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The Rebirth of tvlagic

Francis King and trsabel Suthenland

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Contents
THE REBIRTH OF MAGIC
A CORCI IIOOK 0 5s2 11880 X
First pLrtrlication in Oreat Britain
llr{rN f IN(i Iils'rol{Y

(lolgi cclition published

1982

Copyriglrt rt) Francis King and lsabel Sutherland r982
'I his trook is sct

in l0ll I English

Times

Corgi llooks are published by
'I nrrrsw<:rld Publishers Ltd.,
(lcntury l'louse, 61-63 Uxbridge Road,

lialing, London, W5 5SA

I)r'inlecl irt Creat Britain by
t"l u n t Bar"nard Pri nti ng, Aylesbury, Br"rcks.

I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
l0
II
12
13
14
I5

Introducing the Magicians

7

The Meaning of Magic
Grimoires and Sorcerers
The French Occult Revival
Dmgs, Demons and Duels
L6vi's English Disciples

22
34
50
62

Fountain of Magic
Gotden Dawn Derivatives
Later Occult Brotherhoods
Dion Fortune and the Inner Light
Ritual Magic in the United States
Sex Magic
The Magical Explosion
Witches
Pathway into the Darkness of Time
Further Reading
Notes

-_, M' iaru

82
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216

The magician who wanted to submit his telephone to occult influences attracted the attention of Michael Wharton. the eighth 'sephirah' of Otz Chiim.ntroducing the Magicians Some three years or so ago Prediction. as a . who should be induced to bless and consecrate the telephone. expert on such seemingly diverse matters as the economic theories of Major Douglas. or Mercury. he wrote. Telephones. Mercury. the correspondent was inforrned. added the Predic- tion journalist. They had recently installed a telephone in their home and were anxious to bless it with the appropriate rite. or other non-human entity. asserted N{r.the qabalistic symbol identified with the Tree of Life.I {. or even Hod. asked the enquirer. It was l-ropeless. ayurvedic dentistry. If. however. demon. What god. Wharton. his reader was inclined to 'qabalistic magic' he should approach the matter through 'F{od'. Ossian's poetry. his Roman equivalent. He and his wife were. symbols and Divine Names. should be invoked into his telephone? The editor of the magazine's problem page was in no way flustered or surprised by this question. a popular occult monthly. were a means of commu- nication and were therefore attributed to the GraecoEgyptian god Thoth-Hermes. and the more endearingly daft aspects of the current occult boom. 'crazy about rituals and ritual magicl and ceremonially consecrated all their most treasured possessions. It was this god. for this dedicated ritualist to expect any visible appearance of Thoth-Herrnes. published a query from one of its readers. using the appropriate incenses.

angels and demons. The practices engaged in by their members may be eccentric by ordinary standards but they are sincerely performed with perfectly serious ends in view . It is possibie. apart from the sheer immensity of the task. when f'emale. from time to time. If any objective phenomenon did take place it would only be a physical Usually these alleged magicians or witches bear ritual swords. sometirnes naked and. for.trohn Dee and Edward Kelly. albeit in distorted and modified form. sometimes exotically robed. by the Hermetic Order of the Colden Dawn and its books ancl tarot decks there are advertised crescent-bladed knives. and cassette-tapes of Aleister Crowley ('the Master Therion') reciting an invocation in the '. equipped with breasts and buttocks of notable size and rotundity. particularly young people. for ritually cutting herbs and magic circles. The most interesting of the many groups that play such an important part in the modern rebirth of western magic shun press publicity. England) and 'Magickal Childe' (New York). the strand of 'orthodox' western magic as transmitted from the past to the present. the strand of 'Thelemic N4agic' * the intellectually irnpressive although. combines features from all the groups in its category and thus illustrates the common will report the occurrence of sacrilegious acts in deserted churches and burial grounds * these are usually attributed to 'satanists' or 'black witches' . candles.or reproduce blurry photographs of cultists. today they are to be lound in almost every issue.Angelic Language' produced bythe Elizabethan magicians . damiana ('the psychic aphrodisiac').i. the more downmarket British and American newspapers in the precise form described. but until about twenty five years or so ago references to ritual nragic were rarely found in its pages. incenses dedicated to various gods. however. to differentiate between three important strands in conternpo- rnanifestation of Buzby . Thirdly. The ordinary man or woman is often vaguely aware of the current craze amongst solre people. both are not without significance and interest. synrbolically coloured or realistically shaped to resernble phalli ings ol of such immensity immediate successors. Secondly. Let us look in each category at a 'composite' group that is to say a group which. morally dubious. an occult society of the last century whose importance has been aptly surnmed up by Israei Regardie -. An everr stronger indication of the interest in ritual magic at the present day is provided by the catalogues issued by such mail order suppliers of occult books and irnpedinrcnta as'Sorcerer's Apprentice' (Leeds. I-udicrous as Mr. For. although not actually existing as to risk inducing feel- inaclequacy in most of their male purchasers. daggers and other mystic in. As well as the usual rary associations practising ritual magic. it is probable that the very existence of many of them is unknown to any outsider. and tantric (sexual) yoga created by Aleister Crowley. To describe in detail all these groups would be impossible. factors of the 'strand'. synthesis of old European occultisrn. new daemonic religion of 'Force and Fire'."'# . They are unconcerned by the presence of a press photographer at the celebration of their inmost mysteries. the strand of magic influenced by the writings of the late Dr. considered question and answer.result of his ceremonial endeavours. For they illustrate the extent of the current magical revival and its influence on those inclined to occult studies. Wharton.'l I '\\ - in the follow- . perhaps rightly.the loathsome fowl inexplicably used by the pubiic relations industry in order . fbr magic and witchcralt. The Order of the Secret Rose is a London-based occult group deriving from the tradition of the Golden Dawn.himself an initiate of the late offshoot of the Order 8 9 . cast-iron cauldrons. the transmutation of the lead of the everyday personality into the gold of adepthood. Margaret Murray and her adrnirers amongst those most active in modern witchcraft. perhaps. Firstly.the attainment of power and wisdom.piements. Prediction has been published since before World War Il.to advertise the overpriced and overmanned British teiephone system.

It is true.rmc(h. doctrines. Tliat I will do the utmost to lead a pure and unselfish and its renegade rnembers'.i. (or rather was until recently) the sole depository of western magical knowledge. . . lt is unlikely that they would even recognize him if they Saw him at one of the festivals of ltis Secret R. an insurance broker whose lellow busineSsmen are quite unaware of his occult beliefs and activities and regard him as'sound but dull'. wheh.ose. for example. l89B edition. in view of the remarkable resemblance between their teachings and those of the earlier Order. . ttre only Magical Order of any real worth that the West in our time has known. Of the dozens of small magical fraternities existing today many owe their existence. A . Ir dcllv. the day of Corpus Christi.' Sncrcb t'Xl5ngic Of Ab[r'nDc!in tbe f$floc.D.rcd by Abrihim thc Jcw unto hls ron t. . r4tE. . Its Supreme Magus is 'Butch' Metzger-Bouchere. of course.rn Order and its Cccr:lt Vr/isdc. . its initiates consecrating talismans charms designed for a specific purpose rather than for western magician.The story of the Colden Dawn is outlined in later M chapters of this book. and rituals to the initiates of the Colden Dawn.{' 6 \ I t". " 1l life. On. clad in a black robe and with an iron chain round his neck.T|" GIle J6rrerh of tlle English-speaking world is concerned Regardie's contention is undoubtedly correct. and so on. favour. That I will uphold to the utmost the authority of the Chiefs of the Order. " . that some of these organizations claim to have evolved independently and to be 'older than the Golden Dawn'. A. as are its occult teachings and practices. That I will keep secret all things connected with the great many other occult organizations owe what little magical knowledge is theirs to leakages from that Order -ilfi do this day spiritually bind myself on behalf of the ing words: 'There can be little or no doubt that the Colden Dawn is.r evoking spirits to visible appearance. they must be disregarded until the production of hard evidence in their. but such claims are not backed up by docurnentation and. .m. Title page of The Book oJ the Sa(red Mogic of Abra-Me!in the Mage. he is lashed to a Calvary Cross from whence to recite an oath on behalf of the entire body of initiates: I entire membership of the Order. Here the Order engages in the traditional pursuits of the :1' N t\\) \. casting spells designed to produce invisibility. - generai good luck - invoking Angels. The Secret Rose has between twenty and thirty members and a permanent home 'somewhere south of the Tharnes'. but it does seem worth emphasizing that so far as the '.

Colours and the vibratory mode of pronouncing the I magical operations undertaken by the initiates of Orclers such as the Secret Rose. I will apply myself to the Creat Work. frorn leit to right. of astral projection. keeping strictly concealed from them our methods of Tarot and other tl-re consecration of talismans and symbols. I furthermore solemnly pledge rnysell never to work at any important symbol without first invoking the highest Divine Names connectecl therewith. that I will perform all practical magical workings connected with this Order in a place concealed and apart from the gaze of the outer and uninitiated world.Furthermore. The supposed name and nature of the 'great avenging Angel HVA' whose invocation is the climax of the oath requires some explanation. . . Thou great avenging Angel HVA to confirm and strengthen all the members of this Order during the ensuing revolution of the Sun. . 'Lord'. of I invoke Thee. . the planets etc. the t$ienty-two ietters of the alphabet have a nurnerical as well as a consonantal significance and the letters of the name HVA represent. six and one. and that I will divination. . If I break this oath I invoke the avenging Angcl FIVA that the evil may react on me.'In the Hebrew qabalah FiVA (spelt He. is charged with electricity.the Flashing Colours' is meant the use of a basic colour and its complementary colour (for exarnple red and green. By . It is on this basis that the members of the western magical orders give a secondary interpretation to the name HVA. of the use and attribution of the Flashing. . or Ahih. and. . most espe- spiritual entity in much the same way that a battery Divine Names. however. the 'Crown' of the mystic glyph known as the Tree of Lif'e and considered to symbolize the highest aspect of manifested Deity. Aleph in Hebrew) is a mystical name applied to Kether. they say is the nurnber of man himself as the t2 13 I \r . Vau. the purification and exaltation of my spiritual nature so that with the Divine Aicl I may at promise and swear that lengtlr attain to be more than human. tr furthelnrore promisc that I will always display brotherly love and forbearance towards the members of the Whole Order. Five. and especially not to debase my knowleclge of practical magic to purposes of evil and sellsecl<ing. Finally. or orange and blue) as a means of hypnosis. That I wiil only perform any practical magic before the uninitiated which is of ' This sonorous and long-winded oath gives a good idea of the sort of a shorv them no secret mode of working. These rites are supposed to have the power of attracting (invoking) or repelling (banishing) various rypes of spiritual force as symbolized by the signs of the zodiac. and that I will not display our magical implernents. ln Hebrew. that they may choose between good and evil and try all things with sure knowledge and judgment. to keep them steadfast in the path of rectitude and self sacrifice and to confer upon them the power of discernment. if I shouid meet one who claims to be a member of this Order I will examine him with care before acknowledging him or her to be such. of clairvoyance. I also undertake to work unassisted at the subjects prescribed for study. r various Hebrew Divine Names (for example Adonai. 'l am') are spoken in a particularly solemn chant known as 'Vibration'.Rituais of the pentagram and the Hexagram' are ceremonies at which simple geometrical figures are traced in the air at the same time as cially.fion of HVA is simply swearing by God. Thus on one level the invoca. of the Rituals of the Fentagram and the Hexagram. . but will keep secret this Inner Rosicrucian Wisdom even as the same has been kept secret through the ages. that I \vill not rnake any symbol or Talisman in the Flashing Colours for any uninitiated person without a special permission from the Chiefs of the Order. the numbers five. By the 'consecration of talismans'is meant the performance of a ritual designed to 'charge' a specially prepared symbol with the powers of a simple and already well-known nature. . The . nor reveal their use.

theword is important to all thelernic rnagicians. fellow initiates tend to display towards one another an affection and a solidarity that cuts right across classbarriers. that zestful symbol of rampant and joyful lust worshipped at the Iegendary Witches' Sabbath and identified by Crowley with Trurnp k wili. God and man. to transmutc the dry victuals of everyday existence into the Bread ol'Life and ultimately to attain unto that Divine Union which is the goal of mystic and magician alil<e'. Nevertheless.w. where and rryith whom ye t5 t4 -illlfi has indeed satanic . the greatest of all occult teachers as far as thelemic magicians are concerned. and they give each other Christmas and even bilttrday presents. for it is not derived from childrens' stories.the union between subject and object. multiplied by seven. but such people as electricians.the qabalists' technique of turning letters into numbers * adds up to seventy seven' According to Aleister Crowle5. Nevertheless. will". they have built up their Order into a 'Croup-soul'. housewives. they call each other by their first names. Their initiates include not only conventional 'professional' rnen and rvomen. so it is claimed. Man has the right to eat what he will: to drink what he will: to dweil where he will: to rnove as he will on the face of the earth" 3. carve. They attend oile another's vreddings. Man has the right to love as he "take your fiii and wiii cf will: io'. Man has the right to live by his own law: to live in the way that lre wilis to clo: to work as he will: to play as he wiil: to rest as he will: to die when and how he will.l'51 .re as ye when. 2. buiid as he will: to dress as he will. the grand number of ritual magic. One is the number of unity and perfection. of'coursc. but from the numerical qabalah. etc. Man has the right to think wirat he will: to speak what he will: to clra. The short manifesto known as Liber Oe is the basic creed of rnany of the thelemic magical orders of the type represented follows: by our cornposite group.ose is far from homogeneous. At first sight this seems an incongruous mish-mash of individuals having little in common with one another. 'Oz' is. wlro inevitably associate it with Kansas 'twisters'. in ritual magic they have for-lncl 'not only a key to the enignras of the universe but a method which enables ihem to transcend the limits of ordinary consciousness.4. AL. a living organism in which the whole is greater than the sum of its constituent parts. The name HV. We lvill call or-rr sccorrd cornposite group -. the ultimate goal of the magician . is a symbol of dense matter and its limitations. The social composition of orders such as the Secret R.. This reads as LIBER OZ There is no God but man! Dews homo est! l. To use their own occult terminology. rneaning not just the physical universe but all the manifested aspects of Cod. christenings arid othcr family occasions. For its flrst letter sexual (Ayin) represents the male goat. ln Hebrew the word Oz is spelt with the Hebrew letters Ayin and Zayin and by gernatria . the Order of Oz. this number represents magic acting on the world of matter. Six is the number of the macrocosrn. In addition to this the word Oz * XV of the tarot deck. therefore represents. This is because it can be expressed as eleven. and taxi-drivers. for many western magicians. as one of them has said.rnicrocosm or 'little world'. microcosm and macrocosm. paint. rnould.the one which illustrates tlrc strarrd of' 'thcle mic magic'. the 'great world'. a word which has slightly risible undertones for many people. the late Judy Garland and yellow brick loacls. tin men. the ithyphaliic 'Devil' which. the number of manifestation. 4.undertones. They are united by their fervent belief thnt..

Such people tend to be familiar with even the obscurest writings of their Mastcr. at the north end of the room was a scarletdraped altar. The version of the Cnostic performed is at least semi-respectable and lies somewhere Letween the almost bourgeois conventionality of the present day Swiss-German rite. Even the sexo-yogic practices which arc such an important part of Magick are sometinrcs ncglcctccl and it is likely that some of the members ol'Crowlcyan groups are more attracted by the glamour of dressing up in exotic vestments and of belonging to a secret society than they are by the prospect of achieving any real rnagical results . One of us has twice witnessed such watered-down versions of the Gnostic Mass and.which have the most personal appeal.57 The quotations which end sections four and five of Oe L. having some similarities with certain aspects of both medieval Eastern European dualism and the subtle philosophy and accepted practice of Bengali tantricism.are capable of achievement. therefore. AL. a huge silver cuf of wine.r Catholic Mass usually .this injunction is obeyed literally and not symbolically. A brief account of this systern is given in later chapters. lt is not. in which both Priest and itriestess remain fully clothed throughout the ceremony. but it is likely that lew save Crowley himseif have mastered the sys(em in its entirety. the Book af the Low. The altar supported a smaller 'super-altar' on which rested a highly coloured.always supposing. of course.t. in spite of the rather dismal surroundings in which they were celebrated. and a plate bearing cakes of a peculiar appearance and consistency. surprising that the men and wornen who are the rank and file of such Crowleyan societies as our 'composite' Order of Oz largely confine their attentions to tirose parts of the 'Magick' * for so Crowley's. but few of them work at his intensely demanding techniques of psycho-spiritual development in anything but a dcsultory way. The rites began with the congregation reciting the Gnostic Creed.5" Man has the right to kill those who would thwart these rights. othe Crowley is best rernembered by the general public as wickedest man in the world' (a title conferred upon him in the twenties by the Hbarst and Beaverbrook press) as an individual who had actually lived out the sexual fantasies that most pegple keep to themselves. the Priest merely dipping a short spear into a cup of wine carried by the Priestess. that such results. six candles flaring on either side of it. in One Star of whose Fire we are created and to which Fire we shall l7 16 id' .ty goba. That is to say. a heavily 'Crowleyanized' version of a statement of belief used by the French Gnostic Church of almost eighty years ago and admirably summarizing the beliefs of the devotees of Magick: I believe in One Secret anci Ineffabie Lord.which some believe to imply that the iwo should copulate together . but when the rubric demands that 'the Priest shall plunge his Lance into the Chalice borne by the Priestess' . the PriFstess in a white robe with a scarlet sash and a blue cowl.i . and the wild impropriety of a Californian Gnostic group which flourished twenty or thirty years ago and made an act of cunnilingus the central point of its recension of the Mass. "the slaves shail serve". handpainted reirroduction on wood of ancient Egyptian iymbols. seven feet wide and almost four feet high ' On it were a splendidly bound copy of Crowley's Liber vel Legis.' \''. ln reality he was the creator of a highly intellectual and complex system of occultism. This *au flanked by eight more candles' The Priest was clothed in a white cowled robe. are from Liber A The principal group activity of most ol the societies typified by our composite Order of Oz are their celebrations of the 'Gnostic Catholic Mass' as revised and translated from German into English by Crowley himself.the supreme holy book of the new religion of Thelema devised by Crowley himsell.. they were still quite impressive as pure theatre. in the ritual as carried out by most contemporary groups the Priest and Priestess are naked for pari of the cerernony. system is olten called . Even the scenery was tai.

individual and eternal. in one Father of Life. Crowlcy clairned that the best blood for this purpose was {that of the moon. . Nevertheless. sometimes attended by the Great Goat of Cleckheaton himself. And I confess my life one.were consecrated as 'the Blood and Body of God'. And I believe in the Serpent and the l-ion. T'he ceremony concluded with the Priest giving his 'rnagical blessing' to the congregation: 'l\4ay the Lord bring you to the accomplishment of the Creat Work. monthly'. It is easy enough to make fun of modern witchcraft. and in one Womb wherein all men are begotten. i"e. After a good deal of esoteric flim-flam between the Friest and the Priestess * aptly described by one American observer as 'Grail-stuff' .the eleven Collects were recited. Priest. menstrual blood. an eminently remember such figures respectable group whose gatherings.' It is interesting to note that this blessing is lifted bodily from the Adept Minor initiation ritual of the Golden Dawn. ancl cal ing a whole cake. and oihers serve as a means of satisfy. red wine and human bloocl. the well known Sowerby Bridge diseuse who doubles as Witch Queen of the local coven. the taste of the cakes was repellent. Mother of us all. to of fun as Peter Simple's Elvira Muttcliffe. often sado-masochistic in nature. Liberty and I-ove. chanted irritatingly off-key. And I believe in one Earth. Some are positively crirninal. ing their leaders' sexual lusts. We will call it the Aradia Coven Aradia being one of the names of the goddess worshipped by the witches of today.i. astrology. and in one Air. the syphilitic 16th*century Lutheran knight. After an anthem. and in the Communion of the Saints. flagellation and the collection of edged weapons. Typically a coven such as Aradia began its life a quarter 19 \ ''r. honey. have more and more tended to concern themselves with herbal healing. And I confess one Baptism of Wisdom whereby we accomplish the Miracle of Incarnation. and white magic rather than pure Cardnerian witchcraft and the (usually mild) bondage and flagellation practices associated with it. each drinking a whole cup ol wine. But not all covens are so delightfully innocent. And I believe in the Miracle of the Mass. if eccentric. Alexander VI. and the 'Saints' amongst whom was Ulrich von Hutten. the wine and the unappetizing cakes to which we have previously referred . And I believe one Cnostic and Catholic Church of Life. feature no acti- vities more sinister than the wearing of the trilby hat of invisibility and the serving of weak tea in bone china cups. These bore no resemblance to those of Catholic Christianity and included invocations of the Sun. the I8 Summum Bonum. sole viceregent of the Sun upon Earth. Priestess and congregation courmunicated. and Ludwig. in facf . typified by our composite Aradia Coven. the Earth. The last composite occult group we wish to mention is one that illustrates the strand of 'modern witchcraft' in the rebirth of magic. True Wisdom and Perfect Happiness. For the moment it suffices to say that while most of its devotees claim that their cult is of immemorial antiquity most outsiders who have taken an interest in the movement have come to the conclusion that it was largely the creation of Cerald Gardner. The cakes were. the mad homosexual King of Bavaria.retllrn. associations of pagans practising a perfectly legitimate nature worship. tr-ight. and wherein they shatrl all rest. Following this the elements . It is only fair to add that most present-day covens are worthy. nourisher of ail that breathes. Mystery of Mystery. the Word of whose Law is THELEMA (will). but on the occasions on which one of us was present the blood ol' the Priest had been used. the incestuous Borgia Pope. bakcd I'rom a rnixture of flour..e. Still other groups. The origins of modern witchcraft and the beliefs and practices of those who rely on it for their spiritual nourishment are described later in this book. a retired customs officer whose interests included magic.

rsiav Meyrink. that a man can simulianeously be a cheap charlatan and a conveyer of the greatest wisdom. and yet. an occultist who called himself Dr' Schrepfer and . some of the worst charlatans havc sccmed to have something very like supernatural powers. but they are the most important and infiuential and later on in this book we shall come upolr them again and again. The tlire c strancls ol modern ritual magic represented by our conrl)osite orders of 'the Secret Rose' . he spoke the truth and the lie sneered foitir. power and. long ago. Later on they made themselves acquainted with the standard literature of European magic. 'it is hard a great rnystical teacher of recent times who did not have an'element of the trickster or showman about hirn. have been swept into that 'dustbin o['history' to which Marxist journalists mnke such frequent reference? Surely there was. bewitched men and rrn initiate cattle. ate fire. ce rtiiirrly charlatanism has been a characteristic ol tlrc nrost notablc magicians of the last and present centurics. himsell'a student of the teachings of the Golden Dawn and 20 of a Prague-based secret associatir:n known as thc Biue Star. . the leaders of the coven came into contact with the teachings of such western esoteric teaclrers as. from the grimoires. charmed away injuries. turned water into wine. to the True Relation ol John Dee and the Works of Thomas Vaughan. taking everything written by such supposed experts on witchcraft as Margaret Murray and Cerald Cardner as holy writ. orrc nright ask. swallowed swords. the late medieval textbooks of ritual magic such as the Ke-il of Solomon. for example. paradoxically.' adds Mr. alchemists who lrave been responsible I'or the rebirth of magic and other occult techniques which should. thrust daggers through his cheek and tongue without clrawing blood. Originally its members were remarkably ignorant of western occultisrn. invoked spirits. 'trn fact. exactly. is the nature of the magic these 'tricksters' and 'showmen' teach and practice? What are the underlying beliefs. er large clcmcnt ol pure fraud in the behaviour o1'many o1' tlrosc urusl plonrinent in the European and American occult rcvival? Certainly I'raud cxists. Todav the coven remains organised in the three degrees of rnoclern witchcraft and still celebraies such traditional fcstivals as l-ammas. . In his novel Meister Leanhard (1915) Meylink described one of these arnbivalent magicians. urisdam intrigued thc novelist Cr. he iied and his speech concealed the hig^hest truth. This strange cornbination of fraud.eonhard reaiised that the man was a fraud who could neither read nor write yet performed wonders . . ne fantasised carelessly and his words came true' Christopher Mclntosh has pointed out2 that this passage conveys the fact that occult knowledge is often transmitted through seemingly disreputable channels. Mclntosh. But. of course. witches. is it really worthbothering to study the belicl's and practices of the magicians. and still is. . what unite the devotees of occult rite and ceremonY? io think of 21. somefirnes. . Beltane and Midsummer * but the 'wilchcral't' is in reality no more than an ossilied I'ramework .supporting a secret society devoted to the study and practice ol authentic ritual magic. if any. Daiiy L. however. Everything that the trickster said and did had a double aspect: he cheated men and at the same time helped thim. ln time. 'Oz' and 'Aradia' are.' But what. not the only ones. healed possessed people.of a century or less ago. Dion Fortune and Rudolf Steiner.

Then curiosity overcame alarm and he decided to cxperiment with his new vehicle of consciousness. !'l . to which it was connected. What would happen. carefully observing which windows were open and which shut. still lying calmly abed. . published an analysis of the testimonies of a group of 368 iuch people. 'not yet'. in the air. he was never to be exactly sure how this happened it felt. was not a drug user. . that of reality. Then he found himself settling unsteadily on his feet. For some minutes he lay. his consciousness of his exact surroundings vanishing as he did so' He deliberately slowed down and found himself walking on a patch of grass. rather as though he had been pushed. and 'flew' away at great speed. His lightness of heart turned to anxiety. retired to sleep. almost fifty years ago. quite regardless of the law of physics. elated. He moved into the bithroorn. which removed it from the mere memory of a dream. He awoke so it seemed from a dreamless slumber and sleepily groped for the switch of his bedside lamp. like a captive balloon. At first Cerhardie was frightened by what was happenlng to him. and was feeling no more than the 'nervous exhaustion'induced by severed? He flew back to his bed and looked down at his physical body. for a surprising number of people have claimed rpontan. Was the incident no rnore than a dream? No. his own physical 1) uilil it without difficulty. and went through the rooms. There it lit the form of the sleeping body. he said to himself. a demanding work-schedule. .the strong broad ray of dusty light at the back of a dark cinerna projecting onto the screen in front' . I{e passed through the front door and hovered. He found that while he could not open his bedroom door he could pass through 2 The Meaning af Magic Late one evening. Looking behind hirn he saw that the cord had grown thin. should the glowing cord connecting his new and old bodies be 23 n. decided Gerhardie. To his amazement he realised that his perceptions had been transferred to a sort of ghostly 'body'which was suspended. I got up. Then his courage was restored. and in 1968 ielia Green. He had not been drinking.he described it as resembling . forthere was '. William Cerhardie. Somehow or other the muscles of his new body lacked all capacity to grip. where he was. checking the mental notes I had made about which windows were closed or open. With a jerk he found himself back in his'usual body. I . tsy the dim light which tilled the room and seemecl to emanate from himsell he groped his way towards the door - - - and reached for the handle. and then on into other rooms. But he could not grasp it. Magicians and others concerned with the occuli accept the objectivity of most of such experiences and explain thern by saying that man has not just one body.rcll'. T'hen he became conscious of fhe fact that a glowing coil . . feeling that he cauld fly &nywhere he wished. Gerhardid's experience was unusual but by no means unique. he came to full consciousness. surprised.was attached to him and led back to the bed on wirich he had been sleeping. of the Institute for Psychophysical Research. an English novelist and playwright with little interest in occultism and no acquaintance at all with the literature of'out of the body experiences'. and the evidence in all cases proved correct'. quite another quality about it ail. he wondered. . fhe body in which we carry on our everyday lives.ous out-of-the-body experiences. between the floor and ceiling of his bedroom. noting that its window was open and that a new towel rack had been installed. FIis seeking fingers found only a void and. which curtains drawn. he said..

and modes of consciousness of themselves and other living beings.. It must be noted. pictures or symbols seen both physically and in the mind's eye' as a means of autohypnosis. other 'wor. it is possible for hurnan beings to experience. Just how many there are of these planes and the human 'bodies' associated with them is a matter of opinion. and some a sevenfold system. vehicles to which consciousness can be transferred.".'Cod' in the purest ol the worcl .but several bodies. that only spirit is real and all the rest illusion) they affirm that there are other forms of reality.. The more usual method is to use what are called astral doorways. while niost magicians accept the reality of matter (and do not argue. . and terms derived from the qabalah are widely used in European and American esoteric circles.r Magicians believe that out-of-the-body experiences of the type experienced by William Cerhardie involve the 'projection of the astrai body' . that while aspects of the 'occult qabalah' are derived from the teachings ol Jewish and Christian qallalists. Of the othei 'worlds' and 'bodies' it is those called 'astral' in which. visualises it swinging open. fne magician. capable of mastery by aimori anyone. how- ever.. western occultists are most interested' They believe that by rnanipulation of the 'stuff' that makes up the Astral ('Yetziratic') wcrld . u.lds'or 'planes'. A.and that by use of the appropriate rnagical techniques. Tire astral [:od'/. the following divisions perhaps. Almost ail modern emanating sense magicians consiclcr thcrnsclves qabalists. After an unwandering attention has been achieved it is visually imagined that the object of contemplation enlarges itself to the size of a door. This is comparatively easy.frowned upon Ly most ritual magicians.t. of the classification used . in certain circumstances.r wcrIld (Atziluth) 7) Abstract Spiritual noj5if_*st'iritLral The word in brackets followirrg thc names of the planes are English transliterations ol' Aramaic Chaldee terms used to describc the various typcs ol reality supposedly fron Airr Soplr Aur . a magician and medium who has had great inliuence on the development of the western occult revival. all these are capable of reconciliation with one another. some a fivefold..in thc rrrccliaeval Jewish mystical system known as thc qabalalr.this 'stuff' was called Astral Light by the French magician Eliphas L€vi .they can influence both the physical universe and the feelings.i.. and keeping the eyes closed. to which. 1A 25 .i iluJ*-Astrar 4) Concrete Mental tsodvl_rincl 5) Abslract Mental BodyJ worrd Worlcl (tsriah) 6) Concrcte Spiritual Bo.. it is possible not only to carry out such projections at will but to visit any chosen 'country' of the astral world. or. Thus in the early writings of Dion Fortune.n astral doorway is used as follows. hoiding ttre door in the mind's eye. Similarly. rJfiffi .. were used: Planes or Worlds Huntun Entity Physical and Etheric Bodies World ol Matter (Assiah) 2) Lower Astral Bodyl (Yetzirah) I ) . by now' at least ro*" patt of consciousness should have been transferred.. The magician regards intently a chosen picture (for exarnple' a tarot trJmpl or a syrnbol (fbr example' a red triangle or ihe black :sigil' of a spirit) which supposedly has some relationship *ltn tfte part of the astral world he or she 'wishes to visitl . The projection techniques employed sometimes involve the use of drugs or hypnotism by an occult teachern but such practices are * officially at any rate . like Christian Scientists and some Buddhists. the next step is often found more difficuti. with their own modes of existence which. clccull qatralisrn is by no rneails identical with either the qabalah associated with mediaeval Judaism or the 'Christian qabalah' of the renaissance. as far as practical" workings are concerned.that is the mode of consciousness designed to be experienced.e' its temporary separation from the physical body . i..for while some occultists use a threefold.e. thoughts.

contemplated it and visualised it.Iooks around at what lies beyond the doorway. purified in design and idealised'. This was because the hermetic order of which they were both initiates believed this card to have a symbolic relationship . . 26 "€.tr#ffi 2'I l. the late 19th century actress who combined an active love-life .flew'. so it is averred.Empress. A of number magicians. They used as their doorway the tarot trump called the.real fantasy. as onc ol' them later recorded. Then one or both of the seers chanted 'Daleth' . lrcighte ned in colouring.a ocorrespondence' * with all love goddesses and with the planet Venus in astrology. They fbund themselves in a 'pale green landscape' which sur- The R.the name of tlre fourth lctter of the Hebrew alphabet. They placed the trump before tlremselves. . 102) Drawing by Miranda Payne. Thus Florence Farr Emery. or whether one takes the reductionist view that they are merely aspects of the unconscious mind. there is no doubt that these accounts of astral heavens and hells make an appeal to all who appreciate good fantasy or * as the magicians would ciaim . for consciousness to be fully transferred to the astral body which can then explore the astral kingdoms at will. have recorded such explorations in detail. Whether one believes that the new worlds described have some sort of objective reality. They projected themselves through their doorway and saw a 'greenish blue distant landscape. forcing their bodies upwards through astral clouds. Then they . With determination and persistence it becomes possible. becoming 'spiritualised.with occult experimentation and rituai magic had some exciting astral experiences.Yeats and Shaw were amongst those she was emotionally invoived with . sup- posed to qabalistically correspond to Venus and the chosen tarot card. suggestive of mediaeval tapestries'. fantastic reality. At some time in the 1890s she and a fellow magician named Elaine Simpson decided to undertake an astral journey to the sphere ruled by the goddess Venus.ose Cross as conceived by the Coiden l)awn and woin by its adepts (see p. past and present.

and He is the life blood of Spirit that is found in the cup. she would in some manner reveal to them the innermost natltre of her mystery. they beheld a cup holding a ruby coloured fluid and the sun shining upon it. lWe solemnly gave our hearts. however. She is the Holy Grail. whether any of the information con- of real value or interest to the women who it.'i I rir spuriously archaic of the communications 29 . who meant no harm and moved on through the darkness. most powerful of all the world. Lewis's Narnia stories. Love is the Mother of the Christ-Spirit. . but is always victorious. which they descended into a gloomy passage. She began by showing them her secret under the veil * or so the occultists believed dess revealed to them the secret of the Holy Grail. in her left hand an orb bearing a cross'. clothed in green with a jewelled girdle. but few there be who find me. Beside it were steps. she replied: leaves I am the mighty Mother lsis. the god- spewed . Then. and to shew forth the path to eternal life. The women then approached the temple. - . In the garden stood the astral figure . I am that Sleeping Beauty whom men have sought for all time. He is the expression of her power. nor can be.' They then felt a great influx of courage and power. As they traversed it they met 'a beautiful green dragon'. Such as fail to find rne.' recorded one of them. in spite language 28 - of the flowery and reminiscent i. I am she who fights not. the strongest force in all the world. When my secret is told.rounded 'a Gothic Temple of ghostly outlines marked in light'. and this Christ is the highest love. the heart of the Creat Mother Isis. it is the secret of the Holy Crail. Smilingly. the Isis of Nature. I am lifted up on high and draw men unto me. clearly enough. in her hand a sceptre ofgold. Giving the signs that showed that they had been initiated into the grade of their order which entitled them to explore the Venusian aspects of the astral plane. sleep. they entered the temple. Beyond the terrace they could see a flower garden. the two seers felt had been well worth undertaking. I have given my heart to the world. Love is the Mother of the Man-Cod.some aspect of Venus . in words. I am the world's desire. any decisive answer. and.' So ended the astral journey which. She was 'of heroic proportions. . a crown of stars on her head. a bird sacred to Venus perched upon it. having at one apex lustrously white closed lotus flower. But the questions that remain to be answered are.\ of symbolism. The women were impressed by this astral revelation.which had been symbolised by the Empress of the Tarot. To the second one is at first inclined to answer with a flat negative. that the declaration of the astral 'Lady Venus' is not without inte- rest.S. 'to the keeping of the Crail. They noted that opposite the entrance was a three-barred cross with a dove. or may ever rush after the Fata Morganaleading astray all who feel that illusory influence. Eventually they ernerged from their sombre surroundings to find themselves standing on a brilliantly white marble they did so terrace. It does seem. 'l'or our own hearts were henceforth to beln touch with hers. giving the quintessence of her life to save mankind from destruction. To the first question there neither is. The paths which lead to my castle are beset with danger and illusions. secondly. whether the experience undergone was other than entirely subjective. the of the plants delicately green above and velvety white below. Christ is the heart of love. The two occultists approached the being and enquired her name. so the goddess indicated. finding that as it gained in solidity. Then the 'Lady Venus' - for it was she who vivified the astral form beheld by the magicians - led them to a high turret where. that is my strength. firstly. or whether they had just indulged themselves veyed was received by taking part in something very like a third-rate television adaptation of one of C.

finds nothing surprising in the identification of a cup . animals. even more unlikely. Two points are of significance. In the course of the a-stral journey whiih we have exam. that they dld journey to the realm of Venus and receive an authentic communication from an eniity enjoying some sort of objective existence. for it is motherhood and prorniscuitY.and. the planet Venus have an objective relationship (a corresponclence) with all those plants. one of the basic theoretical premises of western magicians past and present. 'Mother of the Man-God'.rnust seem odd. could have had any the identification of the Blessed Virgin. to be an incarnation of the Virgin and yet four of thern (all of whom were in course of tirne to receive a valid. . with Venus. a Polish breakaway from Catholicism condemned by Pope Pius X as long ago as 1906 but still surviving in today's 'People's Democracy'. Calahad and Farsifal . which also fall under the dominion of Venus' Most of these corresponclences appear fairly arbitrary to the non-occultist. Weston's From Ritual to Romance in 1911. geometric figures etc. a visionary nun named Maria Kozowska.g. though irregular.that she must be identified with the 'Mother of the Christ-Spirit' .in which it was delivered. the two magicians whose literary source for their strange identification of virgin Science sees the individual human being as a little bit and. The second is the identification of the Grail. 'in correspondence'with Venus and thus confirmed the validity of the experience' The phrase 'in correspondencel relates to the 'doctrine of correspondences'. Emery and Elaine Simpson.' ined the seers were impressed by the symbols. Magic asserts. the sacred vessel of the Matter of Britain.even such a cup as that sought by Bors. familiar with the symbol-interpretations of psycho-analysis. Nevertheless it was an astonishing concept for two Victorian ladies spontaneously to light upon . episcopal consecration) not only seem to have had sexual intercourse with her but to have considered this to have been the supreme religious experiencc of their lives. It seems at least possible that either they derived their intuitions from what Jungians call the Collective Unconscious or. in accordance with the of correspondences. so they believed. colours and beings (e. such an interpretation of the Crail legend has been familiar to students of .with the vagina. the concepts upon which all modern science is based ' difficult to reconcile the characters of the chaste Mary and the promiscuous Venus.Arthurian legend since the publication of Jessie L. and the modes of observing the world around us that underlies the teaching are alien to. Even to the contemporary reader the other claim of the Lady Venus ..for it is highly improbable that it was contained in any published source available to them nor was it part of the teaching of the magical group into which they had been initiated. ero. And yet similar links between the ever-virgin and the ever-erotic aspects of the feminine principle have been implicit in the teachings of some heretical sects. a dove and a green dragon) which they saw.$not agapd. rather an unimportant little bit . The first is astral jaunt we have been considering. with Venus. The present-day reader. and at variance with. indeed. Thus those factors in the make-up of a human being which are symbolically ruled by tlre goddess Venus -. For these were. what is more. The doctrine is perhaps the most difficult of magical theories for the modern westerner to understand and accept ' For the ways of thinking. Cn the doctrine simplest level these correspondences can be used to induce 3l 30 | '. the archetypal yoni or female organ of generation. astrologically. From this it follows that every factor present in the human mind and soul is also present in the manifested universe and vice versa. believed their founder.of the universe. but those magicians who have used them as a guide io the constructioll of rituals assert that [hey are effective.out by a thousand Victorian trance mediums .that is. that the individual rs a is an image of the greater universe which is which universe around him. goddess of love . Once again it seems to be impossible to beiie ve that Mrs. Thus the early leaders of the Mariavites. sexuctl love.

a choleric person can. get a distinct irnage of the thing you desire. however. in your heart.mood changes. when the Imagination creates an image and the Will directs and uses that irnage. Campanella prepared an 'astrological room'. for the former lived for another sixteen years. As Richard Cavendish has remarked. yet its effect is vague and indefinite. ernotional and spiritual capacitics ol both the magician and those he wishes to influence fbr good or ill. properly trained. considered beneficial planets by astrblogers. . and then furnished with plants. concentrate all your wandering rays of thought upon this image until you feel it to be one glowing scarlet ball of compacted force. the two are conjoined. . There are various occult methods of training the will. and flaming torches the planets. unless vitalised and directed by the Will" When. yet it can do nothing of importance. imagine your head as a centre of attraction with thoughts like rays radiating out to a vast globe. for exarnple. and even precious stones. believed to correspond to those planets. . the Imagination must precede the Will in order to produce the greatest possible effect. marvellous magical effects may be obtained. To practise magic both the Imagination and the Will must be called into action. they assert. It can transform the physical. . The Pope then sat in his little solar system. Two large lamps symbolised sun and moon. Besides occult beliefs about the astral world and correspondences modern magicians altach great importance to theories concerning human willpower. . is capable of performing what seem to be miracles. as it 32 33 tlri . a symbolic solar system. for his client. . It will be noted that this exercise involves the use of both willpower and the visual irnagination. a colour corresponding with Mars. To want or desire a thing is the first step in the exercise of Will. It chn even produce physical alterations in the outside world. . The will. More complex ways of using the correspondences have frequently been employed. in the decoration of his home. they are co-equal in the work . One of the most popular with modern magicians is described as follows in one of the instructional documents of an occult fraternity: were. . and that current cannot be wholly inoperative. The room was decorated in colours corresponding with Jupiter and Venus. . under certain circumstances it can even transmute base metals into gold. called on the magician Tomas Campanella for aid. . calm himself by avoiding the use of red. Thus in 1628 Pope Urban VIII. The Will unaided can send forth a current. burning the incenses of -Iupiter and Venus and listening to Jovial and Venereal music. The Imagination unaided can create an image . it is likely that Pope and sorcerer were pleased with their efforts. and a paper circulated in the same fraternity emphasised the indivisibility of the two in effective magical workings. placed. As well as such beliefs as those outlined above a major influence on the activities of those concerned in the rebirth of magic has been exerted by the strange occult texts known as the grimoires. and used in conjunction with faith and creative imagination. flowers. Then project this concentrated force on the subject you wish to affect. worried that an approaclring eciipse of the sun was dangerous to him and might even indicate his forthcoming death.

