.62 -   .5 16 0  2 3  0  2 2  0  21  0  2 0 0000 1  2 3  0  2 2  0  21  0  2 0  8 15  0....0‫א‬  ‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬ E13 J3FKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK Xu  1   2N   ‫א‬‫א‬  E14–3FKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK Vu    u Vfs    (3     (4 V fs 2N  W ‫א‬Vfs     W‫א‬1 (5  E15 J3FKKKKKKKKKK Xu (max)  1 .0‫א‬  J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬   1000F‫א‬MSB=0‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J  E4   ‫א‬  5 J3‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ (6 E E  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ E    F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬ J  E1/16‫א‬1.47/162/16‫א‬1.63 -   .67/16  F‫א‬‫א‬E J   E1/16‫א‬1.67/16  4‫א‬‫א‬5 J3‫א‬    4‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W5 J3‫א‬ .

   Eu   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J   E17 J3FKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK u  Eu Vfs  V fs 2 n 1    2  ( n 1) . Vfs    W6 J3 ‫א‬‫א‬6  L ‫א‬200‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬K‫א‬     u ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F    Vu ‫א‬‫א‬EF    Xu(max) EF    Vu(max) EF  EuEF   u EF      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2–2–2  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (1    1  X  1  +1 ‐1‫א‬‫( א‬2   ‫א‬‫א‬1624،4 (3             .64 -   . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬       ‫א‬ (7  EF‫א‬  ‫א‬–‫א‬ u 1 1  N  N 1  2 ( N 1) 2 2 2 2  E16 J3FKKKKKKKKK Where : Eu  the peak unipolar normalized error. 1‐3        .

65 -     .875 8  4‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1 J3‫א‬   E1 LSB ‫א‬F ( X b ) ‫א‬‫א‬ E17 J3F X b  1 2 n 1     (4  2  n 1        Vb ‫א‬‫א‬   E18 J3F Vb  X b V fs  V fs 2 N 1   (5  2  N 1V fs  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (6  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E19 J3F X b (max)  1  X b  1  2  N 1 . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬         Xb ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ 8  1 8  0000  EXbF     .  K  K  K  K    K  0    K  K   1000  K  K   1111  K  K  K  K  K    K  K  K    K 7  0.

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      E1 J3‫א‬‫א‬FW  8  E20 J3F M  2 N 1        2   8  E21 J3F M  1  2 N 1  1        2     MSB‫א‬0‫א‬‫א‬1000‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ MSB‫א‬‫א‬EF2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1 010  2 8 8   E22 J3F complement aries  0 010   6  8 8  MSB 0001   7  8 8   8 1001  1  8      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6 J3‫א‬   ‫א‬   (7 (8     b ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ 23 J3  b  X b  2  N   2   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬  24 J3  b  Eb V fs  2  N V fs .66 -       .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3–3   PCM/TDM E‫א‬F‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EFK‫א‬  K    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1 J3 J3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1  KEPAM/TDMF‫א‬‫א‬   KW‫א‬E2   KfN‫א‬   Fs = fn = 2 fm    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬   E‫א‬   .67 -   .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬    ‫א‬9 J3‫א‬E3   E  21 J3F                      Eframe timeF‫א‬    Tf = TN =      1       2 fm                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W9 J3‫א‬       Eword timeF‫א‬                                    Tω=     Tf  =        1                             K            2K fm   E21 J3F  Ebit durationF‫א‬                        Tω                    1   E22 J3F  τ  =                 =     W‫א‬‫א‬ (4            .68 -   .

69 -   . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫ عرض نطاق א‬:‫الحظ‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬2 J3 J3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬EUS – 24 Channel SystemF24  KE32 channel SystemF32    EUS – 24 Channel SystemFWE‫א‬F241 J2 J3 J3 ‫א‬ ‫א‬KECode WordsF24‫א‬E1  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K241‫א‬‫א‬  E241F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E0F‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 KKKKKKKKK 20 21 22 23 24   ‫א‬  8E  F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬24 E1F  193Z‫א‬1H192Z8х24W‫א‬     K‫א‬0‫א‬24‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    125μs 1 ‫א‬ 8000  K0‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    KEFrame Alignment Word: FAWF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .

2 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،24‫א‬‫א‬    TI  FAW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬12   100011011100  ESuperframeF‫א‬EF12       W24‫א‬ 24‫א‬ETI MultiplexerF‫א‬ .5  K   .4   KKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ TI FAW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬12‫א‬ .70 -   .1  E125μsF‫א‬E8F‫א‬PCM   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .3 8‫א‬‫א‬8‫א‬‫א‬8‫א‬W،   K24‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .

71 - W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      W‫א‬  Mbit / s   .544 Tb 125s . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬     W24‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬24‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬K192 ،‫א‬8000‫א‬‫א‬K193  K‫א‬1544000‫א‬193x8000        24W10 J2‫א‬    W32‫א‬‫א‬   EBandwidth = Bit rate ‫א‬Z‫א‬F   125μs‫א‬fs=8kHz ‫א‬    193Z8C24H1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     125s T b   0.647668 s   193   Rb  1 193   1.

