You are on page 1of 16

CHAPTER 5: SAFETY & LOSS PREVENTION

5.1 Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP)


Hazard and operability study is one of method of Process Hazard Analysis (PHA). Process
hazard analysis is of the most important pillars in Process Safety Management (PSM). It is
critical to understand, integrate, implement and execute the process hazard analysis for each
process plant facilities, in order to identify and mitigate any possible condition that lead to
upset and disaster especially on operation. There are others instance of process hazard
analysis instead of hazard and operability studies (HAZOP) which are what-if analysis,
checklist analysis, what-if/checklist, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), Fault tree
analysis and many else.
Hazard and operability studies (HAZOP) are tools to identify the potential and plausible
hazards and operational problems in term of plant design. The analysis will notice any
tendency of deviation from normal operating condition which could initiate any hazardous
circumstance. The outcomes help to enhance comprehensiveness of hazard control system
evaluation and also generate effective recommendations for any indispensable alteration.
HAZOP is commercially used, it is because it is absolutely systematic and through analysis.
It evaluates key, safety-related operating procedure, or where unavailable and recognize
critical operational requirement. Generally, HAZOP deals with internal hazard of equipment
and with process related hazard where it emphasize on the equipment or pipeline or piece of
equipment as node.

Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP) Methodology


First step is in HAZOP analysis is to do a selection of study nodes. The nodes must comprise
at least one major equipment, contain highly hazardous materials and critical to process
condition. It typically follows the molecule, for example from upstream to downstream.
Second step is selection of guide word. The example of guide word can be referred to table
below. Third step is selection of parameter. Fourth step is applied guide word to parameter,
suggests potential deviation and problem. Fifth step is to list down any causes of deviation
within the selected nodes. Next is identification of any possible consequences of the
deviation. Then, identify the safeguard. It decides whether existing engineering and safety
system can cater with the consequences of deviation. Last step is to provide any
recommendations or caution requires to cater the deviation that happen.
1

P&ID

STUDY TITLE: PARA-XYLENE OXIDATION UNIT


DRAWING NO:
REV. NO. :
TEAM COMPOSITION
ANDERSON,SITI NUR FATIHAH, ABDULLAH FAHMI, PHUMPHAIRIN
PART CONSIDERATION OXIDATION REACTOR
STUDY NODE 1(RED):
MATERIAL:
P-xylene, Acetic Acid,
ACTIVITY:
The p-x
FEED INLET TO
Cobalt(2+),Manganese(2+),Bromine,
via cata
REACTOR
Air
Bromin
SOURCE:
STORAGE TANK
DESTINATION:
OXIDA
Parameter( Guidewo Deviation
Cause(s)
Consequence(s)
s)
rd
NO
1. Possible dangerous
No Flow 1. Mixer failure due
concentration inside the
overheating since its
reactor
running without a
flow.
2. No operation and product
stalled.

Flow
LESS

MORE
Flow

Less
Flow

More
Flow

Pressure

1. Mixer becomes
inefficient running at
non-designated
volume capacity, Q.

1. Overheating of mixer
because of increased
agitation
2. Mixer fail due to
throttle control sensor
inoperability

1. Changes in product qualit


inconsistent feed quantity

1. Changes in product qualit


inconsistent feed quantity
2. Temperature decrease to
than optimum reaction
temperature

3. Rise in bottom liquid level

1. Inlet flow stops


or blockage
HIGH

LOW

High
Pressure

Low
pressure

2. Outflow greater
than inflow

1. Pump is leaking or
blocked

1. Runaway reaction occu


more heat are generat

1. Incomplete
reaction due to insufficien
feed

2. Faulty level
measurement sensor
due electronic failure

2. Product quality drops due


inconsistent feed

3. Inflow greater
than outflow

3. Higher impurities formed


unwanted reaction taking

place simultaneously

STUDY TITLE: PARA-XYLENE OXIDATION UNIT


DRAWING NO:
REV. NO. :
TEAM COMPOSITION
ANDERSON,SITI NUR FATIHAH, ABDULLAH FAHMI, PHUMPHAIRIN
PART CONSIDERATION OXIDATION REACTOR
STUDY NODE
MATERIAL:
P-xylene, Acetic Acid,
ACTIVITY:
2(GREEN):
Cobalt(2+),Manganese(2+),Bromine,
REACTOR RECYCLE
Air
SOURCE:
OXIDATION REACTOR
DESTINATION:
STREAM OUTLET