D. acquires a copy of a rnysterious book. scholarly and introverted. Abdul Alhazred' . magical cookbooks purporting to teach their users how to obtain all they desire . certainly there were textbooks of magic in ancient Egypt and Babylonia. Greek. The study ofthis literature may or may not have resulted in anyone being carried off by devils.of a literature that has existed for over two thousand years. The book . But the grimoires of mediaeval and renaissance Europe (for it is these that have exerted a powerful influence on the modern rebirth of magic) seem to have been Christianised descendants of largely Jewish magical works which were widely circulated in the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean during the first few centuries of the Christian era. Finally he meets with an unpleasantness which ends his interest in books and ours in him. had magic powers which gave him dominion over angels. to a padded cell. love. a Greek manuscript probably dating from the third century A. 3 The literature in question is that Grimoires and Sorcerers Almost everyone who enjoys supernatural fiction is familiar with the tales of occult horror written by H. as will be described in a later chapter. usually froglike in appearance. If unusually lucky he is removed. Or turns into an amphibian. Mystic phrases were (and are) considered of such irnportance in Western magic that the Middle English word 'grarnmarye' meant 'magic' as well as 'grammar'in the modern sense of the word. Nevertheless. He sees less and less of his friencis and : b'egins instead to haunt old libraries. Exactly how early in time grimoires were first compiled is uncertain. cult meeting-places and burial grounds. A later work.sornetimes Ludwig Prinn's Mysteries of the Worm. raving wildly.fascinates its new owner. For the most holy Divine Names were employed in the composition of speils designed to achieve such diverse ends as striking an enemy 35 - E . He is struck by lightning. these imaginary books are a fic34 of the grimoires. of decaying New England seaports. gave a catalogue of demons (the names of which were derived from a medley of Hebrew. FIe talks wildly of certain 'Creat Old Ones'. Or is carried off into 'alien dimensions' by the 'Creat Old Ones' - up- dated versions of devils and demons. A young man.usually power. although in recent years. but it has led.. several spoof Necronomicons have been produced. 'Crimoire'means no more than 'gramrnar'. He seeks the company of the debased inhabitants. not only showed mingling of Jewish and Craeco-Egyptian influences but betrayed the theological and rnoral confusion of those who cornpiled and used it as a working textbook. usually by inheriting it from an ancestor of sinister reputation or by coming across it on the sheives of an obscttre bookshop. some of those who have devoted themselves to it into strange and dangerous places. demons and men.P.tional reflection of a certain reality . All the forbidden books mentioned above were nonexistent at tlte time the stories about them were written. Many of these books were attributed to King Solomon who. stranger and more dangerous activities. according to legend. Coptic and even Persian) and listed the 'Names of Power' which were believed to control them. The Testament of Salomon. curious lives and even more curious deaths. sometimes Von Junzt's Unspeakable Cults. the Sword af Moses . Lovecraft and his many irnitators. Many of these stories show a rernarkable similarity of plot.by means of occult ceremony.more usually the Irlecronomicon of 'the mad Arab. money. or some cornbination of these . there to spend the rest of his days. and still leads.

and retire to rest." The results of this will be immediate. cantor laudem omnipotentis et non commentur. . This spell is common-sense itself when compared with an 'experiment' to be found in the Grimorium VerLtm. round which set three chairs. particularly the Psalms of David. uttering the following conjuration: "Besticitttm consalatio veni ad me vertat Creon. conjure. and tell how the sign of the cross should be used as a protection against evil spirits.E. . The most widespread of the mediaeval grimoires was the Key of Solomon. Let it remain there for one night. you shall there and then have your delight with thern'. DII-tptDAToRE: TENTATOI{E. while if it be placed upon the finger of any woman or girl. Creon. finally thanking him or her who has entertained them. Three persons will arrive through the window of the chamber and will rest thernselves near the fire . Lastly. I direct.TORE. observing the proper hour and time. recite the following words once over thesameimage:. On the one hand they employ Divine and Angelic Names in their con- jurations. The said tlrree persons will draw lots amongst one another to know which of them shall rernain with you' If a rnan be the operator. and perhaps most desired by those who have tried the spell to gain possession of a ring which 'worn on the finger. The Solomonic family of grimoires show the same moral ambivalence as earlier magical texts. all ye ministers and companions. . .a rite designed to create discord between lovers. to learn details of any buried treasLlres concealed nearby. constrain and command ye to fulfil this behest willingly . . such as sulphur. it seems probable that they are late variants of Creek originals a thousand years older and perhaps transmitted to the Latin culture of Western Europe after the Venetians had looted Creek-speaking Constantinople in 1204. DEVORA. . Stat superior carta vient laudem omviestra principiem da montem et inimicos meas o protantis vobis et mihi dantes que passium fieri sincisibus. SOICNATORE.blind. from the mild lechery of spells designed to gain love to the jealousy enshrined in the following instruction for 'experiments upon enemies' . ' kindle a good fire. let there be a wheaten roll and a glass full of fresh clear water. While almost all surviving manuscripts of this grimoire date from no earlier than the l5th century. and before each chair. . especially those of Mars. It rnay well be significant that the aldest copy of the Key in the British Library is in Creek and probably dates from the latter half of the l2th century. that as the face of the one is contrary to the other. Experiments upon enemies may be perforrned in several ways. will render you lucky at play. . instruct the magician to recite lengthy passages from the Oid Testament. upon the table. she who wins will piace herself in the armchair which you have set by the bed. CONCITORE O. the particulars of each must be diligently and faithfully observed.lirl . On the other hand the ends intended to be achieved by the use of the Solomonic formulae are usually less than admirable. They vary from the merely greedy (the finding of hidden treasure and successful gambling) to the silly and futile (such as 'hindering a sportsman from killing any game'). . having duly asperged it. but whether with waxen images or some other instrument. forcing a woman's chastity and sending a neighbour unpleasant dreams. . The process in question supposedly enables its user to obtain truthful answers to questions on 'any art or science'. The rite in question is described simply enough: - After supper pass in secret to your chamber . and she will rernain 31 . . so the same may never lool< more upon one another. . . a late derivative of the Solomonic texts subtitled 'the Most Approved Keys of Solomon the Hebrew Rabbin'. Flace a white cloth on the table. Creon." Deposit the image in some place ET SEDUCTOR."vsoR. draw up a couch and a chair to the side of the bed. 36 ' perfumed with evil odours. claimed the author of the grimoire. .

nor do they involve blood sacrifice.sometimes rnore intellectual:-a . Although the magician does not have to submit himself to processes quite so drastic as this. for David saith "with the wicked you will be wicked and with the holy you will be holy".gold or sex .. walk away without looking behind him. climb out backwards. without any need of dismissal. . The real core of the grimoires is concerned with the raising. These must be made at particuiar times. who have experimented with the grimoires have been reduced to near-despair by the difficulty of complying with all the things demanded of them. before dawn. The Sworn Book of Hanorius. . Firstly. for example. . You may also enquire of her whether she is aware of any hidden treasure. for David saith "blessed are the undefiled and those that waik in the I-aw of the Lord". Let not your clothes be filthy. 1a Then it has to be given a white boxwood handle. a sword. to manufacture his own beeswax or tallow candles.and comrnune with you until rnidnight. . . One early text lays down that the experimenter must first be chaste for seven days ending on the third day after the New Moon. finaily. Secondly the purification ofthe body and soul of the magician and.rtue and a pure life. but new or well washed. has to be forged from a piece of'new steel during tlie first hour after sunrise on the day of Mercury (Wednesclay). The first stage is in many ways the most difficult. and then subjected to weird processes.and use it to write out his rituai on parchment. .. . . at which hour will depart with her companions. At the moment of sunrise he should decapitate a white cockerel. forbearing female enticements . jump into the river. Not all preparatory exercises are so physicaily energetic. for Cod and his Angels care neither for wordly things nor for appearances. . The exact processes laid down differ frorn grimoire to grimoire. to make parclrment out of animai skins. tlie rites of self-purification and consecration are almost as complicated. and she will immediately give you a positive answer. and sorne modern participants in the 'rebirth of magic. Soiomon means by new garments vi. the most authentically Christian of ail the grimoires. two knives and a sickle. You rnay not keep company with sin- . . The experimenter has to com- . throw its head into the river. and always pray to God with the follorvingprayers. the actual perforrnance of the rite. upon any iubiert whatsoever. the preparation of all the material substances and occult implements to be used in the cerernony. of infernal and supernal spirits with the object of obtaining benefits fromlhem" Such supposed benefits are sometimes crudeiy material . On that day he must go. . For a poor man doth sooner work affectively in this art than a rich one. He has to manufacture and consecrate 'rnagical weapons'. 39 . soot.. all ful or wicked men. for Angels live with Cod are clean and thus desire communication with clean rnen only. finally. At parting. So long as she remains you may question her upon any art oi science. put on new clothes and.. She will even appear there with her companions to defend you. br:t the fundamental stages are the same. After this the blade must be thrice heated to redness and then tempered in a mixture of herbal juices mixed with magpie's blood. The sickie. He must then burn the carcase on an olivewood fire. to a river bank and there build a stone altar. water and oak galls . and drink the bird's blood. o. Be never idle lest you be inclined to sin . amongst them a wand.= pound his own incense. gives instructions which are both morally above reproach and easy to follow: Be penitent and truly confessed of all sins. to visible appearance.knowledge of hidden sciences'. Fie has to blend his own ink * compounded of gum. Therefore you must lead a pure and clean life. for Solomon saith "it is better to live with a bear or lion in its den than live with a wicked wornan". but clean vestments are necessary. when the astrological conditions are suitable. for example. she will present youwitharing. and she will instruct you she as to its locality and the precise time suited to its removal. ..

There follows a demanding schedule of daily devotions nine a day on the first four days of the week. the blood of a black cat. Thus the Swarn Book of Honarius recommends for martial spirits an incense compounded of euphorbium. Frontispiece oi a seventeenth-ceniury version 40 of The Key of Solamon. .LES CN-. gum ammoniac.O}v{OF{" Traduit de l'Hebreux en Langue l-adne . Bt n ww Anrtefuc / 14rtu. roots of black and whire hellebore.the actual spells that command the appearance of the demon. For the same spirits the Magical Elernents of Peter de Abano prescribes the simplest of all incenses . il rcontradict one another. He then burns an incense appropriate to the spirit whose presence he requires. . and the brain of a raven'. 'Ihose laid down in the Goetia * according to Aleister Crowley by far the most efficacious contained in any grimoire save that of Abra-Melin . Par Ie Rabin Abog'nazar. This is essential for his own protection.AVTCULE. Saturdays and Sundays. should be mixed to a paste with 'human blood. if the spirit does not respond the second DC" XXXIV. . . This. These prayers blend orthodox piety with the long strings of usually meaningless syllables termed 'the barbarous words of evocation'" The following is typical: - O Most High and Irrvisible Cod .$ E . instructs the grimoire. The magician recites his conjurations . conjuratir:n is to be usecl" Should this also be unsuccessful the Goetis gives a further speli called the Constraint. ET fit* m la ngu e fn fu . There is a first conjuration which the operator is instructed to repeat 'as often as thou pleasest'. Most of the grimoires give classified lists of spirits and the incenses which should be used for them" These frequently M. . . He stands within a triple #m circle inscribed with names and symbols. If 41 . powdered lodestone and sulphur.n Pa.' M. deihel depimo dewhel excludo depimon helinon exmogon . . by Thy most holy angels . bedellium. should a demon be able to reach hirn it would tear him in pieces. illuminate and confirm rny understanding with the sweetness of Thy Holy Spirit . twenty-six a day on Fridays. F{aving manufactured his implements and consecrated both them and himself the magician can then proceed to the actual evocation of demorrs. I humbly beseech you .SAX.are typical.burning pepper. . . .

this does not produce the desired appearance: . and make a sweet perfume. invokes thedernons Lilittr(ttte . soak it in laurel juice and bury it in dung. tney should. thou mayest be sure that he is sent unto some other place by his King. dry them and scatter on the enemy's pillow. then thou mayest be sure that he is bound in chains in hell. the = H L I spirit stiil proves obstinate the magician solemnly curses it: . and then bind the box up round with an iron wire./or disgusting. or lechenous.intotheLakeofFire. Christus who did show tliyself without spot . It of . and place. thou must recite the general curse which is called the Spirits' Chain. ' . lf so. and hang it upon the point of thy sword. it is said. and hold it over the fire of charcoal. shall be choken in sulphurous stinking substances. On the face of it many of the processes outlined in the grimoires are absurd and. for tire author the Goetis suggests a filrther procedure. . Hospesk who made the dry rod flourish ' ' ' 43 . he prays. . such occultists affirm. .will breed therein. I do''' curse thee. . since thou art still pernicious and disobedient. and such like things that bear a stinking smell. goes on to a diet of bread and watei. and that he is not in the custody of his King.l. . I say into the Lake of Fire and Brimstone which is prepared for all rebellious.'This means. -"t'tlod of masicallv obtiining the Beatific 1 th. goal ages. . . for he or they be subjected by God to fulfil our desires and commands.. Thus. and if it be so' invocate the King as here foilorveth. . and pernicious spirits . disobedient and obstinate. quench the fire that the box is in. . be-interpreted symbolically. . and the recitai of a 'fire Conjuration'.. silly. . Idocastthee. ' . with brimstone. and wilt not appear unto meto answer .. joy. for' example. ' Then the exorcist must put the box into the fire and by-and-by the spirit will come' but as soon as he is come. Then he or they will be obedient. ln any case.''there to rerrain unto the daY of doom ' . Orka which pe Cabriel in the Temple . and burned in this material fire so. . greedy. and I do binct thee in the depths of the Bottomless Abyss there to remain until the Day of Judgement. is clear that even this sometimes faiied. r. If after this. and he cannot come. and bid thee ask 42 what thou wilt. . few of us would lave the heart to use the blood of animals to compound our incenses and some of the material substances that the magician is urged to use in his spells can only be obtained by engaging in a number of unpleasant-activities' Many modein occultists have therefore denied that the processes outlined in the grimoires are intended to be followed literatty. . . asafoetida. and give him welcorne and a kind enter- tainment . and thou still hast a desire to call him even from thence. . . worms. one lSth century giimoire initructs the magician who wants to inflict a Ileepless night on his enemy to 'pick a June lily under the wuning moon.vrite thou his seal on parchrnent and put thou it into a strong black box. all of of mystics The magician begins this process by a month-long period of p-reparation. a toad-headed demon.Iune lily) and Q'areb Zatag (the laurel)' Similarly a spell involving the use of a toad or its organic products-rnust be interpreted as instructing the magician to evoke Bilifares. and deprive thee of all thine olfice. . And as thy name and seal contained in this box chained and bound up. . .es a prayerl ' 'Zabuather Rabumae ' " . The Sworn Book of Honorius Vision . not all the techniques described in the grimoires are in themselves repellent. to send him' But if he do not come still. Nor are all the ends ihara tu*" occult experirnents are designed to achieve. aitends Mass and talces communion' He then makes a sleeping couch of exorcised hay and surrounds it with ashes anA imagic circle around which are written the Hundred Names of:God" After a ceremonial washing in spring water he dons a hair shirt and black vestments and recil.

Cofgar . . . Occynnornos who did send the first star to
the Three Kings . . . Elvorem . . . Theloy who at Cana
turned water into wine . . . Archima who for 32 years
did preach . . . the catholic faith . . . Rabuch . . .
Look upon rne and hearken to my prayers: that . ' .
thou wouldst vouchsafe to deliver my soul from the
darkness of my body and filthiness of my sins, for in
thee do I end my life O My God, Stoexkor, Abalay,
Scyystalgaona, Fullarite, Reshphiomoma, Remiare,
Baceda, Canona, Onlepot, Who said on the Cross Consumrnatum ^E'sl'.Then sleep and say no more, and you
shall see the Celestial Palace, and the Majesty of God in
His Clory, and the Nine Choirs of Angels, and the

Company of all blessed sPirits.
One grimoire stands out from all the others , The Sacred
Magic of Abra-Melin the Muge, a work which claims to
have been written in l458but which, in the formin which it
has survived, is unlikely to date from earlier than the eighteenth century. The Sacred Magic describes a technique
which is mr:re akin to the tshakta-Yoga of India than to the

of European magic.
The magician has to retire from the world and embark
upon a six-month long retreat. This period is a sort of
occuit gestation, for at the end of the time the magician is,
dramatic ceremonial processes

:

--

5?

L

in a sense, born again; he gains what the grimoire calls 'the
Ifuowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian
Angel'. From the wording of the grimoire it would seem
that this 'Knowledge and Conversation' is to be understood literally, the magician is to become acquainted with
his Holy Guardian Angel in the same way that he has, in
the past, become acquainted with his friends. Modern
students of Abra-Melin, however, have argued that the
phrase is to be interpreted symbolically. By the 'Knowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel', they
mystical process which can be more accurately referred to as 'the Union of the Higher and I-ower

af

firm,

is

meant

a

Selves', cr as the'Union ol Subject and Object', or as
'Cosmic Consciousness' , or even - for those who like the

terminology of Jungian psychology - as 'individuation''
After the spiritual exercises to which the magician must
devote most of the retreat have been carried out, and the
'Knowledge and Conversation' achieved, the Abra-Melin
squares may be used. These are simple lettered, or partly
lettered squares which the magician can employ for many
curious purposes. Thus, for example, the squares below
are supposed to enable the user to 'take possession of a
great treasure' (left-hand square) and to 'cause hail' (righthand square).

CANAMAL
AMADAMA
NADADAM
ADANADA
MADADAN
AMADAMA
I-AMANAC

SEGILAH
ERALIPA
C
trLENLi
IA
H

It is interesting to note that although Aleister Crowley
always carried about him a piece of parchment lettered
with the left-hand square he never succeeded, in the literal
of the words, in finding 'a great treasure'. After his
death the talisman found its way into the possession of an
ex-disciple who, only half-seriously, used it to find the
'great treasures' of lare occult books. He was rnost successful in this. . . . Segilah, the keyword of this square, is
probably an Aramaic Chaldee word meaning simply 'treasure', while Canamal, the keyword of the right-hand

sense

a derivation of the Hebrew rvord
ChNML, meaning iarge haiistones.

square is probatrly

For the sake of any readers who may be tempted to experiment rvith the squares we had better add that the
attempted use of thern is supposedly extremely dangerous
to anyone who has not achieved the Knor,vledge and Conin the
versation of the Holy Guardian Angel and that

words

of S.L. MacCregor

Mathers

,have 'a dangerous automatiq nature

'lessly about, they are very liable
persons, children, and even animals'.

.

-

to

-

certain squares
. for, if left careobsess sensitive

45

!;F

up rooms. . . . Ultimately his body was found dragged
through the streets, and his head without any tongue
therein, lying in a drain. And this was ail the profit he
drew from his Diabolical Science and Magic.

According to occult report the composer 'Feter
Warlock' must be nurnbered arnongst those who have
fallen a victim to the Abra-Melin squares. Desperately
desiring a certain event he had the appropriate square
tattooed on his arm and energized it - that is, kept his
mind continually concentrated upon

it -

A magician who typifies the third category, ancl who
was also 'dragged through the streetsn, was Dr. John
Lamb, the occult adviser of James I's favourite, the Duke

by blistering the

of a cigarette. He
obtained his desire, but in such a fashion that the event was
an emotional disaster rather than a triumph, and he immediately committed suicide.
tattooed skin with the glowing end

of Buckingham.

Lamb, whose date of birth is unknown, first came into
notoriety in 1608 when he was charged with having used
'execrable arts to consume the body and strength of
Thomas, Lord Windsor'. He was found guilty but never

Whether or not animals can be obsessed by lettered
or not one incurs any perils, save
those of hepatitis acquired from dirty needles by having
magical symbols tattooed upon one's body, there is no
doubt that those who have experimented with the technisquares, and whether

sentenced

ques of the grimoires have sometimes had cause to regret
it. Such unfortunates may broadly be divided into three
categories. The first consists of magicians who came to
their ends in such notorious circumstances that it is impos-

sible to disentangle fact from fantasy

in the surviving

accounts of their lives. The second group consists of men
born in humble circumstances who have tried to use the
magic of the grimoires as an escape from the tedium of
their everyday lives. The final category consists of occultists who have used their supposed powers to gain influence
over others and have been eventually destroyed by the jealousies and fears they have aroused.
The best-known example of an occultist of the first sort,
one whose supposed biography combines fact with myth

and legend, is Dr. Faustus. A similar magician, one to
.,e

fl

-

presumably he already had powerful protec-

tors * and a few months laler he was again in court, this
time accused of evoking 'evil and impious spirits'. This
time he was imprisoned. At first in Worcester Castle, and
then in the King's Bench, London. The transfer took place
at the request of the inhabitants of Worcester; they were
convinced that Larnb was still working evil magic, for
after his conviction 'the High Sheriff, Foreman of Jury,
and divers others . . . then present . . . died within a
fortnight'.
Lamb's mysterious protectors ensured that his imprisonment was, although lengthy, of littie inconvenience to
him. He seems to have had several rooms at his disposal, to
have had the best of food and drink at his table, and to
have been able to entertain friends and clients' He even
had serving wenches; in 1623 he was charged with raping
one of these, an eleven year old girl, to whorn he gave a
venereal infection. He was found guilty but pardoned by
James I and released from confinement. Probably this was
due to the intervention of Buckingham, a client of his who

whorn Crowley referred in his novel Moonchild, was
Antony of Frague, who supposedly flourished in the early
l5th century. Antony had

seems to have had enormous confidence in Lamb's magicai

powers.

rnade a Pact with the Demon, and had given himself
over to him in body and in soul . . . the deceitful
tr-eviathan had promised hirn forty years of life to do his
pleasure. .
He rendered himself invisible, he used to fiy in the
air, he used to enter through the keyholes into locked-

The reputation of the sorcerer was now considerable,
the citizens of London regarding him with a mixture of
fear and loathing" So great was his notoriety as a master of
black magic that when an exceptionaliy powerful stor'm
caused much damage in June 1625, this storm being

,

.47

46
.t,

accompanied by a sinister Thames fog through which
some claimed to have seen dim and awful figures moving,
it was widely assumed that l-amb was responsible.
By early 1628 Lamb's unpopularity reached its height.
Ftre had become looked upon as Buckingham's 'devil' and
street ballads accused him of casting spells which brought
chaste women to his patron's bed.
Finally, in 1628, Lamb was dragged and beaten through
the streets by a mob of apprentices, dying the next
morning. A crystal ball and other magical implements
were found upon his body.
Two rnonths later Buckingham was assassinated. The
popular assumption attributed the success of the murderer
to the cessation of Larnb's occult protection - in the
words of a ballad:

The occultists of modern times, the men and wornen
who have brought about the rebirth of magic, have, as has
been said, a more rornantic, symbolic interpretation of the
grimoires than such predecessors as Dr. I-amb and
Thornas Parkes. This new interpretation had its origins in
the French occult revival which began in the second halfof
the last century.

The Shepherd's struck, the sheep are fled,
For want of Lamb, the Wolf is dead.
As for the humbler sorcerers, the men who employed
grirnoire magic with the airn of self-advancement, of rnost
of them we can know little. They lived, evoked dernons,
and died in obscurity. But there are records of a few of
them - of, for example, young Thomas Parkes, who
practised magic in the last decade of the 17th century with
the aid of the Fourth Book of Occult Philosophy attributed to Cornelius Agrippa. His first experiment in evocation raised spirits 'in the shape of little girls, about a foot
and a half high'. Parkes, emboldened by his success,
decided to go further and to acquire a 'familiar spirit'' He
believed he had succeeded in this, claiming to have a
familiar whom he called Malachi. Then, one December, he
carried out a rite as the result of which spirits
appeared faster than he wished them, and in most
dreadful shapes - like serpents, lions, bears, etc " , hissing at him, which did very much affright him; and the
more so when he found it was not in his power to iay
them, expecting every moment to be torn in pieces . . .
and from that time lie was never well so lting as he iived.
48

49

'. which included driving disease away from Eplresus. He had been born in lBl0.D. L6vi became a deacon. L€vi left Saint-Sulpice in 1835" Three years or so later he 5l . descending into Hades. refiicrs.of the ghost of Apollonius of Tyana. but was never ordained to the priesthood. . and carried a sword. anrJ thus ohtainiirg a fr-ee semi- them. a little subtlety to adapt thern to modern Gallic fashions. regulations and . F{e was about to begin the 'evocation to visible appearance' . . another stood upon a tripod. and deciding that he could not take vows 'before the altar of a cold and egotistical cult withoul. Custom is everything with them. . Art and poetry are regarded as childish and dangerous . Upon the aitar was a copper chafing-dish. Although L6vi found no difficulty in reaching the academic standards demanded by his superiors he disiiked both his first seminary and the rnore advanced one. His earliest years \4/ere spent in bitter poverty. The appearance of the man was as unusual as his surroundings. oily skin. . a revolting cassock. but he was an inteliigent child. and on each wall was a large concave mirror. for he came to the conclusion that celibacy was not for him. have fascinated magicians for almost two thousand years. A little memory to retain ancient scho- lastic argurnents. Writing of the latter he said: The Sulpiciensare cold and monotonous men for whom . . whose supposed feats. In later life he described his feelings at his lirst comrnunion: Through the mysteries of Catholicism I caught a of the infinite. . . and he managed to escape from his environrnent by the traditional route of the Catholic poor: finding that he had a vocation for the nriesf hcrod nary education. In the centre of the room was a white marble altar inscribed with a pentagram and circled by a magnetized iron chain. . was crowned with a wreath of vervain entwined with a golden chain. a Pythagorean teacher and wonderworker of the Ist century . better known to posterity by his pseudonym of Eliphas I-evi. retaining his faith in spite of his dislike for his teachers and associates. theson of a poor cobbler. feeling.in other words the inducement of a spirit to appear in bodily forrn . My heart became impassioned towards a Cod who sacrificed himself for his children and transformed himself into bread in order to nourish glirnpse 4 The Fremch fficcult Revivwl At some time in iB54 a Frenchrnan who was enjoying a lengthy visit to England stood alone in a curiously furnished London room. The gentle figure of the sacrificed Lamb made me shed tears and the tender Name of Mary made my heart palpitate. greasy hair. theological textbooks take the place of spirit and ernotion. Progress is a word that is considered profane and ridiculous. Add to this a stiff manner. The would-be evoker was Alphonse Louis Constant. a little volubility to enunciate them and twist their tails round reason * these are the qualities that pass for talent at Saint-Sulpice.. which he entered in 1832. as he put it. described as 'eating books'. He wore white vestrnents. dirty hands and shifty eyes and you have the full picture of what is called a good subject . 'an imperious need for love'.While his discovery of his supposed vocation was a convenient one there is no reason to doubt his real piety and belief as a boy and a young man.A. SaintSulpice. and revealing a young bride as a varnpirer.

..\. published in i841. t..." ^:1.. the 18th century mystic and psychic whose teachings had influenced such dissimilar writers as Blake and Balzac. At the time.a74-year-old natural- 4 r- e ised Frenchman who had been born a Pole. who believeci that he had discovered the . the failed priest becoming an enthusiastic advocate of the pseudo-Messiah's blend of unorthodox religion._: -. described his forebear as 'a socialist and an anarchist .. . . his doctrines and his rnystical powers.Ir..' . an eariy decaclent rvhose mannered novel. from its description. .-!Jl. is described as including amongst its characters a harern of zombies. L6vi already had a nodding acquaintance with occultism.r^ ir ^'16**r . for Ganneau's eloquence overcalne L6vi's imagination. who attempted to produce perpetual motion. . whose grandson. . . a brazen robot which tiresomely and incessantly preached the virtues of chastity. a treatise on the Virgin sufficiently heterodox for at least one French bishop to forbid his flock to read it. garret-inhabiting prophet who believed himself to be a reincarnation of Louis XVlL years later. and occuitly inclined. would seem to have been a mechanical adaptation of a simple device invented by Ramon l-ull some five hundred years earlier2. but before he did so he wrote a socialistic-cummystic book The Bible of Liberty. in his Ftristory of Magic" I-6vi was to give an amusing and detached account of the antics of Ganneau and his wife.".:. as the result of his friendship with Alphonse Esquiros. who hacl spent n1t:CL *. prirnitive. producing a whole volume of the Dktionary o.{. and who had constructed the prognometer. however.r!. In fairness to L6vi it rnust be stated that he was by no means the only one to have all intellectual resistance swept away by Canneau's burning belief in himself..secret 52 of Eliphas L6vi's version of the 'Trident of Paracelsus' (see page 54) J-) . tn 1852 L€vi metHoene Wronski . rf. .. which earned him an eight-month prison sentence for blaspherny and subversion. the painter Cauguin. and his wide reading had iucluded the more easily avaiiable rnystical treatises. Contact with ofMapa.e. and a herrnaphrodite who carried on a correspondence with the spirit of the moon.with 'strange doctrines. Eventuallv L6vi decided that Ganneau was a false prophet. thereligion carne into contact the Absolute'. a half-mad royalist. As a serninarian one of his teachers had intro- duced him to animal magnetism (i.r. . the Iatter supposedly a reincarnation of Marie Antoinette.r orri religion. royalism and utopian socialjsrn. The Magician. some of them of doubtful orthodoxy.. acertain religion.1. .. The doctrines in question were those of Ganneau. . hypnotism). his attitude was far from detached. :-. credited withhavingfournded.!-r. and while in prison he had studied the writings of Swedenborg..f the Christian Religion and.. After his release he supported himself by tutoring and hack writing.rL_r.rt.. another of the prophet's disciples was the pioneer feminist Flora Tristan. a machine for producing predictions which. a tattered.

an illustration of it together with a description of its amazing powers appeared in the Archidoxes Magicae which was included in the Collected Works of Paracelsus edited by John Huser. and dogmas. or some Diaboiical Art. and that it cannot be found: by this means. On the other hand Paracelsus neither attributed to it all the virtues of the name Jehovah nor claimed that it symbolised Father. for example.Wronski transformed L6vi's vague interests into a burning enthusiasm. shown by internal evidence to have been conceived as one work although the Dogma and the Ritual were published separately. of which let there be made a TridentFork on the day of Venus (Friday).. He voraciously read occult literature. on Sunday before Sun-rising. that the handle may not be seen. L6vi stated that: This trident is a pantacle expressing the synthesis of the triad in the monad. This happens by divers accidents. as in his later productions. reputation. illustrates the Rituat. which has been that of an immense magnetic circle. let those words with their Characters be engraven . . Thus he chose to believe that the . writing: The loss of Strength and Virtue in the Members of Generation is a certain Sympathy proceeding from gross Fatness. that he had unlocked the mysteries that lay concealed in the obscurities of such authors as Postel. the 'Trident of Faracelsus'n a drawing of which. let . when it happens that this disease is brought upon any one by Witchcraft. As there were no occult associa- Now it is certainly true that this trident was written of tions with the tarot before the last twentlr years of the eighteenth century Ldvi was forced to invent them. and the person that has brought this mischief upon thee. He regarded it as a useful implement for the cure of sexual impotence generated by witchcraft. tarot cards werb of enorrnous antiquity and contained profound qabalistic symbols. the former in 1854. thus completing the sacred tetrad. and that the secrets magic. . practice and history of magic and alchemy in an extremely cavalier way. alchemy and esoteric symbolism were all within his grasp. There is no doubt that in these books. wrought by the malice of wicked people: let the Fatient take a piece of Horse-shoe found in the highway.r L6vi's distortion of Paracelsus . Basil Valentine. and hour of Saturn . the latter two years later. some whereof are natural.was typical of the way in which he misused occult sources to bolster up his own theories. Soon he came to b"elieve that he understood the qabalah. the alchemical principles of Salt. firstly. Take. " . He (Paracelsus) ascribed to this figure all the virtues := 5 il which kabalistic Hebrews attribute to the name ol Jehovah and the thaumaturgic properties of ABR. . the Fork be fastened in the ground under a running Stream of Water. shall get something himself in that place. SuJphur and Mercury.. others are against nature. . Let us recognize here that it is a pantacle and consequently a concrete and an absolute sign of an entire doctrine. After identifying the three prongs with. thou shalt be delivered in 9 days. from which he shall not so easily bedelivered. that he could provide the explanation of all the phenornena of spiritualism and rnesmerism. the Trinity. which as a certain Spasma impedites the power of the Members of that place. not only for ancient philosophers but also for adepts ofthe MiddleAges. rapidly acquiring a wide but shallow knowledge of the subject.ACADABRA. Levi treated what he knew of the theory. showing a three-pronged fork inscribed with various names and symbols. L6vi decided to make his discoveries known to the world and produced The Dogma and Ritual of HiSh fuXagic. so deep. being only too ready to engage in deiiberate distortion if he thought it would rnake good copy. .and Paracelsus. which being done. boldly 54 55 .so gross that it must be considered a deliberate mystification rather than a piece of carelessness . by Witchcraft . and secondly. used by the hierophants of Alexandria. with approval by Paracelsus. Son and Holy Spirit.

however. ln reality no such references are to be found. Magic. and he was forced to supplement his literary earnings by giving private lessons to those who wished to study the deeper aspects of 'occult science'.but it is a mistake to underestimate him. its doctrines expressed ultirnate truths about good and evil.' These criticisms are harsh but perhaps not altogether unjustified. magic. and for reliable accounts of Western occult history and traditions one has to look elsewhere than in the works of Eliptras L6vi. the inner body of truth that was the heart and rnarrow of exoteric Christianity. he was extraordinarily complacent about both the value of the lessons he gave and the rnaterial rewards he received. has characterized them 'as the product of an advanced state of intellectual deiinquescence'. . I demand nothing. He wrote: As regards our lessons . tongue firrnly in cheek. and. that Ldvi lived by his writings. say. the sumrnoning of the shade of Apollonius of Tyana to visible appearance. . scholarly studies of the development of textual criticism. This has led many. but some of them were charged very high fees . for example. almost the only ceremonial ever performed by him was that mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. Admittedly Levi romanticized the magical and alchemical traditions and what little he knew of the qabalah and other forms of Jewish mysticism . he felt that the claims he made for the validity of his personal interpretation of occult tradition were justified. L€vi's lessons were purely theoretical and his pupils were not introduced to any ritual working. L6vi's books sold moderately well. . using the hermetic tradition as :: about wisdom. foundation on which to build an extravagant folly of fantasy and extravagant speculation. . love and power. he could simply not afford to spend his time producing. to see him as no more than a vulgarizer. but not well enough for him to live in even modest cornfort.I give to my disciples according to the need of their minds what the spirit gives me for them. and Knorr von Rosenroth. Indeed. There were few of these personal pupils. For he genuinely seems to have believed that in his writings on the 'Astral Light' he had supplied a rational expianation for ali supposedly supernatural mediumship. indeed everything blends and blurs'.I have no manuscript course . for these illustrate both a Cothic romanticism and a curious ambihe never seerns to valence towards occult experiences have made up his rnind whether they were objective. who hankered after the bizarre and arcane and were flattered to think themselves the heirs of a secret and ancient wisdom of which the world at large remained ignorant . 55 57 - * i*i . under the veils of a concealing symbolism. subjective. It is a communion and an exchange of bread. to take a poor view of the magical writings of the French mage. the lTih century Christian qabalist. and asserted that they were 'designed to appeal to those who wanted religiosity without religion. for L€vi. spiritual for bodily" But the needs of the body are of so little account for me that the generous gifts of those of my children who are rich serve mainly to satisfy the first and greatest need of my soul and of all our souls: Charity. particularly those with little sympathy for occult pretensions. remarked that in them 'the centuries blend and blur . No doubt L6vi regarded his rates as reasonable enough.stating that there were references to the mysterious cards in the writings of such men as Abbot Trithemius. the lSth century cryptographer and scholar. Equally.Madame Blavatsky's aunt complained that she had to pay forty francs for one minute's conversation. As this was a key experience for L6vi it is worth giving some extracts from L6vi's own account of it. was the only universally valid religion. he averred. 0r sorne blend of the two. This is not surprising in fact Levi himself had little experience of the practice of magic. was of great value when it was properly understood. and I refuse nothing from them in return. Professor Dummett. lt rnust always be remembered. that he had to rneet the demands of his market if he was to eat aud drink. in the highest sense.

and pointed the sword at the figure. . on which I recognized immediately the Seal of Solomon.6vigave these nrles in the thirteenth chapter af his Ritual" it appears that he must have spent the and from them Hewaslean.' I kept this curious appointment. in front of Westminster Abbey. the mirror behind the altar seemed to brighten in its depth.. a breath close by me. dressed in black. Then Levi began to read his ritual 'in a voice at first low but rising by degree'. I guessed that the swond displeased the spirit. The ritual began with the kindling of two charcoal fires in copper chafing-dishes. the other half of this card will be given to you. .. . " she insisted upon the necessity of practical experience to complete initiation. with closed eyes. A carriage was drawn up and as I held the card in my hand. position or abode of this lady.preparatory period eating vegetables. determined me to attgmpt at her house the experiment of a complete evocation. for none of these have survived. she motioned me to sit beside her then The smoke spread. and carrying on imaginary conversations with the long-dead sage. their purpose being to provide a dense smoke which would be used by the departed spirit in order to buiid up a material 'body'.iects upon which its light fell to waver and then expired. mentally commanThe form became vague and ding it to obey Ine suddenly vanished. . ' ::. . the figure of a man of more than normal size. containing half a transversely torn card. and when I endeavoured to question the phantom I could not utter a syllable. my heart beat rapidly. the flame first caused the ob. I experienced an abnormally cold sensation.melancholyandbeardless. and I therefore placeC its point downward. in short. It contained a veiled woman. . We had numerous long conversations . lent me some rare books and. on these were supposed to be burnt various 'perfumes' (i. close by rne. making a sign as he did so. gazing at a portrait of Apollonius. a friend of Sir B[ulwer] L[ytton].e. but it is likely that his dramatic story of how he met the adept who made these workings possible is at least partly fictional: Returning one day to my hotel (he wrote) I found a note . At once 59 58 h . wrapped from head to foot in a shroud . for which I prepared for a period of twentyO"rr.' she began. i therefore placed my hand on the Sign of the Fentagram. 'l am aware that the law of secrecy is rigorous among Adepts. tr seemed to feel a quaking of the earth. He could hardly have obeyed the injunction to study and meditate upon the writings of the deceased. When I again looked there was a man in front of me. an equerry approached. I would like to show you a complete magical cabinet. I beheld distinctly before the altar. lf you cannot give me this promise I shall give orders for you to be driven to your hotel. . L. scrupulously observing all the rules laid down chafing-dishes. approach ' . within the circle. as it were. She showed me a collection of magical robes and weapons. You are possibly without the materials to do so. whom I soon recognized as an initiate . With it was a small sheet of paper on which was written the message: 'Tomorrow at three o'clock. my ears tingled. . . which uncreased and seemed to . which dissolved and vanished away. After a while: L6vi's account is given in a straightforward enciugh way. the smoke still floating about the altar. . something touched my hand which was holding the sword. I invoked Apollonius. but I must exact beforehand an unbreakable promise ofsecrecy. I recomrnenced the evocations . . . varieties of incense). . I ordered it to return and presently felt. 'Sir. and then opened the carriage door. in it became out- lined a wan form. . who has seen you. Three times.'l made the required promise and I keep it faithfully by not disclosing the name. and immediately my fore-arm became numb. . I heaped more fuel and perfume upon the showed me the other half of the card . and as the flame again leapt up. knows that you have been asked for phenomena and have refused to gratify such curiosity.

he recorded neither the contents of his questions nor the answers he received to them. each time with success. the latter came to believe' The ghost did not speak to Ldvi. the pantacles. I do not explain fl the physical laws by which I saw and touched. the figure reappeared. I commend the The effect 6l 60 L . . and L6vi's was similar. in a short time. In spite of this bombastic staternent the magician was sceptical about the exact nature of the experience which he had thrice undergone. I affirm only that I did see and did touch. the mirrors. officially reconciled with the church of his birth. their result is intense exhaustion. that I sat down. For several days afterwards my arm rernained numb and painful. seemed to be answered in his own mind by an internal voice. whereupon t fell into a profound lethargy accompanied by dreams of which I had only a confused recollection when I recovered consciousness.she had asked for information about a certain man * was 'Death'. Twice more Apollonius was evoked. one on behalf of the woman adept. but the two questions which he had intended to ask it. the foundations and laws of society at large. As. we are unable to judge the truth of his claim that the departed philosopher nevealed to him secrets 'which might change. affirming that he was not so hallucinated as to claim that he hacl really evoked. and frequently a shock sufficient to occasion illness. which must act powerfully upon a person of a nervous or impressionable nature. one on his own behalf.greatest caution to those who propose devoting themselves to similar experiences. . and warning others of the danger of repeating the experiment. and on these occasions L6vi asked questions con- cerning the secrets of the qabalah. is an actual drunkenness of the imagination. and a fainting sensation came so quickly over me. and touched the great Apollonius. apart from dreaming. L6vi died in 1875. the lady's reply . and that this is enough to establish the real efficacy of magical ceremonies. the perfumes. if they came to be generally known'. For the rest" I regard the practice as destructive and dangerous . however. Both answers were gloomy. but I experienced such a weakness in all my limbs. or so' at any rate. He wrote: = of the preparations. six months later he was reincarnated as Aleister Crowley. seen. but very probably still retaining his own magical interpretation of the Christian creeds.

the occult clap of thunder. It was not long before he became acquainted with other iarned had gone rernains a mystery. still enjoys a certain reputation amongst occult- ists) and for his brief tenure of the position of unofficial charlatan-in-chief to the court of the Last Czar of Russia displaced by Rasputin" At . ln 1885 Catulle Mendds urged de Guaita. cocaine. met de the time he proclivities to himself and was generally regarded as a Lright young student who would very probably reach the top of his profession in course of time' There have always been many peculiar people in the world of occultism. De Guaita took his friend's advice * and his life was transformed.. Demons snd Dwels valueiess. A few. cultural underworld of Parisian occultism. It was perhaps he who.inhabitants of the . still adrnired the writings of L6vi. Guaita. already the author of three books of verse. When he met de Guaita he was starving. he burned with an unquenchable desire to become a master-magician. a young aristocrat who was also a poet. some had lost interest in occultisrn and others had died. the son-in-law of Gautier' was a novelist .d quite a successful novei where the money it - himself 'to project his astral body'. in 1888. and a writer on occultism under the psiudonyrn of Papus. living on a daily plate of boiled vegetables. they were Gerard Encausse and Joseph Aim6 P6ladan' Encausse was to become a practising physician. among them Catulle Mendds. working at night. Sleeping during the day.his novels usually dealt with incest and other sexual peculiarities . although Drwgs. although only a year or two previously he had pubtirtr. instead of frequenting the artistic salons of Paris he retired to his scarlet-draped study where. if at all. Two of these who particularly impressed him were. He had a wide literary acquaintance and one of his many friends was Stanislas de Guaita. still others. the happening which revealed to him his real destiny. Today he is chiefly remembered for J his Tarot cif the Bohemians (a book which. King Marduk).and the editor of more than one literary journal. to read Levi. had transferred their allegiance to the eastern occultism of = 5 Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophical Society. like Marie Cebhardt. The few disciples he had acquired during his life had dispersed. like himself. devoted to the memory of Eliphas L6vi. he devoted his time to the study and practice of magic and alchemy. six of whom are known and of whom 62 63 l* . using morphine. persuaded de Guaita to found a rnagical fraternity called the Kabbalis'tic Order of the Rose-Croix' Thi authoritarian structure of this Order was made clear in the course of an article in the January I 889 issue of the French occult magazine Initiation: The organization shows us at its head a Council of twelve members. but it is likely that few have ever been quite so odd as F6ladan' He seems to have inherited his eccentricity from his father (an enthusiastic advocate of homoeopathy who has been described by James Laver as being in a peimanent state of cerebral intoxication) and he maniged io combine extreme Catholicism with a profoundadmiration for the writings of L6vi and a belief in Ten years after his death. L6vi was almost forgotten in his own country. however.a position from which he was he kept his magical however. clad in a Cardinal's robe. He described his reading of L€vi's books as Ie coup defoudre occultiste . an expert hypnotist. He abandoned his desire for literary fame. Mendes.e. and hashish to enable magic and reincarnation' P6ladan affirmed that he was a reiricarnation of an ancient Assyrian king and abandoned his christian names in favour of the Assyrian appellatio:t of Sar MerorJach (i.