544 MHz 0.544    BT    1 T  B   1  1.64766  24‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W11 J3‫א‬    E32 Channel SystemFWE‫א‬‫א‬F322 J2 J3 J3 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ECode WordsF 32‫א‬E1  K‫א‬‫א‬  K310‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E16F‫א‬E0F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬E3117151F‫א‬‫א‬   K  ‫א‬  0 1 1 2 3 4 KKKKKKKKK 13 14 15  16 17 KKKKKKKKK 29 30 31  F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬15  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬15 ‫א‬   8E   ‫א‬ E  F  8  193Z‫א‬1H192Z8х24W‫א‬   K‫א‬160‫א‬30‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    125μs . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1.72 - 1 ‫א‬ 8000    .

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      K160‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ESynchronization and signalingF  W32‫א‬ ‫א‬PCM30‫א‬‫א‬ .4   KKKK‫א‬‫א‬    W24‫א‬‫א‬   EBandwidth = Bit rate ‫א‬Z‫א‬F   125μs‫א‬fs=8kHz ‫א‬    256Z8C32‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  125s T b   0.1  E125μsF‫א‬E8F   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .544    BT  1 T  B 1  2 MHz 0.488 .3 8‫א‬‫א‬8‫א‬‫א‬8‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬15‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،18‫א‬817‫א‬816‫א‬8‫א‬‫א‬   K32‫א‬31‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .73 -   .2 ،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .488s   256   Rb  1 256   2 Tb 125s   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      W‫א‬  Mbit / s   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1.

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  237  ‫א‬      W32‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬32‫א‬W12 J3‫א‬    32‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬32L30‫א‬13 J3‫א‬     32‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W13 J3‫א‬ .74 -   .

75 - . ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 4 .

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   Digital Transmission   ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    9W‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   .75 - .

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Digital Transmission    ‫א‬‫א‬1 J4    ‫א‬‫א‬W1 J1 J4   ‫א‬EData،F‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬   ،EchannelF‫א‬EdestinationF‫א‬EsourceF‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬     ‫المصدر‬   Source ‫القناة‬ Channel     Destination ‫المستقبل‬ ‫نظام اتصاالت‬: 1 .4 ‫الشكل‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF ،‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  .76 - .

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ،EnoiseF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،Echannel coding‫א‬F‫א‬ KEerror correctionFEerror detectionF‫א‬‫א‬EdecodingF  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    K2–4‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬       ‫المصدر‬   Source     Coder Channel Decoder     Destination     ‫نظام اتصاالت الموسع‬: 2 .77 - .4 ‫الشكل‬        W‫א‬W2 J1 J4  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬Ebit per second: bpsF ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬       .

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬      W‫א‬‫א‬3 J1 J4   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1 J3 J1 J4 ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬3 J1 J4‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J   ‫א‬‫א‬  J   ،‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  J    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2 J3 J1 J4   ASCII: American Standard Code F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Efor Information Interchange ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EcharacterF7‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬KEparity bitF    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W4 J1 J4   ‫א‬‫א‬2–4‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   .78 - .

79 - (2 .  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   EEncoding / encryptionF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ،‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EKKK    ‫א‬2–4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬  K    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1 J2 J4  W‫א‬dc‫א‬‫א‬ (1 1 E+V‐VF‫א‬‫א‬    00V ‐V1 +V‫א‬    E0F   ‫א‬‫א‬dc‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬ Wduty cycle‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬NRZ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬RZ    .

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   ‫א‬W‫א‬   (3   ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬4 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EBPRZF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬   K   ‫א‬‫א‬   (5 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬،BPRBPNRZUPRZUPNRZ‫א‬  ‫א‬،BPRZ‐AMI  BPRZ‐AMI‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEF   K‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   (6  ،+V/2،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   0V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬EF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     ELine Coding FormatsF‫א‬‫א‬2 J2 J4  W ‫א‬‫א‬  ENRZF‫א‬‫א‬ J .80 - .

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    ERZF‫א‬‫א‬ J  EBiphase or Manchester CodeF‫א‬ J  EDelay Modulation or Miller CodeF‫א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬    ENRZF‫א‬‫א‬1 J2 J2 J4  K‫א‬  (Non Return to Zero Level: NRZ‐L)‫א‬‫א‬ (1   ‫א‬‫א‬EHIGHF‫א‬W1  ‫א‬‫א‬ELOWF‫א‬W0      W  EDCF  J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J   K‫א‬         1000110100 NRZ‐L    .81 - .

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   (Non Return to Zero Mark: NRZ‐M)‫א‬‫א‬ (2   Edifferential Coding ‫א‬‫א‬F   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1   ،‫א‬‫א‬  J   ،‫א‬‫א‬  J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W0    K  W    J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J          (Non Return to Zero Space: NRZ‐S)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (3   1000110100NRZ‐M  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W0   ،‫א‬‫א‬  J   ،‫א‬‫א‬  J  W    J   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J .82 -   .

83 -     .  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬            1000110100NRZ‐S       ERZF‫א‬‫א‬2 J2 J2 J4 ‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K    (Unipolar Return to Zero: UPRZ)W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬  J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W0   W  ‫א‬‫א‬  J   KNRZ  J       1000110100UPR‐Z  .