LOW

Low
Temperature

1. Loss of heating
(steam leakage)
2. Exchanger tube
failure
3. Low steam pressure
and temperature

1. More steam flowing


from boiler

Temperatur
e

HIGH

High
Temperature

2. Exchanger tube
failure due rupture or
corrosion
3. High steam pressure
caused by inefficient
boiler operation.

The p-x
via cata
Bromin
SCRUB

1. Temperature changes m
lead to undesired reactio

2. Ineffective separating pr
of product stream.

1. Changes in product qual


due inconsistent reaction
temperature.
2. Boilover in reactor and
reboiler might lead to
overpressure.
3. Pressure changes might
to undesired reaction.

4. Heating medium leak


into process side.
NO
No Flow

1. Valve(s) fail due to


throttle control
sensor inoperability.

1. Possible dangerous
concentration inside the
reactor

2. Pump failure due


overheating since its
running without a
flow.

2. No operation and produc


is stalled.

1. Valve(s) fail due to


throttle control

1. Changes in product qual


due inconsistent feed

Flow

LESS

Less
Flow

sensor inoperability.

quantity.

2. Pump(s) becomes
inefficient running at
non-designated
volume capacity, Q.

MORE

More
Flow

1. Overheating of mixer
because of increased
agitation
2. Mixer fail due to
throttle control
sensor inoperability

1. Changes in product qu
due inconsistent fee
quantity.

2. Temperature decrease t
than optimum reactio
temperature

3. Rise in bottom liquid le

Flow

1. Outlet stream
blockage
REVERSE

Reverse
flow

2. Pump breakdown
due to mechanical
failure

1. Overpressure led ruptur


cause toxic release and prod
loss.

2. Possible dangerous
concentration being form
a runaway reaction

1. Inlet flow stops


or blockage
2. Outflow greater
than inflow

Level

HIGH

High liquid
level

3. Control system
failure, DCS
downtime
4. Faulty level
measurement sensor
due electronic failure

1. Stirrer failure due


overheating since its
running on higher tha
optimum levels

5. Leaking from exit


stream makes
inefficient outflow

LOW

Low liquid
level

1. Inlet is leaking or
blocked

1. Incomplete
reaction due to insufficie
feed

2. Faulty level
measurement sensor
due electronic failure

2. Product quality drops du


inconsistent feed

3. outflow greater
than inflow

3. Higher impurities formed


unwanted reaction takin
place simultaneously

STUDY TITLE: PARA-XYLENE OXIDATION UNIT


DRAWING NO:
REV. NO. :
TEAM COMPOSITION
ANDERSON,SITI NUR FATIHAH, ABDULLAH FAHMI, PHUMPHAIRIN
PART CONSIDERATION OXIDATION REACTOR
STUDY NODE 3(BLUE): MATERIAL:
P-xylene, Acetic Acid,
ACTIVITY:
The p-x
REACTOR PRODUCT
Cobalt(2+),Manganese(2+),Bromine,
via cata
OUTLET
Air
Bromin
SOURCE:
OXIDATION REACTOR
DESTINATION:
CRYST
Temperatur LOW
Low
1. Changes in product qualit
e
Temperatur 1. Loss of heating
inconsistent temperature.
e
(steam leakage)
2. Temperature changes mig
2. Exchanger tube
lead to undesired reaction
failure
6

3. Low steam pressure


and temperature
4. Ineffective isolation

HIGH

High
Temperatur
e

FLOW
REVERS
E

Reverse
flow

NO
No Flow

LESS

Less
Flow

1. Exchanger tube
failure due rupture or
corrosion
2. High steam pressure
caused by inefficient
boiler operation.
3. Heating medium leak
into process side.