. I shut the door after hirn and locked it.l. and de Guaita himself. All this seems ordinary enough. subsidiary and theoretical. turned his back with a pained air . a novelist. The Kabbalistic Order of the Rose-Craixwas no exception. . "o/iliIL i1s. . and in 1890 the two magi parted company. Edouard Dupus. the other with rapiers. Vintras was writing in his office. that he himself was the reincarnation of the prophet Elijah. board-box factory.A. under the sole condition of keeping secret the Order or the teaching received. but an old man dressed in rags who addressed Vintras by his christian name and added: 'I arn utterly tired. under a collective leadership unless that ieaclership is made up on one strong character and several nonentities. one fought viitll pistois. Encausse (Fapus). The confusion seerns to have arisen from a printer's error of over eighty years ago when a careless compositor transformed The six unknown mernbers of the Council remain suitably unknown. was born in 1807. I did not hear him go down the stairs.ugust 1839. exclusively practical. but Vintras decided that his visitor was the Archangel Michael.six others remain unknown. and wherever I go they treat me with disdain or as a thief. . the Order of t he Rose^Cro ix of t he Temple snd the Grsil ar the Cathotic Rose-Croix. . so I called aworkman . . . and a certain arnount of unfavourable newspaper coverage. . on the table where I had been erotic Catholicism-cum-magic of Fdladan and the more orthodox occultism of de Guaita were incompatible. tirere are two others in it. . . ready to restore the Order any circumstances whatsoever happen to destroy it. unpleasantness. but his liberty is absolutely safeguarded. . son of a servant girl. . but the latter was nothing to the storm of publicity that was to burst three years later and was to involve accusations of Black Magic. a modernistically-inclined teacher at the Sorbonne. whom I had not seen go out. *ith a mernbership-list as brief as its title was long.is i-evt hao al one time been inclined. curiously enough several English sources describe his occupation in this factory as 'firefiran'. On the letter was lain the coin which I had given the old nean. . and that his task was to inaugurate the coming 'Age of the F{oly Ghost'. travelled ror. He . Paul Adam. . I heard the beli ringing for mass . the I arose and placed a coin in his hand and made him understand that I wished him to leave. p6ladan then founded his own group. AII these events were the result of a peculiar quarrel between de Cuaita and his fellow-occultists on the one hand and some of the later disciples of a half-rnad prophet narned Vintras on the other. while his place on the Council of Twelve was taken by a priest named Alta. an alleged astral murder and two duels. even Satan. in which initia_ tion is given. . although they do not explain why a small business should have had such a full-time employee. I hunted through all the nooks and corners but found nothing. not the expected workman. an addict to rnorphine who was to clie in the course of giving himself an injection in a pubiic urinal. Magical orders never have a peaceful life 'foreman' into'fireman'" One evening in . . would ultimately be redeemed) and 54 65 lr . Suddenly there came a knock on the door which then opened and admitted. He abandoned his ioh. . Barlet. the illegitimate writing. bickering. . . I found aletter. i* . Every member takes an oath of obeciience to the rnembers of the Council.iiuic Lr]r rurrJ le aciturgs trjJrtrJlti. After a charity education he drifted from one unsatisfactory job to another before finding a temporary security as a works manager of a tiny card- if Besides one degree. but the other six were p6ladan. Ch.' The rest of the story is best told in Vintras' own words. containingarefutationof heresy together with a profession of Catholic orthodoxy. in that he rnay leave the society when it pleases him.ind the country nreaching his doctrines (he believed in the pre-existence ofsouls and that all. wishing him to search with rne all the possible places which might conceal my old man. The schism was accornpaniecl by rnuch acrimony. and ran back to my rclom to obtain a missal and.

who appear to have been totalJy hysferical. but it is likely that there was at least a sub-straturn of truth in the accusations. and with anirnals.... :.. he was sentenced to seven years' irnprisonment on a charge of fraud..:. but documeilts survive which prove that they engaged. simiiarly....:r hetesv Bnlr!iao hrim in .. after an unfair frial." figures as Cleopatra and Alexancler the Great. wlren Vintras had died. smelt wonclrous perfumes.. youth and" after his ordination to the priesthood. After meeting Vintras he declared himself a convert to the teachings of the Chuich of Carmel and.li an inverted Cross (these being designed to indicate that 'the reign of the suffering Christ was clver anci the reign of the F{oly Ghcrst had begun').... In other words Doulilan urged sexual relations with both incubi ancl succubi.. the unclean demons of medieval theoingy.o. Whatever the truth may have been concerning the sexual teachings of Vintras hinrself it is unquestionable tfiat Boullan taught a forrn of sexual magic. a city which had retainecl a reputation for unorthodoxy since the N{iddle Ages. in the form of a dove. born to Acldle Chevalier. unorthodox mysticism frequently goes hand- in-hand with unorthodox sex and there is no doubt that some af the later disciples of Vintras were sexual deviants" Eventually Vintras returned to his native iand where he died in 1875. in his holy of holies. . a mass of his own devising.oman Church quickly condemned the prophet for heresy r:r that. in sexual relations with allE. Most of the rnembers of the Church refused to accept Boullan's claim to leadership. ceiebrated the provictimal Sqcrg(e of Mary. The evolutionary ladder. During these masses his followers.-. he prcclaimed himself as a reincarnation of Jchn the Baptist and the nerv Supreme Fontiff.*. lt was not sutprising that the R. indulgilg in group sexual activities and masturbating at fhe foot of the altar. beheld the consecrated host bleecling and even witnessed the F{oly Chost.-:-. had 66 become the confessor of a nun narned .and. . 'fhere is no hard evidence that Boulian and his followers induiged in bestiality. alrhough it is quire likely that they did so.. FIe foulnded the Church of Carmel and. it seems. Shortly before his death he nrade rhe acquaintance of an unfrocked priest named Boullan who had previously been irnprisoned in France for fraud and in ROme f'. ciaimed Boulian. preacher - - After iris release in 1848 he spent some years in London.-. a priest named Cozzoli. in tslack Magic. who pubiished in l85l a parrrphfet in which he accused the prophet r:f being homosexual. . conducting secret masses at which both priests and peopie were nakeci.- -. claci in vestrnenls decorated wit.. He was a powerful he could never remernber aftenvardi what he had said so one presumes he spoke while in a state of trance and his clisciples inctruded not only unlettered rnen like hirnself but priests and aristocrats.)A.soon built up a considerable foilowing. Cozzoli was an unpieasanf character and was inclined to charge other people with vices to which he himself was irrclined. In 1859 the two lounded the Society for the Iteparaticn of Souls which specialised in unusilal methods of exorcism * Boullan 'cLltred' 'dernon-possessed' nuns by feeding them a rnixture of consecrated communion wafers and human excrement .... 6V . coulcl be climbed rnore speedily by hurnanity ii it partook of sexuai intercourse with celestial beings. saw empty chaiices suddenly brim over with blood.vas through acts of Iove accomplished in a reiigious spirit that the Redernptir:n of Humanity couid be achieveci'.nl herrr l pi111y..Adetre Chevalier whom he eventually made his rnistress.:-. -. mankind couki do the good deed of speeding up the evolution of brute creation by ccpulating with animals.l". He also taught his female Cisciples a method of having sex with his own astral body. but a few did so and setiled with their chief in l-yons..19.::. perch on Vintras' shoulder. an exile that tvas made mone unpleasant than would otherwise have been the case by the activities of an ex-disciple. for there is some evidence to show that on 8 January 1850 Boullan conductecl a Black Mass at which he ritually sacrificed his own bastarC chiid. or rather thought that they engaged.. He helrj tliat the Fall of Man had been caused by an act of love on the part ofAdam and Eve and that 'it i. in lB4Z..:.

It is surprising that Boullan was not offended by this offer. he looked to his occuit defences and put his establishment on a war footing. the Satanist. This occult struggle. with spelis and curses being exchanged between Lyons and Paris and great spiritual struggles taking place on the astral plane . and the founder of an infamous sect'. assuring Huysmans that he was 'an Adept who harj cieclared war {:}n all demoniacal cunits' anei offering to loan 'documents which vvill enable you'to 69 . accordingly they made a declaration of magical warfare upon Boullan. who gave further details of Boullan's iniquities.Stanislas de Guaita suspected the existence of these unorthodox activities and. 1896 edition. Nevertheless he replied in a friendly manner. claimed that these spells and astral struggles existed only in tl. F{uysmans already knew of Eoulian's reputation and. an evil sorcerer.K. Soon the battle of the magicians was in full swing. was to last for almost five years and to end only with Boulian's death. for he affected a mask of piety hardly compatible with being publicised as a super-Satanist. 'apontiff of infarny. far removed frorn the spiritism of the occultists'. wand.a base idol of the mystical Sodom. a magician of the worst type. The two decided that Boullan was.ioined by a young man named Oswald Wirth. about which he was planning to write a novel. was drawn into the battle by his desire to learn something about Satanisrn. a wretched criminal. sword and dagger drawn by l-6vi and which appeared in his Transcendental ll{ttgic. 'The pontiff of Carmei'was not the sort of man to capitulate to threats of this sort. real or imaginary. at one time a disciple of Zola but atrready undergoing the inner psychological changes that were ultimately to Eeconcile him with the Catholic Church. so. Two years after its commencement the novelist J. sending him a letter in which they affirmed that he was a condemned man. wrote to hirn asking hirn for reliabie inforrnation on the subject of devil-worship and offering to depict him in his forthcoming novel as 'the Superman. Boullan was completely deceived. late in l886 he spent a fortnight in Lyons posing as a would-be convert to the Church of Carmel. he welcomed the supposed convert with enthusiasm and initiated him into some of the inner mysteries of the Church.larnp. Huys- mans.or so Boullan believed.e Pontiff's imagination arld that their letter of corrdemnation referred only to their forthcoming iiterary exposure of Carmel and its chief. in touch with Satanists. de Guaita and Wirth on the other hand. a former member of Carmel. the only one in existence. as they were later to write in theirbook TheTempleof Satan. thinking it likely that the latter was either a Satanist or could put him 68 A number cf magical inplements . deciding that the two Farisian magicians would attempt to put a spell upon him. A month after de Guaita's return to Paris he was.

stating that he was not responsible for the statements of Jules Bois and that he himself had not intended to 'impugn the honour of de Cuaita'.' That same evening Huysmans and his cat were subjected to a particularly severe infliction of 'fluidic fisticuffs'. burn a pastille of tsoullan's 'paste of exorcism'.d died on 3 January 1893. during the summer of l89l he spent several weeks in Lyons where elaborate ceremonies were performed for his Church of Carmel. however. tsoullan jumps abonrt like a tiger-cat holding one of his hosts" He invokes the aid of St. the deception was completely successful and in Ld-Bas tsoullan was portrayed as the saintly Dr. . Huysmans found the prospect of physical conflict less pleasant than that of astral battle and apologised through his own seconds. At first it seemed that de Cuaita's quarrei with Jules Bois would also be settled peacefully. Poor Boullan was perpetually engaged in confiict with the evil spirits they continually sent him from Paris. as we were leaving for Meudon. . The following day a journalist interviewed Huysmans and reported him as saying: 'It is indisputable that de Cuaita and P€ladan practise Black Magic every day. but Boullan hirnself. He reported to a friend: 'The battles have begun again since I last wrote to you. enerny of all Satanisrn and a much sought-after theologian. Huysmans took these events with the utmost seriousness.ncausse (Papus) in his accusations of astral homicide. that between . Johannes. the day before he was due to go to Paris to 7A to follow: infuriated at interesting account of these: . strike down F6ladarr. where the duel was to take piace: "You will see something very singular happen. Worse was being publicly branded as a diabolist and rnurderer de Cuaita challenged both Jules Bois and Fluysmans to duels and sent his seconds to cail upon thern. . . ." ' It was not P€ladan who was struck down. Huysmans took appropriate avoiding action. who for a time seems to have been as deluded as Boullan himself. standing at his altar he cries out "Strike down Pdiadan. a mixture of camphor. .lecture upon the qabalah. a former mernber of the prove that Satanism is active in our time. 7l .an opinion shared by Jules Bois. . . this time also invclving Dr E. Subsequently Huysmans received a great mass of rnaterial from Lyons together with a number of Vintras's miraculous 'bleeding hosts'. Fle suddeniy collapsed ar. The first of these.. Two duels resulted. It is quite possible that my poor friend Boullan has succumbed to a supremely powerful spell. On both sides our allies are praying f'or us and practising conjuratioils. . Anxious to protect his new friend he twice in the surnmer of 1890 perforrrred magical operations designed to foil the supposed evil machinations of the Kabbalistic Order aJ'the Rose-Croix. in spite of the fact that Boullan suffered from heart trouble and a morbid liver condition Huysmans was shocked by his friend's sudden death. brandishing one of Vintras's miraculous hosts in his right hand. F{uysmans. which he felt was probably the result of Black Magic . Bois said to me. gave an protection. He would isolate himseif.lules Bois and de Guaita. One of Jules Bois' seconds. I l" n. These seem to have been insufficient. Michael and the eternal justiciaries . he wouid 'clasp the blessed scapular of Carmel ciose to his body and recite conjurations which dissolved the astral fluids and paralysed the power of the sorcerers'. frankincense and myrrh. and then. This material was carefully selected to give the novelist an altogether favourable impression of Foullan and his acti'rities. suffered bouts of what he called 'fluidic fisticuffs' * both he and his cat were struck blows by an invisible antagonist.'n Something strangedidindeed happen on the road to Versailles. The latter promptly published an article in Gil-Blas in which he specifically accused de Guaita and P6ladan of 'astral murder'. was accompanied by a nurnber of curious incidents. Paul Foucher. and in what form and in what circumstances'. cloves. . . but the latter repeated his allegations. Boullan believed that as a result of his friendship with Huysrnans the latter had been drawn into the struggle against de Guaita and his rninions. .

the gypsy eye of my adversary. He was a bull among these irnprovised evangelists. As for the pistol used by Monsieur de Cuaita. and. Stanislas de Cuaita died in 1897 from an overdose of drugs. horses were involved. his heavy build. as Paul Foucher saicl. a man who claimed to have successfully manufactured gold ralthough in small quantity only'. then it staggered as though it had seen the Devil in person. in a short in the occult journal L'Initiation (lr{ovember 1896. who had been expelled from the Order by Papus. The occultists could therefore pride themselves on having terrified the horse of one of the opponents and having prevented the bullet from leaving the pistol of Monsieur de Cuaita. as rectifid by L6vi and others. Nevertheless. Perhaps the most interesting of these was the small aichemical group centred at Douai and under the leadership of M. Vol. . he engaged a second carriage. FIe publicised his beliefs. The second duel'. Such. again the horse coliapsed. in his flow l. following which he seerns to have administered the Order in a way which repelled and antagonised a nurnber of French occultists. his beard and jovial lips. the wounds they 72 i I inftricted were slight and have long been healed'. thanks be to Cod. sourly commented shortly before the l9l4* l8 war: 'For several years the foundation of the larnented Marquis de Guaita has risked seeing its original character changed. the famous gunsmith said to me: 'What happened the other day? The bullet of one of the duellists didn't leave the barrel. He was succeeded as chief of the Kabbalistic Order of the Rose-Craix by Ch. and phenomena. firstly. T'he trembling lasted for twenty minutes. . who were its glory. In 1899 Papus made an unsuccessful attempt at reunification with the P€ladan group. .a Become an Alchemist * A article published 73 . it is quite unbelievable that neither he nor his seconds.the attempt to turn base rnetais into gold and to discover the Elixir of Life * and his willingness to confer and receive high-sounding but meaningless r:ccult dignities. 'Papus taking off his 'l remem- coat. one of whom was an officer and the other was Laurent Tailhade. should not have noticed that the pistol did not fire. at least was believed. cut and bleeding) and was suitably impressed by the appearance of his opponent. . Mv employee noted it when he was cleaning the pistols. for. most of the scholars. and some students. fought three days later between Encausse and Jules Bois with rapiers. when I was engaging in practice shots at Castine-li. . he kept his appointmenr (although he arrived bruised. were a symbolic revelation of the theory and practice of alchemy. S6dir. ber. doubtless sincere but perhaps too eager for titles. He held that the 22 major trumps of the Marseilles tarot. he had been on the wrong side. 2) and then. T'his gentleman was also the founder (1914) of the Alchemical Society of France. or perhaps to the Devil.33 No. Jolivet-Castelot.One of the horses in our carriage stopped suddenly and began to tremble. the impatient wrinkle in his forehead. once again. Barlet who soon resigned from the position in favour of Papus.' Both duellists were wounded in the course of the encounter. was also notable for its magical aspects. morally speaking. Shortly afterwards the two were reconciled and Jules Bois seems to have realised that. but neither seriously. at much greater length. I remernber the swords. two bullets were exchanged without result.' The annclyance of S6dir appears to have resulted from Papus' enthusiasm for physical alchemy . parchments. trt was impossible to proceed.' he wrote. but several days later.enette's. . have sought to take their places. this time throwing Bois violently to the ground. The duel nevertheless took place and. The horse drawing Bois' carriage to the duelling field collapsed. 'al{hough the swords were magical. have gradually disappeared.' I was sure that the pistol of Jules Bois had not missed fir-e. After the dearh of Papus in l917 the Order split up into several schismatic and competing sects.

claiming that it was a'spoken qabalah' and that its name had some etymological connection with Art Gothique (Gothic art) and Art Goetique (black magic).Treatise on the Spagyric Art and f{ermeticism Founded an the Keys of the Tarot. Jolivet-Castelot will. Writing in the periodical Le Vaile d Isrs in 1926.for the inner sancturn. and an androgynous clemon with the head anci feet of a goat . even after its use was made illegal in 1914. capable of verifying them. Champagne was concerned in two esoferic brotherhoods. . a painter and draughtsman of talent . ln spite of occult legends concerning the power and influence of the Heliopolitans they seem to have been few in number and their activities obscure and ineffectr"lal" The other secret society in which Champagne involved himself was dedicated to the worship of l-ucifer. Jolivet-Castelot's theories and experirnents were regarded a number of his fellow seekers for the Stone of the Philosophers. Champagne was one of the founders of this Luciferian sect. the fallen Star of the Morning. not a single Professor . To this Templar figure. mingling aichemy with strange sexual cults and even devil-worship. Take. . Champagne is said to have died a horrible. while the magic. . . It would have been correct in the days when only alchemists undertook this kind of work. * - mystery of Fire'. He seems a rare quality to have possessed a ripe sense of humour pupils sleep his made and amongst dedicated occultists with great bags of charcoal and coke in their beds in order that they might ocome to a true understanding of the i without r rl I. an occultist without a rnagical order is like a politician a party. (circa 1885-1932) spoke largely in orgot. . Jolivet-Castelot in both their lives and their opinions. I am sure.a splendid drawing by him provided the frontispiece for Le Myst)re de Cathedrales. was founded by him. for having betrayed the Society' After a long drawn struggle. lingering death . it was clairned. Besides. He drank large amounts of absinthe. Auriger stated in his article Alchemy ond Science: with disapproval by M. where ritual rneetings were held. for example. he was buried in the cemetery of Villiers-le-Bel. it means that the transmutations he clairns have been achieved by chernical means and in no other way. The adepts who were so contemptuous of 'mere chernistry'were often men far odder than M. 'laboratory equipment'consisted r of no more than an ordin&ry household stove and few flasks and retorts. . but nowadays the materials and methods derive from the domain of chemistry pure and simple. According to Fierre Ceyraud.. He wrote: Champagne helped to organise a tr-uciferian Society in the Saint-Merry district. supposedly written by the adept Fulcanelli 74 - 75 . both published in 1939. ' I r I . Jean-Julien Champagne. he added a rnitred arse under the right hand. Alchemy has been a continuing preoccupation with French occultists for over two hundred years but M. A Latin irrscripticln . If they were alchemical in the true sense of the word there would be . . with a strictly who also practised limited Baphomet the himself designed rnembership. . however learned. . . a real alchemist but merely an unorthodox chemist. studied alchemy and worshipped Lucifer. his body tortured by fearful abscesses that seemed like some form of leprosy. . alloq me to make one remark about the use of the word 'alchemical' as applied to his experiments. tells us that here iies an apostie of her' rnetic scienc e : Apost olus Hermeticae Scient iae. Champagne which he believed to have some eseteric significance. . r I . one of which. and took alchemical pupils although his left hand brandished an emblem impossible to describe. identified by the author of the Apocatypse with Satan. whose right arm hangs down while the left is raised in the traditional alchemical gesture of solve et coagula [dissolve and solidify].M. the Fraternity of Heliopolis. He was not. ln 1932. . since M' Jolivet-Castelot asks fbr verification only by chemists.. As John Symonds has remarked in anothet connection. author of two fascinating studies of Parisian occultism.

but. i Fulcanelli ever exist outsicle the imagination of those and that with a smail amount of metal whole cities could I who claimed to be. amusements of a few nobles and rich libertines. .{. the scientist-turned-writer who cohave been blurred when he toid of them more than eight years later . advancedphysicsandof thefuturedeveloprnentof that 1 ' Butif thesestatementsweremadeinl93T . for it is not only in his capacity for reversing tirne that Fll. . notably M. far from ageing. in fact. from the has discovered not only the secret of making gold but I . . were authored the best selling Morning of the Magicisns . not understand the structure of the atorn and therefore can It is true. .in I the pioneer expert on radium stated that he believed that transmuting a hundred grams of base metal into purest I in the far past there had existed forgotten civilisations gold.i .. Canseliet I energy" Fulcanelli concluded with a warning. . transmuting metals. while modern physics were born . .thatartificiallycreatedradioactivity with the'Powder of Projection'in 1922? Did. at an alchemical experirnent which took place in the unlikely surroundings of the 76 l.. that two books supposediy written never have succeeded in liberating nuclear energy nor by Fulcanelli were published some fifty years or so ago.Powder of Projection' used to achieve this I which had destroyed themseives by the misuse of atomic remarkable result was not manufactured by Ir. if really dating from i937. Science something very like the medicine of everlasting life. The '. this sounds like an anticipation of atomic piles..'Fulcanelli'. metrical arrangements of extremely pure substances'.. butlhavenohope that my warnings will bear fruit .' Thert Fulcanelli went on to read aloud an extract from | gasworks at Sarcelles.' he said. report that. I religious and moral issues into consicleration in their Who exactly was Fulcanelli? Seemingly an Adept who I I researches. 'that alchemists have always taken Master.. When Bergier seemed sceptical Fulcanelli I I non-occultists who have considered the question have became angry. Canseliet easytosplittheatom. of course. On at least . Butwhowastheirrealauthor? Somehavesuggested In 1922 Champagne was present. or to have been. . along with a chemist named Gaston Sauvage. ments of extrernely pure substances suffice to liberate I atomic forces .has reported that in June 7937 Fulcanelli told him that it was I they rnade by the same man who supplied M. or at least velt stating that they believed it might be possible to rnake stops short. It is to be hoped that frorn time to number of erninent physicists \4'rote to President Roosetime this rejuvenation process reverses itself.if his own account is to be believed . 'that alchemists do answered I{o. those 'geocanelli has shorvn himself to be a superman.. For ancther man who claims to have met him * e'r'er honest M. could poison the global atmosphere within a few years. are indeed remarkable.when j hope"' Canseliet first met Fulcanelli the latter appeared to be j Such statements. for they were made sorne years before a about eighty years old. h n .' he said. metricalarrangernents'of uranium rodsandinertdampers one occasion he has revealed a knowledge of both I ttrat are to be found in every nuclear power plant. . tsergier rnay have been his memory may Jacques Bergier.. Even more astonishing was Fulcanelli's be forced to wheel their beloved Master about in a r€mark concerning the achievement of fission by the 'geoperambulator. but thirty years later he seemed to I be no rnore than fifty. 'I ask you to hirnself but was supplied to him as a gift by his herrnetic I remember.forhowscience. I have no reason to Canseliet and his associates.were they rnade by Fulcanelli? That is. I bywarningafewresearchstudents. In this experiment Eugene Canseliet I a book by Nobel Prizewinner Frederick Soddy in which succeeded .Ibelievethatlamdoingmyduty For those who have met him over the years. geometrical arrange. . I ' withoutconscience. 'You think.. otherwise Fulcanelli's pupiis will eventually an atomic bomb. I he seems to be getting younger and younger . his pupils? Most be destroyed.

Accord. the substance on which he worked. Champagne is known to have held years before the publication of Fulcanelli's writings).i. even vaguely resembling it could be discovered'. As well as alchernists and magicians whose ideology is. Twenty-two is also the number of the letters in . It is significant that during the years when lvl. A contemporary French'alchemist. for M. an alchemical classic. he used 'earth' . e. shows a numi:er of cloths stretched out on poles. On the other hand it would seern that there are notable stylistic differences between the writings of M.:l 22 years. who contributed a preface to ' I Barbault's Cold of a Tltousand Mornings.M. A rnore likely candidate would appear to be Jean-Julien Chan'lpagne. Finally. decided the alchemist.' Ali was not lost.nan and a wcrrnan. r tions. this meant. that 'Philosophical Mercury' was ready to 'emerge from its rnatrix'. and both sun 'li and moon visible in the heavens. for it was covered with small crystals and within its mass were numbers of starry specks. that about argot (which M. the pharmacists who vainly attempted to discover the exact composition of the tincture began to speak of a 'new category of matter endowed with mysterious. Barbault became a student of alchemy before World War II and soon ailerwards began practical experimentation designed to produce a miraculous medicine somewhat like the 'potable gold' of Faracelsus and other l6th century iatro-alchemists. in the last analysis. the amazing elixir was per. He decided to use dew becausethe fourth plate of the A&wlus Liber. . for the maturation of his earth took him no less than f. Canseliet himself - certainly it was he who delivered Fulcanelli's manuscripts to the publisher. Barbault was not satisfied with this achievement.' fected and sent to a pharrnaceutical laboratory for analysis . of whose existence ttrere is no doubt at all.facts which L6vi's present-day i1 fotto*ers see as being of great numerological importance. were incorporated into those same writings. astrologer and admirer of L6vi is M. ing to Raymond Abellio. Certainly such still survived in Paris shortly 79 . the absinthe-swiliing worshipper of Lucifer ancl founder of the Fraternity of Heliopolis. tl-t" Hebrew alphabet and the rnajor trumps of the ll l Marseilles tarot deck . Canseliet was acting as a literary a. This and other factors led I M. and another cloth being wrung out irrto a dish by a . It is to be presumed that thes€ were comparatively rare. . M. over the years collected the royalties on their sales. wrote fulsorne introductions to them and.g. perhaps to catch dew. Armand tsarbault. He complained that 'the sap is not sufficiently plentiful or rich because two eclipses in Aries and the conjunction of Saturn with the new moon coincided with a frost that damaged plants. iri properties'.Ll and evaluation. M. Barbault ro attach great importance to carrying out his 1' operations in accordance with correct astrological condi. but went on towards the preparation of the Philosopher's Stone by striving to bring his preparation to 'the second degree of perfection' in spite of meteorological and astrological annoyances.firay not mean ordinary garden loam . perhaps signify78 . sarne house as Even more remarkable is tfre fact that several close of Jean-Juiien Champagne have reported that he told them in confidence that he was the 'real acquaintances Fulcanelii'. Somehow one is not surprised to learn that ' it not only proved impossible to analyse but that 'nothing r ' . early in the 1950s. The sarne plate shows the stretched out cloths being regarded by a buil and a ram.i li ing the zodiacal signs of Taurus and Aries. .which may or. and that curious theories. Champagne. Canseliet and those of his supposed teacher. of which brotherhood.'Fulcanelli' was a rnember. . however. As his 'first matter'. possibly vital. Barbault added that a 'Stone' he had prepared promised well.and for its rnaturation he appiied to it a 'secret fire' compcunded of dew and. sap. derived from the writings of Eliphas L6vi and his school it is likely that there are still some present-day disciples of the occult 'Catholicism' of Vintras. states the introduction to Le Mystdre des Catkddrales.gent for the great alchemist he was living in the M.

On the irnprovised aitar were piaced two 'chalices' champagne glasses . she the white. was an antetype of Christ. on the advice of one of them.rcha. After an invocation of the . white wine was poured into one glass.ngel Michael. 'Here is the communion of bread and fire. well-being. was suspicious that a group of clevil-worship- protect Ceyraud from satanic manifestations. that strange Old Testament king who bore bread and wine to Atrraham.asr.lavel district.though there have been believers in the essentially similar Mariavite heresy in both the USA and the UK . and a lighted candle. reported his own attendance at one of their rites.A. Presurnably the Vintrasians were using it at their Mass as a rerninder that Melchizedek. had a Vintrasian priest and priestess say the 'Mass of the Sacrifice of Clory of MelchizeCek' for his spiritual and physical been Engiish-speaking alchemists and magicians who have followed the teachings of Eliphas LEvi and his school. After the consecration of the elements the priest muttered incornprehensible prayers. seemed to annoy the priest . He sought help from white magicians of his acquaintance and. Geyraud.' Ceyraud refused the offer which. whose personal attitude towards magic was ambivalent. It is unlikely that there have ever been any British or American Vintrasians . The rite was celebrated in the bedroorn of an unassuming apartment in the . rile tairet was. singed two wafers in the candle flame.before World War trI. Priest and priestess cornrnunicated in both kinds. and the Mass concluded with an invocation of the Holy Spirit.but for the last 120 years or so there have pers who had been annoyed by his investigations were casting evil spelis on hirn. The priestess wore white robes and a green cape and the priest * her tlusband * scarlet vestments with an inverted white cross. this is the colour of fire and blood and is used irr the church to symbolise both the fire of the spirit which descended at Pentecost and the blood shed on Calvary and by the martyrs. the arms of which lay across his genitals to 'symbolise the crucifixion of the phailus'. and offered one of them to Geyraud witir the statement. conducting a complex ceremony in order to I BO I I 8l .rt.a plate of communion wafers. he drinking the red wine. he said. whose description of Jean-Julien Charnpagne has already been quoted. The oaltar' was a chest of drawers with its fnontal scarlet cloth. for Pierre Ceyraud. presurnably identified with Vintras himself. ouI oi pure gOOdness of hea.perhaps not surprising if. red into another. presumably formulae of exorcism. Liturgically. as wuuid seeilt t$ be tile.

could purchase their pleasures from the painted whores who thronged the Haymarket and Leicester Square. of these inteliectual rebels discovered magic. to go to a Parisian rather than a London theatre. under his tuition . Almost nothing is known of Barrett himself but there is sorne reason to believe that he founded a school of magic and many years ago the late Montague Summers. of what status .lr named Straggling Astrologermade something of a feature fr of articles devoted to ritual magic. A few. The men had a wider choice available to them. This revival Itf had its literary side.for he was proioundly learned in these things . in some indefinable way. To read a French poet rather than an English one. For them the totality 6 Ldvi's English Disciples heyday of High Victorianism . Such as these felt that the prevailing Anglo-Saxon literary and artistic orthodoxies were as stifling to the soul as the dominant moral 82 of French culture . More significant . even to choose to drink vin ordinaire rather than bitter beer . The rank cigars could be smoked.for it still has its adrnirers today r # .not only its writing and its painting but its temporary fads and fashions . More than one of the professional astrologers who flourished in the period 1780*1850 had dabbled in talismanic magic. the sons of merchants and manufacturers could enjoy a classless bonhomie.each was felt.whether an undergraduate or 83 . the over- priced sparkling Moselle could be swilled. sweet madeira and seedcake. ff # il $ prehended form. . The women amongst these rebels tended to react against the tedium of the unvarying daily round by either taking refuge in emotional religiosity . This curious compilation presented the techniques fl taught by the gririroireJ and suCh renaissance writeri as # Cornelius Agrippa in an ossified. those willing to run the risk of the pox and the remedies against it'. periodicals such as the strangely . and the choruses of such songs as 'He'll no mqre grind a girl'could # manufacturing and consecrating charms designed to money and love.usually evangelical or Tractarian - or by sinking unhappily into that sort of semi-voluntary invalidism typified by Elizabeth Earrett. reported that he had been told that . raised the oriflamme of Hermes against the manifestoes of the Manchester School. and . however. to be a shout of defiance against the inanities of the Engiish bourgeoisie. a very few. ward off unfavourable planetary fli attract influences. . be bellowed again and again. Afterwards. Some who rebelled against the complacencies of the Victorian environment wefe more concerned with spirit and mind than they were with the flesh. . Here. and baffle the hostility of enemies. an irregularly but possibly vaiidly ordained priest. Alternatives to Exeter Hall and Puseyite vicarages were provided by the proprietors of such resorts as the Coal Hole and the Cider Cellars.some advanced far upon the path of transcendental wisdom. forgetful of cucumber sandwiches and Gunpowder tea.the 'fifties and 'sixties of the last century . One at least was a Cambridge rnan. codified. .standards were repressive to the body. Even before this.was the publication of Francis Barrett's The Magus in llr 1801.were all important.a minority of the unmarried In the young men and women of the English middle clasess found the moral stuffiness and stiff conventionality of their social milieu well-nigh insupportable. but easily comh il. there had been a minor English revival of magical study and experiment. Francis Barrett actually founded a small sodaiity of students of these dark and deep mysteries. and became the first Englishspeaking disiples of Eliphas Ldvi.

a remarkable supernatural manifestation which had convinced him of human survival after bodily death and first aroused his interest in occult phenomena. which he defined as 'a psychological branch of science. approached veneration. The experience in question had its origin in a conversation between Mackenzie and his friend Theodore Buckley.it perhaps persists even today .' reflective faculties'. in the previous year. particularly crystal'gazing. both manuscript and printed. ' herbs. in spirit form. a pupil of a man who had been initiated by Barrett.. telling him of unlikely dreams he claimed to have had and informing him that the Zohar (a mediaeval qabalistic book of about the same length as ttre Old Testament) was of such a size that it took several loaded ox-waggons to move about even one copy of the work. Hockley was friendly with a number of young would-be magicians. Mackenzie stated that as soon as he had recognised the apparition as being that of his old friend it retreated towards the window but after 'remaining there most distinctly visible both in form and feature for more than two minutes. Three days later. an Oxford clergyman. He began to attend sdances and to study the physical phenomena of spiritualism. a bibliophile with a collection of grimoires and similar works. drugs. The sight of this apparition. was a tea merchant named Frederick Hockley. which he claimed to have again seen on two subsequent occasions. As a youth Mackenzie had been a sceptic.ooO his host's tobacco jar for an ancient and valuable statuetteof theEgyptiangoddesslsis . Mackenzie was lying in bed. Apart from this one of us.the Barrett tradition was maintained at Cambridge. Nevertheless. but very privately.forheindulgedin a good deal of leg-pulling. Buckley died at the age of thirty.probably the first of the English-speaking intellectual rebels referred to earlier. Suddenly he felt as though a cold. according to an occult legend. In 1856. on the Festival of King Charles the Martyr. Home. changed the course of Mackenzie's life.m. many years ago' was given a brief sight of diaries and papers purporling to be those of a pupil of Barrett. Mackenzie regarded L6vi with an admiration that i: i . By 1861. dealing with the sympathetic effects of stones. : standing at his bedside with a portfolio under his arm exactly as he had so often seen him in life'. It is probable that L€vi was amused by the solemnity of his visitor . At the close of the discussion the two men entered into a pact that whichever of them died first would endeavour to appear. but there is reason to believe that he initiated others. Mackenzie remained fascinated by magic. He had experienced.I do not know. and living substances upon the imaginative and . and his teaching has been handed on to promising subjects. who turned to the writings of Eliphas L6vi in their quest for enlightenment.the Fellow of a College .30 a.who actually -it. quite unaware of the death of his friend. and until quite recent years . already very much in the news since the commencement. I claiming that he had been initiated into the legendary Rosicrucian Fraternity and studying the 'Enochian magical system' of the l6th century occultists John Dee 85 . clammy hand had very gently been placed upon his fore84 ' head. Amongst the Victorians who exirerimented with practical occultism." French magician's limpid style and distorted but ingenious versions of occult tradition. it slowly faded away'. a rationalist admirer of the writings of Jeremy Bentham and his fellowutilitarians. At about the same tirne he read Ldvi's Dogme de la I Haute Mogre and fell completely under the influence of the . He turned round to see what had caused this peculiar sensation and saw 'the spirit of Buckley in his usual dress. when the EnglishI *un visited Paris and had two long interviews with his hero. ol'the spectacular mediumistic career of D. at about 12. to the other 'to indicate the certainty and reality of life beyond the grave'.D. and became an'advanced occultist. however. who was. and numbered amongst them was Kenneth Mackenzie .

and every form of sudden death. both men had enjoyed an intellectual flirtation with the pseudo-oriental occultism of that organisation. and that he was fully entitled to revive the title of Comte de Clenstrae which had. had studied both law and medicine. murder.S. W. the posthumous one. ceased entirely at her death and her son inherited nothing. been conferred upon his greatgrandfather by a Bourbon king in recognition of his services to the French cause in trndia. he claimed that the name Mather was an anglicised form of the Gaelic Mo Athoir. although sometimes he wore full Highland dress * in which.and Edward Keliey. MacGregor Mathers. to perform the irksome task of decipherment. trt is perhaps not surprising that two such incornpatible characters ultimately fell out with one another. Almost certainly the title was imaginary. suicide. and had eventually been appointed Queen's Coroner for North-east London. to explain why a French monarch shoud have conferred a title pertaining to an obscure Scottish vailey. He was interested in almost every variety of occultism. Westcott was also a dedicated freemason and it is probable that he first met S. he 'felt like a flame walking' . It was the discovery and decipherment of these papers that led to the foundation of the Colden Dawn.L. He spent a good deal of time in Europe . if so. so he said. He failed. when he died he left his widow in what were coyly referred to as 'reduced circumstances' and she and her son retired to Bourne{. who recognized the code as one traditionally used by alchemists. the latter cared little about his personal appearance. Westcott and Mathers shared an interest in occultism but had very litttre else in comrnon.both his German and French were exceilent . asking him if they could be decoded and. Even before his motherns death the younger Mathers had begun to style hirnself 'G. MacGregor Mathers.and it is at least possible that working-notes made by him of rituals he had witnessed in some continental magical temple supplemented by extracts from the writings of Levi and bits of Enochian magic were the basis of the occult cipher manuscripts that were discovered by a Notting Hill clergyman among the papers of Mackenzie's old friend Hockley who had died in 1885. so he said. Comte de Clenstrae'. The former habitually wore a frock-coat and wanted above all else to be considered respectable. a certain S. MacCregor Mathers had been born in 1854 as plain George Samuel Liddel Mathers. MacGregor Mathers at either some masonic function or at a meeting of Madame Blavatsky's Theosophical Society. Westcott had been born in 1848. whether it was his opinion that the job was worth doing. Wynn authority on alcoholism. replied that he thought the manuscripts might be of great magical importance and that he would get a friend who had for some time been enjoying his hospitality. affected Jacobite principles and had a burning desire to be a Master of Magic. for it t fl $. t' Yt !il # f. a name adopted by some of the MacGregors after the proscription of their clan.L. Nevertheless. As the area in which his inquests were conducted included Hoxton. Westcott. mouth where they lived quietly upon her small income * presumably an annuity or pension of some sort. but in the summer of lB87 he passed them to his friend Dr. a fantasy born of 87 . was a friend of the Russian occultist Madame Blavatsky. $ fl i. and an enthusiastic reader of alchemical tracts. qabalistic treatises. and the writings of Eliphas L6vi. population. becoming an expert in medical jurispruclence. however. an advocate of the rnystical Christianity of Anna Kingsford (a woman whose visions seem to have owed more to ether and chloro- form addiction than to genuine religious experience). For a year or so after he had found the manuscripts the Notting Hill clergyman did nothing about them. although he tried to keep his medical colleagues unaware of these unorthodox ieanings. The latter rnust have enjoyed a reasonably good income for he educated his son at the reputable. if at the time slightly obscure. he soon became a recognised 86 Bedford Grammar School. Westcott.rode a bicycle. the son of Willam Mathers. then a povertystricken slum with many gin-palaces and a sizeable criminal .L. a London commercial clerk.

