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Disease Prevention and Control

July 5, 2011
Dr. Gavino

Healthy Lifestyle Practices and Lifestylerelated Illnesses


o

OBJECTIVES
1. To define healthy lifestyle as given by the Dept. of Health

2. To identify the factors involved in living a healthy lifestyle


3. To identify and define the most commonly seen lifestyle-related
illnesses
WHAT IS A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE?

way of life that promotes and protects health and wellbeing


includes:
> practices that promote health
> regular and adequate physical activity and leisure
> avoidance of substances that can be abused
> adequate stress management
> practices that offer protection from health risks

STRENGTH AND FLEXIBILITY TRAINING: Yoga, Pilates,


Weight training, Plyometrics

0.04-0.012 kcal/min/kb BW
DO MINIMALLY (a few times/month)
o Sit or lie around
o Play cards or do needlework
o Sit in front of the computer
o Be a couch potato

0.03 kcal/min.kg BW
II. SMOKING CESSATION

> Each stick = carcinogenic substances


= acetone, ammonia, CO,
CO2, hydrogen cyanide,etc.
> Associated with illnesses: cancer, CAD, HPN
> Habit-forming
III. DIET

- DOH
7 COMPONENTS OF A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

Dietary Intake (including beverages)


Alcohol Intake
Drug Addiction
Smoking Cessation
Sexual Behavior
Physical Fitness and Exercise
Spirituality
Stress Management
Weight Management
I. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND EXERCISE

> any cardiovascular activity done 3-5x/week, for at least 30


mins/session

DO REGULARLY (3-5x/week; at least 30-45 minutes or


longer):
o AEROBIC EXERCISE: sport activities: brisk
walking,running jogging, dancing, swimming,
aero-kick boxing)

0.08-0.23 kcal/min/kg BW
o

RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES: ballroom dancing,


badminton, skating, core kinesis

0.08-0.23 kcal/min/kg BW

CHO: 55 70% ; Fats: 20 25%; CHON: 15%


Fruits and vegetables: 5 portions/day 8-10 portions: optimum
health
Meat: not necessarily daily
Fish: once a week : oily fishes (e.g., salmon, sardines)
rich in omega-3-fatty acids

ALCOHOL

Men: 3 u/day
Women: 2 u/day
1 u = pint (0.25 liter) of beer, small glass of wine
** Red wine: beneficial due to bioflavonoids and
antioxidants present in red grapes

DO AS OFTEN AS POSSIBLE (2-3x/week; 30-45 minutes or


longer):
o LEISURE ACTIVITIES: strolling in the mall,
bowling, golf

0.04-0.09 kcal/min/kg BW

Histo 6 | Arias, Astudillo, Babia, Baes

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Healthy Lifestyle Practices and Lifestyle-related Ilnesses

IV. STRESS MANAGEMENT


STRESS: psychological and physiological reaction that takes place
when you perceive an imbalance in the level of demand placed on
you and the capacity to meet that demand

Management is necessary: to regain the psychological and


physiologic balance

Personal approach and varies per individual:


e.g., exercise, massage, retail therapy, meditation,
spirituality, etc.
V. WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

B.

TRUNCAL OBESITY

Waist Circumference
Men: < 90cm / 35.4in
Women: < 80cm / 31.5in

Other measurements: waist-to-hip ratio

1997

A.

Modifiable:
1. physical activity
2. diet
3. alcohol intake
4. high-risk activities
(e.g. smoking, sexual habits,etc)

CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD)


spectrum of cardiac-related conditions that initially
present with chest pain (angina pectoris) that may or may
not be associated with dyspnea, weakness, diaphoresis
commonly due to atherosclerosis
includes: chronic stable angina pectoris (CSAP), unstable
angina (UA), non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI), ST-elevation
MI (STEMI)
strongly considered in a patient with risk factors for CAD
RISK FACTORS:

Smoking

Increased cholesterol levels

Hypertension

Diabetes mellitus or Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)

Obesity

WHY IS A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE ESSENTIAL NOW?