84 -   .  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2  (Bipolar Return to Zero: BPRZ)  (Polar Return to Zero: PRZ)   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1   0V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   0V‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W0   0V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   0V‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    E‐V0V +VF‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬W  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W       1000110100PRZ or BPRZ        W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3  (Return to Zero‐Alternate Mark Inversion: RZ‐AMI)   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1   0V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   0V‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬  J   ‫א‬‫א‬ELOWF‫א‬W0  .

85 - .  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    W 0‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬0‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J  W     J   KNRZ  J       1000110100RZ‐AMI       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3 J2 J2 J4  Biphase‐ Level  or Manchester  code    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1   Biphase‐ Level (BI Φ –L) or Manchester II code   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1   ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬W0    ‫א‬‫א‬   W     J   KNRZ  J .

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    W  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J       1000110100Biphase‐L     W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2  Biphase‐ Mark (BI Φ –M) or Manchester I code   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1     ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬W0     W     J   KNRZ  J  W  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J     1000110100Biphase ‐ M       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3  Biphase‐ Space (BI Φ –S) code .86 - .

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬W1    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W0   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬   W   ‫א‬  J   KNRZ  J  W  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J         1000110100 Biphase‐S     W‫א‬4 J2 J2 J4  Delay modulation (DM) or miller code       ‫א‬W1  ‫א‬، 0‫א‬W0    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W   ‫א‬‫א‬  J  W  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J   KNRZ  J .87 - .

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬       1000110100DM      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K1000110100W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬    E‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W7 J4‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬1000110100W‫א‬‫א‬         .88 - .

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬         E‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬8 J4‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬3 J2 J4  W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  DC   ‫א‬      +V/2  fb/2  UPNRZ      O  fP/2  BPNRZ      +V/4  fb  UPPZ    ‫א‬  O   V  fb  BPRZ      O   V  fb/2  .89 - BPRZ‐AMI  .

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  237

  ‫א‬
 

 K ‫א‬‫א‬10‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 11

 ‫א‬
 NRZ – L

 ‫א‬‫א‬1

  NRZ –M

 ‫א‬‫א‬1

  NRZ –S

 101

  UPRZ

 101

  BPRZPRZ

 00

 ‫א‬‫א‬0
 ‫א‬‫א‬0
 00

 100
 

 1

  BRZ – AMI

 10‫א‬

 10‫א‬‫א‬

 00

 101

 BIΦ‐L

 01101

 BIΦ – M

 ‫א‬‫א‬1

  BIΦ – S

 ‫א‬‫א‬1

  DM

 010
 ‫א‬‫א‬0
 01100

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
- 90 -

 0

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  237

  ‫א‬

 EASCII CodeF
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DEL 

- 91 -

 

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 1 5   .

  .

  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ Shift Keying (SK) ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬ Band F ‫א‬‫א‬EDigital Modulation: DMF‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  {EPass Modulation: BPM   W‫א‬  (ASK)(Amplitude shift keying)‫א‬‫א‬ J  (FSK)(Frequency shift keying)‫א‬‫א‬ J   (PSK)(Phase Shift keying)‫א‬‫א‬ J     K‫א‬٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬     9W‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   .92 - .

93 - (2‐5)                 .FSK.PSK)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KEF‫א‬    W(Binary modulation)‫א‬‫א‬1 J1–5  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(bit)   W   Rb = Rs                M= 2                               N = logM = log 2 2 =1  N (1‐5)                             W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬WRb  Ebit /sec‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WRs  KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WM  E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬WN  W(Quadrature modulation)‫א‬‫א‬2 J1 J5  WE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   Rs = Rb/2                       M= 2 =  2 2   = 4    N= log2 M = log 4 = 2 N .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    (Baud rate)‫א‬(bit rate)‫א‬‫א‬1‐5   (ASK.

94 -  ‫א‬‫א‬ .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3 J1–5  WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(N)   Rs = Rb/N = Rb/log2 M     M =  2                            N = log 2 M                          (3‐5) N             W(ASK) ‫א‬‫א‬  2‐5 ‫א‬‫א‬(Ac cos wst)‫א‬(Ac sin wct)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E0F‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EASK)   (AM.DSBTC)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (1‐5)     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1‐5F    ‫א‬(NRZ‐L)‫א‬ Vm(t)‫א‬‫א‬E1  Vc (t)= Ac cos 2 fct .

95 - .     ‫א‬(m)W (2‐5)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    EASKFE2‐5F‫א‬  (Efficiency) (ASK) ‫א‬‫א‬  m  =  1‫א‬  E2A0VF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬      W(ASK)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2                 VASK(t) = [AVm(t)] cos 2 fct                                   = [Ftv] Cos 2 fct                                    = A[1V/A] Cos 2 fct                                   = A[1m] cost 2 fct     VASK(t) = A [1m] cos 2fct       (ASK)‫א‬‫א‬ (4‐5 ) .