that jumbled storehouse of Jewish mysticism and magic. Certainly he so much identified himself with Lytton's creation that L nicknamed'Zan' by his inti- the keys of life. a semi-divine magician holding 0€L L€vi's drawing of the Sabbatic Goat. in occultism in general.. . and magic in particular. Mathers told Brodie-Innes.-:.I l. that he almost fell in love with the character of the magicianhero Zanoni. from an admittedly hostile ''1il r'i. not from the Aramaic Chaldee in which someone. . had been first aroused by his reading of Zanoni. and was also an initiate of various chivalric and high-grade masonic fraternities. He was a member of the Volunteers the and was an ancestor of today's Territorial Army enthusiastic amateur swordsman. Hampshire.4 vt he was mates and after his marriage his wife called hinn by that name until the day of his death. .l. he only visited Scotland on one occasion' suffering 'i. which he regarded sion of the tarot trump known as The Devil. He had been - - in the Hengist Lodge at Christchurch. from a heavy cold throughout his visit. probably a Spanish Jerv named Moses de T eon. although it may be that he had more energy than skill. and magic with the same enthusiasm that he had previously devoted to musketry and marching drill. a friend of his later years. At no time in his life did Mathers ever find paid employment. and initiation.'. Hoping to discover the forgotten secrets that would enable him to transform himself into another Zanoni. had originally written them.LIPH.| t' jl. # l'' source. BB as a recri fied alchemy. death. tl "i ::. Mathers threw himself into the study of the dusty literature of qabalisrn.{1. but he was always extremely busy and while living in Bournemouth his main preoccupations were masonic and military. His interest in these. a three-volume made a mason occult novel written by that same Bulwer Lytton whose female friend had supplied L6vi with the magical apparatus used by him in his evocation of the shade of Apollonius. finding the climate unpleasant and the food uneatable. i_\'li. for he acquired the livid scar of a sabre cut upon his right cheek and bore this token of his martial proclivities for the rest of his life. He began to translate into English some of the books of the Zohsr. but from the lTth century Latin B9 . According to one report.' Mathers' Jacobite sympathies and Celtic revivalism.:.

later to be published undbr the title of The Kabbalah (Jnveiled. Aristotle's prime mover. wrote to her at an address in Nuremberg. and that these latter have believed in a progression through successive spheres very similar to that previously described. by means of ceremonial initiations.version of the Cerman scholar. to Mathers. for he lent her a copy of his unpublished manuscript and she quoted from it in her Secret Doctrine. the third grade corresponded to the sphere of the Moon and the fourth and fifth grades to the spheres of Mercury and Venus. thus beginning a protracted correspondence. who saw neither faith. It was generally supposed that this rising through the spheres was a postmortem experience. as the outermost. Magic is essentially a hierarchic philosophy and the idea of an evolutionary ladder 91 lgrades' or 'degrees'is an integral part of it. then.who believed that the human soul must travel up through the spheres. for the alphabetic code in which they were written was simple enough. tl-lere is no doubt that underlying it is a substratum of magic and superstition. an atternpt to resolve into a higher unity the contradiction between the conceptions of immanent and transcendent Deity. the five occult grades described in the cipher manuscript. At first the mernbership of the Order was very srnall but ii soon began to grr:w. in order to obtain redemption. the book that became the Bible of devout Theosophists. They included both a descrip- tion of five hitherto unknown and magically orientated initiation rituals and a good de4l of rather abstruse occult teaching * for example a new and.in March 1888. revolutionary method of attributing the twenty-two trumps of the tarot cards to the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. a task he must have found tedious rather than difficult. some pagan. It was these magical aspects of qabalism that had most appealed to Mathers and other western occultists who had studied the system. For although in its highest aspects the qabalah expresses a pure and exalted mysticism. In any case he had done so when he met Madame Blavatsky. in 1886. Knorr von Rosenroth. so Westcott asserted. then the sphere of the fixed stars. Much advanced teaching was given and . glamorous atmosphere of secrecy and 90 91 finally. back to God. and the magical grades devised by them supposedly equated with various stages of the progression up the rungs of the spiritual ladder. that some qabalists have held to an essentially magical and semi-polytheistic interpretation of the universe. The idea seems to have originated in classical times when the universe was pictured as a series of concentric spheres with God. was an intimation that further information might be obtained from a German Rosicrucian adept named Fraulein Sprengel. . he who had successfully reached. edge as the key to salvation . The conception was taken over by the gnostics . some nominally Christian. then the spven spheres of the planets known to antiquity. Westcott. for its drarnatic rituals. the sphere of the earth. the sublunar world of change and decay. A similar system of spiritual gradation can be discerned in some qabalistic treatises.the Cerman magician signed a charter authorising the establishment of an English 'Temple' conferring. the sphere of Jupiter would have the magical powers of that sphere and of all the spheres below it.those cultists. by the time he left Bournemouth for London. say. Mathers had probably completed his translation. but knowl- On the basis of the claimed continental authorisation Mathers and Westcott set up their London Ternple officially called 'the Isis-Urania Temple of the Herrnetic Colden Dawn' . nor works. With the manuscript. Of the five grades described in the cipher manuscripts the first two related to the sphere of earth and in thern the magician was supposed to obtain perfect control over his physical body and its material surroundings.it was claimed . so he said. When Mathers had completed his decoding of the mysterious manuscripts. he found their contents of peculiar interest . but some cults held that it could be achieved while still in the body and that the initiate who had achieved or partially achieved this would be possessed of supernatural powers.

was also a forgery .and had then had the letters of the Hebrew alphabet confided to his safe-keeping.western terminology appealed to those who were drawn towards occultism but repelled by the bad Sanskrit and general oriental bias of the Theosophical Society and its leadership. It is impossible to come to any other conclusion than that Wynn Westcott procured their 9Z forgery to serve his own ends. with its skeletonic 'magical rituals'. This came about because in the previous year Westcott had suddenly announced that his correspondence with Anna Sprengel. and then left to their own devices. For the first three years of its existence the Colden Dawn taught only the theory of magic and not its practice. I know them only by certain secret mottoes. prove that the cipher manuscript. . . who. i tr. to whom I make reference and from whom I have received the wisdom . As Mr. Ellic dead. . one of them complained that he had been told that he was about to be given arcane teachings.the sister of Bergson.. it was found absolutely and imperatively necessary that there should be some eminent member especially chosen to act as the link between the Secret Chiefs and the more external forms of the Order. He stated that he had received a letter from Nuremberg informing him that Fraulein Sprengel was of her teaching activities and of her issuing a charter authorising the foundation of an English temple. There is no doubt that Westcott was lying.ilr lii.came to believe that ffi he had successfully done so. of course.for the very simple reason that it had never begun. .il ir f i fi. This fact does not. with the aid of his wife Moina . I have but very rarely seen them in the physical body. . He determined to make his own link with the invisible Masters and eventually. by which fheir wisdom was conferred upon him: ffii . the superhuman beings who were the real force behind all authentic occult fraternities. Concerning the Secret Chiefs of the Order. It was requisite that such a member should be me. !1 . but possessing terrible superhuman powers. In 1892 this neglect of practical work came to an end when Maccregor Mathers added a great deal of material dealing with the techniques of ceremonial magic onto the syllabus studied by the Golden Dawn members. Its initiates were put through the rituals. while having the necessary and peculiar basis of critical and profound Occult Archaeological knowledge should at the same time be not only ready but willing to devote himself in every sense to a blind and unreasoning obedience to those Secret Chiefs. had ceased. had been sworn to silence . Mathers was not dismayed by the (supposedly) sudden isolation of the Golden Dawn. the vitalist philosopher . iiri ill iI t: $. I can tell you nothing. TheJ rnet rne in the flesh at the time and place appointed beforehand.but it does throw a strong suspicion on that document's origins and validity. in 1892.1 f $. . clearly the products of someone who was only poorly acquainted with the language in which they were written.. the German Rosicrucian adept. sworn to secrecy with terrifying oaths. ilii fi I . most of it easily obtainable from printed sources. . . I know not even their earthly names. which I have communicated to you. and on such rare occasions the rendez-vous was msde sstrally by them. that her fellow adepts had disapproved Howe has proved on the basis of a detailed examination of the supposed 'letters from a Cerman RoSicrucian' they are obvious forgeries. . given a certain amount of occult teaching. For my part I believe them to be human and living on this earth. that no further instructions or help could be expected from Germany" and that if the English students wanted to make further progress they would have to establish their own links with the 'Secret Chiefs'. When such rendez-vous has been in a much frequented place there has been nothing in their personal appearance or ciress to make them out as diflering in any way from ordinary people except the appearance 93 . He has left us his own descrip- tion of his contact with the Secret Chiefs and the methods ffi. His correspondence with 'Anna Sprengel' had not ceased . or 'Masters'.

I thought would have killed me or Vestigia. The 'table' and the 'ring and disc'. . being at the same time accompanied by profuse cold perspirations. ir iirr 1. the raps made in the course of its gyrations spelling out messages in a sirnple of cardboard. or both. even for five rninutes. the sensation was that of being in contact with so terrible a force that I can only compare it to the continued effect of that usually expe- rienced momentarily by any persou close to whom a flash of lightning passes during a violent storm . were adaptations of fairly commonplace spiritualist techniques. supposedly at the command of the superhuman Masters. even though advanced in Occultism. The ring was pendulum of a dowser . The strain of such labour ' . .by the tabie. '. mouth and occasionally the ears. but. coupled with a difficulty in respiration similar to the halfstrangling effect produced by ether. '. $ On the other hand when the rendez-vous has been in a place free from any access by the Outer World they have usually been in symbolic robes and insignia. and by severe loss of blood from the nose.e. But my physical intercourse with thern on these rare occasions has shown me how difficult it is for a Mortal. on the contrary. or have. in other words the physical appearance which the possession of the Elixir of Life has traditionaliy been supposed to #t confer. You know the extreme and sustained attention and critical judgment requisite .. which Mathers mentioned as being two of the methods used by the Secret Chiefs to communicate with him. any objective existence is neither here nor there.at tirnes copied from books brought before me. by clairvoyance . the nerve prostration alluded to. r . Almost the whole of the . Add to all this the Cere- monies of Evocation. by the ring and disc * at times by Direct Voice audible to my ears and those of Vestigia [Vestigia was the magical motto of Mathers' wife Moina] .. iill then unknown to me. I know not how . the nerve prostration after each reception being terrible from the strain of testing the correctness of every passage thus communicated. The table was just that * a table which rocked about. painted in symbolic colours. Such then. . .and which disappeared frorn my vision when the transcription vras - finishecl at times by appointment aslrally at a certain place. almost constant strife with opposing Demonic Forces endeavouring to stop the delivery and reception of the Wisdom. Mathers held it by a silken ribbon.i' case of those rare occasions when I have met them by appointment in the physical bodY. and the neces- sity of keeping the mind exalted toward the Higher Self .i' i . I cannot conceive a much less advanced Initiate being able to support such a strain. .ul . . the Secret Chiefs] in various ways. and if such was the result produced on one tested as I have been in Occult work. on the basis of the knowledge that they believed they had obtained from these Masters. Whether these latter had. I do not mean that in such rare cases of physical converse with them tirat the effect produced on me was that intense physical exhaustion which follows depletion of magnetism.rli and sensation of transcendent health and vigour (whether they seemed persons in youth or age) which was their invariable accompanirnent.. The essential thing was that. the two seers created a complex synthetic occult system which transformed the 95 . Knowledge has been obtained by me from them [i. an appointment made in the same manner and kept in the same manner as in the 94 tsllr il il rl N i) i.over a disc on which were inscribed Hebrew l-etters and mystic symbols' As the ring twisted about the letters and symbols it indicated by its movements meaningful combinations of these. and it swayed about * in precisely the same manner as the swinging code. without death ensuing. to support the presence eif an . .Adept in the physical body . were the processes by which Mathers and his wife obtained their magical lore from the Secret Chiefs.by astral projection on their pait and mine .

its height that of the navel of a six-foot man.is described in our next chapter. and the would-be adept had to go through all of them before he was initiated into the Second Order. through this Ceremony . symbolic of Divine Light. After he phytes' . The first of the rituals taken from the cipher manuscript. and at those officiating by one of sprinkling c-onsecration by fire (i.the Chief 97 . " and I will not debase rny mystical knowledge in the labour of Evil Magic'. even as I shail persevere . . Stilt blindoto folded he took an oath binding himself to secrecy and persevere with courage and determination through the labours of the Divine Science. these were left unnevised. and allowed to practise magic. a ritual been submitted to the ceremony. .the Mathers' version of the European esoteric tradition . The exact nature of that magic . lt bore a certain resemblance to some masonic ceremonies.e. . was simple in form. I 7 towntsin af Nfagic Mathers grafted the magical systern he had derived from the invisible Secret Chiefs onto the five initiation ceremonies of the cipher manuscripts. that of Neophyte. the smoke of incense) he was led to a cubical altar. The taking of the oath was foilowed by various circumambulations of the Hall a.Golden Dawn from one of a large number of quasimasonic secret societies into an association seriously engaged in the practise of ritual magic.nd further purifications and consecrations. a body established by Mathers in 1892. clad in a black robe with a rope tied round his waist was led into the 'Hall of the NeoMark Masons Hall. The candidate. that lay on the altar together with a blood-red Calvary Cross. His hand was placed on the white triangle. blindfolded.a hired room at -tad purification by water. after which the Hierophant . although a new interpretation was given to them. in the centre of the Hall.

symbolising Earth. the consecration of talismans. sometimes called chakras. A further nine months usually went by - analogy to gestation is apparent . through rneditation he. Then. the Moon and Air. t N i' ) I the Second Order. It was claimed that the regular performance of the exercise not only opened the subtler vehicles of consciousRess to beneficent influences 99 . of human communion by words. Earth. one modern authority has referred to thern as being 'a sort of ceremonial psychoanalysis combined with a crashcourse in occult theory'. We have described this ceremony in some detail because in spite of its simpie forrn Mathers came to attach great significance to it and to develop atd extend its formulae to such diverse operations as the evocation of spirits. mostly rather obvious explanations of the syrnboiism of the ceremony he had just undergone. the . Mercury and Water and Venus and Fire. .Rosae Rubeae et Aureae Crucis. which were considered not physical (although they were believed to have glandular analogues) but psycho-spiritual. he will begin to grasp why the Order reiterates the importance of silence. the Colden Dawn proper. in which magic was practised as well as the preached. The invocation concluded with the Hierophant addressing the candidate: Child of Earth. must acknowledge his debt to evolu- tion through which has been perfected the instrument wherein his mind works and gathers material.is led to see himself as not only self conscious . inhaled the perfume of a rose.invoked the 'Lord of the Universe' over the kneeling candidate.r A second aspect of this interior psycho-therapeutic work was the performance of the'Middle Pillar Exercise'. the rite concluded with 'the Eucharist of the Four Elements' all present. This technique involved the frequent visualisation of a stream of psychic energy. . outside to sense how his mask appears to others . The ceremonies in question were designed to equilibriate in the mind of the candidate the factors symbolised by the Four Elements and were consequently known as the Elemental Grades. but. respectiveiy. like that of the lr'leophyte. drank wine . a subtle equivalent of the nervous system. one who is criticized and watched.the Red Rose and Colden Cross' During the waiting period the aspirant was supposed to devote much of his time to an introspective process of selfanalysis described as follows:- The Aspirant . . or. and. After the Eiemental Grades had been taken..fter he had been given various simple occult teachings.A. to give it its ftlll name. ate bread and salt.one who criticises he now becomes one who endeavours himself.sees himself as part of the consciousness of others.had to elapse before the candidate was allowed to take the Portal Grade. as one who impresses.l. a period of seven months . and alchemical transmutation.as one who receives impressions and watches .referred to in the Order as 'the regimen of the Pianets' . from the cipher manuscripts and they were attributed to. Officer of the Ceremony . The use of the Middle Pillar technique was believed to help the body as well as the soul. thus partaking of 'Elemental Fire'. imagined as a current of white light. The next four rituals were taken. warmed their hands over a lamp. he must contemplate words as one of them. He will reflect on words and the power of words ' . an intermediate degree dividing the Outer Order. .before reception into the Second Order. finally. in periods of silence. The true Magician rnust understand his tools and. both good and evil. to represent Air. travelling from above the head to the soles ofthe feet and back again.. standing .elemental water. . one by one. from 98 ill {$ t. the magic. The manuscript describing these processes was known as 22 and was one of those that Mathers had obtained from the Secret Chiefs 'by ring and disc'. in the course of its journey vivifying certain centres of energy. ' . . long hast thou dwelt in Darkness Quit the Night and seek the Day Simultaneously the blindfold was removed and the candidate was ceremonially received as a Neophyte of the Order.

of course. After this rejection the crestfallen candidate was taken out. dressed in full regalia. great though they may be. was instructed to touch it to the breast of the form that lay before him.that is. at its head a Rose Cross of fortynine petals. in which he has outlined an adaptation of the Middle Pillar exercise which allows the experienced praltitioner to apply it to others as weli as to himself. has testified to its therapeutic value and has written a short study. stripped of his vestments and ornaments and made to don a simple biack gown. he was taken back into the Ternple and tied to a large Cross. and to show that he was abie to cast a horoscope . The candidale saw before him a seven-sided Vault. bearing information that: I l0l .a mosaic of flashing coloured light. . This therapy is. that thou canst gain adrnission to the Tomb of the Adepti of the Red Rose and the Cross of Cold'. As the tale reached its dramatic climax with the words '. .seems unworthy of serious consideration. for example. Dr. but a small minority of cancer specialists consider it as.N. The rnethod taught by these physicians to their patients involves imagining the neoplasm as an invading 'cauliflower' or 'fungus' and the body's defences as rays of brilliant and purifying light fighting against the intruder. In the centre of the Vault lay a coffin. li ii F clusions reached by sorne dmerican and British physicians regarding the value of psychological exercises as a therapy in cases of cancer. It is still widely used by contemporary magicians and is held in high esteern by many of them. certificate that he had passed the required examination. Only his head and arms were visible. on this he took the oath of an Adeptus Minor . At first sight an idea of this type . a useful adjunct to surgery and In addition to the work described above the Portal initiate had to study the tarot cards. a door was thrown open and a replica of the original tomb was planets and the elernents. a goblet. and dernanding his 'reception and acknowledgment as an Adeptus Minor . it a The candidate. the Pastos of Christian Rosycross. at the very least. howevero that it is in conformity with the purely empirical con- i il ftt) fl ls {. to indicate the position of the planets on a geocentric map of the heavens. if nothing else. his hands crossed upon his breast and clasped in them the Crook and Scourge of the Egyptian god Osiris. v€rj similar in its wording to the oath of the composlte Secret Rose which we have included in our first chapter. a highly unorthodox one. for over the coffin lay a circular altar painted with various symbolic pictures and upon dagger. and a Rose Cross. He a was immediately contemptuously dismissed with the r00 'It is not by the proclamation of honours and dignities. The ceremony.that a visualisation/ meditational system can affect the physical as well as the psychological well-being of its user . and the nine rnonths' waiting period having expired. . Dressed thus. threw open the door of the Vault'. . two of the three Adepti who conducted the initiation recited the legend of the finding of the tomb of the rnythical occultist Christian Rosycross. the candidate was admitted to the Second Order by means of the Adeptus Minor ritual. the seven chemotherapy. He did so and then. Israel Regardie. its sides painted with the twelve signs of the zodiac. without opening his eyes. a chain. of the Secorid Order'. his eyes closed as though in death. at its foot a white Calvary Cross with a black background Within the Pastos lay the Chief Adept. each side divided into forty squares. displayed. supplied by one of Mathers' astral contacts was a magnificent piece of theatre. his hands tied behind his back. This done. Frater N. It'is worth remarking.but led to good health and an infh"rx of physical energy. It began with the candidate entering the Temple clad in the impressive robes and regalia of the Portal Crade. This concluded. each square inscribed with a mystic syrnbol and painted in a different colour . to pass a simple exarnination in their use as a means of divination. who had already been handed the rnagnificently decorated wand of the Chief Adept. The Art of True Healing.

lucid. Thus. was no more than an elaborate version of the 'astral projection' which we have described earlier on. . a dagger for Air and a wand for Fire. like a scrap of London fog. materialise before him' The blot thickened and he saw with complete clarity 'a most foul shape. The first was completely unsuccessful said. a magical sword. sigils etc. Like him ye have suffet:ed tribulation. and in the presence of a Chief . After this making and consecration the initiate moved on to such advanced studies as Enochian and Talismanic magic. The 'spirit-vision' achieved. They were also 'consecrated' by him in a series of magical ceremonies carried out under the supervision of one of the Chiefs of appearance. All that those who devoted much of their time to astral journeys can definitely be said cious ape'. As for 'building up astral forms'. between a big bellied toad and a mali- his Temple. a magnificently coloured emblem designed to be worn on the breast of the initiate. through the athanor: of affliction. for example. this was merely an extension of the vizualisation techniques used in the exercises of the Middle Pillar.because. for a Talisman for a special purpose. Upcn it he astrally projected {i. rising again s in a mystical resurrection. Crowley succeeded in materializing the demon's boot and helmet. Like him. not the conclusion of one. trn the alembic of thy heart. and internally coherent daydreams.' In Enochian magic the Adept was instructed to 'make and colour a ta2 pyramid for a selected square. and to make the God-form lnd Sphinx suitable to it . O Adepts.e. Poverty. Far more typical was the ceremony improvised by J. build it up astrilly and describe the vision produced'' This building up of 'astral forms' and the exploration of the astral plane by what was technically known as 'skrying in the spirit-vision'were major parts of the occult activities of the Adept lVlinor.make a special ritual for consecrating to the purpose you have in mind and arrange a time with the Chief for the ceremony of consecration. cleansed and purified through Him our Master. I 103 . although a good deal of explanation of the symbolism of the Vault was still to follow. pantacle (or disc) for Earth. Aleister Crowley wrote rituals to consecrate a Talisman of Jupiter (designed to heal the mother of a friend) and to invoke the dernon Buer to visible matter. a Lotus Wand. . signifying the twelve signs of the zodiac and the triumph of spirit over 1r I i I . This was the high point of the ceremony. The attainment of the Adeptus Minor grade was the beginning of a process. Make a design for both sides of it . His first task was the preparation of the implements he would use in the performance of his rites. after burning incense on a coal from his fire. Brodie-Innes to destroy 'a vampirising entity' which he believed was obsessing his wife and himself. and the four 'Elemental Weapons' . so Crowley water it with dew . Save for the dagger and the sword all these had to be manufactured by the Adept himself. have ye toiled. there was 'a slight feeling of shock. prepare a ritual for practical use with this square. O Brother of the Cross and the ltose. torture and death have ye passed through. symbolising the force and power of Mars. its recipient had failed to .dr the Chief Adept spoke a few simple sentences summing up the intended purpose of the ritual: *ht Buried with that l-ight in a mystical death. and to which great importance was attached. Initiates were instructed to devise their own magical ceremonies for particular purposes and many did so. seek thou the Stone of the Wise. a Rose Cross. of the Ages.W. the initiate now began his serious magical work. . They have been but the purification of the gold.: I to have attained to was an introspective state in which they experienced vivid. ln the latter he had to 'gather narnes. . he visualised) a glowing ball of force. drawing a pentagrarn in the air with his hand and 'vibrating the Name of Fower Adonai-ha Aretz' he saw what he described as a vague blot. These Crowleyan rituals were complex in the extreme.a cup for Water.the second only obey his injunction to pariiatly so.

First of all each one of them had to manufacture a ring ancl disc of the sort used by Mathers to obtain messages from the Secret Chieis. was published by Dr. . 22. by worldy standards. [T'his was an aspect of taiismanic rnagic. such I05 . presumably.'hich would govern the same.e.] B) The Egyptian Art . and Faris. . of a continuous prayer or Invocation for the power desired. lMetatron and Sandalphon are the Archangeis who siand at. Certainly such matters appealed to some Victorian occultists. and even alchemical transmutations. and treminine Potencies necessary unto tlie mani104 festatinn of all things symbolised in the diagram of the Flarning Sword between Metatron and Sandalphon. Some idea of the compiexity of fhe stLlclies and practical work engaged in by the Adepti Minores can bi gained from the syllabus drawn up by Mathers and Westcott for the use of the more senior members of the grade. 7) Of the combination of divers Forces so as f o reconcile their action in the sarne Symbol of Telesma. the French rnagician whose activities were mentioned in an earlier chapter. . rvhen astrally pro_ jecting. a four-voh-lme work to which we happily refer those of our neaders who hanker after evocations. . in any working. Over one hundred of these had worked sufficiently hard at the prescribed course of study to have reached the grade of Adeptus Minor and besides the original London temple there were daughter-groups in Bradforcl. together with much other instructional material concerning ceremonial magic.a tenrple in Edinburgh and the Ahathoor temple in Paris. l5) The opening of the Knowledge of the N4asculine. [i.the most important were the Amen-R. arnongst them the manufacture of 'an astral shroud of darkness' . Of these.studied and prictised. the crown and the foot of the qabalistic Tree of Life. a momentary dimness. respectively. This was to be used .e. . . or all. 3) The Knowledge J of the Ritual of the Twelve 4) The method of bringing rhe Divine White Brilliance into action by a certain Ritual. Weston-super-Mare. . It must be admitted that many of those initiated into the order were. consecrations. the Cod Form v. . After he or she had made and. this last being under the personal direction of Szlathers. .sus_ pended from a Ribbon of one. It is likeiy that at least some of these were iiladequate personalities whn sought to eompensate for feelings of self-inferiority by acting out fantasies of adeptship. 12) Tarot Divination translatecl into Magicai Action. 13) The Knowledge of the Secret Ritual of the symbolism of the order of the Days of the Week of Creation. and including amongst its initiates Dr. 2) Developrnent of the Sense of Clairaudience in the Spirit Vision. . . . Israel Regardie in his excellent Golden Dawn.ing subjects were included in a list of those to be . the seer. the achievement of invisibility.i. should hear voices as well as see ttlree_ dimensional pictures.l Manuscripts on all these aspects of occult lore were circuiated privately amongst the Adepti together with other obscure tractates. for by 1899 somewhere between two and three hundred men and women had accepted invitiations to be initiated into the order.a foul sinell. complete nonentities. This gave the forrnulae to be employed in various practical workings. and then the thing was gone'. Encausse ('Papus'). . who had moved to France in 1894.in Divination ancl Consultation' and was to be worn by the Adept . Edinburgh. the colours of Malkuth'. 9) The Knowiedge of ShDIALChI or rhe Art of taking. consecrated ring and disc the follou. Considered by many initiates to be the most irnportant of the latter was the document called 22 to which we have previously referred. . the Symbolism contained in the Zelator Ritual of the First Order .: 1) . .

Machen's objections to the order.that is to say. were blurred. were based on a rejection of its clairn to historical links with the alchemical and Rosicrucian adepts of past centuries.'says a witness present at these events.the reversion of mind and protoplasrn to earlier forrns. The Novet of the White Po. l backbiting. destined for notoriety. }: Nevertheless. like Aleister Crowley. carrying out an absolute minimum of the work prescribed but devoting much time and effort to 'esoteric' gossip and $f rl l/i' f. the lile of Helen Vaughan.W. some of them. meditation rnasonry' and ritual workings.. Her unpleasant career ends with her suicide and atavistic reversion to primal slime. others. let their membership lapse. legend and symbol" The intellectual attitudes which underlay such syncretism were. a sort of congenital witch . Clearly. he argued.rthur Machen. It is worth taking a brief look at some of the men and women who joined the Colden Dawn in its early years. and even modern Hinduisn. the Golden Dawn included amongst its mernbership a number of fascinating personalities. symbolic structures drawn from such diverse sources as the Old Testament.l people have been the bane ofmodern occult groups. and the collective ceremonies in which its members engaged themselves. of which both authors were high-grade initiates. repressed sexuality. were essentially syncretistic . such as Iarnblichus. the evil and averse aspects of the qabalistic Tree of Life of which 'it is dangerous even to think'.she is literally a child of Pan * who destroys. for they seem to be implicit in Mathers' teachings concerning the qlipoth.who found the Golden Dawn not to their taste and. written by. magical interpretations of witchcraft and its connections with evil. This work recounts. in the renaisa mosaic of 'Thrice Greatest Hermes'is a feature sance one ltalian cathedral and in the 'occult free- of - of eighteenth - century Frauce atrd Germany.rl . Arthur Machen was one of that rninority of Golden Dawninitiates . the Great God Pan ('the Devil') and hurnan atavism . Aleister Crowley and J. both physically and morally. for he was favourably disposed towards magic by inclination and. For in short stories written over five years before his admission into the Golden Dawn he expressed concepts which initiates of that order only came to believe as the result of much astral travel. These interpretations would seem to have been derived from the Golden Dawn. a short story incorpor- t07 . and therefore the Golden Dawn was of recent origin and its claims to antiquity totally fraudulent. But in Machen's short novel The Great God Pan first published in 1894 and denounced in the Manchester Guardian as 'the rnost acutely and intentionally disagree* very similar ideas were ab-le we have yet seen in English' expressed quite independently of any Golden Dawn influence..wder. Brodie-Innes. mediaeval sorcery. affirmed Machen. for literary eminence. There is no doubt that Machen overstated his case. but partially explains the tensions that were eventually to rip the order apart into a number of competing schisms.OscarWilde'swifewasanother . totally alien to any period before the second half of the nineteenth century. for its 'theology' and the symbofism of the rites expressing that same 'theology'. seems to have had an intuitive understanding of the ideology of that art prior to coming into direct contact with it. the Golden Dawn could not be an ancient foundation. Thus in the novels Moonchild and The Devil's Mistress. there are given (in fictional forrn) astral. those with whom she comes into close relationships. ancient Egyptian religion.and blended into one great mishmash of myth. Similar syncretistic leanings can be discerned in some lale 106 classical philosophers. like A. in episodic form. its teachings. respectively. coming from Machen this was a damning criticism. i. for the diversity of their characters. Nevertheless. opinions and ways of living not only illustrates the way in which the Golden Dawn appealed to men and women who had little in common with one another save an interest in the occult. a year or two after admission. indeed. 'I saw the beast descencl to the beast whence it descended.

It is perhaps significant that Machen discovered his technique shortly after his wife had died.before his entry into the Golden Dawn . which he applied in the autumn of 1899 . and so are his stocks. and when he was suffering from acute depression." Apart frorn his capacity to intuitively arrive at magical concepts Machen seems to have possessed what has been called 'the soul of a natural magician'. the magician from whom many of the occult teachings and techniques used by the Order of the Colden Dawn derivecl.' Elsewhere he described the experiences as a transformation of the everyday world of Victorian London into mystic wonder. He wrote about it to a correspondent . In other words.impressed hirn enormously. Toulet. The pharmacist who makes up the prescription is old. he was one of those rare individuals who have an instinctive capacity to improvise effective occult techniques. 'the merging of Syon into Baghdad'. then a process suggested itself to him and he 'did what had to be doneo. the 'Sabbath Wine' destroys first hls moral standards and then his physical being. a young man named Francis Leicester who has a tonic prescribed for him by his physician. he degenerates into a pool of loathsome black deliquescence which drips through the floor of his room into that which lies . MacCregor Mathers (18-s4*1918).ated into Machen's episodic novel entitled The Three Impostors. Over the years a natural but sinister alchemy has transmuted the harrnless tonic into the raw ingredient of Vinum Ssbbati. The effect of one such improvisation. also features primal atavism. This time the protagonist is innocent enough. he ocould not endure his own being'.. L. r09 . the evil brew supposedly drunk by witches in order to revert to more primitive evolutionary forrns. The nature of this process is uncertain and Machen always refused to give details. while he did not believe in the literal possibility of the events described in Novel of The White Powder. He 108 S. the French writer P. J . He was 'beside himself with dismay and torment'. experiences he had recently undergone had convinced him that 'we live in a world of great mysteries. of things stupefying below and unsuspected. The young marr's innocence does not save him. telling him that.

carvings. an Oxfordshire vicar.A. and on . for he disliked both Mathers and Westcott. like Machen's. he combined alchemical inte- rests. It was rather surprising that Waite ever bothered to join the Golden Dawn. a writer on mysticism. .' he urged Yeats.n ever. a splendid rogue who. a considerable knowledge of the literature of occultisrn and a belief that Mr. who had first met him either in the reading room of the British Museum (as Yeats himself claimed) or. the magical weapons rnentioned I i 1 '. he took as his magical matto Daemon est Deus trnversus (the Devil is the Reverse Side of Cod). Already an old man when he had first joined the Order. Yeats was the most distinguished man of letters who drew inspiration from the Golden Dawn. W. Iike Lionel Johnson and many other of his contemporaries. Machen had been brought into the order by A. . He had been introduced to the order by Mathers. the R'ev. describing the latter as 'hooting like some owl nesting in the cypresses beside the tornbs of false adepts' and the former as 'a combination of Don Quixote and Hudibras'. W.did. No personality could have contrasted more with that of Yeats than that of another early member. .for. homosexual devil-worshipper Count Stenbock. about diabolism. which he seems to have pronounced (according to . it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the technique was in some way sexual in its nature and marital intercourse would have been an obstacle to its performance. Ayton. at Madarne Blavatsky's home in Holland Park. Waite had an acid pen but was sugary enough in the flesh. 1 Wftatever Yeats' failings as a magician his membership of the Order did at least enable him to satisfy his desires to pose as an expert in Black Magic . however. F{e experimented with practical alchemy. He asserted that all pre-Reforrnation rnonasteries had been centres of alchemical and magical research and that the truths of occultism were to be found in Gothic wallpaintings.dyton dabbled in eccentric theories and was prepared to give credence to anything if it was sufficiently unlikely. when he discovered his process he was an unhappy widower.indeed. but his occult progress seems to have been uncommonly slow and h€ showed littie magical talent . Gladstone was a Black Magician and/or a Jesuit in disguise with a great fear of evil spirits. . .to have engaged in magical pursuits. more probably. 'even the Olympic Planetary Spirits turn against us in the end.'Those who desire a hidden life must abstain from many things in common life which are in themselves innocent. and inflicted herbal remedies of his own manufacture upon his parishioners. He was initiated into the Neophyte grade as early as March 1890. besides engaging in occult publishing. rl he associated himself with the childish antics of a group of Irish clerks who sought to raise the Devil over a bowl of animal blood in a Dublin back-room. the only vice he ever seems to have been accused of was an inordinate fondness far Horlick's Molted Milk. worst of all he bored Aubrey Beardsley by going on. ran a successful but discreetly conducted pornographic lending library and was once saved from a conviction for fraud by the main prosecution witness against him dropping dead on the day of the hearing.' He was greatly interested in his own health. Rosicyucianism and rnagic whose early books were published.B. complaining bitterly to his stockbroker of the difficulties he experienced lil . .Max Beerbohm's arnusing account of the dinner at which Yeats delivered his monologue) as 'Dyahbolism'. Waite. by Ceorge Redway. over ten years after his initiation it was alleged that hg had not even conse110 .E. 'Never invoke the spirits. grew medicinal herbs in a small garden he fertilized with household slops. he displayecl an almost adolescent interest in the more erotic components of diabolism' He was a friend of that syphilitic.' When Machen wrote the above passage he was happily married to his second wife. and on. architecture and stained glass. He was probably the most respectable m. give one hint when he said that 'It would be of no use to me now.

he met a young man narned Julian Baker. While at Cambridge tvro things of particular significance happened to Crowley. he went up to Trinity College. began to study the writings of the alchemists. Secondly.with the flues of the stove he used to heat his preparations and fussing about whether or not to buy a platinum crucible. Waite's compilation The Book of Black Magic and Pacts and he was particularly struck by a passage in which Waite hinted that he knew of a certain 'secret Sanctuary of Adepts'. Baker replied that he was not but that on their return to England he could introduce him to one who was' The introduction was rnade. poetry. Baker. 'Was Mr. The tutor in question was Alan Eennett * Frater lehi 113 . he certainly read The Cloud on the Sanctuary and. Officially he did this eighteen months later. he rebelled against this gloomy faith and within a few years had managed by his behaviour to convince his mother that he was the Beast 666 of the Apocalypse. 'an Adept?'Mr. was Aleister Crowley. he began to read the literature of occultism. was a student of alchemy and much to Crowley's surprise. according to one report he eventuaily did so. he became aware of a hornosexual component in his own nature and had a violent love-affair with a female impersonator named 112 1i ii i H. Firstly. But unquestionably the most remarkable of the younger members of the order . and a brief period at the University of London. judgment. the most extrerne wing of the fundamentalist Plymouth Brethren.E. Pollit.' asked Crowley. Among the many books he read was A. Aften a school career much interrupted by illness. Crowley wanted to be part of it.. Jones put forward Crowley as a suitable candidate for mernbership of the order and the latter was initiated as a Neophyte in November 1898" At first Crowley was disappointed with the order. heli. and the full inspiration of the Bible.J. by profession an industrial chemist. purity.. so he wrote to Waite asking how admission could be obtained. at any rate. mountain climbing. Edward Berridge. shortly after the death ofhis father. the magical point of view. Cambridge. seemed to know more about the subject than Crowley him- self. some of it self-inflicted (he had to leave one public school because he was suffering frorn gonorrhoea). If there was such a secret sanctuary. He had been born in 1875 of middle-class parentage. erotica. His great ambition was to discover the Elixir of Life. like Crowley. and almost anything else that came to his attention. Another devotee of fringe medicine was a younger and more active rnember of the order. a homoeopathic physician who combined an almost fanatical loyalty to Mathers and his system with the practice of mesmerism and adherence to the strange philosophy (it mixed up unorthodox sexual teachings wjth deep breathing) of Thomas Lake Harris. Here he settled down to serious study of chess. an l8th century mystical work. the alleged Adept being George Cecil Jones.from. for whiie he admired the Neophyte ceremony he found his fellow members unimpressive and the teaching he was given to be ludicrously elementary. and he was brought up to believe in death. He received a kindly reply urging prayer. and of greater significance. another industrial chemist. for good measure. but long before then he had been given copies of almost all the Second Order manuseripts by another member of the order who had becorne his tutor in magic. At the age of eleven. but the liquid proved so volatile that it evaporated before he had time to drinkit. Both his father and mother were members of the 'closed brethren'. Whether or not Crowley managed either the prayer or the purity. while on holiday in Switzerland. a resident of Basingstoke in Hampshire. Berridge was always trying to convert other members of the Order to the sexualpneumatic doctrines of Harris by sending thern pamphlets through the post. Subsequently. Baker. and the study of The Cloud on the Ssnctuary. He was on the point of resignation but Jones persuaded hirn that he was in no position to judge the order system as a whole until he had reached the Second Order and the grade of Adeptus Minor. and an Adeptus Minor of the Golden Dawn.

e. At Crowley's invitation Bennett moved into the former's Chancery Lane apartment and there the two began to go on astral journeys together. and then burns with a brilliant of an improbable story told to him by the artist .he went clairvoyance Catholic but had lost his faith when he had discovered the physiological facts of sex. from asthma. and to experiment with substances that would 'loosen the gilders of the soul'. jealous of his poetic abilities. achievecl a better grasp of the Golden Dawn system than most of those who were supposedly N4inor Adepts. an irnportant factor in the upheavals that led to the destruction of the order in its originai lbrm. This friendship was to prove. Aleister Crowley affirrned that the smoke from its burning was the ideal medium for inducing demons to take on visible form. For Bennett had been interested in plant-substances alleged to produce 114 115 l. ln view of Crowley's later notoriety as a drug addict it is worth saying that it would seem to have been Bennett who introduced hirn to drugs and not vice versa. that is to say. like Crowley. W.Aour of the Colden Dawn.B. Magicians refer to it as Dittany of Crete. He was by profession an engineer. Ayton's grumblings about his alchemical stove .on still. volatile substance which lingers around the flowers. as will be described in the next chapter. they took hallucinogenii drugs. he suffered. 'the Coetia has been meddling with you. I . This plant is usually called Dictsmnus Alba (Dictamnus Fraxinella is an alternative name) and is rnore familiarly known to present-day gardeners as 'gas plant'or 'burning bush plant'. can be set on fire. that W. Rosher was an occultist whose peculiar career had included a brief tenure of the office of Court Painter to the Sultan of Morocco and the invention of a new and supposedly irnproved water closet. including the goetic dernons. Bennett had been born a for some considerable time and in a letter written in about 1894 to F.dlthea Cyies. 'ln that case. to invoke spirits. nominaltry a rnernber of a very junior grade of the order. In spiie of the interest Bennett took in it there seems no reason to believe that D. Black Magic). and the Zoroastrian fire-worshippers of lndia regard it as sacred. Yeats. Frobably Eennett lodgings which he shared with Charles Rosher. and he lived in miserable South London on at some length about the vision-inducing properties of a plant which he referred to as Dictornnus Fraxinella 'Alba. trn giving Crowley all this teaching Bennett had trroken his initiation oath.' Bennett had replied. according to one report this latter was equipped with a flush of such intensity that many mistook the entire apparatus for an eccentric variety of shower-bath. Bennett owned a magically charged glass lustre (a prisrnatic length of glass frorn a chandelier) with which he had once paralysed for fourteen hours a sceptical Theosophist who had doubted its powers. Bennett had first introduced himself to Crowley by walking up to him and accusing him of rneddling with the Coetia (i.and by the basis tales he had heard flarne which usually leaves the plant ilndamaged. In experimentation with drugs and all other occult pursuits Crowley proved an apt pupil and.the sarne magician-stockbroker who had had to endure the Rev. officially even the existence of the Second Order was supposed to be kept a secret from those outside it.A. while still of Bennett's magical powers. it is plain that Benneit had acted with the approval of lVlathers who had taken a great liking to Crowley and had corne to regard hirn not only as a follower but as a close personal friend.'Crowley was impressed by this discernment for he had already decided on the - heavy. he regarded the mechanism of human reproduction as so revolting that he could not reconcile its existence with that of a beneficent God.L. for example. F{owever. was using tslack Magic against him . Crowley had indignantly denied regarded it with sorne awe for the same reason that has induced Parsees to regard it as holy and English gardeners to call it the gas plant . Alba has any more visionary properties than most garden plants. Gardner . wartrn. that. days it exudes a the charge.