1. High pressure in feed


preparation column
could lead to rupture.

1. Changes in product qualit


inconsistent reaction
temperature.
2. Boilover in reactor and reb
might lead to overpressur
3. Pressure changes might le
to undesired reaction.

1. Overpressure led rupture


cause toxic release and produ
loss.

2. Possible dangerous
concentration being forme
a runaway reaction

1. Valve(s) fail due to


throttle control sensor
inoperability.

1. Possible dangerous
concentration inside the
reactor

2. Pump failure due


overheating since its
running without a
flow.

2. No operation and product


stalled.

1. Valve(s) fail due to


throttle control sensor
inoperability.

1. Changes in product qualit


inconsistent feed quantity

2. Pump(s) becomes
inefficient running at
non-designated
7

volume capacity, Q.

MORE

More
Flow

1. Valve(s) fail due to


throttle control sensor
inoperability

1. Changes in product qualit


inconsistent quantity
2. Temperature decrease to
than optimum reactio
temperature

3. Rise in bottom liquid le

Pressure

HIGH

High
pressure

1. Control system
failure, DCS downtime

1. Heat exchanger tube


ruptures under pressur
and fails

2. Faulty pressure sensor


due electronic failure

LOW

Low
pressure

3. Runaway reaction in
reactor
1. Stream is leaking or
blocked
2. Faulty pressure sensor
due electronic failure

1. Incomplete
reaction due to insufficien
feed

2. Product quality drops due


inconsistent feed
3. Higher impurities formed
unwanted reaction taking
place simultaneously

5.2 Plant Layout


Plant layout plays important roles in determining the cost and efficiency in plants operation.
The chosen location for Purified Terephalic Acid plant is Pasir Gudang Industrial Area, Johor
by considering few factors including markets, raw materials, water supply, transportation etc.
The proposed plant will be situated adjacent to the 4,000 acres near Johor river which is
convenient for raw materials and products transportation via Johor Port, Pelepas Port, a
world-class container port and Tanjung Langsat. Moreover, the industrial waste is easier to be
discharged to the nearby river and would be able to follow the standards set by the DOE of
Malaysia. The location of the plant is shown in the figure XX below with the coordination of
(128'52.6"N 10355'16.8"E) from Google Map.

Figure XX: The satellite image of the proposed plant location which is located north east of
Pasir Gudang industrial area.

5.2.1 Factors in designing plant layout


The basic objective of layout design is to facilitate a smooth flow of work, material and
information to attain the product and service quality. Besides, a good plant layout minimizes
material handling cost, production time and eliminating unnecessary movement of workers
and materials. There are few factors that are important in designing plant layout:
a.

Type of plant layout

b.

Economic consideration

c.

Safety

d.

Productive Space Handling

e.

Operating Convenience

f.

Auxilary Service

g.

Availability of facilities

h.

Flexibility

Factor

Justification
There are 3 types of plant layout; fixed position, product

Type of plant layout

oriented and process oriented plant layout. Process


oriented plant layout is chosen.
Process oriented plant layout is where the equipment are
situated according to the process and the materials moving
into them.
The layout allocates personnel and equipment in the same
area and the process flow has to be transported from one
section into another according to the sequence of PTA
operation.
In term of economic, the PTA plant should have the

Economic consideration

minimum run between the pipes and equipment.The


location of the main process units will determine the
layout of plants roads other than pipelines and drains. A
good planning will reduce the transportation time of

personnel and materials between the section.


The CTA and PTA production process are hazardous and
Safety

must be located at the safe distance from other buildings.


Therefore, the plant is divided into two section - process
and non process area where process area is where the
process unit and waste treatment are located.
Assembly area should be located at a safe distance and
escape route should be allocated in each building as well.
The materials and equipment such as distillation column,

Productive Space
Handling

reactors and heat exchanger should be organized in a


proper way and maximum use of volume is available.