  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    (ASKF(ASK)  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (3‐5)‫א‬    (ASK)E3‐5F‫א‬    EASKFEASKF  (Envelope detector)‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬(DSB‐SC)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (ON‐OFF KEYING) (OOK)‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   modulating )EunipolarF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1   (signal     Vm (t) ={ +1 V            logic  1                                         or   {  0V              logic  0    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬OOK E2  (5‐5)‫א‬ .96 - .

97 - .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬              Vook(t)  =Vm (t) *Vc (t)                             =Vm * Ac cos wct                         = { Ac*cos wct       for logic 1                           {     0 for logic 0   (5‐5)     ( 4‐5)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    (OOK ) (4‐5)‫א‬    (OOKF(OOK)  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E‫א‬‫א‬F(Balanced Modulators)  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EOOKF(5‐5)‫א‬    EOOK‫א‬FE5‐5F‫א‬ .

  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    (OOK Detection)‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬  (coherent detection)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1  (synchronous detection)‫א‬‫א‬ (reference carrier)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (phase & frequency mismatch distortion)  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6‐5F‫א‬ (synchronous detection) ‫( بواسطة الكشف التزامني‬AMDSB‐SC)    EOOK‫א‬‫א‬F(6‐5)‫א‬  (Non Coherent Detection)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2  (Asynchronous detection)‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (7‐5)(Envelope detector)      E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FE7‐5F‫א‬   .98 - .

99 - .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    W‫א‬ ‫א‬EdiodeF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1 time constant of F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Eforward resistanceF‫א‬‫א‬Echarge ‫א‬‫א‬Ereverse biasedF‫א‬ ‫א‬ERF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬TZR*C  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2   ‫א‬ binary F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3  (comparator)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬restoration)    EOOK BandwidthFEOOKF‫א‬  EpcmFVm(t)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1  (ones followed by zeros)‫א‬‫א‬  Tm =   2Tb    ‫א‬  fm = 1/Tm =1/2Tb  = Rb/2       ‫א‬‫א‬(Fc)‫א‬‫א‬(OOK)E2  E‫א‬)Vm(t) EFcFE8c‐5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  EFcFEFmF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   .

100 - .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬      EOOKF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E8‐5F‫א‬   ERbFEdata rateF‫א‬EFmF‫א‬‫א‬E8c‐5F‫א‬  Rb=1/Tb =1/(Tm/2) =2Fm  W‫א‬   EFcF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  (BandwidthF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  BT= Rb = 2Fm                (6‐5)  WE3‐5F‫א‬    W1‐5 (200 Kbit/sec)ENRZ‐PCMF   ‫א‬‫א‬EASKF‫א‬   .

QFSK.  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FW‫א‬‫א‬  Performance: ( bit error rate & symbol error rate ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1  (PB) (Probability of bit error)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(BER) (Probability of symbol error)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (PE) ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K  W  ‫א‬‫א‬(SER)(BER)‫א‬E3 (BASK.101 - .µPSK)‫א‬‫א‬ J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(N)‫א‬(N)  W‫א‬‫א‬  PB = PE / N = PE / log2M  E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬:(M)   PB = PE/ 4 WN= log2 16 = 4 M = 16 (16‐PSK)   ‫א‬KKKKKKK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬(BER)‫א‬‫א‬E4   K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬F E5   K  W(Es / No)(SER)(Eb / No)  (BER) E6 .µFSK.BFSK.QPSK)‫א‬‫א‬ J  PB = 1/2 PEBER = 1/2 SER(2 bit)   (µASK.BPSK)‫א‬‫א‬ J (1 bit)‫א‬ (symbol)   K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬  PB = PEBER = SERW (QASK.

  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    ‫א‬=Eb.Es  (W/HZ)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬=No  ‫א‬(BASK)‫א‬ (Performance of binary BASK) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ (Coherent detection) : ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1   PB=PE= 1/2 erfc  Eb / 2 No  =1/2 erfc (            = 1/2 erfc(  A 2 Tb / 8 No )              C / 4N )     (7‐5)   (Non Coherent detection): ‫( الكشف الال ترابطي‬2 PB = PE = e ( Eb / 2 No) = 1/2 e (C / 4 N ) = 1/2  e ( A2Tb / 8 No) (8‐5)      EF(bit)‫א‬Eb = (E1+Eo) / 2   ‫א‬(9‐5)‫א‬‫א‬      (OOKF(BASK)(9‐5) .102 - .

38*10  JK)    T= ( TA+TR)     (K)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     TA:       E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W(TA)     TR=T1+T2/a1 =T3/a1+a2+…………….G2.G2.  E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬   T1..  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬       E1=C*Tb = A2 Tb/2  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K   Eo = 0  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  :   Eb = E1+E2/2= C Tb /2 = A2*Tb/4    C1=C= A2/2  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   Co = 0  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (A – Peak amplitude of the received carrier  (v))EAF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  No = N/BT= N/Rb = KT   (W/HZ)  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   N= KT*BT    (W)  ‫א‬‫א‬ 23   K =(1.T2.T3.  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   G1.…….….103 - .  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  C/N  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .

  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬      WEBERF‫א‬‫א‬EBASK)‫א‬      EBERF‫א‬E10‐5F‫א‬    W2‐5 (10MHZ) ‫א‬ (OOK)‫א‬E10 Kbit/sF 5*10(‐5)  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (10 (‐2)V) ‫ א‬ (W/HZ) (BER) ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬3‐5  Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬FEFsF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Ebase bandF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬FEFmF  KEpolarF‫א‬  W  ∆F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  EFCF‫א‬    WFSK  W‫א‬EFSKF‫א‬‫א‬E1 VFSK (t) = (Ac cos { 2 π (fc + VM(t)) ∆f ) t } (9‐5) .104 - .

  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    ‫(א‬FSKF     ‐VFSK : ‫حيث‬  (Volts)‫א‬‫א‬         ‐ A        (HZ)E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ JFc  (HZ)(Vm (t))‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J∆f            (  1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ JVm (t)  Logic (1) = +1   . Vm (t) = ‐1  W ‫א‬‫א‬(Logic 1)(Logic 0)‫א‬‫א‬E  WE‫א‬F‫א‬ Fm=Fc+∆FELogic 1F‫א‬  Fs = Fc‐∆F ELogic 0F‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Fc)‫א‬(Fm &Fs) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E (Fc  ∆F) : (FSK)  ‫( أو‬VCO) E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EFSK)  (1  ‫א‬‫א‬ ( Voltage Controlled Oscillator)     (VCO) ‫א‬(12‐5) ‫א‬ :(VCO)‫( مبدأ عمل جھاز الـ‬2 . Vm (t) = +1  (5‐10)    (b) VFSK (t) = A cos [ 2 π (fc ‐ ∆f) t ]= A cos 2 π fst  for a logic 0 .105 - .   Logic (0) = ‐1 W‫א‬(9‐5)‫א‬E2 (a) VFSK (t) = A cos [ 2 π (fc + ∆f) t ] = A cos 2 π fmt .      for a logic 1 .

FsF‫א‬EVCOF‫א‬{(Vm(t) =  1)‫א‬E3   :(FSK)   EFSK)E13‐5F‫א‬    W  (sec)‫א‬‫א‬ JTm  (HZ)(Vm (t))‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ JFm (Rb= 2Fm) (bit/sec)‫א‬EbitsF‫א‬ JRb  (Mark Frequency)‫א‬ JFm  ESpace Frequency F‫א‬‫א‬ JFs     WEFSKFEBaud rateF‫א‬‫א‬ERbFEbitsF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EFSKFE1  K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2  W‫א‬‫א‬E3  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(Rb)Ebit rate)‫א‬ .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬EVoltageF‫א‬  (FSK)‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬  EF.106 - .

  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬W(Baud rate  or symbol rate)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ (Fs)‫א‬‫א‬(Fm)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(9‐5)‫א‬‫א‬E4  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   Bit rate =Symbol rate (Baud rate)  Rb (bit/sec)  =  Rs ( Symbol/sec) = Baud rate ( baud)    (FSK Bandwidth)W(FSK)‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬EFSKF(BT)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1  (‐115)‫א‬‫(א‬FM)‫א‬        (11‐5) BT = 2 (∆f + fm)  (∆F =Fm‐Fs/2) W    Fm = Rb/2      (Fc) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :     ‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (12-5)‫א‬  (11‐5)‫א‬ (Fm ∆F)E2       BT = 2  ∆  f + 2 fm = fm – fS + Rb                  (12‐5)  (FSK) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (BT)    EFSKF‫א‬‫א‬E14‐5F‫א‬ .107 -   .

  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   (sin x/x)‫א‬‫א‬(Pulsed sinusoidal waves)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (12‐5)‫א‬‫א‬(FSK)  W(Rb)‫א‬ ‫א‬(Fm)‫א‬‫א‬   Rb = 2Fm ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (14‐5)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   :3-5 E200 K bit / secF‫א‬‫א‬ENRZ‐LF‫א‬EPCMF  K(150KHZ)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،(FSKF  ‫א‬    W‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  K(Fs)‫א‬( Fm) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Logic 1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (Logic 0)‫א‬‫א‬ (Pulsed RF Signal)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3  (base band)‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J5  K‫א‬(Binary restoration)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    FSK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E   FSK Coherent detection     .108 - .

1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ELogic 1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  Vr(t) = Acos wm(t)  (13‐5)   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  Vc(t) = 2A cos(2) wmt = A( 1+ cos 2wmt)   (14‐5)  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E14‐5)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.3  K‫א‬         .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬      EFSKF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E15‐5F‫א‬   W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  : (15‐5)‫א‬   Vo (t) = Gv   Vd(t) = A*Gv =        positive constant    (15‐5)   ELogic 1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ELogic 0F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .109 - .2 (differential amp.

  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    W(Performance)‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬    Eb      2 No  BER = PB = ½ erfc    PcTb      2 No  = ½ erfc   2   = ½ erfc   A Tb     4 No    (3‐16) Eb = PC Tb      PC =    No =  A2  2 PN   BT    W  ‫א‬(EbF  ‫א‬‫א‬EPcF  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ENoF  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E   BER = PB = ½ exp (                  )                                    (5‐17)    ‐Eb   2NO    2  = ½ erfc   A Tb   2 No     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(bits)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ .110 - .