I have to say that. This was. . but most unhappiiy.these.D.but not both. there is little reason to doubt a story current in the order at the time. and rernain but a private Adept. . Westcott's suspicions were unjustified and. F{is resignation was by no means voluntary. if this was so. on the other. Whatever the source of the information about Westcott which reached the Home Office there can be no doubt that the results of it were advantageous to Mathers. Westcott gave up his official position in the order towards the middle of March tr 897. that these had been handed in by the finder at Scotland Yard. but was fnrced upon him by the Horne Office. In reality the expulsion was the culmination of a long series of rows between Miss Horniman on one side and Mathers. his wife. as it happens. Miss Horniman. the wealthy daughter of a tea merchant. believed herself to be in communication with a Secret Chief who called himself the Furple Adept. making him. and their masters at the Home Office. in which I had been foolishly posturing as one possessed of magical powers * and if this became rlore public it would not do for a Coroner of the Crown to be made shame of in such a mad way.I cannot think who it is that 1i6 London only a few days previously. Perhaps. It looks as if someone was trying to eh?' get me out of C. Politically . Mathers was not an easy man to get on with . The oniy other Golden Dawn initiate who might have been a serious potential rival to him was Annie Horniman. office - This letter makes it apparent that Westcott believed that someone had denounced him to the authorities. very sadly resigned all my offices in C. that someone had accidentally left sorne magical records with Westcott's name upon them in a hansom cab. rvho seem to have told hinr that he was perfectly flee to be either a Coroner or one of the leaders ofa secret society dedicated to the practice of magic . who was prudish tr: the point of mania" infuri- ated Mathers by purporting l17 to discover some sexual . Supposedly this was oraised up dissensions' against Mathers because she had and had continually exhibited 'intense arrogance' narrowness of judgment and self-conceit'. in effect. supreme governor of the order. and that in this way the police. Annie Hornirnan. who had entered the order in its early years * she had been the first to have been initiated into the Second Order * and. had been expelled from the order by Mathers some three months or so before Westcott's resignation.persecutes me. however. the reason is a purely personal one. however. had become aware of Westcott's supposed adepthood in the magical arts. for example. . Thus.D. . He wrote a dejected letter to a fellorv-initiate in which he said that he had . owing to my having received an intirnation that it had somehciw becorne known to the State officers that I was a prominent official of a society. for Mathers managed to oust Westcott from his occult dignities and to establish himself as the supreme spiritual and administrative monarch of a shaky esoteric despotism. and some of his closest associates. .that is rnagically politically . So I had no alternative . Westcott trowed to the official pressures exerted tupon him.men who believe themselves to be superhuman rarely are * but most of the fault seems to have been on the other side. lf this was so it seems likely that this was Mathers' who had been in B GolCen fruwn ilerivstives As was described in the previous chapter the Goiden Dawn built up a considerable rnembership in the years between its foundation and the end of tlre century.years were eventful for the order.

wrote to Mathers informing him that she no longer wanted to be his some lieutenant. sexual connections are beastly. who had been acting as Mathers' London representative. hurried off to Paris. The Paris correspon- consurnmated their marriage. the magician/journalist whose involvernent with the sinister Boullan has been mentioned earlier. to which he was formally entitled. when I made enquiries after the performance. He seerns to have been persuaded into this act of tomfoolery by Jules Bois. Ivlathers" from his position of sole chieftainship. . deciding that Westcott was both trying to make a come-back as rnagician and to oust him.impurity in his occult teachings. the elernentai. where he was sympathetically received by Mathers and given the desired initiation on 16 January 1900. M. sure enough. but whence he comes I know not. . he wrote a strongly worded ietter accusing his former friend of forgery: members of the order. but not such a horrible one as that which I had when I was yollng. had 'a terrible English accent' and added: He looked for all the world like . angry at this rebuff. busying himself with obscure royalist conspiracies and rnaking friends with such hurnan oddities as the pretender io the throne of Byzantium. because. a Scotchman. They refused to give Crowley official copies of the instructional manuscripts to which he was entitled and at With the departure of Annie Horniman and the with_ drawal of Westcott into private adeptship he led a small group which met at his hcme for the purpose of carrying on astral workings . for they not only looked upon the latter as half-mad but were suspicious. Mathers leapt to quite the wrong conclusion. They call him Count M'Gregor in one of the French newspapers. and any other thing whatever. 'Monsieur M'Gregor is only the chief of an old Scottish M'Cregor without violent dislike and loathing. . as regarrJs the human. referring to a magical theory concerning sexual relation_ ships between human beings ancl elemintal spirits. And. Mathers' action in initiating one whom they had rejected gave the members of the Second Order no pleasure. Mathers played the part of High Priest and his wife that Mathers' soie sexual irregularity was that which the late Kenneth Tynan described as . and. about the human [sexual] connection. that is.the worst perversion of thern all'. This disturbance was further increaser"i wl'ten klathers ciecicled to publicly revive tlie reli_ gron of ancient Egypt by hiring a smill rheatre and I l8 u9 r# . I remember that my horror of human beings for a while was so great that I could not look at my own mother is his name. Crowley. she dent of the Sunday Chronicle was irnpressed by the latter. . and rightly so. Throughout 1899 Mathers. . . i have always chosen as well as [my husband] to have nothing what_ ever to do lvith any sexual ccrnnection _ we have both kept perfectly clean I knorv. chastity. describing her as having a 'graceful attitude and dignified manner'. but not by her husband. " . clan!' Towards the end of 1899 the London officers of the Second Order refused Crowley the Adeptus Minor initiation.cina Mathers wrote . is a mistake. . Mathers. h4athers and his wife regarded cnpu_ lation as an obstacie to spiritual progress and they never of High Priestess in the ceremony. invoking the goddess Isis before a paying audience. in the words of one of them. M. all . a braw F{ighlander he proved to be. of his sexual tendencies.Mathers becarne increas_ ingly tyrannical and eccentric. 'a mystical fraternity is not a moral reformatory'.lusiified. When I first heard of this theory it gave me a shock. he wrote. but this.l think . became more and more friendly with Aleister Crowley. Jules Bois says. This distilrbed the same time Florence Farr. lt is only fair to say that any imputation of this sort was totally un. Much to the alarm of rnany Golden Dawn initiates he began to involve himself witti thb lunatic fringe of right-wing politics.

form a combination . ..ival rf Crnlvle.u. she set up a bogus Colden Dawn in l_ondon at 99 Gower Street . The Second Order hael alreacly elected a cofil- If the fearsome punitive current was switched on it must have been somehow short-circuited. but to none beside! I know to a nicety the capacities of my human brain and inteltrigence and what these can of themseives grasp' and I therefcre know also when the Forces ol' the tseyond.:ad an. Westcott] ' 'He has never been at any time in personal or written cornmunication with the Seeret Chiefs of the Order. Westcott affirrned that the ccrrespondence with Cermany had taken place but said that his witnesses ra. After some days thought she wrote to Westcott asking him for his reply to h4athers'charges. for she beiieved in the existence of the Secret Ciriefs as deeply and sincerely as a Catholic believes in transubstantiation. " . and wiien the Creat Adepts of this Platret. before showing me what he had clnne. extreme gravity of such a matter.lespatched Crowley to L'ondon wirh instructioi:ts to seize the Order's premises and to cow the revolting AdePti. Christian and L6vi failed in their encleavour to tiiscover the Tarot attributions that I woulcl be aLile of my own power and intelligence ulane to iift the veil which has baffled thevn? . ancl rny I have always acknowleclged and shall aiways main- tongue having been tied all these years by a previous Oath of Secrecy to him. but I cannot let you mittee which. are with rne. to whom and lhe Etern*'l Gods I bow. reEarcled bv Yeats and others as 'an unspeakabie maciruan'. for he concluded his letter by stating that Do you irnagine that where such men as Count rie Cebeiin. and the Presence of the lnfinite manifest. . . it was much too late for tlrat. you would find nothing but disruption and trouble fall upon yc. from me. . for the rebels were unharmed. The reply she received was curiously dif{'ident. Mathers was greatly mistaken. you must cornprehend from what little X say here the tain the authority of the Secret Chiefs of the Order. after stealing a set of rituals from Mathers and rnaking a brief visit to South Africa. . alarmeci tfie rebeis and they launched an astral attack Llpon him.! the:"efare pref'er to let the rnatter drop. the Second OrcJer declared its independence af its creator' Mathers' response to this was a letter affirrning his links with the Secret Chiels and threatening the rebels with the 'punitive cLirrent'. however. the Secret Chiefs of'the Order. Mathers decided to stlpplement it rvith more material rrethocls anil r. . Eventually. I tell you plainly were it possible to remove me froin my place as Visible HeaC of the Order . The ar:r.C hr: nvnulr.e. In spite of this Mathers clearly believed in the real existence of the lady in question. " . on 3 lv'larch 1900. A series of angry but futile letters were exchanged between l-onclon and Faris and then. or both. . Florence Farr was extremely upset Lry Mathers' ietter. Etteiia. . .. or avowedly under Sapere Aucle [i.later to be the offices of the Spectator * and was finally sentenced to a long ternl of imprisonment fbr helping her husband to rape uneler-age girls. And for the first time since I have been connected with the Order I shall formulate rny request to the Flighest CLriefs for the Punitive Curretlt to be prepareci to be clirected against those who rebel' ' ' ' she was with him in Faris. a sort ol magical death-ray. he himself having forged or procured to be forged the professed correspondence between him anrJ thern. that I shoulcl receive your resignation . it would be with the very greatest regret . or caused to be done. with the idea of working secretly. According to Yeats it l2l 12A $l. In other words Mathers was denying the existence of the supposed correspondence between Westcott ancl Frauiein Sprengei to which we have previously referred. . .ere dr. . wrote to its Chief asking him for proof of ttre charges clf forgery. The woman who was with him and who was posing as Anna Sprengel was in reality an unpieasant occult adven- turess named Madame FIoros. at the end of March. .'. . . .

his rubber mackintosh spontaneously went up in ftirnis. called upon these dark gols to confound the rebels with quarrels and discorel.W" Felkin. aLrandoning ihe nractiqe of n. It is interesting to note that Crowley's wife Rose. N{athers to earn a living by prostitution. This is clealt with in sorne detail in a later cliapter. He had taken a large packet of dried peas. yogic practices. an extraordinarily beautiful prose-poem in three short chapters which he hacl written down at Cairo in i904. she spontaneously approached a member of the Order and offered to go to Sioiland yard and give evidence of . After his Mexican holiday Crowley visited the Far East. for good measure. Whether or not Mathers used black magic against either Crowley or his d*gs. Golden Dawn spent the next few years quarrelling violently with one another. and had forced Mrs. By 1908 Crowley had created Magick. said yeats. a Gerrnan-basecl fraternity.in a large sieve. told him of his yogic exercises and tried to 122 convert him to Buddhism. baptised each pea with the name of one of his opponents. sirnultaneously shaking the peas. according to one of tlre rebels Crowley paid them the sum of thirteen shillings and fourpence a diy. invoked the devils Eeelzebub and Typhon-Set and had then. managed to persuade bne of Crowiey's creditors to issue a writ against him. for having got rid of Mathers the rnernbers of the.'and in the following year he evoked Beeizebub against Mathers and the Colden Dawn.of the Colden Dawn had split into three competing groups.uncls. and the religious th€ory af the Book of the I'aw. ctraughter of the Vicar of Camberwell and a sister of a future Fresident of the Royal Acaderny. ln May 1904 he wrote in his notebook: 'find a man to entrap N{athers. the Star of the h4orning^ led bv Dr. sr. On his return to Europe he visiiecl Mathers.or.Aiwass. With the aid of the police the Second Order regained cnntroi of its prernises and. By 1912a fourth cornponent had been added. 123 . had sul:sequently drifted into occultism. an expert in tropieai medicine who had been one of tne i"irst Christiari rnissionaries in Ugancia.the remainder of it was destroyed by Crowiey's disciple C'S. his own gnostic system. unfortunately only the first page of the ritual he used has survived . Jones - but it seems to have been Crowley's first experiment in hardcore Satanisrn.rppose<lly at the clictation of a super-human being narned . I. Crowley had had engy. for no apparent reason he lost his ternper.was completely successful. . participated in the rite. there is no doubt that Crowley himself resorted to sorcery against tris former Chief. For a year 6. Cro-wley replicd by seizing the Order's premises with the " aid of some toughs he had hired at a pub in Leicester Square. Two days later. the facevalue of some long-forgotten medieval coin" fhe triurnph was only^a temporary one.torture and meclieval iniquity'. Mathers expressed his uncon- cern with both subjects and ail Crowley's adrniration for hirn turned to loathing * he aileged that Mathers had stolen a valuable travelling bag from hirn. Crowley's diary gave quite a different accollnt of this psychic attack * his ornarnental Rose Cross turned white. This seems to have been one of the most successful curses ever recorded.called Llp' one of Crowley's mis_ tresses on the astral plane and told her to betray hir lover.C! of the struggle and set off for a holiday in Mexico. R. principally to see Alan Bennett who had gone to Ceylon and become a Buddhist monk. and on at least five occasions horses bolted at the sight of him. While Crowley had been formulating his Magick the Adepti . had cast an evil spell resulting in the sudden death of his pack of bloodho.et him read L6vi then go. the sexual magic of the Order of Oriental Templars. a blend of Golden Dawn techniques. he clairned fhat the Order's wonder-workers had . for the rubric describes her as bending over 'arse as high as possible' throughout the ceremony. the Inepti . t*o Crowley also became a Buddhist.aElr and-taking up yoga. as Crowley referred to thelrl. The largest of these was the Stella Matutina. while fires refused to burn in his lodgings. While all this was going on in London Mathers was resorting to black magic in paris.

An amusing description of Chiefs.a professor. This obstacle was removed in the following year when Felkin was rnade a mason and from then on there was a continual flow of teaching from the German group to the Stella Matutina. but there is hard evidence that his Rosicrucian group existed. ln 1906 he met with his first success. undoubtedly Rosicrucians'. at the tirne still chief of the Cerman section of the Theosophical Society.osicrucians whom Felkin had contacted were led by R. giving him much 'advanced teaching' and instructing him to revise the Order's initiation rituals. before 124 125 ffi l9l4 .st 'Secret Chiefs' cornmunicated with Felkin through the trance mediumship of his wife. The supposed link was astral not physical in nature: the The Temple door opens. mysterious and sphinx-like' Then at la. Subsequently Steiner was to close down his secret society and to abandon the use of ritual. that it may weli have treen a section of the Order of Oriental Templars * an organisation to which we have alreadv ref'erred in connection with Crowiey's sexual magic _ and that its initiation rituals were a variant form of those Aleister Crowley (1875-1947) in magical vestments. you pass in and circumambulate the room three times. Their activi_ ties were secret for the very simple reason that they were operating as an inner ring in the Theosophical Society without either the knowiedge or the approval of the Chiefs of that organisation. The so-called R. his adopted daughter and another gentlernan near Hanover . Steiner officiating at such an initiation As early as l9A2 Felkin came to believe that he had made the sort of contact he so much desired. . He found however that they were secretive and averse to giving hirn any information because he was neither a freemason nor a member of any occult society that they had knowledge of .udoiph Steiner. and between l90l and the outbreak of World War I he and his wife rnade many visits to centrai Europe in the hope of meeting authentic Rosicrucians. during which the Master of Ceremonies deciaims in a religious voice. Suddenly the these astral meetings. sitting down three tirnes.and had finally developed an obsessional desire to estab_ lish a direct connection between himself and the Secret used by continental freetnasons. after his death some of his disciples even went as far as has survived: to deny that he had ever used ceremonial. . Felkin was not satisfied with you sit down stil! blindfolded and you feel something 'happening at your waist and neck. he wanted to meet the Secret Chiefs in the flesh. becoming acquainted with .

the apprentice sign. an 'inspirational' work produced by a Theosop- hist named Mabel Collins. . during which they look for the underground Tempie. for Felkin believed that if the 'new methods' (i. You are Initisted! introduced into the Order its rnembers would progress just as well. are before another cube holding candies. the iwo servers. .that in order to r26 t27 lil. . a cup. Felkin himself also seerns to have received some sort of unorthodox medical treatment from Steiner . you are . syrnbolizing the darkness which is. Steiner. Then the Repast. ln the summer of 1912 Felkin and his wife followed Meakin to Cermany. and the sacred name which you can only stamrner. . you glance at yourselfand see the masonic apron in front with triangle and trowei. Then a serrnon from Stiiner on the legend of Hiram and Solomon.rnay be sent abroad . the mental ancl physical exercises devised by Steiner) were where. Amongst those who underwent at least one of these 'advanced initiations'was W. then being buitrt in Municl-r. Ite m. . one or more grades may be given him'. Felkin sent a certain Neville Meakin to C^eg1a1V as his personal representative. and of man's being. is completely clothed in red. . according to the official history cf the Stella Matutin. These invotrved Yeats's astral body undergoing various odd metamorphoses while his physical body lay motionless in a coffin and a bell was rung thirty-six times: At the Sixteenth lring] he . he has taken off the red robe and now wears an alb of lace. black draperies hang every_ five Temples and took part in ceremonies which they believed conferred higher rnagical grades upon them. it is the light at last! . In l9l0 Dr. with a long Mephistophelian tail and red cap. one on each side . then you are told the password.. .always near.to brilliant lighl anel for the fest of the Bells he [i. emerges into a further higher plane. the Vault.bearers of wax-candles.coloured lights were shone upon hirn while. he is before an altar. at the Seventeenth he is like a transparent rainbow. it is yAKIM. . the High Friest. At the same time Felkin and Steiner supposedly came to an agreement by which 'anyone " . wearing masonic aprons. Yeats. the black draperies of burial are removed. Felkin devised new ceremonies for three new 'high grades' above Adeptus Minor. .bandage is raised by the guide. Initioted: you begin to see light. . he speaks on the Triangle and the eye of Cod. forrn a definite etheric link between thernselves and Great Britain it was necessary for a Frater frorn Great Britain to be under their instruction for a year'. behind a curtain. you lre surrounded with red builock's blood. now in the possession of Senator Michael Yeats. Then with two extended swords curious signs are made in front of you. . . . candles extinguished and again lighted. During a lengthy stay they visited Steiner has a server. on which are a crucifix. the wtrole in dense obscurity. who is a full Adeptus Minor . the Grand Master of the Cere_ rnonies is near to Steiner.'l . John. which has lasted four hours: ritualistic knocks with mallets on the three cubes. Close of the ceremony. . You place your hand on the Gospel of St. Second addiess from Steiner. and a candle.e. gives a 'clairvoyant description' of the astonishing things that took place on the astral plane during the course of the rite. Yeats's astral body] shone with it .B. for a document. The bandage falls again: after a tirne it is taken away altogether. . . which is in the centreof theTriangle.issa est!. and you sedin front of you a skull which Steiner holds under your noise. in the form of a cube. This foreign travel was not considered absolutely essential.a deacon and vice-deacon .e. unseen 'healing rites' were carried out. This-light comes from wax_candles placed on three altars. he constructed thern on the basis of what he had seen in Germany padded out by extracts from the Egyptian Book of the Deadand Light on the Path. The Colours of the Planets play upon him" Theil they meige ir.i this was because Steiner and his Rosicrucians had said .

. The second of these writers was Evelyn Underhill. The only other important Colden Dawn Schism in the period before World War I was a brotherhood led by A. Ey the surnmer of the following year he was in a position to tell Felkin that he was getting 'new and exceedingly powerful formulae' from Mathersl and at about the same tirne he revived the dormant Edin_ burgh temple of the order.not available to Felkin and the Stella Matutina. .and I can pass thern on to such as acknowledge my authority and position. . or Scotia .Mathers' own parisian tempie. Broclie-Innes' reply was very speci fic: iia'. Many Dimen' sions and Descent Into Hell * give a Christianised version of much occult theory and Waite's influence is novels even more apparent in Williams' historical writings such as Witchcra.Amcn-Ra'. as is described in the next chapter. Waite used rewritten versions of the Mathers rites. and expressed their desire. was now in possession of instructional documents . Felkin chartered a new Stella Matutina ternple situated in New Zealand.new and exceedingly powerful formulae' . poet and critic.that all scattered Rosicrucian forces shoulcl be gathered together into an harmonious whole'. now in the possession of Mr' R. Two writers of note were initiates of Waite's tempie and to some extent fell under the influence of its chief's personal interpretations of magic.notably The Greqter Trumps. lnitiates of his ternple seem to have rarely. sion as such comes from the Third Order these words. By 1914. Waite and sometimes referred to as the Holy Order of the Golden Dawn. confirm the truth of these traditions.' Felkin enquired what teaching was available and asked for details of the exact natirre of the authority which the Scottish magician claimecl.e siircks -'i iv455 and traehings going to far furiher lengths than tr used to tl-link possible. the qabalah and the tarot. This of course involves recognition of Mathers who has committed his authority to me. not to from those High make any ambiguity of Adepts whorn I so term . .E.ln 1912 Dr. reiumed contact with N4athers. The first was Charles Williams. Williams' . Originaily this group had been very small . Shortly before this event they set up three new Engiish temples.she was a friend and correspondent temple. and letters. promulgatecl a new constitution for the order. . for example . In l9l I. author of many popular studies of theology and rnysticism. In this wish they were to be. and sorne American temples ied by individuals initiated by Mathers in his Faris temple prior to 1900. Christianising them and removing . It is perhaps surprising that such a modernist as Evelyn Underhill of von I{tigel . My comrnis. Beside the three competing fraternities described above there was one iiripciit. the temple led by Brodie-Innes was also part of the AO.Four years later they emigrated to that country.'inl pic-l'!l:i occ*lt groupttlg ivhlch derived many of its practical r29 techniques.W.as far as it was possible so to do * the magical elements while emphasising the n-lystical. the novelist. but on condition . then. however.that you can recognize me as Chief Adept in Anglia. Gilbert and quoted by Evelyn Underhill's most recent biographer. bitterly disappointed. IJrodie-lnnes. usually known as the AO. the homoeopath and disciple of Thomas I_ake Harris. The second group derived from the original Colden Dawn was the Rosicrucian Order of the Alpha et Omega.[ 128 * or. a London ternple under the leadership of Dr. J. Frodie-Innes offered copies to Felkin. Berridge.the . tsut Waite's member of been a have should was the this that affirmed occult traditions have always case. This was made up of those who had either remained loyal to Mathers throughout the revolt or had decided that they hacl been wrong to rebei and had returned to their original allegiance. and Mrs. . if evern indulged themselves in either ceremonial magic or astral workings. This ternple.ft and Descent aJ' the Dove. one o[the moreprorn_ inent of those wl-ro had taken part in the revolt.

This taught Crowley's Magick and partially abandonecl secrecy. a bulky biennial volume which ran from l9-09 to 19r3. and IV{rs. was the l3l .those employed in the attainment of astral projection. 9 Later Cccu{t tsrotherhooCs It will be remembered that before their final departure to New Zealand Dr. founded by Aleister Crowley in 190g. Wiil Reason'were two of these' We have been unable to find out anything at all about the second. actively seeking new rnembers and publish ing The Equinax. under the cornmand of three lieutenants. anothei was intended for freemasons. or liilver Star. ancl in some ways the most interesting. we suspect that either he used an alias or his ord'ers were derived from the Pro- testant Episcopal Church oi the USA.. Felkin instructed that Engiish members of Rudolph Steiner's Anthroposophical Society who wantecl to take part in ceremonial rnagic should be admitted to this temple. and a 'I{ev.a. Supposediy he was an Anglican priest. from Mathers and the Golden Dawn. W' Hamrnond. who lived at 56 Redcliffe Gardens and establisl-red the temple at the same acldress.E. In any case he did not long rernain as one of the temple chiefs. one of the ctuefs of the Masonic-Anthroposophical temple rnentioned above. a Miss Stoddart. resigning from his offiie and being replaced by Dr. This wai ttre a. Waite's 'Colden Dawn' which now became part of the Stella fulatutina. The incorporation of Waite's temple into the Stella Matutina took place because Waite hadleft his own fraternity because of what he called 'internecine feuds over docurnents'. Feikin left his own London temple' 'Arnoun'. One of these was situated in Bristoi and was led by occultists experienced in the Colden Dawn magical tradition. but' as we have beetr unable to trace hirn. Felkin chartered three new temples of the Steila Matutina. The thircl oi iire chici's appoiriteo iiy Dr' Felkin. and the third was A.

of the Archbishop of Canterbury's mission to that curious and much-persecuted people. of course. Miss Stoddart not only came to share these beliefs but to extend them. but Miss Stoddart went on to fresh triumphs.a Republic were revealed. and saw a 132 133 i I . and then the head.triangle of power' in 'dazzlingastral fire' over her head. particuiarly Miss Stoddart. which the Felkins had wished for. all occult secret societies. underwent trances ancl received rnuch secret occult teachingr. The German General Staff and the emerging nationalist parties of the Weirnar w6rroi This advice was disregarded and all the Stella Matutina temples were closed down save for the Hermes temple in Bristol and Felkin's own I'{ew Zealand temple. Miss Stoddart was to be the 'apex of the triangie' and was told that she was to 'shine down the glorious beauty of the Father's face'. Like Felkin he had a missionary background.e agents of the Jewish conspiracy partially I evealed in the Protacols of the Learned Elders of Zion. to be mere for wnrld dr:mination.Creat Initia_ tion'. attached great importance to thern. in place of the altar. they decided that they were under attack by sinister 'Black Rosicrucians'. Croydon. twelve hooded" black-rnbed figures. and are seeking to guide Central European thought into the Light. For many years Miss Stoddart expounded her views in articles regularly published in a notably lunatic antisemitic sheet called The Pstriot. By now. They contacted Fellcin in New Zealand. But uow they were indulgecl in almost to the exclusion of all else and the three ctrrieis. of its temples did not bring the majority of The closure the Stella Matutina to its end. She exneri enced a stabbing pain in the region of her heart. Miss Stoddart saw the 'astral Varilt of the Arlepti' and. an enthusiastic advocate of the conspirdcy theories developed by such early i9th century writers as Robison and Barruel. They were continually experiencing 'visions of the Secret Chiefs' accompanied by messages about a coming . having been first a member. the Assyrian Christians. derived from s6ances with the'table'. associated in some way with the Cerman General Staff. felt . *e. He replied: 'I think it would be better if. The latter..ralisttype mediumship had. Astral projection and spiritr. turning her attention to ultra-right politics and becorning an associate of the late Nesta Webster. you would consciously endeavour to co-operate with the true Rosicrucians who do undoubtedly exist. but order to form a link wittr the . particularly the Colden Dawn and the Stella Matutina. both she and her fellow-chiefs were thoroughly alarmed. but her experiences during Church services were unusual -" she saw visions. To prepare for this event Miss Stodclbrt and her two co-chiefs were instructed to form a . Under its three l-ondon chiefs there was none of the 'gathering together of scattered Rosicrucian forces. filing into it. . as tvas described earlier. who were trying to gain control of their physical bodies. The following day her 'astral master' informed her that she had failed to take the 'Great Initiation' but that this would be given to her some time in the future. Afrer his return from rhe Middle East hi had held various curacies and in l9l8 was to become Vicar of St. been quite popular pr:rsuits in the oiiginui Golden Dawn and quite a lot of Mathers' teachingihad been.Rev" Francis Nicholson Heazell. The two male chiefs withdrew into obscurity. She was also to join the Church of She did sr:. Iike the Colden Dawn. believed that the French Revolution had been engineered by sinister freemasons and illuminati. instead of fearing imaginary Black Rosicrucians in Cermany or elsewhere. Michael and AII Angels. Instead {he Stella l\4atutina was almost clestroyed by an obsessive concern with the astral plane ancl revelations supposedly clerived frorn its inhabitants. . These peculiar religious experiences continued for two years until they reached their high point during an Easter service held in April lgt9. The life of the New Zealand agents or the Tery!sh plan curious creeping faintness' ccme over her. .hidden Masters. begging for his heip. however. Then. you would then belong to the Creat Work for the Hngland.

so we understand. io. . a victirn of the worlcl_ wide epidernic of Spanish influenza. if ye advance far enough. he was devoteel to France. have included the . of course. Membership of this was largely confined to Anglicans and a substantial number . No magical fraternity can survive if it becomes totally ossified and inevitably enough . was the Cromlech Temple. numerous occultists who in eftect two separate.ctice. *ort potential recruits were either serving in the armed forces or in such auxiliary organisations as the VAD.esoterjc Christianity' of the Cerman-American occultist Max Heindel and the alchemical magic advocated by .temple founded by Dr. There were. but the AO con_ tinued vsith E.s system. The aim of the order was 'the establishment of the Kingdom of Love in the heart of Mortal Man'. magical fraternities. instructions may be obtained through the Society of the Golden and Rosy Cross known as the AO in the Outer. IJoth these magiciiins ciieci in the I 920s. . according to one report as a response to an episcopal ultimatum resulting frnrn an enqr. which 'no man can of himself attain'. Mathers died in November l9lB. his adopted country. for. After this the AO The Cromiech Temple became dormant at about the second by i\4oina Malhers. The Eristol temple also flourished throughout the period 1919-39.perhaps a rnajority * of its initiates were dnglo-Catholic clergyrnen. Those who wanted to personally cornmunicate with higher powers were instructed to join the r\O: seek for practical instruction in the Occult Arts Sciences mentioned in the ritual of this grade.nra. Mathers himself found littte time to praitise or teach magic. but becorning dormant in ttre eirty t O+0s. but particularly the AO. although accused by Aleister -rowley of being a. however. . the became 134 135 . we are satisfiiO. - as Felkin's New Zealand foundation is narned * has been influenced by other occult tendencies than those derived from Mathers and the Colden Dawn. .smaragdum Thalasses. partic_ ularly active during the years l9t4.. A quarter of a century Iater two temples which claimecl to partially derived from this West Country temple were actively using Mathers.apostolic succes_ siono from the Stella Matutina was withr:ut foundation. These temples were not. An occult fraternity which flourished during the years 1918*1939 and had a friendly attitude towards all the groups deriving from the Golden Dawn. symbolically passing down the magic gifts received from the il4aster of Masters'. but can be achieved 'through the ministrations of the Higher Adepts who work by'the magical powers conferred on them'" The reception of such powers is 'the Supreme Initiation' which in the Church is 'signified by the ordination of the Friesthood. and it still flourishes today.lg. Such influ_ ences. although allied. however.J" I-angford-Carstin as its most active time of the outbreak of World War II. and he turned his honle into a recruiting office for the Foreign Legion" As a result of this thosi ternpies under the Broclie-lnnes juriscliction achieved an even greater de facto independence than had previously be at least adept" He eventually comrnitted suicide after meeting with financial disaster and soon afterwards the AO seems to have become dormant. Cerrnan agent. to communicate personally with the Masters of this Order. Felkin provecl vigorous. we have been told. The temples loyal to MacGregor Mathers _ the Aipha et Omega .lt .Fratei Albertus' and the Faracelsus Research Society of Salt Lake City. If you or been the case.c engagecl in hy a number of East Anglican clerics.were subjected to rnany strains during Worlrt War I. The Crornlech Temple was led by a priest possessed of mediumistic abilities who was the recipient of rnuch astral teaching from 'Masters and Guides'.liry intcr occrr. With the knowledge and training obtained in the higher grades thereof it will be possible for each of you. that their claims to a magicai . the first conducted by Eroctie_lnnes.

sornetimes with unfortunate results. and in any case. thor. I hacl been shown no method of combating this particular entity when once aroused.' cn. LJpon this occasion I can remember waking up suddenly with a vague feel- ing of terror oppressing me. the manifestations were always strongest about the new moon. The new moon of May I st brought a Although Aubrey Beardsley regarded the diabolism aft'ected by some of the minor writers of the 1890s as silly. rvhich appeared in rhe Pall Mall Magnzine. were imperfect. an experimenter with the Abramelin techniques we have described in Chapter Three.continued to work at ceremonial magic. I was troubled by the same feeling. and to a certain ext€nt this is true . and after I had gone to sleep. The ritual performed. were peaceful again. but regarded it as norhing more than a severe nightmare. t proceeded tcl clear my place of working. his genius enabled him to convey the inmosi nature ol the way of spiritual and intellectual perversity which can iead. my ritual was imperfect and I only rendered the Talisman useless without in any way impairing the activities of the entity invoked.I can guess the date with fair accuracy because. I little knowledge is a dangerous thing. lo sell:ieaiisaLiolt. and I thought no more about it. that my knowledge of this particular system. A in the ordinary way. (Ol a Neophyte and how the Black Art was revealed to him by the fiend recurrence of f he Asomuel. Again. but an irnposed ernotion that could b-e thrown off by an effort of the will.but the point I wish to make is this. Now note the results. One such. and to this end prepared a copy of the necessary Talisrnan. This looks like nothing else than gross carelessness on rny part.rgh the fact that my sleep was distorted towards the tirne of the new moon had oceurred tc.. while as full :noon drel. yet it was no ordinary nightmare terror. June 1893.) 136 r3"l Irr . Unfortunately I have no account of the date when these occurrences began. perfecting it to the best of my ability with my little stock of knowledge. on April 2nd or thereabouts. me. and therefore my ritual. but the first hint of trouble must have come on or about March 3rd 1921 . through ihe breaking ul iabuos. This passed almost as soon as I stood up. the n rght. as I was to learn. wrote a letter to the Occult Review describing the difficulties he or she had encountered: Desiring some information which I could not get resorted to the System of Abramelin.

lune 30th. Of the early mernbers of the Goiden Dawn bruised arm. and leaned against the wail at the east 139 138 r . and had noticed consiclerable changes in its appearance. Secondly.she trained at the Tavistock Clinic .rnl!ke Frl. Yet in my heart I knew that all this was false. Always I found rnyself awake with the terror upon me and struggling violently to cast off the spell. incapable.in Rri{a. but came at once to my assistance. but no nightmare that I have ever had could hold rny mind in its grip for minutes at a tirne as this thing did. And now comes the most extraordinary part of the whole business" When I had finally mastered the obsession. smashing both that anc! the window to pieces but missing rny bed.il.lust as it was about to attack me I jumped through rny gone lrom me. actual. About midnight I was suddenly awakened by a voice calling loudly..I had to lean across the bed and again risk the glass. I dared not move for fear of cutting myself. . and this leads to the third point. The first indication I had that these visitations were absolutely out of the ordinary course of events came on May 3Oth. fortunately with no more damage than a badly seems likely that 'the good friend who knew rnuch of these things' referred to by the anonymous author of the above account was Dion Fortune. After that I realised that the game was up. but had no polver to move. with one absolutely inexplic- state of hopeless terror. I have had nightmares before. rneelium and lay analyst . when the real climax came. Not one of these incidents happened while I was asleep. She did not hesitate. Especially it seemed far more active. looking at the shattered room in a unlovely to look at. It window. yet next morning at breakfast I was asked what was the terrible noise in rny roorn during the night. trn desperation I turned to a good friend. r. and to reach the inatches . however. they were never. and from that day to the present the trouble has absolutely set in aware of a red serpe nt coiling and uncoiling itself under my bed. and necessitated an almost intolerabie effort of will to cast it o1f. were also active in Britain duqing the interwar years. and I know that the only sound tr made that night was jurnping to the floor. ' and at once I became motion. knew rnuch of these things. I had seen the thing again on the night of the new moon.wherein. a magician. the srnashing ofglass and voices. Now there are three points which I rnust make quite clear before I proceed. and came to earth arnong the rose bushes below.loor and top of my bed were strewn with broken glass and fragments of wood. tr had not taken these occurrences lying down" but I knew that it was irnpossible for me to control the force which I had able exception. were exceptiOna. which was in an alcove to the left of its path " In its transit it had smashed all the rnirrors. I was aware. In the first place I was never attacked twice in the sarne night. I could only stand there. also my room is at least a hundred yards from the rest of my family. It seerned a blind force slowly waking to activity.nce fhs rqbirllr nf rlng!r' has not been accornpanied by any pronounced alchemical renaissance. but pure illusions. when tr speak ofphysical happenings. while its longhairhad changed into serpentheads" The night after I was awakened by a violent noise and iurnped ouf of bed I then snw the noise wa""c causeri by a great red obelisk which crashed through the west wall of rny room. This time the obsession must have lasted sorne minutes. Sorne alchemists.trouble. or send rne plungingthrough aten foot highwindowto theground below. I knew. this time very much more powerful. rnen and women who worked individually rather than in association. lay safety . Also it was about this time that I first saw the entity which was rapidly obsessing rne" It was not altogether end. The eyes were closed and it was bearded with long flowing hair. 'Look Out.l Frir. These.who played such an important part in the occult world during the years 1922-45 that our next chapter is entirely devoted to her and the fraternity she founded. and reaching out on to the floor with its head. I went to bed again deacl tired. who. After this there was absolute peace until . and the f.