Increasing life expectancy
Urbanization
Lifestyle changes

Mortality statistics: 7 out of 10 leading causes of death are


lifestyle-related (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, COPD,
diabetes mellitus, accidents, etc.)
Morbidity statistics: 6th leading cause of illness: heart
diseases

1998 (FNRI Study)

2 in every 10 Filipino adult >20 years old (21%):


hypertensive, with increasing prevalence after 40 years old

4%: blood glucose >/= 125 mg/dL, with increasing


prevalence of hyperglycemia after 40 years old

4%: total cholesterol >/= 240 mg/dL, with prevalence of


hypercholesterolemia peaking at 40 years old

Prevalence of obesity among adults: 3.3%

Females: 4% vs. Males: 2.1%

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD)


Cancer (lung, cervical, hepatocellular)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
o (COPD)
Diabetes Mellitus, type 2 (DM T2)

RISK FACTORS:
Non-modifiable:
1. age
2. sex
3. family history

Overweight and obesity: IHD/CAD, HPN,diabetes mellitus


Body Mass Index (BMI) = kg / m2
Underweight: < 18.5 kg/m2
Healthy: 18.5 22.9 kg/m2
Overweight: 23 24.9 kg/m2
Obese I: 25 29.9 kg/m2
Obese II: > / = 30 kg/m2

C.

DYSLIPIDEMIA

Abnormal levels of lipid components:


Normal Lipid Profile: total cholesterol < 200mg/dL
triglycerides
< 200 mg/dL
LDL
< 130 mg/dL
HDL
>/= 40 mg/dL
Increases risk for cardiovascular diseases

D.

DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2

Condition that involves poor glucose metabolism due to


insulin resistance and/or beta cell dysfunction

FBS

Normal

Pre-DM

DM

< 100 mg/dL

100-125

>/=126

mg/dL

mg/dL

140-199

>/= 200

mg/dL

mg/dL

DIABETES MELLITUS

1998
2003
2008
FBS > 125
3.9 %
3.4 %
4.8 %
DM based on
2.6 %
4.0 %
history
FBS or OGTT
4.6 %
7.2 %
or history
1 out of every 5 Filipino could potentially have DM or pre DM
LIFESTYLE-RELATED ILLNESSES
Histo 6 | Arias, Astudillo, Babia, Baes

July 5, 2011

2 HR PG

< 140 mg/dL

Diagnosis: 3Ps (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia), and/or


weight loss

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Healthy Lifestyle Practices and Lifestyle-related Ilnesses

RISK FACTORS:
1. Family history
2. Overweight/obesity
3. Sedentary lifestyle
4. History of IFG/IGT
5. Others: dyslipidemia, HPN, PCOS, history of GDM

E.

HYPERTENSION

BP Classification

Systolic BP

Diastolic BP

Normal

< 120

< 80

Pre-Hypertension

120 - 139

80 89

Hypertension Stage 1

140 - 159

90 99

Hypertension Stage 2

> / = 160

> / = 100

July 5, 2011

RISK FACTORS:
1. Sedentary lifestyle
2. High-fat, high-CHO, high-salt diet
3. Lack of physical activity
4. Smoking
5. Excessive alcohol intake
6. Overweight/obesity
7. Persistent highly stressful situations
8. Age
NATIONAL HEALTHY LIFESTYLE PROGRAM

Republic Act 8172


Presidential Proclamation 958
Intervention: family and community involvement is
essential; risk factors are deeply entrenched in the social
and cultural framework of our society
GOAL: decreasing the toll of morbidity, disability, and premature deaths due to lifestyle-related diseases

Health is the state about which medicine has nothing to say- W.H
Auden
QUIZ:
1)
2)
3)

What is the frequency of the activities you should be doing


regularly?
Hypercholesterolemia peaks at what age?
What is Dyslipidemia?

Answers:
1) 3-5x/week
2) 40 years old
3) Abnormal levels of lipid components
HAPPY STUDYING!!!!
Histo 6 | Arias, Astudillo, Babia, Baes

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