4 V)‫א‬(2sec)(bit)‫א‬  (1KHZ.2KHZ):  (10(‐12) w/HZ)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (BER)‫א‬(13‐5)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(PB)‫א‬‫א‬E16‐5F  ‫א‬ ‐Eb   2NO   PB =  F  (  )   =F(C/N) (FSK)‫א‬‫א‬ (16‐5) ‫א‬ ‫ لكلتي‬:4-5  (FSK)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬( BER) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(0.111 - .

112 - EPSKF .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬4‐5  Phase Shift Keying (PSK)   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬  K( ASK)‫א‬ J  K(FSK)‫א‬‫א‬ J    W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (Binary PSK)◌ً‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬PSKE1  E‫א‬‫א‬ Quadrature  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ PSKE2  (PSK)  KE‫א‬‫א‬  (µ‐PSK) (‫א‬ PSK)‫א‬PSKE3 ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬EMF‫א‬‫א‬F  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ N b  Log 2 M  M  2 Nb  W    (18‐5)  W  EF‫א‬ JNb  E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ JM  W5‐5  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KM= 2  .

  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬      (Binary PSK) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    (BPSK) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(17‐5)     ‫א‬(PCM)U (t)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J1  KE‐90°‫א‬90°F E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬(i)‫א‬(Ui )‫א‬‫א‬ J2  W‫א‬    (19‐5 )  W   (volts)‫א‬ JV  Ui ={+1 for logic (1)      {‐1 for logic (0)  ‫א‬‫א‬ JUi    W (19‐5)‫א‬   ‐E  / 2 F ‫א‬ logic (1) J  HE  / 2 F ‫א‬ logic (0) J .113 - .

114 - (1   .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬      W‫א‬(19‐5)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J3      E20‐5F     WEBPSKF‫א‬ ‫א‬(BPSK)‫א‬  E01F‫א‬‫א‬    (BPSK) ‫א‬(18‐5)‫א‬ .

115 - .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   : ‫( الحامل ھو‬2 Vc (t)=Vsin wct       (BPSK) ‫א‬ (19‐5) ‫א‬ :V BPSK(t) (3  ‫א‬        EVBPSKF‫א‬‫א‬E20‐5F    EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E4     V BPSK(t) = sin 2 Fmt*sin2 fct  = 1/2[  cos 2   (fc‐fm)‐ 1/2 cos2  (fc+fm)t ]    W    .

  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬   B= (fc+fm) – (fc+fm)=2fm=Rb  BT = RbW‫א‬  E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   B= 2(∆f+fm)=2fm+2∆f                                2∆f=0                                 W  W‫א‬‫א‬    B= 2fm = Rb     (BPSK)‫א‬‫א‬     EBPSK)E   (OOK)‫א‬‫א‬E21‐5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬(OOK)‫א‬‫א‬      (BPSK)(21‐5)‫א‬    (BPSK)E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Ui)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .116 - .

117 - .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ (balanced modulator)‫א‬‫א‬  K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      (BPSK)E22‐5F‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ J        W‫א‬‫א‬(LPF)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J .

5)‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W23‐5‫א‬     .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬     (Performance) ‫א‬‫א‬ PB = PE = 1/2 erfc ( = 1/2 erfc ( EB / NO ) c * Tb / No )    (21‐5)    = 1/2 erfc (  v 2 Tb / 2 No )    (BER)(Eb/No  PB) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   (23 .118 - .

119 - W‫א‬ .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   (QPSK)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Quadrature phase shift keying   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(QPSK)E1 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ (BPSK)  (QPSK) E2 : ‫א‬          VQPSK = UiVcosωct + UQVsinωct (22‐5)  W   (I)‫א‬‫א‬(BPSK)‫א‬‫א‬ J  (Q)‫א‬(BPSK) ‫א‬‫א‬ J  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(V QPSK)‫א‬‫א‬ J   UQV                                                        VQPSK=V  2                                                                             UIV     VQPSK  =      (U V)2  +  (U V)2  =      2 v 2      = V   2                 (23‐3)  i Q        W(47‐5)‫א‬(46‐5)‫א‬E3        = cosΦcoswet + sinΦsinwet   = cos(ωct‐Φ )      cos(ωct – Φ)  2 VQPSK = V  .