In spite of Westcott's specific staternent that no magical grade conferred the power of transmutation the Secret Chiefs supplied l\4athers with elerailed insfnrctions a.lchymists call their Golden hearb.s tn how the Adepti Minores could carry out aichemical processes. Several members of the order were.890. the possibiiity of the achievement of a state of deep mesrneric trance in which the mind would be able. At first it was very small. . through industry. and the Philosophers Tree. with many wonderfull boughs.far exaited. So far as I know .only Ayton seems to have engaged in physical alchemy. Other wonders somewhat resembling those of which Cockren displayed were the 'Fhilosophers' Wine' 141 . The alchemical processes outlined in 22.vprlf:tpllir it" orcrar ^nnqirlerrhlrT a. the substance to be transmuted being. of itself. by life force as well as by electricity. ln the 1960s. It is never actually taught in so many words. . however. but it seems to affirrn. are magical rather than chemical. ancl. . Westcott displayed a mild interest in aichemy and produced. Carnmeil saw such a Cockren's alchemical laboratory and observed it over a period of some months. e. In spite of the very specific nature of the instructions not a single early Colden Oawn initiate ever seerns to have atternpted to apply them. the candidate lbr initiatio. circa 1. firstly. and grow after the manner of a tree ' " . These formed part of the manuscript 22. that it may grow in a glasse like a tree. secondly. so to speak. . or the magic event may occur when least expected. ohearb' growing in The poet C. tle fnrm nf itc leqveq a cactus. a man who wcruld seern to have succeeded in growing the mysterious 'alchemical tree'. which the A. .n. Unless you are Adept enough to act by willpower. and ieaves. that many alchemical works were disguised treatises on . This wonder was described by Paracelsus: It is possible also that Cold. Work conquers all. there wiil be no adequate result. It may dawn on any one of you. a Flying Roll . " . They involve the adept in invoking Jupiter. Attwood.. students of a curious mesrneric interpretation of alchemy put forward circa l85A by a Mrs. aithough his attempts to classify such elernents as Brornine and Chlorine in accordance with qabalistic symbolism are not without a qnaint charm" He surnmed up his occult interpretation of alchemy in the final paragraphs of the Flying Roll: .R. denounced by Aleister Crowley as 'absolute rubbish' although he never seems to have made the slightest attempt to carry them ollt. and skill of an expert Alchymist may be so. . To perform alchemical processes requires a simultaneous operation on the astrai plane with that on the physical. clairvoyance. to transrnute base metals into gold. power of transrnutation may arise side by side with other magical attainments. ancl so there is made of Cold a wonderfuli and pleasant shrub. . and were an adaptation of the Colden Dawn neophyte ceremony. at least one occuitist was using alchemical proces$es derived from 22 in atternpts to transform homoeopathic remedies into sornething approaching the legendary Elixir of l-il'e.the higher phenomena of mesmerism'. rvhich indeed is pleasant to behold and most wonclerfull.g.a semi-official Goiden Dawn manuscript * in which he expor-lnded his views on the subject. These were not of any great profundity. A less ceremonial approach to the hermetic art has also had its English and Scottish devotees" One of the most interesting of these was Archibald Cockren (died circa 1950).. Saturn and 'the head and tail of the dragon' and evoking an elemental to make an 'astral examination' of the material being worked upon. . This interpretation is difficult to understand. however. I believe it is useless for anyone to waste tirne on purely chemical experiments. the 140 reception of which had so exhausted Mathers. lt is occasionally rediscovered by the private student. as well as by heat and moisture. It is not conferred by any grade. but l. thou seest the Coid to rise in the glasse.

jets ofvapour pouring from the retort and into the receiver like sharp bursts frorn a machine-gun . The basis of this elixir was very probabi5l what Cockren called 'the alkahest' . has enjoyed a rnodest success.. The prince has been iniernationally known as one of . makes curious and interesting reading. when taken in wine. One of the most surprising of them is prince these and other practical instructions issued by the society Ito spend time in the preparation of a substance called 'the antimonial firestone'.. .a substance he hacl prepared affer rnany years of work. that Frater Albertus has carried out a great deal of experimentation on metals and rninerals. who would seem to be the presiding genius of the Paracelsus Research Society.experienced iittle fatigue or nervous depression.F I ay b o y empire. whiist a very potent and subtle odour filled the laboratory and its surroundings . this odour . he . One weli known American occuitist has been sufficientiy impressed by 142 such personal of vinegar of antimony 143 Such . . . and the sweet smell of the rain on the parched earth. American magicians are dealt with in later chapters. resembling the dewy earth on a June morning. and gold. On the whole. with the hint of growing flowers in the air . already mentioned in relation to the New Zealand temple of the Stella Matufina. Two phials of the lastrnentioned substance were given to Mr. required littlb sleep or food. to physical and nervous exhaustion. . Cockren has had many successors in recent years. The Handbook" which has also been published in Cerinan. published in Thames & F{udson's Art and Imagination series. which had culrninated as foliows: and T'he first intirnaiion tr had of ihis triumph was a violent hissing. and an increasing number of American occultists are concerning themselves with alchemy. the former described it as smelling and taiting like 'srveet flowers'. however. . issues 'alchemical laboratory bulletins. Cammell by the alchemist. .a nran referrec! to by at least one gossip columnist as 'the ptayboy alchemist.a 'potabie elixir of gold'. it tras been ceremonial magic which has attracted most Americans working within the western esoteric traclition. He found it an effective antidote.olla . For in an appendix to the Handbook he refers to achievements as the preparatiott 'according to the forrnula of Valentine' and the manufacture of the 'essences' of lead. His alchernicai beliefs seem to be sincerely held ancl his essay on alchemy. former chief of the Britis h . In the USA alchemists are also active and the paracelsus Research Society. copper. written by 'Frater Albertus'.. The Alchemist's llandbook. . . Stanislas Klossowski de R. after taking it. when he rvas on friendly terms 'vifh the rnembers of such rock groups as the Beatles and the Rolling Stones. .the beautiful people' since the 1960s. and recorded that. and both felt and looked heaithful and invigorated'. however. At the iime of writing his most recent newsworthy activity was his part in organising the fun and games at the weekend parties given by Victor Lownes. is largely concerned with the production of herbal elixirs by alchemical rneans' It is clear.

n which it took her many years to recover. called 'mortal raind' and she was encouraged to recite 'there is no pain in truth therefore there is no truth in pain'and other extracts from Science and trIealth. magician.her emplc. she felt herseif healed. pain.Iung. and even death itself were iilusions born of the sinfillness of what Mary Eaker Edcly. so she claimed. . she went down on her knees. swore nevcr to leave her job and promised perpetual obedience. founder of Christian Science. Then she returnr:d to her room and lay on her bed in a serni-stupor for three days. the phrases 'you are undergo incornpetent' and '1. devout Christian Scientists. novelist and early follower of C. Eventually Vioiet antagonized this wornan by foiling an atternpt by her to gain controi of the mLlney of an elderly and rather sirnple-minded woman who was resident in the school. She was at the time 'living in' as a junior teacher in a boarding school and forrn of mind-power akin to hypnosis and. the Christian Science textbook. During this protracted and very unpleasant session her employer subjected her to a destructive form of hypnotic suggestion' repeating. that her etheric doubie was damaged and leaking prflna (energy). at their own expense. but eventually some inner voice told Lrer that her only hcpe of mental survival was to simulate a collapse of all resistance. extremely bad tempered wonan who had lived in lndia for many years and had oriental occultism acquired some knowledge According to Viotret this woman contrclled her staff'by a of frion Fartwne snd Ligtt{ tlae {mrcer Dion Fortune. time and time again. when she was twenty years 0icl" she rlnderwenr a trffrlr. She was then nameel Vioiet Mary Firth * lier pseudonym of Dion F'ortune was not adopted until over thirty years later * ancl her parents. She herself compared the condition of her body to that of a discharged electric battery and ciaimed. in the terminology of occuitism.C. To avoid her employer's wrath she resigned her position. but before she was allowed to leave the establishrnent she was compelled to a four liour long'interview'.ryer was a domineering.from now on we shall call her bv the nalae under which she wrote alci wllich was air augiicizctl ittr irr uiilei itiagicai motio - was what she described as 'the Southern branch 145 144 \ \ . Violet was a precocious child and while stiil very young displayed a marked tendency to daydream and some talent for English cornposition" The former characteristic worried her parents but they encouraged her . Violet was brought up in her parents' faith" She was taught that sickness.nttir exper"iencf fro. there were a whole series of 'nervous breakdowns' among her staff. were the proprietors of a small hotel. Within an hour of the ceremony. not surprisingly. Violets and Mare Violets" Considering the age at which Violet wrote these essays they undeniably showed some literary promise. to her parents'guests. A ferv days later her family carne and took her horne in a state of complete physical anci emotional exhaustion. She did not cornpletely recover from the effects of this distressing experience until alrnost ten years later when she was initiated into the Neophyte grade of . The temple into which Dion Fortune had been admitted . showing all the symptoms of intense physical fear. A few years before World War I. was born at the Welsh holiday resort of Llangollen in tr891.611 have no self-controi'. two srnall books of her essays . but their style is over-sweet by today's standards and some find thern to possess distinctly emetic qualities. the Colden Dawn. At first Violet refused to give way.iuvenile attempts at authorship and published.

already engaging in astral travel and getting the supposecl messages frorn 'the Masters' later published as The Cosmic Doctrine. authorising the publication of an Arnerican parnphlet offering to coirfer initiation by post in return for a fee of ten clollars. and Dion Fortune's suggesticns were rnet t46 Inner Light Magaz.ln occult ernpire.h.of the Scottish section of the Order'. For the first fcw years of its existence. almost twenty years later she was to portray ilzfaiya Curtis-Webb in fictionalised forn'l as the ageless. The latter's principal point was that IVIathers' magical system was too inteliectuai and advanced for the ordinary student of occultisr.as not until 1928 that the Fraternity oi the Inrler Light came officially into existence and the Christisn Mysfic. while her husband was alive l\4r:ina Mathers had been quite as dedicated to secrecy and to keeping the Order small. however. enchanting heroine of her nr:vels Ses Priestess and Moon lvfagic.Dion Fortune had hoped to use the Ttreosophical Society as a sort of trawiing-ground out of wtiich suitabie fish could be dra. was a public society vihich could be used as a means of attracting suitable candidates into the Order. Mathers disapproved of the Christian h4ystic Lcdge and its willingness to sacrifice quality to quantity. things h:rri begi"ln to change. In spite of the high regard in wirich Dion Fortune held her chief. She was decidedly less impiessed with her f'ellowinitiates. Moina &4athers seerns to have seen this as a potential threat to her own authority and looked about for an excuse to expel her former favourite from the Order.herself had gone to even greater lengths.r.frltritltrt.1.. We are unaware of the exact reasou for this change. There is trittle doubt that a few years earlier such suggestions wor-rld have been clisregarrled. Dion F'ortune) . an occuitist of real abiiity and great physical charm whose personality seems to have fascinated her young pupil. A. here was the secret knowledge for which she had been. Mrs" Mathers was hankering after . hut sne had to withdraw this suspension after it had been pointed out to her that Dion Fortune had not yet received Dion Fortune was extremely impressed with the teachings of the Colden Dawn. Urodielnnes. she urged. she suspencied Dioir Fortune fnr aliegedly 'betraying the inner secrets of the Crrder' in hen lrn.unconsciously searching for many years. Tranchell-l-iayes). In other words. an English temple uncler the jurisdiction of . and that already she was beginning to ciisplay that lust for power which in later years was to with enthusiasm.ialitrr aq he hirnself liv f lris f ine hnwpve'. was beginning to build up a little occult follcwing of her own.lt. for she. This temple was under the chieftainship of Maiya Curtis-Webb (later Mrs. select and of high tr.. Fiere. but it is possibie that she wanted to be nearer the centre of (magical) ihings. it was rather that she had become aware that Dion Fortune. describing them as 'widows and grey-bearded ancients' ancl clrily remarking of Mathers' widow that 'the mantle of Elijah had not desfended on Mrs. vu'hat was needed. the Fraternity of the lnner l-ight came into existence. in 1922. sart of magically orienfated Theosophical Society. slre fr.ine.rn into the nets of the Coiden Dawn and it n. it was only a year or two after her initiation that she decided to transfer her ailegiance tcr another ternple under the control of a Mrs. Thus. it operated as The Christian h4ystic Lodge of the Theosophical Society (Fresident. was overnight transformed into become one r:f the more noticeable factors in the make-up Lhe of her cr:mplex personality. but having no open conneclion with the Golcl:n Dawn.f Love a*rl . 147 . Her first attempt was unsuccessful. was at first quite friendly towards her new recruit and the latter respondecl by making various suggestions designed tr: increase the mernbership of the 0rder. Mc'ina Mathers. Morgan-Boyd. Elisha'. the lieutenant and financial patron of Moina MacGregor fulathers herself .rk Fcmterir Philaronh] o. supposedly a Thecsophical journal. holding lectures and issuing a magazine.$/. on the other hand. was an occult method that really worked. Long before tlais there had been a sharp deterioration in the friendly reiationship between Dion Fortune and her supposed chief " tt was nof ttrat Mrs.

contains rnany stories of aileged psychic atiacks. In her case obesity did not imply inactivity. 1930). Certainly if there was such a murder it could only have been of an astral nature. all of them probably greatly exaggerated. Diorr Fortune exorcised her home. so she saidn severely scratched 'because of the phenornena of repercussion'. Ten years after its birth the Fraternity of the Inner Light had been built up into an effective and tightly-knit occult order by its founder.gyptian form of Mercury. while still at Oxford. a werewolf. after a prolonged struggie. she succeeded in re-absorbing her system ! Once again a good. On that occasion she asked for his advice to how she should conduct a planned invocation of the god Mercury. a certain Frater V. According to Dion Forturre's own account. no dor"lbt. She was afflicted with a plague of trlack and smelly tom-cats. For exarnple it tells rtrle story of how its auihor succeeded in 'breaking the psychic link' between an obsessed woman and a sinister group of eiriental occul tists. this time for writing a series of articles for the Occult Review (later repirblished in book fbrm as Sane Occultism). Similarly. some of them alrnost certainly untrue. :rn F. but the iaie hears a remarkable resemblance to a personal experience of Dr. but she still kept the growing mernbership of the Fraternity very much under her own surveillance.Crowley urged her to stop all the clocks at her Fraternity headquarters and to go as 149 . Moina I\4aihers responded to this rebellion 'by resorting to black magic' and launching a 'psychic attack' upon her former subordinate" ln her Psychic Self Defence (Rider. strolling down her stairs.. worst of all she encountered an errormous tabby cat. although in the process she was. and visited him at least once. Psychic Self DeJbnce. All this should not be taken too seriously.leister Crowley (whom she regarded with a rnixture of repugnance for his character and admiration for his knowledge of the magical tradition). spine-chilling story it into - but cleariy derived frorn an inciclent in Aleister Crowley's brilliant occult novel Moonchild. and tar. twice the size of a tiger. wide-brirnrned hat while taking her daily stroll through Hyde Park. Officially this ternpie was affiliated to the Stella N4atutina but in practice its chief went her own way. Dion Fortune told the story of this uncanny rpagical battle. brooked no interference from anyone. Berridge rvhich he recountecl in an r:a. After a consultation vrith one of his disciples.semr-rrfficiai. Later she again suspencied Dion Fortune.rght her pupils her own highly personal s]'nthesis of 'magic and Jungian psychology instead of the Colden Dawn system in its entirety. she recounted 148 how she had accidentally created an artificial elemental by means of a partial astral projection. {'}r-rlden f}awn sir-le-lectrrre on the power of the imagination * a document with whictr Dion Fortune must have been farniliar. who was supposedly an expert on the matter . fortunately. At this period in her life she entered into a correspondence with A. wearing a voluminous black coat and a floppy. a fact that Dion Fortune omitted to rnention in her accottnt of the tragedy. a student of occultism who had died in mysterious circumstances on the Scotlish lsle of lona. a certain Miss Fornario.l. almost got out of her control but.the grade of the Order in which sirnilar teachings were given. for Moina Mathers died some months before Miss Fornario. and finaliy expelled her after making the quite unanswerable accusafion that certain syrnbols had not appeared in her aura" ln spite of her expuision Dion Fortune persisted in using the Order systern and set up a temple of her own in the Bayswater district of London. an occult best-seiler. to visible appearance . and eventuaily managed to overcome her opponent on the astral plane. which was published at the very time when she was engaged in writing her own book. She had by norv grown very fat and had begun to bear some resemblance to an advertisement for Sandeman's Port.some years before. ln another section of Psychic Self Defence Dion Fortune went so far as to imply that Moina Mathers was guilty of the murder of a former associate of hers. This entity.r!-v. thus freeing herself nf cats natural ancl supernatural. he harl inrrokerl the god Thoth. all very exciting.

The Mystical Qabalah. 'fhere are. Auschwitz and rDemocratic Kampuchea' were some of the outward manifestations of the Fall. before and after the Fail. pot-boiiing occult journalism. Chapter XX Qabalalz reads: of Tke Mystica! !iilrl ttlf giyplt Oi tiic i. which were shown to Colden Dawn members in the course of the nelemental' initiations. however. revised version of the Christian qabalism of the Renaissance in an easily comprehensible forrn. who is still alive and no longer a Crowleyan. the heads of the Serpent. anxious to see how far she would go. The first symbolised the archetypal man as he shouid be.but that they believe that the story allegorically presents the facts about some great spiritual disaster which has left mankind flawed and imperfect in a way in which other orders of being {such as cats. was a symbolic representation of the hurnan spirit 15r . the horrors of Vorkuta.for example. urged her to supplernent this rnonotonous fare with a daily glass of fresh cockerel's blood taken at bneakfast time. induced Eve to eht a forbidden fruit. Unfcrrtunafeiy he was qnable did or qlici to say whether not oblige with one of his rare l"4ercury personal appearances. is considered by r. believe in the literal truth of the story as told in Genesis * that the serpent entered the Carden in which God had placed the first humans. Apart from her fiction most cf these were no more than rather vulgar. that ColdenDawn-inspired occultists. Thus paragraph 13. but one of them.A.t sorne stage of evolution humanity has taken a wrong turning. that she hacl revisecl IVia[hers' system in accordance with teachings receiverJ from the astral S4asters with whom she believed herself to Lre in cornmr.rany occultists to be a classic of the occidental magical tr:adition. This spiritual deformation has affected the material world. Some of these are very minor and probabiy resuhed from hastiness in work and printers' errors no1 picked up in the proof-reading . and as he was before the prime deviation from the divine plan .i Atiatnirr iirr {-iarderi oj Fdenl is represented on ihe Tree fof [-ife] it is interesting '/v to note that the heads of the Great Serpent that rises out of Chaos only come as far as Tiphareth fthe solar centre on the Tree of Lifel and do not overpass it" To understand the significance of this passage it is essen- tial to grasp the fact that the authentic Golden Dawn tradition attaches much importance to the doctrine of the Fall and believes it to express fundamental psychological and spiritual truths" It is not. Frater V. 'rire Caicien ur Ecien af"ter the Fail'.tion. perhaps more likely. Frater V. there is no doubt that Dion Fortune succeeded in conveying the main outlines of MacCregor Mathers. and the souls of men in their lower aspects at least are grotesque * - perversions of what they were intended to be. of course. the 'spheres' of the Tree of I-ife integrated with his body. past or present. one or two ocld variations from the Golden Dawn qabalah. has assured one of us that Dion Fortune obeyed the advice to the letter. and. representing the unbalanced and destructive forces of 'Chaos and Old Night'. arms extended. Many members of the Fraternity of the Inner Light hacl first becnme aware of its existence as a resilit of ieadirLe one or other of the rnany books written by Dion Fortune.L. elephants and angels) are not flawed and imperfect. This doctrine was expressed by Mathers and his associates in two 'altar diagrarns' of the Carden ofEden.a crowned figure. the Hebrew speliing is sometimes defective.ail [c.Fortune had never *ornpletely mastered Colclen Dawn qaL:alism etr.xpr"runded in this lrook bears no more than a mar:ginal resemLrlance to the traclitional mysticism of Israel. Whiie the version of the qabalah e. The secc-rnci diagraur. . firsr published in 1935. it has developed in a way not in accordance with the Divine plan. Others aie of reai significance and woilld seem to indicate either rhat Dion .I".on a diet of steamed cod and sweet white wine. imprisoned below his feet. and so on .rnica.

was saying that the heads of the Serpent had 'only come as far as Tiphareth'. Dn. the physical body. These.e. the astral and mental 'bodies'had all been distorted. incredibly innocent. whorn Dion Fortune said was a fictional representation of one of her own occult teachers. marriage. In spite of these and other variations fiom the Colden Dawn system The Mystical Qabalah is well worth reading and provides an excellent introduction to the subjects of which it treats.'l:. in this case wirh the magical Mass of the l4tinged Brrl/ designed to unify the spiritual and physical aspects of male-female relationships.we have already mentioned Lytton's Magazine. and remarkably virtuous" The two novels that succeeded this ilrst effort were more successful. Crowley's Moonchild and Brodie-lnnes's l/re fievil'"s Mislre. the Fall had deformed all but the three highest aspects of the human spirit. Taverner and still in print today. Winged Eult was also concerned with sex. She began by writing short str:ries for the Royal publishers and eventually printed at her own expense.itred.Sea Priestess.t i-. cornplete with adventures on the astral piane. James. later published in coliected form as The Secrets of Dr. for exarnple. Other supernatural fiction has been written by practising occultists in a deliberate attempt to convey what they held to be spiritual truths . that only five and not seven of the -spheres' had been affected by the Fall. rejected Lry three different Zanoni. is a man of such intelligence. dealt with the adventures of an 'occult detective' of the type of Le Fanu's Martin Hesselius and Algernon Blackwood's John Silence.s. the Serpent had burst his restraining bonds and had raised his devouring heads up the kingly body so that they threatened the lowest seven of the ten 'spheres'. Maon Magic. as clironicled by his companion. Goatfoot God told the story of a sexually repressed man who found relief ttrrough magic. Her most successful novels from both the literary and cccult points of view.after the deviation. elernental spirits in human bodies. The heroine was over-sweet.wasa fairiy ordinary piece of horror.)irln Fortune vr. enabled them to write works which painlessly convey occult theories to their readers. Many of the authors who have produced this have not themselves been practising rnagicians. In other words. Thus.ln these two books she gave her own diagnosis of what she considered to be the spiritual sickness of modern man .in other words. a man almost as stupid as Holmes's Dr. for exampleThe main fault of the stories is that the characters rarely come alive. the primordial power-aspect of lemininity . Sax Rohrner presented the concept of ancient otherworldly forces. somehow locked outside the main streari of evolutionary development. this was to be achieved by a 152 153 .is pqlgnps thtl rnonl successful of this school. and its posthumousiy published sequel. i. and tlre recovery of his memory of a previous incarnation as an even more sexually repressed l6th century monk. and thus diverted from confbrming to the patterns appropriate to thern. The protagonist. covered a wide field . in his entertaining Brood af the Witch Queen . The experiences of this detective.and her prescription for his recovery. It is a curious fact that over the last eighty or so years there has been a considerable presentation of western occult teaching under the guise of fiction. nonetheless.he fackrrl srr 5he . in the brief extract we have reproduced above. Dion Fortune. c^ntgct urith th*' F. were . and the use of black rnagic to induce suicide. the magic of Mathers and the Colden Dawn. that mankind's deviation was not as Ereat as the Colden Dawn had taughr. vampirism and even a type of necromancy. Tlre first of Dion F'ortune's noveis. but their adoption of the conceptual framework of occultism has.lack Isis. Much can also be learned frorn Dion Fortune's novels and short stories about what their author called 'the Western Esoteric Tradition' .vampirisrn. and magical power that it is difficuit for the reader to achieve that 'willing suspension of disbelief' induced by such masters of the supernatural as Arthur Machen and M.td. Watson and Foirot's Captain Hastings. Demon Lover. Taverner. spiritual goodness.

proper understanding of the magical doctrine of polarity.
Every woman was to be a priestess of the Black Isis, every
man was to understand her force and from the interplay of
the rnale-female polarity was to be created a vortex which

would bring down into rnanifestation the power of the
primordial lsis, Mother of Cods and Men.
During World War II Dion Fortune returned to spiritualism, one of the interests of her earlier years, and
enjoyed a successfui career as a medium. Like other
mediums she had her own 'guicies' and she was a popular
performer at spiritualist meetings, giving demonstrations
of clairvoyance and trance mediumship.
Sorne years ago the occultist and writer Bernard
Bromage, who knew Dion Fortune well at this period of
her life, published in l-ighl an amusing description of the
headquarters of the Fraternity of the Inner Light at this
late stage of its founder's career. According to this, beginners in the study of the occult arts and sciences were dealt
with on the ground floor. lmmediately above them rather
more advanced souls were given what sounds suspiciously
Iike a watered-down version of the Christian mysticisrn of
the latb mediaeval devotio maderns. At the top of the
building, as near to heaven as possible, were the select few
who studied the qabalah, practised magic, and were
privileged to hear the teachings received by Dion Fortr-lrre

from the Secret Chiefs, with whom she was in almost
continuous communication. One of these was the Master
R. - a superhurnan being who will be encountered again
in the next chapter * who seems to have been the source
of much wisdom, including the revelation that the honey
bee had originally been brought tn this world from the
planet Venus.
During the early years of the Fraternity of the Inner
Light its initiation rituals would seem to have been only
slightly modified versions of those used in the Golden
Dawn * the 'Outer Creater Mysteries' ceremony, for
erarnpie. heirg deriver! fror. N4athe.r' Fortal rite
Amendments were introduced and, subsequently, major
revisions. Eventually the Xnner Light workings bore little
154

or no

resemblance

to

those frorn which they were

descended.

Dion Fortune died in 1943. For sorne time the work *:f
her foundation went on in very rnuch the same way as it
had done uncler her leaclership. She had, ho',vever, been
such a dominating personaiity, that it is not sulrprising that
after a few years there was a notable reaction against her
posthumous influence.
trnitiates of her Fraternity began to stuciy the works ol

Aiice A. Bailey, huge volumes dictated to her try the
Masters and conveying teachings whicfr seem to be
advanced developments of those of Madan-re Blavatsky'
Some {nner Light mernbers found these teachings
stimulating and came to hold them in high regard. Others
found thern to have distinct soporific qualities.
{rater on far rnore surprising sources exercised some
influence on the Fraternity" initiates were encouragecl to
change their postures and ways of nlovernent in accord-

ance vriih the Alexander technique, a systern developed by
a New Zealand singer, whictr had attracted some eminent
regarded with scepticisrn by
and is
devotees but was

*

-

both orthodox rnedicine anci such fringe clisciplines as
osteopathy and chiropractice. Tllis was harrnless enough,
but a slgnifieant minority of lnner l,ight rnembers were
irritated when lhey were urged to spend substantial sums
of'money in order to sit with E-meters * crude deviees for
rneasuring the electrical resistance of the skin * in their
hands. T'his was a feature of 'processing', part af the
dianefics and scientology inventecl by the science-fiction
writer L,. Ron Hubbard.
Dion Fortune's grade structr:re also came under attack
because eiernents of 'giamour' * that is, iiiusion - were
discerned in it, probably rightly. At about ihe same tirne
the type of mediumship by wlrich the Fraternity's founder
had usually contacted the Secret Chiefs was abandoned in
favour of a new process, alleged ic be n'luch superior,
(:rerliatinn' 'l'he tpathinoq r,'r'eivpr! h.r thiq
Cal!e.l
mediation were con'/eyed to the memLrership through a
series of 'A.F. Papers'" The contents of these a.re, of

course, copyright and, in any case, the precise nature of
given in thern does not concern anyone save
the teaching{'the
Fraternity. It suffices to say that those
rnernbers of
who read them can, broaclly speaking, be divided into two
groups. The first fincis both rhe teachings and the style

in which they are expressed

repellent, reminiscent of

Catholic pietism at its very worst' The second finds them
of real importance, perhaps sugary in tone, but expressing

profound spiritual truths.
While not a secret society, in the sense of the Chinese
Tongs and brotherhoods of the sort founded by Michael
Bakunin, the Inner l-ight is, like the freetnasons, 'a society

,{ writer who has expressed rhe occult teachings of Dion
Fortune as reflected in an Anglican mirror is the R'ev'
Anthony Duncan, a priest whose Lord of the Dance
(Helios, 1972) is well worth reading.
Almost ali of Dion Fortune's books' save for an enthusiastic study of the soya bean as an article of diet, have
rernainecl contintlously in print throughout the last twenty
years. They have proved a major influence on the rebirth
of magic. It seems certain that they wili continue to exert
such an infiuence for many years to come'

with secrets'. Thus outsiders such as ourselves can have no
detailed knowledge of what has gone on inside it in reccnt
years. There is some reason to believe, however, that in
ihis period there has been 'a reaction against the reaction'
and that today Dion Fortune and her writings are more
esteerned within the Inner Light than they were twenty
years ago.

A certain number of those who left the Society at one
stage or another of its li,fe have also done much to keep
Dion Fortune's teachings alive' Such Lrave either founded
at least one of these uses the old inner
occult groups
Light rituals while others have become independent
occult teachers and/or writers.
One of the most notable of these is 'Gareth Knight', a

-

writer whose Arthurian pseudonym reflects a strong
interest in the Holy Crail and 'the Vlatter of Britain'. This

interest was probably derived frorn Dion Fortune, whose
attitude towards Carnelot and the doings of its knights was
such that she instructed her pupils to study and meditate
upon Malory's Morte d'Arthur.Mr. Knight's first book, a
two volume stucly of qabalistic symbolism, is an excellent
guidetotheGoidenDawn - Mathers - Fortuneversion

of tne qabalah, although, in the opinion of sorne, it is
marred by some elements derived from the post-DionForturie trnner Light - for example, an enthusiastic reference to scientol:gical processing' His later books make
better reading.
156

157

m''

liI
r;ti

i'" of western magic and alchemy. And yet it is only in the last
1 sixty years or so that esoteric cults ofEuropean derivation
i trave begun to play any considerable part in American
'r

I

I

Ritr,tctt Magic

in tke United

England clerics had shown a marked interest in magic,
witchcraft and ghosts; but at the time when English
r occultists were studying the writings of L6vi and Francis
lll'
Barrett their American opposite numbers were confining
their attentions to mesmerisrn, the phenomena of
: spiritualism, and the oriental occultism of Madame
Elavatsky's Theosophical Society. Even P.B. Randolph, a
, mulatto who set up an allegedly Rosicrucian Society and
r,irattempted to expand his consciousness by the use of ether
rtahd other psychedelic substances, seems to have left ritual

SAMI-IAIN

FESTIVAIl-6

p.m.

at

'magic severely alone.

INtrERNO DiSCO

The first serious American student of Levi was a

5 West lgth Street

New York
Tickets $6 in advance

..

. Bar wiil be open for drinks. No

controlied substances
BANDS .

.

It is true, of course, that in the 17th and 18th centuries
Ithere had been one or two ;\merican alchemists * notably
a certain Dr. Chiid , one of the political group known as the
' Rernonstrants and tilat Cotton Mather and other Nerv

-

St#tes

Sun., Oct. 26,

occultism.

piease

. Ivlaster of Ceremonies

!

-'Simon'

Ishtar dancing the flance of the Seven Veils
Convocation by Dr. Leo Louis Martello
Samhain R"itual by Earthstar Coven
Thelemic Rirual by Lashtal Lodge, O.T.O.

'masonic dignitary named Albert Pike
- he was Crand
of the Ancient
Jurisdiction
the
Southern
of
Commander
ond Accepted Rite of Freemasonry.In lBTl he published
his Morsls and Dogmo, over 850 closely printed pages of
qabaiistic, masonic, and occult exposition. ln his preface
to this volume, weighty in every sense of the word, Pike
iexplained-that only hatrf of it was his own work; the
works
r remainder, he explained, he had extracted from 'the

,of the best writers and most philostlphic or el<lquent
,thinkers.' Most of these extracts (reproduced by Pike

,rwithout quotation rnarks) came from the writings of L€vi,
, particularly from the Dogma and Ritual and the I{istory

Festival'. The regular annual celebration of this feast, with
rituals conducted by both disciples of Aleister Crowley
and devotees of modern witchcraft, is symptornatic of the
current importance of the USA as lfte centre of the revival

af Magic.
Whether or not Albert Pike actually practised ceremonial magic, as distinct from reading and theorizing
about it, is uncertain, but there is no doubt that his
opponents regarded him as a magician of the darkest hue,
a veritable worshipper of Satan. Most of these antagonists
belonged to the Catholic Church and it rnust be acimitted

158

159

So, in part, reads a leaflet issued in the fall

advertise New

of

1980 to

York's '5th Annual Pagan Samhaint

or not Pike was a practising magician. "'Discoverie of Witchcraft. shrieks out its excommunications and impotent anathemas againsi the living .three parts. never writes one of his encyclicals until the most essential passages have been dictated to hirn. '. were grossly inaccurate and stolen ifrom L6vi. it is to be presumed always providing that its real author was Satan himself - of course.ilr tl. |. he wrote his own .l If this language was extreme. . He is there before us. we see him and touch him.books. whether .been born an Englishwoman and had pursued an unsucul stage career before abandoning it in favour of trance mediumship. it can safely be assumed that. il{n spite of all this plagiarism Art Magic enjoyed some small success. . Both the first part.land. The Holy of Holies . clreading the dead. the ghosts of the dead Templars haunt the Vatican and disturb the slumbers of the paralysed Papacy which.largely herived from the writings of the French mage. the author of The Devil in the Igth Century also claimed that he had been present at a Black Mass at which the officiating priest had w'ashed his hands in molten lead. every Friday afternoon at three o'clock we come face-to-face and are in direct communication with the Good God (i. however. The final part of the book. one observer of the latter remarked r{hat he was inclined to accept its genuineness as he could thot believe that her acting had so much improved.Mundsne Spiritualism. so was that in which the lunatic fringi of extreme Catholicism denounced Pike and his allegedly diabolical magical activities. originally appeared in 1872 as a serial in the Western Star of Boston. was also 'stolen. and we see no reason why it should not. that one can accept the veracity of Walder's statement. .. . By this time.whichits real author fathered on to a quite imaginary occultist named the Chevalier de 8. that rnost holy and sublime brother dlbert Pike.. She had . which dealt with the iactual techniques of evocation and invocation. As. ttis been placed in our care and nobody can enter it save for the Sovereign Pontiff and the ten members of the Suprerne College. Thus in The Devil in the 19th Century (Paris. this tirne riom the Fourth Book of the Occult Philosophy of Agrippa. the Devil). and that he had reliable evidence r't'liat Queen Victoria lindulged in phallic orgies of the Itltmost depravity. a freemason named Walder is reported as saying that: At Charleston. It was divided into . our omnipotent l-ord. we humbly kiss his Divine hands. . which dealt with the development of tnagic in the orient. It would seem that quite a $ew would-be magicians used Art Magic as a textbook and there is an occult rumour that as late as 1925 a group of : cultists in Detroit were using rituals extracted from it as a means of 'controlling dernons'.) that they had some reason to dislike Pike. better editions of the grimoires161 . Ghost' . FIe speaks to us. and second. 1893). . Its i5uccessor. was published two years later by subscription in an edition of 500 copies. however. Our Sovereign Pontiff. Ghostland and Art Magic. for the latter regarded the Church with stlch a deep loathing that hewas obsessed not only by such comparatively recent events as the ecclesiastical condemnation of Galileo but by the 14th century suppression of the Knights Templar! He wrote that lfrom the tomb in which after his murders he rotted Clement the Fifth howls against the successors of his victims . lf Morals and Dogma can be regarded as an encyclical. for Americans with an inclination to occultism were beginning to become more interested in traditional magical technique and there was a dearth of printed material on the subject. a professional spiritualist medium who produced two books. who in it are regularly visited by Lucifer-God. from the third edition of Scot's and from the Key of Solomon. that he had visited underground workshops burrowed beneath Cibraltar where diabolists in the pay of the tsritish Empire combined the worship of r60 with the manufacture of poisons designed to be used lbgainst good Catholics. subtitled Mundane. which dealt with the qahlah. Sub-Mundane and Super.e. i' Another Arnerican student of Ldvi was Emma iHardinge-Britten.

t.independent Churches ! bodies was the Anglican ii. th-e ti""" Cutft"licae (otherwise known as in Plummer's claimed.."giith *uioni.o.1.i wn Americans t"i"il.].... third-had been the * USA which had been established in 1878 and still survivesaswhatmayberegardedaSagroupofmasonic the Societas u". in"f paris.gut. u tot.died and in 16942. il*"ii"hv Similarly they had taken it -ut"l rt..the not perhaps as iired. the rnain source of a Mather-clerived influence on occultism.".i. Mu..'..as the church had g-io*n of him.01) name on rilit"rot-[ :ntli of-Hindu Magic and with his own almost that an effronterv . 'advertised correspondence courses il.t*"i it*ple had been established had conferred a Mathers 1e13.. ir.ttii.. 'l.. in Rosicruciana to have been connected with the Societas organisation this thirties e*eri"a and in the twenties and il. Later on in [ife ire had become a leading was ...fpius Randolph iAih ..iq"*iu"t. he placed the words onl/ and the'King Ciiii'iis"timon from this he A)iioriira Edition on its front page.i...ui.iholic priest but had rapidlv grown tired of. torn at Boston in 1876.he pro. and. The fourth foundation' more successful than nositruciana in America..occultism and watered-down version of the magic the Golden of =-Th. a journalist named G99rqe Winslow.....*t'ut Dawn' in ..iu."*"t"taii.l9l2 its oredecessors. m*t-oroei businesi from the degenerate derived . i8s"8.*utons.th assumed that its membership would be available to and other magical textbooks had been made piraJe.a-.". nrrblisherwhosearroganceandconceitweresurpassed A'E' waite's .l. the Golden Dawn had spread U.O... hundreds of doliars for herAmericans seern Parisian these of Some *"giouiaig"ity..t ridiculously high grades on some resi.lr'". . Itft""" i.i' tn. Apart charms and occult in . as a secret society and function a) i"r -i""rla that it would to occultism allegiance its of declaration . to high-grade i""fi". on the contrarv.'*ost of them of lTth century Cermany' Faust-books ^ -at noted earlier.k.. i. "i the American Birth Control Leagueleading contrace.. which ii""-Cft"i..t? of these ecclesiastical RosicruUnluersaf Church..-i...^"...norninallyanExernptAdept'hadpaid high-sounding i.i' societv to remale^ membership' ..liJ oppotite nutnbet and responsible were who Rosicrucians . produced a published it.ii.. a.. the second irad been that of P'B' Cross. tit-i*p.t of ..edition .i..ll'Tl!t^ liiiuil-"t. ior itt"Oi.. American '" fourth iii"-so.-. the second was the Ecclesiae RosicruFirst.t.. the :. prolific a Lawrence' de . with of the pirated Crowley's.th.ipect... was much t62 (and fike that of their own society.d I un-O the presiding Archbishopof no less than ililil A....rl of America) .i.W.t bv L."-pi1" n"ti. Rosv the of .".tJ.aeic. or ..n.h.ii'rt... innii nqiino'r Crowlev claimed that one Americanwoman.iioueti r'three "'-itt. ilge.i{.i* jurisdiction: the first had been early in the out had.ption's Sanger... had been ordained as a .t*.ff.rntuty... under the iorieinallv 18. E..i...blic American Rosicruil ."n ft* a Thothtoitre UniteA States before ihe revolt of 1900 and Later Chicago' in ii. He pirated he had written that Fttioiiit i"y to the Tarot and claimed Barrett's Francis of edition new it'[i*t. had founded the Temp]e Rosicruciana Societas masonic .-....i.i"tas Rosicruciana in America was the American North estaUtisn an independent founded by "r. lt had originally been chartered in that doubt no is there i. main driving force of the SRIA was its Supreme Uag*..

those who wanted to participate in its activities began by taking a correspondence course in Rosicrucian Principles (the prospectus for this course assured 'right-thinking men and women' that it would provide them with a 'veritabie treasure-chest of spiritual principles'). and finally took the nine ritually conferred magical grades from Zelator to Prince Chief Adept. As a result of these there was a mushrooming of schismatic magical fraternities. others faithfully abandoned large parts of it and. only six years later. a magical slant. . he was. to hear an inner voice guiding . suffered a series of splits. . the hearing of other-worldly voices' Whether such voices emanate from non-human entities. Enjoying a friendly relationship and a certain amount of cross-mernbership with the Societas Rosicruciana in 164 lAmerica were Golden Dawn temples that functioned more directly under the control of MacGregor Mathers and.the latter was religious editor of the New York Tetegram and in 1934. is. which ran correspondence courses in astrology. of course.is often associated with clair- audience. . became addicted to astral travel.whatever they may have been.Ofiesh. so he claimed. went on to study something called fthe Secret Work of Spiritual Alchemy'.. the year he consecrated Plummer. He believed that the voice he mentally heard was that of 'the Master R.much sought after by western magicians as a means of controlling the astral world's 'Treasure House of Images' . as a child he could consciously manipulate his dream states and this ability . for example. to prove stronger. was. The second section of the organisation included the American College of Astroscience. He had a doliar up on the horses every afternoon. born in 1884. as one who knew him then was later to write. battles. and becoming the organist of a Congregational Church in Fairport. The first of these was the previously mentioned Rosicrucian Church there was its associated Seminary for Biblical Research which gave correspondence courses in religious. 'later. the exact history of which is almost impossible to follow. good or evil. New York. There is no real reason to doubt this. The Society still sur1777 reforrnation vives at the present day and publishes a magazine called Mercury. Case had no doubts.' * one of those 165 . his widow. While the American Rosicrucians claimed that the rituals used for conferring these grades were the so-called Eckharthausen Ceremonies (i. and at one time he seriously considered devoting his entire life to it. The third and most important Rosicrucian section dealt with occultism and magic.' Under Plummer the structure of the Rosicrucians was divided into three separate parts. The most important and influential of these derivative groups was founded by the dedicated occultist Paul Foster Case. reading almost before he could walk. Ethnology and Biology' . The lure of western occultism. like their European counterparts. . He wore his clericals in the newspaper office in New York. a subject for dispute. apart from 'Christian Mysticism and Hermeneutics' . and still others incorporated pieces from other occult systems (from. and other alleged seminaries and colleges which gave instruction in 'the spiritual aspects of Anthropology. or whether they arise from the depths ofthe personal or collective unconscious. Music was to remain an abiding passion. These. surviving documents show that they were the rituals of the Engiish rnasonic Rosicrucians heavily mo{ified in accordance with the teachings of the Golden Dawn. oa sporty old dog. Plummer had probably met Nichols as a fellow journalist . the Esoteric Christianity of Max Heindel) into their teachings. which he studied intensely. Some of them kept fairly to the original Mathers system. the rituals of the of German Rosicrucianism). disagreements and magical . He became fascinated by the tarot. was a precocious child.him in his researches. howeVer.e. beginning to play the piano at the age of three.with. and in time began. of course. which he had discovered as an adolescent. like the Stella Matutina. Case.

You will have a little more of this world's i. also known as the Hungarian Master and usually identified with the l8th century alchemist and adventurer who called himself the Comte de Saint-Cermain.. and employs the services of great Angels. at some time before World War I. in the seventeenth century. the language which is the especial vehicle for His thought. You will not receive any recognition or glory. 1r glorious robe of violet. had for more than a century been the subject of the adulation of those who beliele in Masters and Secret Chiefs. and before that St. This emissary. who obey Him irnplicitiy and love to do His will. Though He speaks all European and rnany Oriental languages. However. 'you tdecide to continue in your musical career you will be .. and still works some of the rituals of the Ancient Mysteries. He works to a large extent through ceremonial magic. and many-coloured robes and jewels. a man who also claimed to have met Rakoczi in person. You will be subjected to forces dif'ficult to withstand.'You will have a relatively happy and easy lincarnation. The i recognition of your contribution to the evo. Alban. He is also much concerned with the political situation in Europe.:. Tests and trials will be with you t.r take them many earth years to find a suitable vehicle for the Vast Soul who will incarnate for the purpose of continuing the great work which you will have started in its 'revised phases for this era. I 167 . who claimed to have met him in the flesh on manyoccasions. told hirn that he was at the great crossroads of his life.itual clairvoyance'. He has a suit of golden chain-mail. Sorrow will walk with you . The Masters await your decision.lution of . Hunyadi Janos in the fifteenth. They wish you to know that hard though your life will be. as He is the last survivor of that royal house.' (that is the 'Master Rakoczi').ord Verulam. and ttrg splendour and de St. In His various rituals He wears wonderful down i.'humanity will sta{.often. Your life wiil be hard.' tn anirugo. He was Francis Bacon. Though He is thus engaged with ceremonial.successful. L. even the names of which have long been forgotten in the outer world. described him as a messenger 'from the spiritual Hierarchy by whom the world's spiritual evolution is guided'. Cermain. who wrote extensively on his life and adventures. gave in l9l I a detailed outline based on 'astral and spir.throughout your incarnation. for it will i. A close associate of Annie Besant. with on its clasp a seven-pointed star in . 'If.goods than most. :. Case made contact with a man whom he believed to be an emissary from the Master. much of His work is in Latin. over it is thrown a magnificent cloak of crimson. Emperor. if you take the other road. Further back in time he was Proclus. previous incarnations and interests of the Hungarian Master: The Head of the Seventh Ray is the Master the Comte in the eighteenth century.superbeings whom Mathers called 'The Secret Chiefs'. diamond and amethyst.' he said. Robertus the Monk in the sixteenth. known to history 166 of it is unsurpassed by anything that we know 'i':. West London. you will be dedicating yourself fuliy to serve humanity and play a irvital part in its evolution for this coming Aquarian Age.:have a detailed knowledge of both Case's personal affairs .t to come only after you have left your physical body. The Masters promise nothing 1'save to give help in all phases of the spiritual teachings. of the activities. and He is the Hungarian Adept of A. Isabel CooperOakley.P. the firsc being in I896at 19Avenue Road. and the growth of modern physical science. The 'Master R.. asserted that he was 'still living in the same body the perennial youth of which astonished the observers of the lSth century'. and sometimes He wears a ''' . who seemed to . and Roger Bacon in the thirteenth. the great Neoplatonic philosopher. Madgme Blavatsky wrote that he 'was certainly the greatest Oriental Adept Europe has seen during the last centuries'. whom we sometimes call the Master Rakoczi. which once belonged to a Roman . Christian Rosencreutz in the fourteenth. Sinnett's book The Occult World. rhythm here. and Annie Besant.and his innermost thoughts and desires.