Auxilary services such as accessibility paths, fire


Auxilary Service

protection installations, electricity and water supply


station, surveillance and safety are important to support
production activities.
The layout of plant should ensure that all essential

Availability of facilities

resources are accessible to the labor such as clinic, gym,


cafes etc.
Flexibility of the plant layout should be considered for

Flexibility

future expansion or changes. Space should be left on pipe


alleys in case of future adjustment while service pipes
over-sized is allowed for future requirements.

5.2.2 Process Unit and Building in Plant Layout


Based on the above principal factors and guidelines, a plan layout is proposed at the next
page for PTA production.
Process Area

Non-Process Area

i.

Control Room

i.

Administration Building

ii.

Loading/Unloading Area

ii.

Workshop

iii.

Storage Area

iii.

Laboratory

iv.

CTA Production unit

iv.

Electrical Substation

v.

PTA Production unit

v.

Warehouse

vi.

Utilities

vi.

Fire station

vii.

Waste Treatment Unit

vii.

Assembly Area

viii.

Scheduled Waste Storage

viii.

Mosque/Clinic/Cafeteria

ix.

MPH - multi-purpose hall

ix.

Flaring Unit

x.

Future expansion

5.2.3 Plant Layout

Figure XX: Schematic diagram of plant layout pf PTA plant

Legend:
xxxxxxx

Fence
Road

Process Area is an area where the entire process units are located and production process
occurs. It is also identified as hazardous area, where precautionary measures are required to
be applied at any times. The buildings and units for this area are described in the table XX
below.
Table XX: The process units and building in process area
Building

Description
The room is designed to withstand explosion and toxic

Main Control Room

releases by the plant with emergency backup power.


Control and monitor the valves for the whole process area
that includes storage tank.
Situated between the non process area and process area
that has 3 emergency gate exits.
The process units are located in the process area by

Process Unit
Area (CTA and
PTA process)

considering factors such as operation wise, safety and


maintenance.
The distance between the equipment and other units are
important to minimize the impact of explosion and fire.
Future expansion area is allocated in the process unit for
future changes.
The feed of para-xylene and product PTA are stored in the

Storage Area and


Tank Loading
Bay

storage tanks in storage area which is situated at the right


side of process unit.
Tank loading bay is situated next to the storage tanks

where the PTA products are distributed and located at


heavy vehicles road network.
The unit is located adjacent to other process unit such as
Utilities

CTA and PTA production and waste treatment unit to


supply the entire process area with cooling water,
electricity and steam.
The waste treatment unit is directly related to the process

Waste Treatment
Unit
Flaring Unit

unit as the waste discharged are treated in this unit. The


treated effluent is discharged to the Johor River.
The flare area is located away from non process area and
process unit for safety purpose with minimum radius of
50m.

Non Process Area


Non process area is mainly consisting of administration buildings and only fills up a small
fraction (30%) of the overall plant layout. A lot of factors are considered when designing non
process area such as the site terrain, road access and the wind direction to avoid any accident
from process area to be spread to the non-process area. tHe buildings in the non process area
are listed in the table XX below.
Table XX: The units and building in non process area
Building

Description

Administration

It is designed to be located near to the main entrance for

building

the employee to enter the office without passing through


process area.
The location is aligned to the process unit so that employee
are alert if any emergencies occuring and safe distance
from the process unit. Escape routes are allocated for every

office in case of emergency.


The security is located at the entrance of the plant to
Security

control the access of the vehicles.


The fire station is located near to the process area but

Fire Station

outside of the process area for the case of emergency and


shorter time to put out the fire.
Clinic is important to treat any injured personnel such as

Clinic

cuts, bruises, unconsciousness etc. The clinic is located


near to the gates for easy access to the main road.
The products of PTA from the process area are tested in

Laboratory

laboratory occasionally to ensure the product MTPA meets


the standards and specification required.
The warehouse is located in the non process area to prevent

Warehouse

any damages of spare part during emergencies.