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  237

  ‫א‬
 

: ‫حيث إن‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‐ Φ
  Φ = tan‐1 UQ
               UI      

(24‐5)
 
(π / 4 , 3π / 4 , 5π / 4 , 7π / 4)  ‫א‬‫א‬ Φ

 (UI,UQ)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬1‐5)‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬(QPSK)EΦF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K

- 120 -

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  237

  ‫א‬
 

VQPSK (eq. 72)

VQPSK (eq. 74)

Vcosωct+vsinωct

v 2 cos(ωct- π
/4)

-vcosωct+vsinωct

v 2 cos(ωct-3 π
/4)

-vcosωct-vsinωct

v 2 cos(ωct-5 π
/4)

-vcosωct-vsinωct

v 2 cos(ωct-7 π
/4)

 

Phasor

Transmitted    bite

Φ=45

UI

UQ

1

1

-1

1

-1

-1

1

-1

Φ=135

Φ=225

Φ=315

 E1‐5F

 

  W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬(PSK)(Rs)‫א‬E
 

Rs 

Rb
symbols/s 
N

 W

 ‫א‬‫א‬ JRb

 ‫א‬ JN

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
M = 2N    symbols 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 P 

360
M


rad
M
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
C = B log2 M  

- 121 -

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  237

  ‫א‬
 

 W

 ‫א‬‫א‬ JB
 

  W(S/N)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ((PCM)‫א‬)

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1
 W(BER)‫א‬ ‫א‬E

 ‫א‬(Thermal noise)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W(S/N)‫א‬‫א‬E
 
 (PCM)
 
 W

 (BER)‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 W(Quantization noise)‫א‬ J
 
 

  W‫א‬
 
S
2N
2
( /N)Q = 2  = M  
 W

 K‫א‬ JM

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ JN
 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2
 ASK,FSK,PSK
- 122 -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬(300K)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (PCM)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K(425K)  W‫א‬(2Mbit/sec)EbitF  (PSK)‫א‬E  (ASK)‫א‬E (ASK)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E   ( QPSK) ‫ كشف ترابطي‬E .  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   Eb ‫حيث تمثل‬ No   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (PCM)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ M2 22N  S      N output   1  4M2 PB 1  4  22N PB        : 6‐5  200fw (200x10‐15W).123 - .

        .

   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 6   .

124 - . ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   Source Coding (SC) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  {  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (Synchronous and asynchronous transmission)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J  (Coding  Methods used in computer)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J     W‫א‬  (Huffman Coding) J  (Hoffman Coding) J   (Cray Coding)‫א‬ J     K‫א‬٪90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    9W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫ات‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬     .

125 - . ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    ‫א‬1–6 ‫א‬‫א‬1 J6‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬،‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1 J6‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬    ‫א‬1 J1 J6 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬{‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،   {‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ {EShannon TheoremF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ESource RepresentationF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،EM‐ArrayF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EBinaryF‫א‬‫א‬   .

126 - . gives errors)F   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  {Edata compression: present data in compact (short) way (lossless)F‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   {Eirrelevant dataF     . ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬      EDataF‫א‬‫א‬2 J6‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 1616‫א‬441000441   {‫א‬     W‫א‬‫א‬   EData ReductionF‫א‬    EData CompressionF‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  {Edata reduction:: remove irrelevant data (lossy.

 ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬     original Dqtq   remove irrelevance Relevant data Reduce data amount (compact Description_ Source Code  ‫א‬W3 J6‫א‬   (Some characteristics in Source Coding) ‫خاصيات تشفير المصدر‬3–1–6   ‫א‬{‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   { ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KK‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬EuniformF‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ variable F‫א‬‫א‬EnonuniformF‫א‬ ESourceF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ {Elength.127 - . run length EEncoder  or  CoderF‫א‬EMessagesF‫א‬‫א‬  {‫א‬   .

  . x2. x3. x3. ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬      ‫א‬6 J6‫א‬   uniquely F ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬Edecodable code   Enot uniquely decodable codeF‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬Kx1.128 - . x4. x2. x4  ‫א‬   Word Codeword  X1  0  X2  01  X3  11  X4  111    W‫א‬00111111‫א‬‫א‬   x1.

x1. x4. ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    x1. x2. x3. x4. x4. x4.129 - . x3. x1. x3.  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   Word Codeword  X1  0  X2  10  X3 110  X4  111    W‫א‬‫א‬0011010111110 ‫א‬‫א‬    x1. x2. x3   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  Source entropy      . x1. x1. x3. x3.    x1.

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

  ‫א‬

  237

  ‫א‬
 

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 L 

N

l p
i 1

i

i

 ‫א‬E‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬LW

 E expected length or average lengthF

 xili
  {xi‫א‬pi
 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2–6

(Synchronous transmission) :‫ المتزامن‬‫א‬1–2–6

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬EclockF‫א‬‫א‬

 EX.25F25‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬،‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬KEencoded clockF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬KEEncoderF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ETransmitterF

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EReceiverF‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
  - 130 -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

  ‫א‬

  237

  ‫א‬
 

‫א‬EDigital Phase Locked Loop: DPLLF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EDecoderF‫א‬

‫ تشفير البيانات في اإلرسال واستخالصھا في االستقبال في التراسل المتزامن‬:4-6 ‫الشكل‬
  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬Eaccurate informationF    -

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-

 

 EAsynchronous transmissionFW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2 J2 J6
 

‫א‬EcharacterF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬Eblock of charactersF

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

.( 
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬
  - 131 -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

  ‫א‬

  237

  ‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W5 J6‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

fixed time F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  KEand format

Estop bitsF‫א‬‫א‬Estar bitF‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Eparity bitF
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

  - 132 -

( 64 kbps) ‫ א‬   W3 J6   .133 - . ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W6 J6‫א‬ ‫في التراسل غير المتزامن‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ frame F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   KEframeF‫א‬‫א‬EAlignment Words: FAW   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬Eaccurate informationF   .

134 - . ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   optimal in sense of the F‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Eaverage codeword length M‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬10‫א‬ K1 probability F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ep(x)  ‫א‬M-1‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬M-1‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2 ‫א‬‫א‬10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3 ،1.0‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K4 {‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   .

20  X2  0.05  X4  0.50 X1  0.02  X7  0.04  X5  0.01‫א‬‫א‬X7X8‫א‬  J  0.03 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z  0.06=0.135 - .03H0.03‫א‬‫א‬X6‫א‬  X4‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z  0.05‫א‬‫א‬X5     . ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Eprobability p(x)F  0.01 X8   =0.04H0.09=0.15  X3  0.02H0.03  X6  0.

01) = 2.03) +6x(0. ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬      W7 J6‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  X5‫א‬‫א‬7 J6‫א‬ ‫א‬X5‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ X5‫א‬  {11101   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1Z4‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬   L=1x0.04 +0.15 + 5x(0.05 + 0.13 bit     .5 + 2x0.02 + 0.2 + 3x0.136 - .

K7‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ mEm.nFW‫א‬‫א‬ E87FKEn bitsFnEm bitsF  W‫א‬‫א‬78‫א‬‫א‬     .137 - . ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    EHamming CodeF4 J6 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Hamming F‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬ K ‫א‬10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Edistance  Kh‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EParity CodesF‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EControl bitsF  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEData bitsF  K   KEbinary linear codesF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 3‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،7‫א‬‫א‬ .

138 - . ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    EHamming distanceF ‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KEerror-correction bitsF‫א‬Enumber of data bitsF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬EHamming distanceF  K F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3‫א‬1100111110101110‫א‬   ‫א‬K‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬  K   Kn J  Kn1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬E2FKKKK،8،4،2،1‫א‬ J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2k‫א‬‫א‬ J  KEparity bitF‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬K7W p1 p2 a3 p4 a5 a6 a7   .

 ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    ‫א‬a7a6 a5a3‫א‬‫א‬p4p2p1W     KEparity bitsF‫א‬‫א‬ E7،4F‫א‬F7‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E47‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ Information word decimal   Code word 0000 0 0000000 0001 1 1101001 0010 2 0101010 0011 3 1000011 0100 4 1001100 0101 5 0100101 0110 6 1100110 0111 7 0001111 1000 8 1110000 1001 9 0011001 1010 10 1011010 1011 11 0110011 1100 12 0111100 1101 13 1010101 1110 14 0010110 1111 15 1111111 (7،4) ‫ بناء شفرة ھمينغ‬: ‫الجدول‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬0100   .139 - .

140 - 2‐bit Gray code 00 01 11 10 . ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    1001100‫א‬ p4 = 1 p2 = 0p1 = 1 ‫א‬1011100‫א‬ ‫א‬ p4 = 1 p2 = 1p1 = 0‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬1 03‫א‬3=2H1‫א‬  K1001100‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  EGray CodeF‫א‬5 J6 Ereflected binary codeF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬   K  ‫א‬‫א‬  K432‫א‬ 4­bit Gray code 3­bit Gray code 0000 000 0001 001 0011 011 0010 010 0110 110 0111 111 0101 101 0100 100 1100 1101 1111 1110 1010 1011 1001 1000   .

cyclicityF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KK‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ EDigital ModulationF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EConstellation diagramF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،  EQAMF، K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬ KK‫א‬‫א‬  EF‫א‬   .141 - . ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   Dec 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Gray 000 001 011 010 110 111 101 100 Binary 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 W‫א‬ {‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KKEKarnaugh MapF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Eperiodicity.

 ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KEless susceptible to noiseF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KEdifferent clock frequenciesF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬Emulti-rate samplingF‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K10، 100F4‫א‬‫א‬E010‫א‬011F3‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬43‫א‬KE110‫א‬ 010F‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬100011F ‫א‬‫א‬KE10 ‫א‬‫א‬110 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬E100F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E000F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬01 ‫א‬   .142 - .

143 - . ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬   Dec Gray Binary  0 000  000 1 001 001 2 011 010 3 010 011 4 110 100 5 111 101 6 101 110 7 100 111  W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E3F‫א‬E2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬8–6‫א‬ 5 J6‫א‬‫א‬   .

 ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬    1‫א‬‫א‬10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E1F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬EF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬0‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K(2)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1 ‫א‬‫א‬E2F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬EF ‫א‬‫א‬0‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K3‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1‫א‬ ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬0  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   .144 - .

Prentice Hall. John Pearson : ‘Basic Communication Theory’. fifth Edition . McGraw-Hill. 2001 3. ‘Digital Communication’. Fundamentals and Applications’. Proakis. ‘Digital Communication’. Discovery Press. ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   237   ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬     1. 2000 5. Martin S. Simon Haykins. 2001.   . 2003 2. Last Edition. John Wiley. Roden: ‘Analog and Digital Communication Systems’. 1992. 4. Bernard Sklar: ‘Digital Communications. Prentice Hall.

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