Percival's rnagazine The World' stage of events the Master R' oncq more-interplace in urn. *ould from some source or another that the Golden Dawn - it - was finished as a vehicle for individual or collective job' with the aid spiritual advancernent and that it was his one' satisfactory more a build to the Masters..*d.n chain-mail and crimson cloak' and dizziness that JuOO*nly materialise to callse exhausting a "urn bleeding at the nose which Mathers found so ll.il T'.p. ''-ili i?:t ...q *:11:: l... to the appearance of the Secret Chiefs and the ""*JG*ttt iiuni*iition of theii itoteri" teachings to him' lnstead he medium of the telephone' calling Case t.iJ.'.courses psychology' 'pondence occult as ln.i". ofriiiut"-ui the performance of h "ii. r#.i. the head of ls."r temple ^. bfu"iirii.'i#it rst. t f. *1'.A. r"[owed three weeks of intense personal instrucCase tion irom the Master..i"til*.iotf.lt..i.. i il . n. Foster Case's foundation is perhaps'. t..'oio*in.nts of Manhattan by appearing not did FIe h-hi. a ladv *h9. .i'. ] ""'"'.h. by'il. His rnanifestation which took ...b..il.uch subjects ^-r .-""J *"u tutt"eded as. *..orinrrc various q"ua-rt. .in order to rrui infot* him that he..next of Return' is' we This 'way Retlurn'. : . the Master.." Davies.. -he in ottrer words the Master R' was telling Dr' Case Theology in Doctorate a acquired seem.-rttuta ciaiiauoiently for many years. i.*.*ttia').....the final analysis you wiil not starve to death'' in -'C*r" a...i healing zuch t outt"t":. ..T.kt".i*".a local group affiliated ritual in participate 6J. fraJ.ii.a...*. ltlJ. at the end of which Dr'scho.ntv five years....iJ# Magick have been active S"T:9:'t:i*]:: present' in the USA from 1916 unril the with an account together .. A.h. l "to^ inuoiui"g the.i.tn occultism of Mathers and Michael Whitty ('Frater American follower' He p-it-"..me Master u' ?. and eventually became the'Creatly of the Honoured Praemonstrator General' of this section contribute to he began time At ub"rrt the same t" H. ...where they may lotl.i. .saic -*tto source. is believed to be able to return to its divine .i ".'' 9i::: l[..ided' to iollow the 'tests and trials' of the *"rt. riceiving spiritual teaching th..1v. 6io*t*v'' ..".... rose rapidly through the ieire-a tnagical grades... was making a personai t" tii..'. of "-. is . task of beginning'the.'" r AT :11:T": l:*.u. i" iii.. .s f ullv c'omplete ?: to rnitted into a Pronaos ."ionlinu"t corres-"*' 1i?1* offering to flourish. .W.magically-orientatedfra*ni.irrli. .. inhabit. such m ti*... way of process by which evolutionary Gnostic old ift" r6p"ra.'""*'*. iif -.' ' l_ "':-'.rt op""lv and publiclv seek new T"t?:::.iinnressiveofthewestern.^ ffi.t in Cute-'s life.:.ol esoteric an Wisdom.ih. spiritual alchemy' and . uSA in oider to supervise the preparation of his "irit incarnation of the e.Thoth-Hermes Temple' of Chicago *"ii"iti"t. his most devoted ..nt of these.t illttit was physical but unalarming' He did not clad astonirtt th.use of colour and sound' li..iil.. Ageless iounaeO the Shrine of the which later changed its name to The Buiiders of 168 Adytum - the Adytum was the holy of holies in more usuallv known-as a B'9I*^ !i"Jti.A inio the ritually conthe Colden Dawn.** : ::15:l given in later chapters' [i".1".... ...il."ognised the voice as identical to that which he . rituals.

belie] thit 'the natural sexual act could be an p. li{unOolprt taught his disciples how to create and manage oiwhat he sometimes called 'nerve-aura.il. and of these devout practisers of a simpie' but became affiliated l7t .t in the Austrian army.i.d to haue aquired his techniques in the Middle .J-oiti. long before hectic sexual activity can ue any effect upon his physical The iirst western ociuliists who openly advocated the sexual maglc ano mysticism were P'B'.u. . .12 Sex Mogic The association of sex and religion. hinted sexuality: union of male and female knows 'this secret perfectly that he and principles. ' how he ought to use a wife ' ' ' .iun' Lake Harris. account' uut.ttecl "r *uio..-fr. A century . the rnystagogue of whom Dr' lfier"riG or G coro. 1 'A.t . . even in Euiope.' Thornas Vaughan.#..J. Even the grosser asp€cts . .s detaits of a group which sought to find semen sw€at' upon working rets of transmutation by of the i. to most westerners - almost Chiistianity's use. Itto a new and higher unity' The 'current' are female and male .o"ery throws some doubt upon the entire geterections'-let or-V. fruit from the composition of i.i.^n".tnl..lttt"ng.ii"i*. can be applied to magical and mystical purposes' r.. I.. uriti. he paid men i. system was based on the.thefunda- *"id""'"fArabicblood. . one of the members p *ut un oifi.d in such a manner that it could be likened todesAgrippa Cornelius later u..oor-fution were-of interest to some alchemists' and a centurv records and lSth cslrtury lGerman based on l6rn .ilurO ioputation as 'full of magical endowment' and' not long afteiwards.'' .. the idea that the oigut. is the copulation for the litft.t urto. I found the road to other knowl.idea that during female psychic and physical secretions und rnut" . when the regimental surgeon was.i"iprt's St: i..niuf principle of the White.i of prayer'.i'as"nd'p.i*'unJ'ttit.ne eiacutations.-.i . Li".h* UoOifv secretioni. called themselves to This Uy tfre lntensity of their autosexual activity ' tt"tv - it"ut the soldiers who had reduced "* [.. sacraments seems t.i-ii". On. . I made love to ' andlearned .. . the pious Muslim or Hindu' iet the concept is widespread in both lndia and China and and.. spiritual.g. and health' .of w]1e i1 one of its two p"i"*t. the mystic Aratus wrote that: the As the physical union of male and female leads to and interior the so each. .]il.."ii*t i.tu. iirtit. life itseif is nothing but a Sexual symbolism was in common use amongst a alchernists and some of these undoubtedly adopted 170 al interpretation of such alchemical phrases as 'the ding ofihe King and Queen'.* i.Randolph' mentioned in the last chapter. the lTth centuryatalchemist' of aspects mystic . and is appointed production of fitting fruit of the divine life' Rosicru.meO must 'flow' properly if both weli-being' physical and rnental..itu tf *nom .s oi mastutbation' The affair was discovered - it if-r. subse- with some dervishes and ouentlv I iuf.rl. male and female soul.n Dawn was such a fervent disciple' il.. hir ro*rnuncl to supply him with semen obtained by so .Magic of Love..a uu Christopher Mclntosh in his study of Rosicruthe """1. .i on magic. .'i-irrn. rn."i .iation of male and female.rt... e healthy man ceases-to be able to . signs of occult sexual teachings centuries' the through practices can be traced of Thus in 141 I a group of French heretics were accused rroiaing th. night was loved by' a dusky ' .oiti* thus i"-ln.tu. ltto.

.Orowley was initiated into the OTO and given the splendid . sometimes blasphemously . concerned with sex magic. the teaching of Hermetic and Masonic Our Order .e. The next three grades pseudomasonic lere . discovering the ELIXIR OF LIFE.i involved. I obtained additional 'clues'* little threads of suggestion. the conof the secretions part the mingled of :mption of some rite.(but meaningless) title 'ireland. conquests.an OTO was organised in nine grades' The ' rst three bore a notable resemblance to the orthodox labyrinths of knowledge'. the participants in female ale and to as 'taking the sacrament' Under Reuss the OTO spread into several countries' The extraordinary thing. The OTO originated in Cermany. trictly speaking.one of them. however.. Even Reuss part taken have reported to occasion on one is only thimself in sexo-magical activities.i. led my sodl into i'" tion. He would be told to choose a articular deity for the purpose in accordance with whatver magical object he had in mind. . Ellic Howe has shown with a large number of spurious and clandestine quasimasonic lodges. The first western occult fraternity to openly advocate and teach sexual magic was the Ordo Templi Orientis the Order of Eastern Tempiars . Entered Apprentice. ln the seventh lesrei sbme thioretical teachings were given to the iniaie. is that almost no member of the 'Reussian' OTO seems to have practised sex magic as ldistinct from talking and writing about it. r. the water of beauty and perpetual youth. amystic . lf. all the secrets of Nature. theuniversal soivent. was a larody of the Holy Royal Arch. ' . all the symbolism of Free. In an article published in 1912 Reuss claimed that: the KEY which opens up all secrets.r. namely. Craft and Master Mason. which he called sympneumata' An adaptation of sympneumata has been widely used by modern sorcerers to ichieve sexual.r. In the eighth degree he was taught a sort of magical tasturbation. The man then increases his rate of breathing and concentrates his imagination on the sexual organs of the woman. This usually involved the magician in what was .sublime and holy magic. Certainly Harris's disciple Laurence Ofphant taught just such a sexual-pneumatic method. or celestial alkahest. - possesses sexual magic. I became. masonry and all systems of religion. t72 . most of whom t73 . and acquired a modest following. he ted io achieve wisdorn he would take Athene as his as his sexual maginary. Th" G. a mistress of n eritirh 'Crowley. as a result of the activities of Theodor Reuss. . being instructed to visualise a god or .^_ tn tire ninth grade the OTO initiate was taught an extenbion of this teChnique which used the method in associaion with heterosexual activity. This involves the would-be occult seducer breathing in exact unison with his intended victim for three to five minutes and then powerfully contracting the muscles of his rectum for a few seconds. ...as Mr.i_. respectively.f. somewhere abor'rt the year 1906. actually Thomas Lake Harris invented . This is believed to induce intense sexual arousal in l'erred the victim.. Only the last three were. and the philosophers' stone . Under the leadership of Reuss the OTO was surprisirigly frank about the nature of its teachings.u chakra and astrally links the two people covered partner. and this teaching explains of. this situation was transformed in 1912.usually known as the oT0.partner. without excep- . an occultist connected .or perhaps redis* a breathing technique which he called 'archnatural respiration' and may well have practised a sexual technique which involved a copulating couple breathing together in unison. This supposedly brings into action a psychic centre called the *utudttu. for example. when Aleister .lrasonic gracles ' of 'supreme and Holy King of loni and all the Britains (slc) Within the nctuary of the Cnosis'. for example._-_-Lr ^. which. section of the OTO was established under the nominal leadership of Leila Bathurst.

The exhaustion should be complete. . Experts may push this practice to the point of the death of the victim. ibntinued his activities until his death in 1923. if the work be skilfully executed. In all these. The most interesting of these was Saturn-Gnosis. as well as didactic matter derived from R'euss these works also contain sorne short chapters in which Crowley outlined his own sexual interpretations of such occult matters as blood sacrifice and vampirism. led by magician who called himself Cregor A' Gregorius' This 'oup taught a number of eccentric sexo-magical pracii.tivities were curiously mingled at this period of his life' hus in l9l7 he organised an'Anti-Nationalist Co-operave Congress'. although small lodges and chapters 175 . iorna.r. exhausts the quarry by a suitable use of the body. thus obtaining not merely the physical strength. initiates were instructed to vary ihe positions they adopted during sexual in^tercourse in ance with the angular relationships of the planets with the sun and rnoon.uJ.t of ihort treatises upon them.. Witfr the Nazi suppression of occult associations the onlv active OTO migicians in the world . likely that Crowley and Reuss would have falien out over which of them was to direct the OTO if It seems communications between the two magicians had not been interrupted by the outbreak of World War I. It is unlikely. this the Cerman OTO lodges were in'continued lisarray until. while the supposed aim of the conference its Wis the encouragement of international brotherhood. The latter he associated .with oral SCX: The Vampire . For a short period in 1925 there was a empotu. a few minutes should suffice to ' produce a state resembling. .uccess.Reuss smilingly pocketing the fees . Crowley was very impressed with Reuss's sexual teach- ings. probably on the instructions of his miiitary duneriors. in spite of a stroke.y unity with Crowley recognised as'Outer Head if ttre OiOer'. Reuis spent the years of l9l5-21 in Switzerland' Allegedly he earned his living as a freelance journalist' More probably he was a German spy . - 1'. and not far removed from. Felkin. fl'.apart from Crowley and a few isolated individuals round in Canada and the United States. ln spite of the essentially political nature of this ruite successful congress it was accQmpanied by the tion of a new OTO lodge into which delegates were itiated . for. it. And this is thoughi by some to partake of the nature of Black Magic. they were com* pulsoriiy dissolved. the chief of the Stella Matutina."for example.iiAft.anticipating the conclusions of several Freudians . that Dr. without himself entering in any other way into the matter... tfr. regarded the OTO. most usually the mouth. which he joined in 1913. He worked lhard to establish the OTO in America but without rnuch of the order hiig. as anything more than another masonic association. incorporating them into his Magick'and writing a These were intended of the higher grades to initiates for manuscript circulation nri*U. outbreak of the war. and most particularly in the tractates Liber Agapi and De Arte Magica. but imprisoning and enslaving the soul' This soul then serves as a familiar spirit. Crowley had gone to the USA in the auturnn were to be of l914 and sbent mosi of the next six years in that country. for example. after the Nazi rise to power.he had worked for the Prussian political police in the 1880s and had been t74 l counter-intelligence activities soon il. . of the OT0.1' were probably unaware of the eccentric sexo-rnagical tech- niques taughi in the higher grades. this ended in much quarrelling and the tablishment of a number of associations claiming an fO derivation.and :ertain activities discreetly described as 'orgiastic'' rIn l9l8 Reuss published a German-version of the ic Mass (see Chapter One) and. Crowley revealed in only stGtrtty veiled forms the techniques of the OTO. His magical and political . iuolvea in Cerman eal purpose wis the conversion of 'poisonous antilerman sentiments into something more fair to iprmany' .rrl 1l il.

lexposures'. The latter gave Crowley's alleged rnurder of young magician (of which he was totally innocent) much ibellous coverage.l931. Russell. sexual and rerwise.rnagic. and'within a short time Russell had a larger American following than was ever achieved by Crowley himself. Illinois Like most other people. For a time the OTO was dormant. then head of the German OTQ and at one time an associate of Crowley. The 'Abbey'.minally existed under the leadership of W. . had been the scene of much magic. largely lies and half-truths. Crowley had been entertained so badly. a popular and widely advertised esoteric fraternity whose publicity material has appeared in pulp magazines since the 1920s. . We understand that he 'later amended or withdrew this material. He decided. first appearing in . used the syrnbolism almost all taken over lock-stock-and-barrel frorn the Golden Dawn. As time passed Jones became exceedingly odd in both his that . a somewhat dilapidated farmuie. not to be the subject of one . Thus Russell's pupils were taught to the same Banishing Pentagrams as those used by hers and his followers. had appeared the-London Sunday Express and been picked up by the earst press. After Crowley's departure from the USA he left the American OTO under the control of C'S.but he did come into contact with the 'Crowleyan' OTO and included some material drawn from that source in early versions of AMORC correspondence courses. was rnuddled. the founder of AMORC ('Ancient and Mystical Order Rosae Crucis'). Jones. Chicago. It closed after a series of journalistic in .that he felt in real danger of death by starvation and had retaliated by putting an evil spell on the German magician's favourite cockerel . The advertisement. aspirants to initiation are tracted to short-cuts. and sorted it out to his own satisfaction by interpreting all qabalistic diagrams on the principle that they had mistakenly been drawn upside down. now and then opening it wide to dispiay his magical abilities to surprised pedestrians. Spencer Lewis. promised: A SHORT-CUT TO INITIATION THE CFIORONZON CLUB Box 123. a :young occultist who had for a time been an inmate of the ieUUey of Thelema' run by Crowley in Sicily during the iarly 1920s. but Jones continued to run Bome sort of occult fraternity for the next twenty years or .were established here and there' On one occultist who later became well-known he did exert some slight influence. It is only fair to say that by this time Crowley and 'Recnartus' were on extremely unfriendly terms as the result of a visit the former had paid the iatter. however. symbolising the triumph of matter over spirit. but drawn upside down.T. 176 A spell in hospital followed.'The H.he wanted to found an occult empire. and. Lewis was atrtogether too slippery a fish to be caught in Crowley's net . raccording to L€vi such a Pentagram was a symbol of black . originally called the Choronzon * according ub but later changing its name to the GBC of God" Brotherhood for 'Great o one source this stood attenthe to was first brought unlikely sounds vhich on of American occultists by a series of advertisements in Occult Digest. Russell's fraternity. and to some extent inverted. To make this clear to all he took to walking the streets wearing nothing but a raincoat. that in l92l he obtained a charter frorn R'euss and that as late as 1929 he was in friendly correspondence with 'Frater Recnartus'. 177 . although it still . a symbolism by Crowley. a man for rnan in question was whose magical expertise he had developed much respect. They were taught a simplified. Some time later he clecided that his occult knowledge was so vast that for him 'all veils were open'. for example. version of the magic of the Golden Dawn and the OTO. Smith' The next serious attempt to establish OTO-derived lsexual magic in the USA was made by C'F. opinions and his behaviour. It is significant.

driJd and used as a tisane. it will be remembered.' * I 935..is had been founded by W.g"n to attend the Mass and to take an .Crowley'i Magick in general and OTO sex magic in particiular. Texas and Mexico. itut.hallucinatory partner trance in which the magician sees his or her sexual highest The us an atp. reporters interest in the '. -u[i.u. women twenty and thirty years younger than himself began to 'take an rest' in him.tti. A few days later he set off for a short holiday in the rMexican border town of Tijuana..the 'magical masiurbation' of the OTO by Karezza.peisonal and occult activities of Smith. for which Mr. most occultists regard the inverted Pentagram as p"ttuining to the world of devils rather than to the angelic Russell taught the oTos sexual but with some curious variations of his own - tiogJo*i.'of the Cnostic Mass. This. One of his pupils.O not only to arouse the libidos of those who consume them but also to magically attract the right partners to satisfy those libidos.T' Smith.. a mys- trriou. In the mid-thirties Smith moved to California and was lgiven a job by the Southern Californian Cas Company.this and the him in his hotel room.. The friends of the waitress noted that she had 'stars in her eyes'. tf. In the 1940s Mr. Similarly. including a sexual interpi.A the portion to cool il:t*t first results became apparent.b. secret society with a charter which bore the (forged) signature of Wynn Westcott oj the Golden Dawn' in t[* iatJ'eOs and early '70s Mr' Culling published a number of books on sexual magic. M. Soon there were approaching a hundred members of the lodge and Smith began to carry out public celebrations . builing prepared himself by drinking a pint of damiana- '1r. of the order praciised normal heterosexual activthe psychic energies they believed to be released iii. the CBC taught. proved satisfactory to both parties. obtain both mystic illuminations and material benefits.""ipGt" ctrasiity. Here he quickly became rhcquainted with a 33 year old waitress who agreed to visit . These are substances which are f. -Iones' an .. notiUiy tn. rlprobably as the result of the recommendation of a fellowthat lnember of the OTO already in the employment of founded gaseous magicians the "body. ln 1938 the GBC was officially either closed down or put into abeyance by its founder. a fragrant shrub which g-*r"t"iaOy throughout California. con- iinuio to operate at lJast one GBG lodge' Mr' Culling also heacled the Or<ler of the R'eforrned Palladium.ruihrd the 'borderland state'.i "t*g t"o il. however' a professibnal asirologer narned Louis T' Culling. Shortly afterwards the Agap6 lodge and began to actively propagate . Neither could litand close examination and a devastating newspaper I exposure followed.un b. should be persisted in until one or both participants in the act .certainly. Smith almost lost his job and three Agap6 initiates resigned from the lodge' Iquarters of 179 . ot'. preliminary practice of Alphaism (i't: . and interested himself in piv. aphrodisiacs."t of the 'I{oly Cuardian-Angel'' giua. C.uutq. These were members of the Californian Agap6 lodge ol the OTO. r. a sort of. and those that followed it.successor as chief of the North American OTO .^ flavouied liqueur. This last was an error. when tre wal Og largespoonfuls of the dried leaves in a cupful of water' drank it' Ten davs of . Her first visit. while the near septuasenarian sex magician conducted himself in a manner ireditable in a min of any age.h. of 1962. Culling began his experimenting with damianatwo he boiled day Each years age.o..n infused in brandy and drunk as a tonic' in . Culling was on friendly terms with rOTO magicians of a more authentically 'Crowleyan' Variety than those with whom he had been associated in the GBG. or srnoked in a pip.S.i. a member of the order since 1915 and.ii.prganisation which hardly existed between 1920 and circa . or so Mr' Culling reported rin his book Sex Magick.iution of the Chine se I Ching. and the replacement of. prolonged sexual intercourse without orgasm. The magic hirb which particularly aroused Mr' Culling's interest was damiana.

d*i. and Parsons' girlfriend. when he was there. evoking Bartzabel.itonat relationships soon caused trouble and Parsons'wife transferred her affections to Smith and bore him a child. umed. The conclusion he arrived at was a surprising one' W. directing his followers by postal cornmunications from'England.don't know anything at all.'utti i' named after him . On one occasion..a large yacht. . was a fervent admirer of Crowley and an enthusiastic practitioner of sexual magic' He persuaded S*ittt of the desirability of establishing an 'Abbey of Thelemal - a sort of OTO commune - and the two occultists rented an enormous house and rnoved into with a dozen or so of their fellow magicians' it :F. and curing for example.pro$ramm€. however. .. divine identity' Smith carried orit his chief's.T. - Ffrs unfortunate expbriences. tn any case W. he heard a faint voice crying :t me go free'. ftunai"g It ou. Exactly why he became involved with the OTO is uncertain. 181 .. so much so tr do not knov whether I writi accurateiy about myself' In fact l.{e1l1tTil19 . converted to Crowley's Magick' According 180 l. He became a scientist of '. instruc- tions. financial and emotional. some money.the psychic ilities of Frater Scire. Alas. Srnith must forthwith become only norninaliy the leader of the Agap6 lodge of the OTO. but the incarnation of a god. presumably with the intentof attacking him.for FBI. ter that night. So successfully that the yicht had its sails torn off in a squall off Miami"and was forced to return to port. the spirit of Mars. and I am no better infr:rmed at this moment. which god was uncertain some Red Indian deitY Crowley. Parsons... They set up a joint financial operation .to which Parsons contributed most of the money. Farsons recited a magical formula to release the imprisoned spirit and quietness his own account.il..mplishmenis the art of knife-throwing.'Allied Enterpriseb' .l. and go on a 'Great ivl19ig{ R"tir"rient'. however. s*itn was not a human being.no doubt quite lly . who sent him into the Agap6 lodge in order that might ndestroy the menace of black magic in lifornia'."o*puny with Parsons and achieved fame in. Scire eventuattl 11c11e. This would supposedly reveal to Srnith his real. spent little time at the 'Abbey' and. I have ill understood your dealings with me these many years. mused . to Farsons. perhaps. growing gigantic tomatoes. perhaps because of his difficuities with Parsons..and did much of the basic research work on rocket fuels which trltimately led to the success of the American Apollo . for a time at least.many other fields than magic * inventing'hn anti-radiation compeople of bound... however. far from any apotheosis taking place he suffered some sort of psychological breakdown' Before ietiring into obscurity he described his condition in a bitterly unhappy letter to Crowley: . ire clairvoyantly discerned the astral body of Smith eaking into Parsons'room.. i' P"rront employed his magical krrowledge against his iformer friend. administered it in an unintelligent way' Crowley.and investigated the situation by the curious device of casting Smith's horo- scope. who was clairvoyantly gifted had to take Scire's word for this. he pinned the stlt Smith to the door with a dagger. Parsdns too had his triumphs. - .i'. he was acting as an agent The Californian OTO was saved from extinction by a r. became conce-rned. Parsons was particularly impressed with. A complicated series of events followed which ended with Parsons almost penniless and er Scire in possession of . for example.i. Jtck Parsons. who joined it^in 1939' Parssns. Meanwhile a new magician appeared on the scere' We shall call him Frater Scire. . Uorn in 19i4.-f . Possibly he was. This success has only temporary. ' " . Scire included amongst his many . . Smith. I am cornpletely empty. Frater Scire and Parsons extended their collaboration rom magic to money.Iifelong sinus infections.

He did.. . we hid the secret knowledge' ' ' ' We to make a door out of hell. in its hour.iiuiti. Of lut. in myths and legends . . On mountains and secret heaths.Crowley was not impressed.iiurop".r"i. :. .qrmer. Until Farsoni' death in a laboratory explosion in 1952 the Agap€ lodge continued a shadowy existence and varioui ittenipts were made to attract new recruits -' a correspondenCe coutt. . who Crowley's papers and magical .*1'u9ttr. the rack. .:b. living on the East Coast. subject to the approval. of. .At about the same time there was a small revival of A' Gregorius' of 'ser. 'Out"t effectiue . .e' spiritual representative: ' This is to authorize Frater Hymanaeus Alpha (Captain Crady L. and the strongest. .utiists. Crowley amplified this authorization in the following month: .au1911atf yl:h^T1'-":Y:?:1':f ' btner o. We have knowledge before that will save a damned soul out of the lowest hell' ' ' ' After Crowley's death the world leader of the OTO t82 * Head of the Order' .O inOiuiauats and groups who were situated in ofJhe i. Long ago . Partly because. cut off from both the Californian OTO and the . .ual magic in Cermany and 'Gregor .i" 'personality. This witchcraft was of a somewhat different nature frorn the modern witchcraft which we shall be describing in a iater chapter' lndeed.i. These presents are to appoint . .e gathered the covens of The Witchcraft. We held the Agap6 love feasts. in 'witchcraft' was advertised. man became separated from us.t1. . . . - F.carrying in our hearts the secret seed that could. ' . . so we do not know what he would have thought of the later occult doings of Parsons. In a "preliminary initruction' on witchcraft. charter a Sviss^section 6TO *fri. McMurtry) to take charge of the whole work of the Order in California . for example. resumed his .lir. a German who had moved to New York after isuf f ering Persecutio n + ..i chief.. suffering the flames of the stake. it is said: We are the oldest religion in the world. he remarked to another disciple: 'I get fairly frantic when I contemplate the idiocy of these louts'' Crowley died in 1947.immediate associates. years this organisation seems to have experienced some financial difficulties and to have :become less active.. .upheavals in the Agap6 lodge.in the United States of America and his authority is to be considered as Ours.. . lbublishing German translations of many of Crowley's books. .i. Theie were regarded with disapproval by Karl Cermer. . for Parsons witchcraft rur n6 more than a slightly watered-down version of the orgiastic occult theology of the OTO. the lash . In fairy tales and playing cards. revision or veto of our Viceroy Karl Joharlnes Germer 183 . In 1946. reaiem the world. .Sututn-Cn-osis.h. mentioned by us previously.was Karl Germer. . he embarked upon a series of complex rituals designed'to achieve the birth of a chilct who would be an incarnation of the Scarlet Woman of the Apocalypse. From the life and love of our living religion..t some years following the death of Jack Parsons the ionly really ictive OTO magicians in California were a '|:folLow of Crowley named Crady McMurtry and his Mr. . Partlv this was because of his th.robes' inherited also if. He made demons and infused them with the breath of his life' ' ' ' We waited.did not end his interest in magic. This appointed him iirowley's 'Caliph' .. . McMurtry had received a '. . however.r. lr9: :i :n :) Tl: : Y"1' :r"l. . . possibly written by him. . h" *u. he turned to dead gods. . for exampie.. subject to the approval of Frater Saturnus [Karl Germer].ii. We were with the first man and we shall be witfr lfre last. . to gather the elect ate "o*"the Days of Wrath. in lonely and desolate Pllc9s w.ft flourished throughout the 1950s and 60s. his legally changing his name to Belarion Armilus Al Dajjal Anti-Christ. ilcharter' from Crowley in March 1946 at the time of the l. . ' ' Crady Louis i McMurtry IXo OTO as our representative. for example.

. It Regardie. and in 184 185 .n Dawn or 'Crowleyan' traditions if Dr' Resardie had never written any books' I"srael Regardie was born in 1907 of Jewish. CotO. OTO-derived sexual magic has becorne widespread amongst both European and American occultists. 13 The Magical ExPlosion is only since the 1950s that the Western magical revival.. While still a child he was lif. and here he read captivated by Crowlcy's Equinox' il.andi. iar.nin to do in one short chapter is to outline the achievefiJnts of some of those contemporary occultists who have *ther played a major part in the occult revival or. .uru there has been an occult boom. in one Way oi another. has corne to he attention of the general public. to Crowiey. a'magical explo- ion'. To give a detailed account of this cultural ution would iequire many thousands . *u". McMurtry. at long drawn out process of occult evolution begun by lliphas L6vi over a century and a quarter ago. is not.na h"t utt magicians approve of Dr.il to the USA.the an Empire.perhaps iranytensof thousands . Regardie and his inions . there would i..of words. was wrot. fat fewer practising Western occuitists working in fiitft"rift.parents ing in London's East End. Over the last 25 or bty. Israel Francis Dr. typify certain aspects of it' place in the r. fnat the rebirth of occult magic has taken writings of the to attributed largely very be 'ay it has can of course.. a! occultirst of both. although even today his accent bears dbme traces of his Anglo-Jewish origins. Allthatwecaneven . who not only failed to name an heir-apparent as head of the OTO but refused to allow any new initiations into the It seems possessed higher grades of the order.likely that lvlr. Germer died in 1962. received friendly replies. Nevertheless. as will be mentioned in the next chapter. Since then.literary and organizing ability' would have succeeded in rebuilding the American OTO in the period 1952-62 if it had not been for Karl Germer. of a sort not experienced since the later years of.indeed some of them have an antipathetic rititude towards him and them.

in other words. from the Book of the Law. Except for some rninor omissions. young as he was. the Tree of Life and rhe Caiden of Pomegranotes. notably the sid!-lectures knbwn as Flying Rolls. the latter with the qabalah.Jun. greeting sardie's books with enthusiasrn and arguing that much ." with their own inclinations. which many consider to be minor occult masterpieces. this compilation sold very slowly" r87 'dlmost . to th Langford-Carstin and Dion Fortune expressing full I with their respective positions' Unfortunately f. these contained all the irtrnaterial circulated in the pre-1900 Golden Dawn' For years. they had already been published in a condensed form in the pages of Crowley's Equinox' Between 1938 and 1940 the Aries Press of Chicago pub- lished four volumes of Golden Dawn material edited by Regardie. the OTO. using alchemical a detailed account of the 'Mass of the Holy Ghost' . ded to break the oaths of secrecy he had taken and to ake Mathers' rituals and occult instructions available to iall.t*nt tf. print. Magick in Theory and Practice.of its 'i*uny e*.Jult secrecy was unrlecessary. the sexual magic of the OTO' Regardie's revelations met with a mixed response' A repreientative of the Alpha et Omega. Mrs.system than that which he had derived from owley. Cappain E'J' Langford-Carstin. the rites of the the events of Crowley's own Colden Dawn. in spite oi Regardie's close relationship with Crowley they ilpr. withdrawing some instruc'. fairly inactive. A representative of the ella Matutina. managed to ld both points of view at the same time and wrote. Regardie.and from the Golden Dawn. oicult secrecy. 'Ihey made clairn to hold fantasticaliy hish occult grades. " Crowley had always wanted to write books on magic r.of but ieemed to have failed to have fuliy 'their attainm-etit' irnderstood the cornplexities of Mathers' system' Even more alarmingly they were engaging in an unintelligent . who . After all. but his purely magicalwritings are largely incompreheniible to the reader not equipped with a OetlneO knowledge of Mathers's qabalism. 'set a figantic question mark against the validity. he affirmed.rtune took the opposite point private 1928 returned to Europe to become the magician's secretary and occult PuPil.ilenc. was all-important' Dion 186 of view.tampering wiitr ttre system. He was not particularly impressed with most of the itiates he met.vhich could be read and understood by the ordinary reader.. time Crowley was.tionat minuscripts from circulation and revising others in 'i. a notably the Stella Matutina. He never succeeded in doing this. Regardii frad the discrimination to discern which particulai elements of 'Magick' were drawn from.o.e letters were inserted in the wrong envelopes ' ' ' When writing his books Regardie had assumed that the ii dis. publishing and selling copies of his magnum opus. from the occult point of view. wrote to him demanding that he should never again mention the name of the Colden Dawn in ry*bolit*. Nevertheless the young Arnerican put his years with Crowley to good use." pute Golden Dawn system rather than 'irowleyanity'. he was too busy attempting to get enough f"nds to live on. and letters to his icattered disciples. claims which. making rapid progress rough its grades and acquiring an even fulier knowledge 'MJthers. was admitted into the order. in spite or perhaps because . He wrote with great clarity and simplicity on yoga. in Regardie's own w5rds. The former work dealt with the techniques of ritual magic. The Tree of Ltfe gives. respectively..n where the master had failed' In The pupil succeeded 1932 Regardie published two books. acquiring a profound knowledge of the Colden Dawn magical and qabalistic systems. presumabiy a schizophrenic. although he made several efforts to c1o so. lt would seern that..Golden Dawn ind its derivatives were defunct' He of representatives sorne met his mistake when he in 1934 and Hughes. und life' "u.regarded the Golden Dawn's synthetic version of the esoteric tradition as being of great spiritual value. to be able to give *riing Regariie the practical instructions in ritual magic which lhe"latter desired. he argued. At th.

. A . that they are all based on literary sources . they refuse to rigidly study and practise one esoteric system but rather create a personal synthesis in which one system is enriched by elements derived frorn others. nor that they do not number amongst their members occultists who have travelled far along the road of rnagical attainment. One of the ways in which these 'Sparean' sigils are usecl . ln the body of the vase is paper sigil with a inscribed . Paterson.twenty years after its first publication it was still in print and was availatrle from London's leading occult book- arly intrigued such eclectics is that which was evolved. Jungian analytical psychology. the instruciional article on the method of divination known as geomancy. Some of these latter found the traditional Western magic embedded in Crowley's system to be of more interest to them than either OT0 sex magic or the new religion of Thelema and diverted their attention to the Colden Dawn. presurnably sparked off by the publication of eccentric but talentecl artist Austin Spare. and the 'orgonomic functionalism' of Wilhelm Reich have been incorporated into Western magic by one group or another. $pare was born in 1889. He then uses the vase as an artificial vagina. uSilver Star'.. largely on the basis of his own psychic intuitions. The sigils used by Spare for this and similar purposes iiwere constructed by a method of his own devising. whom he believed [o be an 'heredilary witch' and whom he claimed to have seen transform herself at will from an aged woman to a young girl. of course. This does not mean. A system which has particl88 ings appeared in the Equinox. at the moment of orgasm visualising the desired result as strongly as he can. Wbs for a brief period a member of the Aleister Crowley's magical order. a Mrs. somel'. that what is taught by these organisations is valueless. for example. must then be sealed during the moon's first quarter.l particular wish of the form the in symbolic expressing magician. to forrn the sigil. by the seller.or occult diagram l. that is. and techniques and theories drawn from such diverse sources as tantric yoga. with its 'consecrated sigil'. all vowels were crossed out. Eventually these individual practitioners of cerernonial magic began to come together and form new occult brotherhoods in both Britain and the USA.sentence expressing some desired result or event was .'written down in the briefest possible forrn. then the remaining letters were cornbined. such as those written by the late W.times.R. Butler. Present-day magicians working in the Golden Dawn tradition have been no exception to this rule. much after the rnanner of a Vici'{ll. he had seen her demonstrate the power to 'materialize thought' . operator. and some of his draw- John Symond's biography and C. as Spare in interest "beautiful the magicai arts - asserted.primarily the writings of Israel Regardie. In the eariy 1950s there was a mild revival of interest in ritual magic. Spare invented his owtl version of (maie) sexual magic lwfrlcn has intrigued some magicians but to others has appeared ludicrous.liment or . but not one of them has produced evidence to satisfactorily confirm these claims.. All occultists tend to be eclectic. The vase. . . therefore. a one-time pupii of Dion Fortune. to think of something and to lsimultaneously induce in other persons the illusion that 'they saw it physicaliy present before them. It was she who first aroused his not surprisingly if. lt is probable. They studied Regardie's writings and more popular occult manuals which taught simplified Colden Dawn techniques. All letters .E. r89 . The price of second-hand copies of the latter's books began to rise and individual occultists began to experiment with the techniques taught in those books. While still an adoiescent Spare became friendly with an elderiy fortune-teller. the son of a London policeman.' torian rnonogram.r which duplicated earlier letters in the sentence and. they iliustrated. Sometimes such fraternities have claimed to be 'derived from the Golden Dawn'or 'older than the Colden Dawn'. Camrnell's memoir of Aleister Crowley. lt invoives the manufacture of a vase with a neck which exactly fits the erect phallus of the placed a piece of parch.

Fixed ideas of the 'beautiful' and the 'good'. untapped by the'ordinary human being whose conscious thinking blocks the 'It' from achieving its full potential. which had become assoqiated with and. serve to imprison the It and to cut the individual off from 'new pleasures without fear'. one ceased to believe in the truth of Marx's theory of surplus value one should absorb all the 'emotional charge' that has become attached to that theory in the course of a century or more of agitation and revolution. for example. As the supposedly possessed 'It' is of supernormal powerg. showing the artist as dreamer 'magician. it can manipulate the occultist's'environrnent tq'materialise' the wish embodied in the sigil. it was possible to attract a desired reality by supplying a'space'which it could fill' He extended this method of 'occult voidness' to a technique designed to turn bitter disappointments to personal advantage. Spare held that self-exhaustion could be used as a means of rnagically obtaining one's desires. The sigil. he argued. (Pen drawiirg by Austin Spare. lf. a sort of psychological vacuum. this can be overcorne by sexual union with those whose physical appearance one finds grotesque or repellent. 190 curious self-portrait by Austin Spare. where aesthetics were concerned in sexual matters. so [e said.) l9l . Spare's assertion of the positive magical values of disappointment and disillusion if they were handled in the appropriate way was paralleled by his belief that the emotions of revulsion and disgust could be used advantageously by the occultist. institrrtion or person.is stared at by the occultist until its form. of mental or spiritual emptiness. fills his entire consciousness and 'overflows' into the depths of the unconscious. as distinct from the 'ugly' and 'bad'. By the deliberate creation. Then the desire is deliberately forgotten and only the sigil stripped the of its significance is held in the mind. The deepest and rnost primitive component scious 'It' - of the uncon- is then left to work on the sigil. The idea was to use the ending of belief in some theory. to absorb rhe mana. 1907.enshrined in that belief. and the desire it symbolically expresses.by contemporary magicians is as follows. the magical and psychological power. This was particularly the case.

one . who saw himself as the :ardian of Crowieyan.' who was to undertake t Saturnian element of a revelation concerning the tsook of the Law. In 1951 or 1952 Karl Germer. tually. confidence in his r93 . Grant composed eleven rituals for the lodge group working and ten for initiation ceremonies - which he declined to send to Cermer for examination acrimonious )orrespondence followed in which Cermer expressed his ike of Cregor A. however. This attack was described by Mr. His lresentment was particularly aroused when one of his :disciples. This and other more recent magical studies written by Mr. Myth and Magic. Gregorius'. and in 1945 spent some time with him in Hastings.O. no doubt quite iwrongly. Grant on the back lagreements with of No. a revelation the first chapter of Crowley's Book of the new interpretation of concerning * I-aw. although his interpretation of the latter is considered highly unorthodox by a number of fellow believers in Crowleyanity.T. on 20 July 1955. a young woman who called herself a 'water witch'. Crant a etter which withdrew his authority to operate a'Camp'of he OTO and purported to expel him from the order. r" Crant thought not. Crowley's tuition. . as Crowley sometimes called himself. was infuriated by these lints concerning an occult wisdom unknown to either )rowley or himself. became magically involved with Mr. worked out a hypothetical orbit for it.'. was not one of Germer's favourite magicians. intensifying his experiences by inhaling ether. Crant is an admirer of Aleister Crowley and his Magick. hether or not Karl Germer was entitled to expel indi- iduals from the OTO we are unaware. reading. Clearly.'by an extension of Bode's Law. Crant was 'stealing' his witches.Isis Lodge. It is perhaps worth remarking that. When only a young man he began corresponding with the Master Therion. there is so far no astronomical 192 I 'l idence for its existence. Gregorius and Mr.'.' . 30 of the partwork Man. Grant a limited charter to operate a lodge working the first three degrees of the OTO.a 'witch' whose activities are described some detail in our next chapter . announcing the formation of 'New Isis Lodge O. Germer sent Mr. An rpinion of Herr Metzger. Mr. mber of the OTO but has clairned to be the .O. it I be remembered.ll Spare also believed in the magical value of a state of vacuity achieved by means of what he called 'the death posture'.This was in some way connected with the belief that. notably those contained in The Book of Pleasure. The nianifesto was written in a guarded and sometimes obscure style. far beyond the orbit of Pluto. for he continued to run his occult iety and in recent years has not only asserted that he is a . chief of the Swiss OTO.' in a manifesto which met with Cermer's disapproval. the Cerman-American occultist who had succeeded Crowley as chief of the OTO.i If4r. As far as we can understand * or. An excellent introduction to the study of these is provided in the two chapters devoted to Spare in IMr. it suggests a perhaps.H. Crant expanded his activities. if sometimes difficult. He was also annoyed by a friendly eference to 'the Master C. Grant prac- tised the 'symbolic door' method of astral projection described by us in an earlier chapter. is a tenth planet called Isis. was none other than iCregor A. Grant have strongly influenced a number of occultists and always make interesting.. gave Mr.Il ibegan by Cerald Gardner suspecting. under. Grant. Kenneth Crant's The Magical Revival (1972).. it is to be presumed. Cermer. the chief of Saturn Cnosis who. the Master G. for it would seern that the late Cerald Gardner . His teachings concerning this are involved and obscure and are best approached through the study of his own writings and drawings. Mr.the Outer Head of the Order. Karl Germer was not the only occultist to have dis- Mr.actually went to the :ilengths of launching a magical attack upon him. Lacking. Grant his low - nd possible official authorisation. Here. while some have suspected that there might be a trans-Plutonian planet and have even. Crant's New .orthodoxy. that Mr. All went well until in 1955 lr4r.

useful of Mr. he was a confirmed rationalist ancl agnostic who believed all occultists to be 'crackpots'. She struggled to get free.ouarters in Haiti . Mr. still iying on the altar' On the window the alarmed rnagicians found the imprint of giant claws and a pullulating green jelly. This last turied first to slime and then evaporated.Lis betief that at least some of Lovecraft's fantasy reflecis 'the salient themes of Crowley's Cult'. Bertiaux's devices is the iZothyriometre. 'Red nd Black Temple Atlantean Magic'. apparently terror-stricken. Kenneth Grant has asserted. and a leading adept of a fraternity called 'the Ancient Order of Eastern Templars'. Mr. a number of occultists have 194 'come to the conclusion that Lovecraft.. as is revealed by his correspondence.iu*. Mr. and carried her out over the streets of l-ondon. Crant is numbered amongst those contemporary magicians who regard the supernatural fiction of the late H.i'and. so he asseried. a huge bird flew into the room. .an 'amphibious owl with the wings of a bat and the talons of an eagle'. felt herself falling.own occult abilities. Into this talisman Spare bound. which conducts correspondence courses in 'Seven irnagic and seems to be an outer court of the Black Snake . Thus Mr. She Black invocation of tne her body' Suddenly she over made passes' were 'magnetic sat upright. were holding their meetings in an old and semi-derelict house.was heard from outside the curlained window.F. i'. at a Wisconsin lake shore he and a group of his associates have carried out designed to evoke the Deep Ones. Crant has asserted i. a demon of an unusual nature . leaving behind only a strong smeil of the sea' Th. had achieved a psychic awareness of non-human i. Then.perhaps the sound of giant talons . Bertiaux seerns to believe in the iactual existence of these creatures.rn magic. which projects magical forie to any chosen area of the astral plane . receive impulses from areas of space beyond the orbit of Neptune and transmit 'mysterious and outlandish rnusic'. Rt the time the initiates of New Isis Lodge. of Indian tuntri.ufacture a talisman intended to restore 'stolen property' to its rightful owner. who knew nothing of the preparation of Spare's sinister charm nor what end it wai intended to achieve. Lovecraft himself would have been surprised by this. involve priest and priestess standing in the waters of the . particularly the cult of the dead.a i voodoo/magical cult which supposedly has its head. and even.dreams. it is clairned. !v t vt 'rrr The systern taught by IvIr.an lay on an altar while Isis. the property of a furrier with alchemical inclinations who has since written rather a good book on the 'hermetic art' from the point of view of a practising alchemist' One evJning the alleged water witch was the focus of a rite being performed in the alchemist's house .r 195 . Lovecraft as being of occult significance. oi W"rt. invisible to all save the water witch. .'Lovecraftian Coven'.r.. for.non-hurnan but intelligent entities. lf ' A magician who shares this belief is the Chicago-born ..'who aie supposedly particularly associated with the lrworld's lakes and seas. which is particularly concerned with the 'Deep Ones' .entities and their activities and in his fiction expfessed profound esoteric truths. of which we know l:nothing except that it accqpts the theology of Aleister Crowley's Book of the Law.American occultist Michael Bertiaux (born 1935)-who is |t. I A sub-division of the Cult of the Black Snake is the . Simultaneously. Gardner got Austin Spare to man. aJ fut as we are aware' the occult attack terminated. Nevertheless. the room chilled and a sinister scratching . albeit distorted through the l prism of his own rationality. .the chief of the 'Monastery of the Rays'. the product of Lovecraft's literary irnagination. Bertiaux would ialso seem to have invented various occult machines which. The most astonishing no doubt. These rites ceremonies .High Priest of the Cult of the Black Snake' .erseif back in her physical body.of voodoo. seized her (astral) body in its claws. Mr. perhaps through . Bertiaux incorporates aspects .Cult. and then found t.

Grady Murtry's OTO. Perhaps the most 'orthodox' of tese are to be found in the ranks of Mr. 197 . which clearly . from the obscure writings.and perhaps still is .'. tom Lovecraft. Some eyan influences on Mr. no doubt. show not only a detailed knowledge of the byways literature.Another occultist who has been associated with the ubic Stone is David Edwards. the author of a Do-Itlourself occult manual entitled Dare to Make Magic)this been criticised on stylistic grounds but many of those have followed its instructions have found it useful. . whose origins we ibed in our last chapter. early science fantasy and even the symbolism popular with the early Nazis. who is himself a practising magician d was .have been produced. but a talent approaching genius for the composition of impressive . have become so obsessed with I-ovecraft's 'Cthulu-mythos' that in recent years a number of spoof. Edwards are apparent in his of this is a 'gripoire'. and there are few western magicians .is the Church of Satan. . who was at one time a circus performer. witches.e. researched by Ir. There are also.ing out a 'transference of sex-rnagical it is almost needless to say.C. The incorporates lany key phrases from Lovecraft's fiction. Another American-based occult organization which has energy'. while Oje Elektrischen Vorspiele contains elements drawn from such diverse sources as the magic of the Colden Dawn. psychologically of effective - ceremonies.and. These rites are based on a more catholic use of symbolsystems than that employed by most Western magicians of the present day. It has an intelligent and growing nembership and produces a really excellent (and ixtremely forthright ! ) magazine. This fraternity. of Aleister Crowley to tracts written by late Victorian'individualist anarchists.ecraft's imagined grimoire . i. Mr. La Vey's Lovecraftian enthusiasrns are made apparent in his 'Ceremony of the Nine Angles' and his 'Call to Cthulu'. La Vey. been influenced by the Cthulu-mythos * the quite imaginary myths and legends invented by Lovecraft as a conceptual framework for his fiction . then.an inteligent but not slavish adherence to Mathers' system typifies that of niany present day magicians. There are at the present day. This.' lhke and there carr. These latter cerernonies do not pretend to be anything in H.and to keep up his links with show business of Rosemary's . from Crowley. when the sun is in a watery sign of the Zodtac. Occultists who take iheir inspiration almost entirely 'rom Crowley's Magick are to be found throughout rope and America. some magicians. as we shall see. ideological stance adopted by the author . These. headed by Anton La Vey. Moreau. is only done when the astrological conditions are suitable. notably the Satsnic Bible and the Satanic has continued Rituals. Mr. Thus the ceremony known as Das Tierdrama incorporates material identical with passages Wells's Island of Dr. and from a wide variety of sources mixed vith all of these. The most amusing of these is perhaps that originally 195 totally lninfluenced by Crowley and his writings.i. Robert Turner. however. r. by Neville Spearmarl (Jersey) Ltd: in 1978..one of the chiefs of an t fraternity called the Order of the Cubic Stone. or 'foqged'. versions of the lrlecronomicon . has taken on a new leaSe of e in recent years. but recent in origin.he *played the Devil in the film Baby has combined a flair for publicity with the authorship and compilation of some intensely readable books.'[-ov. magicians who take ir inspiration from the Golden Dawn.

we can surmise that these beliefs and practices were concerned with sex and fertiiity. to attending 'sabbaths'. . It is remotely possible that this is true. nor that its doctrines. not express what C.yttut balls.'A witch of full powers is urgently sought to lift a 73.Sernis. This does not mean to say. that witchcraft is not of great psychological and spiritual value to those who take part in its rites. for as Frank Smyth has remarked: The habitat of the av€rage witch is ' . and the legends which incorporate them. Maori spears. in spite of all that has been written by such writers Modern witches believe themselves to be practitioners as Margaret N4urray and F{ugh RoSs Williarnson. All the evidence. orgiastic celebrations of the 'Old Religion' of sex and fertility. however. and flats in the suburbs are . . recl-brick Edwardian terraced houses. . This ligion. He inserted an advertisement in the personal column of The Times.of circumstantial detail. of ourse. publicly expounding their beliefs and dsting spells for healing and other beneficial purposes. and ritual swords and daggers all jostle for pride of place among Tretchikoff prints and formations of plaster ducks. were less aristocratic.The decor of the typical witch's home tends to reflect . rom what little evidence we have . When. of a curse. One of them was a distant cousin of the Duke of Norfolk. Surely modern witches have some historical links with somewhere between these ithese? Alas.is uncertain. Estimates vary between 'a few hundred'and 'a few hundred thousand'. they assert. it seems probable that no Witches' Sabbath ever took place. the Duke believed. - 'covens' -. its devotees regarded as 'devil worshippers'. The advertisement attracted a good many 'witches'. present-day witches affirm that they are practising a historic religion outsiders can only shrug their 'It seems unlikely. ' . We know nothing for certain of the religious and I beliefs and practices of our Stone-Age ancestors. .iii' :lrl: the ancient fertility religion of Stone-Age Europe. . . . all of whom supposed they had 'full powers'. they can be more open about heir activities. thereore. the result. but it just may be shoulders and say: What of the witches of three. has never died. . the usual scerte of coven meetings. l4 Witches trn 1967 the then Duke of Leinster became worried about the declining fortunes of his family. would seem to show that modern witchcraft has real 'apostolic succession' from the ancient or mediaVal worlds and that it must be regarded as no more than ine of the many new religio-magipal cults which have ioliferated in recent years. ' r. it went underround. .for example stone itnages of pregnant women with grossly enlarged sexual i frorn intelligent guesswork based on what . that 198 199 that the trbe figure lies extremes. four and five centuries ago? The men and women who appeared in the ecclesifastical and civil courts and confessed. . Exactly how many people in Britain and North America are members of witchcraft groups in a more tolerant age.lear-old curse and help restore the family fortunes of an afflicted nobleman" Employment genuinely offered'. . Jung called 'psychic truths'. often with a wealth . and it seems reasonably certain . . In the Middle Ages' rbjected to the persecution of the Church.G.andprimitive peoples who have survived into know of ive gans n times. Most of them. cosy and mundane. love of elaborate ornament .

and il we perform the rites correctly. This in itself is enough to make it seem highly probable that their cult was comparatively recent origin. desire good to us. ln other words. bondage and. Without exception all the early cases which supposeclly illustrate the existence of a witch religion turn out. the idea of the existence of a witch cult. There were. Frail human nature needs a little warmth and comfort. . that Carclner acquired the various doctorates he claimed to possess. He was fascinated by edged weapons' had a large All that collection of them. . . arnongst them J. - we clefinitely know of the origins of modern witchcraft is that few people even suspected the cult's existence before 1954. working as a planter and. as those a 'horned Cod' same individuals also confessed to such unlikely feats as physical flight and visits to fairyland there is no reason to believe the truth of such admissions. chartered Carduer as head of an OTO lodge.' i.:r ll there was never any such thing as an organised witch cult before the preseni century' For. 'The Abbey ol Christ the King'. trt was possibly frorn Ward. spent rnost of his adult li fe in the Far East. Thus the gods teach us to look f orward to the time when we be not men any more. He was also extremely interested in natu. so there is no need to doubt that it existed - although whether its origins were as ancient as its leaders claimed is doubtful. know and love them again. foiklore. when we become one with the Mighty Ones. . il "i Our gods . endure here in this life fits us for better in the next. above all. Ward. . beast and crops. while certain mediaeval dualists believed in a modified form of the r transmigration of souls. pleasure ancl ercilernent. . and West of England' . it is true. . . there is no trace of the doctrine of of reincarnation having been associated with post-classical western occultism before 1875. a self-appointed Abbot wlro ran an eccentric religious community.S. a rival and diabolic reiigion opposed to Christianity. an individual casting evil spells. was a fantasy born in the minds of late mediaeval ecclesiastics and bised on confused notions about both ritual magic and the nature of dualistic heresies such as that of the Cathars. individr-rals who in the 16th and lTth centuries confessed to attending meetings of witches and there taking part in the worship of the Christian Devil. '.ism. and will remember. Cardner. . or of moleficum. to 201 . East. . the year in which the late Cerald Gardner published his book Witchcraft Today. . to be either cases of ordinary heresy. 208 Shortly before World War II Cardner would seem to li have been admitted to membership of some sort of witch coven operating in the New Forest area of Hampshire. . born in I 884. The late Louis Wilkinson claimed to have independently come into contact with this group. which had moved from England to Cyprus after encountering legal difiiculties. South. The witch quoted above went on to describe the nature of the cult's religious activities: Ours is a religior"l of love. as Norman Cohn has shown beyond all reasonable doubt inhis Europe's Inner Demons. occultism. This latter led him to make some unusual friends. By 1954 Cardner was in touch with covens in 'the North. However. . by tlre grace of the Creat Mother we will be reborn among those we loved. When we die tve go to the gods' domain. For. where having rested a while in their lovely country we are prepared to be born again on this earth. in return for a substantiai fee. fertiiity for man.cultists who authorised him to give an account of their beliefs inhis Witchcra"ft Todoy. and wrote a monograph on the Malayan kris. as a customs official. What we Being reborn again we ever progress. the witches with whom Ceraid Cardner was in contact believed in reincarnation. or of ritual magic. The central message of the book was given in I the forrn of alleged quo{ations from practising witches. concerned in the affairs of more than one bogus 'university'. latterly. on close exarnination.M. Another friend was Aieister Crowley who. I' One of them surnmarised witch beliefs as follows: .

nothing any rational person couid take any great objection to. Free thought or spiritualism. all singing:O do not tell the Priest our Art. though nothing. At the time he wrote Gardner considered that the witchcraft he knew would soon die a natural death. 'I'he circie being formed and everything being properly prepared the aspirant should first bind and then take the teacher into the circle . not in some far-distant paradise beyond the grave. Such rites are done in a holy and reverent waY. is begins: to the Rite riding brooms and staves using a quick dance step. The High Priest foilows behind. . . . . With oak and ash sttd thorn' The song has a folksy authenticity about it. Science. Most of Gardnerns correspondents were given a polite brush-off. out- door games. But W'itchcraft Today attracted a surprisingly large number of readers. however. Then the teacher in turn should bind the aspirant . Actually. .comfort on earth. he remarked. In the Craft we are taught ' . yet. good health services. . enough to retard the blood slightly . it is a slightiy modified version of a poem by Rudyard Kipling. with the light 203 . The High Priestess leads carrying a wand. and a certain amount of esoteric flim-flam . the instructions for the t'estival cult rnembers shouid celebrate on 'August Eve'. good weather reports. to intensify the irnagination at the same time controlling the blood supply . bathing. Some of them. is that the witch cult is conierned with fertility and that its religio-magical rites are concerned with sex. .. joy and content. according to your inclinations. . Most of its readers were only mildly interested in the supposed revelations it contained. have taken away the fear of Hell that she prevented.iCopy it out in their outn 'hand of write'. sorne mild scourging. . supposedly the ancient instructional manual of the cult.'Sight cometh to divers * but its modern origins are iferent ways' is a fair example t. greatly stimulates the imagination. .. For we'll be in the woods all night. . A-Coniuring harvest in. probably because of the coverage it received in a popular Sunday newspaper. pseudot. proof that God is within us whose command is: 'Co forth and multiply'. Cattle awl Corn. And we bring you good news by word of mouth For Women.relieve us from the hardness and misery of life and from the cold austerity of the Church's preaching . has replaced her greatest gifts: peace. joy and content' of witchcraft. Following their initiations the new witches were handed 2A2 a manuscript copy of the tsook af Shadows. steady strokes. . instiuctions astral visions: . . and told to . the cinema and television have largely replaced what the witch had to give. when' the pious verbiage is stripped away. . Take. but so4e were sufficiently enthusiastic about the book to write to its author asking how they too could share in the 'peace.rarchaic English . others foilowProceed ing. For he would call it sin. ' then he should iightly use the scourge. tul. the teacher should use the scourge with light. . We worship the divine spirit of Creation. . . . however. for exarnple. This. . nudism.. which is the Life-Spring of the world and without which the world would perish' To us it is the most sacred and holy mystery. he initiated into witchcraft by rites which he said were traditional' These involved nudity. Again. . t[. had disPlaced the witch: . Now the Swn has come up from tlte soutlt. lt is very important that the pupii should see the strokes coming as this . I'tre tsook of Shadows is partly written in a people in dif. What seems to be meant in the above quotation.

What does seem likely from the tone of the instructions. 3) Degree willholdafeast. . upon death I give peace. . or sometimes the enactment as a short mystery piay. slows down the circulation of the blood . nude.G. man and man and woman and woman'should never attempt these practices together. . . receiving a fee from Gardner for his services.and punishing scourging.. Nor do I demand aught in sacrifice . but the high point of the ceremony is the recital. would also seem to have been responsible for the incorporation into the Bqok of Shadows of a 'Conjuration of Diana'. .: portion of the book is called 'The Charge'. This begins by a witch making moon-shaped cakes and baking them. . This is garded as peculiarly holy by many contemporary witches and is often recited at coven meetings. - reports that Aleister Crowley had a hand in it. genitals. . And the Great Feast over. results usually occur after two or three atternpts. saying: I I to be found Third Degree - . possibly of a voyeuristic nature. of the i'legend of the Coddess'. Some of those whom Gardner initiated into witchcraft established covens of their own.kiss' (on feet. Such covens. nor do I cook the honey with the wine. knees. following which the witch receives the 'toois of art' . is that they were written by sorneone. enslaving all rebellious spirits and demons'. rest. breast. O Diana! In honour of thee I a 'Great Feast' ending in sexual high jinks: . if a man. then love in the darkness with all the lights extinguished for it is the Great Diana who extinguishes them. One part of it. They 't're. 'the of 'dclminating.is not known to us. Sexual motives. I while in life. . 58 of Crowley's Book af lhe Law: I I give unirnaginable joys on earth: certainty. with a sexual interest in bondage and flagellation. . rest and ecstasy. being led into the 'Circle of Power'. however. Be not discouraged if no results come at the first atternpt. An oath of secrecy is then administered. Whether or not the techniques described above have ever induced clairvoyance * 'the sight' . The initiation to the First Degree involves the candidate. There is some internal evidence in the book that tends to support this belief' Thus 204 High Priest or Priestess. . Mighty Ones be on such as make the attempt. and from the remarks about 'a fondness between aspirant and teacher'. and lips) and is scourged. . The wording has a strong resemblance to Chapter l. Leland. and that at ollows: . . The initiation to the Second Degree also invoives athame'.There in ascending order of supposed magical attainment: 1) Priest (or Priestess) and Witch. . I bake the Body and Blood and the Soul of Great Diana . Upon earth I give unimaginable joys. reads as binding. . It has been found that this practice doth often cause a fondness between aspirant and teacher . upon death. May the curse of the. ecstasy. blind folded and with hands tied. This is a variant of the Greek l . and it is for this reason that a man may only be taught by a woman and a woman by a man. supposedly capabie i. perhaps Gardner himself.magical :weapons which include a black-handled knife. as soon as the aspirant speaks or sleeps the scourging should stop. .. are three grades of witches in these groups. 2) Second lFirst Degree Magus. not faith. 245 . Most of 'is identical with passages in a book written in the last tury by C. nor do I demand aught in sacrifice. they shall dance and sing and make music and I am the gracious Coddess who gives the gift of joy unto the heart of Man. . peace unutterable. but one of us has heard a number of both Europe and the USA. All shall sit down to Supper. and others ved from them. Witch Queen if a woman. and 'Cardnerian' witches 'are in I do not bake the bread nor the salt. still survive. where he or she receives the 'five-fold When the cakes are cooked they are to be partaken of at Who compiled the Book of Shadows2 Probably Gardner himself..

De Laniis et Phitonicis Mulieribus.the Elements' that a new Witch Queen (or Magus) has been secrated. Priest and Priestess exchange the five-fold kiss. half-animal creatures riding to the Witches' Sabbath. encourage our hearts. dancing. the Priestess then invokes the god into the Priest with the invocation. The rite concludes with the candidate being led around e Circle and the announcement to the 'Mighty Ones of r. remember the past and love again. waving brooms and lighted [orches. the two equinoxes and the wo solstices. Thou Whose Narne is lMystery of Mysteries. but the following outline of the instruction for the Candlemas rite is fairly typical: .from the point of view of ultism at any rate. Let thy Light crystallise in our lllood. i Half-human. All Hallows' Eve.yth concerning Persephone in the Hades and ends with I i r . There are some variations in the cerernonies rom one coven to another. Following the descent of the god 2Q7 . The High Priest enters. All. in his right hand the consecrated magic sword. For there is no part of us that is not of the gods! Descend. fofm the Magic Circle. Lammas (2 August). a magic knife is inserted into a cup of lne and the coven is informed that 'as is the Woman to he Man so is the cLlp to the atham6'. 'Dread Lord of Death and Resurrection.) 246 j Proceed to the site with a dance step.May Eve. Eight main festivals are celebrated by Gardnerian itches . Love. (Ulrich Molitor. 1489. For to make Love perfect you rnust return at the same time and place as the loved one. . Death and Resurrection in a new body. The Third Degree is centred around ritual copulation the candidate and his or her initiator. Giver of Life. the FIigh Priestess carries a broornstick shaped like an erect phailus. we pray thee. Magic rules them all.. Candiemas (2 bruary). upon thy servant and Priest'. bringing us to Resurrection. Lord of Life. rl words: There are three great events in the life of Man. in his left hand the wooden irnage of an ereci phallus. The details of this are of little interest . Some covens have replaced physical ivith symbolic sex.

honey.show signs of developing into occult fraternities. The most interesting groups of contemporary witches are those known as the 'robed covens'. meal. Sanders or one of his many disciples are usually referred to as Alexandrians.of which the composite Aradia Coven of our first chapter is typical . Others . ciaiming that they do not derive from Gardner.is sexual intercourse between Priest and Priestess. Possibly this indicates a decline in numbers. who was an extrernely active 'King of the Witches' in the late '60s and early '70s. others have emphasised them. and claim to have derived their craft from sources unknown to either Cerald Gardner or Alex Sanders. Many of these came into existence as the result of the activities of Mr. Some covens have played down the sexual aspects of the cult. in every sense of the phrase. They use a Book of Shsdows rnore or less identical with that used by Gardner's followers but many of them have also experimented with more formal cerernonial magic of the Colden Dawn variety. oil. The 'Cakes and Wine ceremony' is a sort of witch cult sacrament. Alex Sanders. often display an attitude of conternpt tolvards Alexandrian and Gardnerian witchcraft. There is much diversity amongst these covens. Other covens. In recent years there has been much less press coverage rof modern witches and their activities than was previously the case. using magic and religion in a way that most outsiders would regard as merely a camouflage for sado-masochistic group sex. salt and sometimes blood) are blessed by the High Priestess and ritually consumed by all . The 'Great Rite' believed by Gardnerian witches to be the most potent of magical techniques . Cardner died in 1964 and since then modern witchcraft has suffered much fragmentation.considerable over-exposure. have been active in the last fifteen years or so. These eschew nudity in their workings. a feast and a comrnunal dance. the Great Rite. Wine and crescent-shaped cakes (compounded of wine. 208 209 . Witches initiated by Mr. I'i those participating in the festival. Some of them have abandoned magical workings of any type and have become eccentric pagan groups worshipping old Norse or Celtic deities.into the Priest have the Cakes and Wine ceremony. l. More probably it results from a lessening public interest in the cult following what was.

lf one feels arr inner inadequacy in society the place in *n. for example.w religions such-as Subud and Scientology' the Western world substantial numbers of ?n...*J totalty open in their activities? teing "-ifi.iptin.. mvsterious Powers.planations are onlv partiallv true' for the isolated rebirth of Western magic and alchemy is not an part of a earlier' remarked have ie ... the renaissance.r 15 thing iomparable to what is happening at the present time lone-has fo go back to the last centuries of classical paganism" T[en philosophers practised theurgy...t.. .il"ott.. "^.^u*pi*...i.t ou.id-.. lives there is sornething group is an occult an 'in-group'.ind aclopting 2rc - moral' others which are' it Modern magicians (Doug Armstrong). undoubtedlv sociological and psvchological and f"."ri"t"r . and even dangerous' There have been other 'occult booms' in Western history.. alien.o join small secret sroups rather than il. But to find any- r. captured the Almost .ffi tp.rJnosed to enable men and gods to communicate with one another.lrnost vital of these latter cults..il .l has difficultv infor individual to corn..it"inty about oneself and one's about attractive very *fri.r"it-i"""lved.t ... explosion'.rlJ.. then strange Asiatic religions had.""tlta. Christianity."i.tould be argued.ft and yoga and [i*ni *uvt.cults' and in the t. in an age which to other liberal .. whether that U"itg p*t groupuscle..J.. rhen Chalde an malhemalici and other soothi"v*i flourished.s "f-itlti. abandoning traditional beliefs i.. clo . [n. gr"*ift%f medicine.uioit. Again.ti*. the art l. if "f association or an extremisi political copine wilfr lfe evervdav . practices that shows itself in p'ttrf"tlpftii"i b.' il.iiiuine it is pleasant hethat is possessed of she or that trtiu"uv refting idevotees as far afield as Britain and France. in.ougnout .their PathwaY into The Dsrkness af Tirne the ceremonial What induces people to practise witchcraft and 'openness" to devoted is so maeic? Why.. eccentric...' and religions minority in boom a I" [tot"ti.inTot*ation'. the popularity inofthe spread origin' oriental of .ti.l.rnachinery of the state and began to destroy rivals' bimultaneously the barbarian invasions which had begun a century before increased in number and virulence' . and interested in the are who women and men Danaceas.... Eventually . 2tl . for ."Td. in Flying Saucer.-fb....il..

:niques which have been employed by those most active in the rebirth of magic should first read one or more general introductions to the theory and practice of magic. and they have aroused too much interest throughout the history of mankind. originally published 1967 and reprinted many times by in paperback tform" Once the reader has got some grasp of the subject he would be well advised to study the writings of modern . Further Reodircg Those who wish to make a detailed study of the tech- . The nature and importance of this appeal was surnmed up. he may well be able. it is impossibie to deny or affirrn things which do not fit in with the little rules of our little minds.Cavendish's The Black :Routledge in Arts. or perhaps the supreme wisdom. Several i. but lriumptr would not be without its reward. . qr through the resurrection of a forgotten science. by the bibliographer Charles Nodier: .of these are easily available. moraily and artistically exhausted. . A new religion rnay become the dominant inteilectual force in Western society.. it is a dangerous way. if a man can recapture in the mirror of memory the fugitive irnages of the past. Magick in Theo'ry and Practice ' (various editions available) Fortune. intellectually. either through some evolution in his being. for them to be meaningless. paradoxically enough.Eventually the state of which the Christians had gained control was swept away. the other face of the eternal Janus. may be destroyed by some new barbarian invasion * perhaps by the armoured legions of the rulers of what was once Holy Russia But whatever the future holds it is likely that in some form or another rnagic will survive' For in spite of 'all the chariatanism and madness that has been associated with the rebirth of magic there is no doubt that it has appealed to sorne of humanity's deepest instincts. Israel. . Tree of Life (various editions available) and Meaning of Msglc (various editions available) Art of True Heuling (various editions available) The Middle Pillar (various editions available) Art As far as the historical background of the rebirth of magic that began with L6vi is concerned a large amount of published material is available . 1969) Regardie. over a century ago. Perhaps the same thing wiil happen again. Dion. with it vanished. . The occult sciences have their roots too far in the past.much of it worthless' Currently in print and well worth reading are: 212 213 . and then that same society. here is a pathway to be explored leading back into the darkness of time.magicians. Among these we would recommend: Crowley. The Mystical Qabalah (various editions available) Gray. most of the magicians and mathematici it had persecuted. William. . . Aleister. . . Magical RitualMethods (Helios Books. perhaps the best is Richard . to create or rediscover some rneans to illuminate the future. Madness may be at the end.

King's The Magical World of Aleister Crawley worth reading. John Symond's The . Further original ColclerrDawn material can be found in Astral Proiection. l97Q) is probably destined to remain ithe definitive study of Crowley's intellectual development. 1971). Most of these are incl-uded in the four volumes of Israel Regardie's Golden Dawn. Dion Fortune's books are mostly still in print.it*. History of Maeic (Weidenfeld) . New York. Christopher The R. As far as the history ofthe order is concerned the only book that c11 be unreservedly recommended is Ellic Howe's The Magicians of lhe Golden Dawn (Routledge)' There is a wealth of published material on the life and teachings of Aleister Crowley. While there is much printed material in French on the subject of L6vi's disciples and other French occultists tfreie is very little available in English save for the pie"iousty mlntioned book by Mr. Israel Regardie's The Eye in the 214 215 .but Christopher Mclntosh's Eliplas Ldvi and the French Occult Revival (R'ider.K. I-ondon) is both readable and informative. Many of L6vi's own writings are available in English translation.osy. 1980) I There is no full biography of L6vi in English although in French there is a hostile study by Charuel . reprinted several times in recent years by Llewellyn Publicitions of Minnesota. The latter work admirably illustrates l-6vi's . Mclntosh.L.published.of her has been.oriuil ti. but so far r r. notably The ldey of the Mysteries. ost of Crowley's magical writings are either still in print or easily available in the second-hand rnarket. Trahscendentat Magic and The History of liagic. London. As wiii be apparent to the reaclers of this book it is the Colden Dawn tirat has been the 'fount and origin' of the rebirth of rnagic. alt hough worthless as history. and some knowledge of its rituals and teachings is esiential for the occult student.Cross Unveiled (Aquarian. es4). Huysnnans (Clarendon Press' l iTriangle (Llewellyn. and some have found F. ----r-l:-l--l ao biography. Richard. Mogic and Alchemy by S. Mclntosh and the late Robert Baldick's J. His own Confessions haue been published by Bantam. MacGregor Mathers (Spearmai. and Wiser.Great Beast isuseful in spite of its unsympathetic tone.i Cavendish.

after Venus. Chapter Four (l) T'his story.'...i.osicrucian connection. Mercury' was a popular Victorian medical student's joke. (3) This lTth century translation of Paracelsus' Archidoxes Magicse has recently been reprinted by Askin Publishers under the title Archidoxts of Magic. I{otes Chapter One (t) i*ort modern magicians interpret such ninvisibility' as being not some sort of transparency but merely obscurity. r(2) ln fact these were German pietists with only 'R.r )hapter Eight l) This letter was written to F.e. Chapter Seven (1) The full text of thc instruction which contains this passage can be found in Dr.e.L. i Chapter Two (1) The phrase 'astral' (i. (2) Foi a description of this Lullean 'machine' see James 'Blish's occult novel Black Easter. told by Philostratus. a collection articles published by her in The Patriot. ih-e Chapter Six (1) 'After Bacchus. Regardie's Golden Down. All Saints' Eve. provided Keats with inspiration for his Lsmia. For some iption of Cardner's voluminous correspondence see Howe's Magicians of the Colden Dawn. ' 216 217 a tenuous . (2) In his The Rosy Cross Unveiled (Aquarian.d'). Cardner. Venus. 1980) l) See her 'Lightbearers Eleven 'Samhain' . 'starry') body was originated by Paracelsus who believed it was the medium through which the heavenly bodies transmitted their supposed influence to men and women. l) Nine of Darkness' (n.

ilottier things begin to happen. . Christopher Frayling and Colin Wilson. Dr.. He begins to hear an uncomfortable noise.2s "It is research like Dr. and a loving. Dr. M.00 .t.|. THE NECRONOMICON Edited by George Hay Introduced by Colin Wilson Researched by Robert Turner and David Langford as he reaches the point of grea est ical distress. Their accounts of this .D. da'rk tunnel. experience are startingly similar in detail.. Soon.moving very rapidly through a long. Moody presents in his book that will enlighten rnany and will confirm what we have been taught that there is life after death. "clinical death" and been revived..'l i '1. a loud or buzzing. warrn spirit of a kind he has linever:encountered before * a being of light . r'r . After this. . MOODY.appears before him.A. He glimpses the spirits of relatives and friends who irhave already died.rg one lltrllulgu !. ' il Qver the past THAT BOOK HAS NOW BEEN FOUND .: irl. Sprague de Camp.D. him. LIFE Further investigation of an extraordinary phenomenon survival of life after bodily death. Raymond Moody has studied wtlu llqv! have v^lJvtrvrrvlu experienced hundred DutrJguLJ subjects who lllulE more than Ltlall (. 0 552 98093 5 five years.FTER LTF'E .. and at the same time feels himself 'ringing '. JR. M. 0 553 1409 2 sI. which was stated to convey the most shocking truths aboui mankind's true origin. Others corne to meet and help . i he fincls hirnself outside of his own physical body . he hears himself pronounced dead by his i''doctor. ." for two thousand years - - From the foreword by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross. . Thanks to years of research by such experts in the occult field as L. THE NECRONOMICON THE BOOK OF DEAD NAMES the lost masterpiece of occult literature and a disturbing account of the dark side of creation. Connoisseurs of the occult have for years been tantalised especially in the works of H'F.byRAYMOND A. 0 553 il140 X - s1. Angela Carter. A rnan is dying and.00 ALSO A. aliegedly written by a visionary to a mysterious -Arab philosopher. LIFE.book.VAILABLE BY THE SAME AUTHOR: REFLECTIOIIS ON LIFE AFTER. Lovecraft by references .

0 s52 11315 8 tt.B. the eminent psychical researcher and well-known broadcaster. talking where ghostly voices have talked. there are literally hundreds of haunted spots. the British raced to complete the luxurious R l0l . the :. From Aberaeron in Dyfed to Welshpool in Powis. and many stops along the way. its vales and hills. Nor would they heed the detailed. during a seance. UNDERWOOD Wales has rnany ghosts and arnid the beauty of.25 In 1928.ll" 1.commander of the ill-fated airship related in ghastly detail. the reader is introduced to a region whose folklore and daily life is more visited by the occult than anywhere else in the British Isles. . its towns and villages and hamlets. driving where ghost coach-and-horses have driven and pausing where ghosts have paused before him.50 .N. In spite of severe tural problems. I'R l0l's tragic end |tlChannel .The R. travels through the country. fearsorne warning from a dead World War One ace a warning from the life beyond - lr. as the Craf Zeppelin prepared to fly around the World. walking where shadowy phantorn figures have walked.0 552 ll59l 6 Price: S1. THE AIRMEN WFIO WOULD NOT DIE * The spell- binding story of the airmen who came back from the grave! 'Industrioursly researched' NOW Magazine 'A fascinating book'THE SCOTSMAN s. THE AIRMEhJ WHO WOUI-D NOT DIE .fuiJOHN G. the government had clecided that the take-off date could not be postponed for British pride was at stake - . and two days later. 101 plunged to the ground on the French side of the . Peter Underwood. FULLER GT{OSTS OF WAN-ES byPETER. ..rrship that was to revolutionize air travel.

But he also found startling evidence to suggest that way back. . THE GOLD OF THE GODS and lN SEARCH OF ANCIENT GODS turns his ever-questing mind to Christianity . undeciphered writings and drawings in solid gold . . . latest book. which created in the pyramids sophisticated generators to harness the most powerful of all energy sources 0 552 journey covering 76. . visions and all the supernatural wonders that Churches throughout the centuries have recognised as 'holy'. or the product of mass autosuggestion? Can they be divine revelations. the best-seiling author of CF{ARIOTS OF THE GODS?. . the Earth was host to extraterrestrial visitors who colonised our planet . or extraterrestrial communications? Erich von Daniken:s theories are far more fascinating than any one of these . "Fantastic? Certainly. 0 552 10371 3 gr 50 byERICH VON DANIKEN Earth.rf[IE ANCtrENT I\.ETURN TO T'FIE STAR. .li. : . Were they tornbs of the pharaohs? Shelters from some prehistoric cataclysm? The Biblical granaries of Joseph? Or are they repositories of the wisdom of a super-civilisation . before the dawn of recorded history.ES OF TTIE GODS byERICH VCN DANIKEN Today's most original investigator of the unexplained takes a penetrating look at miracles.S. SUNDAY MIRROR 0 552 09689 X Wonders - the Fyramids ." t1.sta. For centuries.relics of civilisations long-dead. What are visions? Are they supernatural phenomena.25 of Giza. But very. a civilisation forgotten over the millennia. R. von Daniken traced the clues to the birth of mankind and to the history of the planet a _ Ten miles from the bustling streets of modern-day Cairo the sole survivors of the ancient world's Seven . . He found incredible treasures of ages past.and the religions that reach back far beyond Christ .i rhost sophisticated minds of tile twentieth century 10928 2 poses a riddle more tantalising than 80p . very convincing . archaeologists have ponderecl the purpose of these awesome monuments.000 rniles. In this.{AGIC OF TI{E PYRAMXOS byKEN JOHNSON M{RACI.nds - the earth itself? A startling book that that of the sphinx! TT{E GOLD OF TI{E GODS On :A rnystery from the ancient world tht continues to baffle the .

D 3 5 2 X iooi: o io:ri : ioero i irisio ii020 i 0*i0 . Customers-Allow 40p for the first book' l8p for the second book and l3p for each additional book ordered.at shorl notice.50 MIRACLESoFTHEGoDS von Daniken t1. M.!8!P TFIEANCIENTMAGICOFTHEPYRAMIDS RavmondA.5o JolnG.P.lrE nerlEcTlONSoN LlFt:AFTERLTFE Ravmond A !4ootlyJr. MY$TIC AND OCCUTT TITLES FROM CORGI while every €ffoft is macle to keep prices low.LobsangRampqgsp THERAMPASToRY MamasonRa-AbRampqSsp AUTUMNLADY TIIE PROPHIiCTES Of 25. Box I I' Falmouth.1.35 rHn COLD OF THEGODS ErichvonDaniken 85p INstrARcHoFANCIENTG0DS ErichvonDsniken t\. to a milimum charge of ll .25 Erich .K. .F.J6l tick the titles y6u wanr qnd lill in lhe form below.igirt to show new retail prices on covers which may difler from those previously advertised in the text or elsewhere.M. Lobsqne Rsmpa Lt N AS IT wAsI T' Lobsong Rampa 5'l'25 THE THIRD EyE T. Cornwall' or postal order. B. Lobsang Rompq I'1 DOCTOR FROM LHASA T' LobsonqRompa Lt'50 iuncainorruEANclENTs T'LobssngRampa Lt'zs IBELIEVE T. be ordered direcl from CORGT BOOI(S.A SEIECTED LIST OF PSYCHIC.o-rxrrruENcE . oveNess customers-Allow 60p for the first book and l8p per copy for each addilional book.35 igeuorsorrHncoosr ErichvonDanikengsp RETURNTOTHESIARS Erich Von Daniken t'1. or can rhe publisher. ORDER FORM All lh6e book are availoble sl Jour book shop or newsagent. I'obsang Esmpo l'1 25 iHE sannnox nosr T.A SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY '/. il is sometimes necessary to increase prices.lcconunc ro rHE EVIDENCE Johnc. l8p for the ssond book plus l3p per copy for the next 3 books.D. Coigi Books reserve the . Cash Sales Department. 10416 ? iores : ioosl o 09834 5 iiqir a iizai e I 1567 n iiito i tr n I il n n tr D D n D n ! D ! n ! tr I D D 08800 09083 osO8g NOSTRADAMUS Erika Cheetham t1"75 ErichvonDaniken t1.Futtertt.MoodYJr.50 stcNsoFTHEGoDs ErichvonDaniken t1. Atten Hvnek 9^5p Kenloh!I\o.r. rti+o x 10"10'1 1 10628 3 il4A.t>-p THREE LlvEs T. ioszaz tnilot. The prices shown below were correct at the time of going to press. NAME (block letters) ADDRESS . P'O.D. Please allow cost of book{s) plus the following for postage ahd packing: Please send cheque U. and Eire-Allow 40p for the lirst book. no currency. thereafter ?p per book. iHe cHosrorrllct{T4ol iHE u.5o iAremmEr'lwnowout-DNorDlE Futter 5. tto iiie lrient.O.49. tl'00 I ' Lobsang Kqnlpa-.

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