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a.

Case or Controversy

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 1
1st Semester 2016-2017
Atty. Amando Virgil D. Ligutan

I. Preliminary Readings

Pacifico A. Agabin, The Politics of Judicial Review over Executive Action: The Supreme Court
and Social Change in Unconstitutional Essays, pp. 167-198 (1996)

Irene C. Cortez, Constitutionalism in the Philippines- A View from the Academia,pp. 338-348,
Vol. 59, 4th Quarter (1984)

Walter Murphy, Constitutions, Constitutionalism, and Democracy in


Constitutionalism and Democracy: Transitions in the Contemporary World, pp. 1-20 (1993)
II. THE CONSTITUTION- Adoption, Interpretation, Amendment & Revision
Provisional Constitution

Proclamation No. 1, 25 February 1986 (Provisional Government)

Proclamation No. 3, 25 March 1986 (Provisional Constitution)

1987 Philippine Constitution


1. Adoption and Effectivity
De Leon v. Esguerra, G.R. No. 78059, 31 August 1987
2. Interpretation
Nitafan v. CIR, 152 SCRA 284 (1987)
Civil Liberties Union v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 83896, 22February 1991
Filoteo v. Sandiganbayan, 263 SCRA 222 (1996)
3. Amendment and Revision
a. In General (Art.XVII)
b. Proposals
i. By Congress as Constituent Assembly
Gonzales v. COMELEC, G.R. L-28196, 9 November 1967

.
ii.By Constitutional Convention
Del Rosario v. COMELEC, 35 SCRA 367 (1970), G.R. L-32476, 20 October
1970
Imbong v. COMELEC, G.R. L-32432, 11 September1970
iii. ByPeoplesInitiative
Santiago v. COMELEC, G.R. 127325, 19 March 1997
Lambino v. COMELEC, 505 SCRA 160 (2006)
Note: Emergency Power of the President
Sanidad v. COMELEC, G.R. L-44640, 12 October 1976
c. Submission of Proposed Amendments
Tolentino v. COMELEC, 41 SCRA 702 (1971)
d. Ratification Plebiscite v. Referendum
III. THE CONSTITUTION AND JUDICIAL REVIEW
1. Judicial Review Overview
Art. VIII, 1987 Phil. Const.Sec. 1, 2, 4 (2), 5 (2) (a)
See Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803)
Angara v. Electoral Commission, G.R. No. L-45081, 15 July 1936

2. Requisites
SC Petitions challenging the constitutionality of RA 9372 (October 5, 2010)G.R. Nos.
178552, 178554, 178581, 178890,179157, 179461

Garcia v. Board of Investments, G.R. 92024, 9 November 1990


Oposa v. Factoran, Jr., G.R. 101083, 30 July 2003
Manila Prince Hotel v. GSIS, G.R. 122156, 3 February 1997
Kilosbayan v. Morato, G.R. 118910, 17 July 1995
Taada v. Angara, G.R. 118295, 2 May 1997
Santiago v. Bautista, G.R. L-25024, 30 March 1970
People v. Ferrer, G.R. L-32613-14, 27 December 1972
Director v. Ang Chio Kho, G.R. L-30001, 23 June 1970
J.M. Tuason v. LTA, G.R. L-21064, 18 February 1970

Ripeness
Tan v. Macapagal, G.R. L-34161, 29 February 1972
Poe v. Ullman, 367 U.S. 497 (1961)
U.S. v. Richardson, 418 U.S. 166 (1974)

Mootness
DeFunis v. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 312 (1974)
Land Bank of the Phils. v. Suntay, G.R. 188376, 14 December 2011
b. Legal Standing
Muskrat v. U.S., 219 U.S. 346 (1911)
PACU v. Secretary of Education, G.R. L-5279, 31October 1955
Gonzales v. Hechanova, G.R. L-21897, 22 October 1963
Gonzales v. Marcos, G.R. L-31685, 31 July 1975
People v. Vera, G.R. L-45685, 16 November 1937
Flast v. Cohen, 392 U.S. 83 (1968)
Sierra Club v. Morton, 405 U.S. 727 (1972)
U.S. v. SCRAP, 412 U.S. 669 (1973)
Kilosbayan v. Guingona, G.R. 113375, 5 May 1994
Kilosbayan v. Morato, G.R. No. 118910, 6 November 1995
Steffel v. Thompson, 415 U.S. 452 (1974)
Automotive Workers Alliance v. Romulo, G.R. No. 157509, January 18, 2005

Requisites for Taxpayers, Lawmakers, Voters & Concerned Citizens Suits


Francisco v. House of Representatives, G.R. 160261, 10 November 2003
Sanlakas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. 159085, 3 February 2004
Tan v. Macapagal, G.R. L-32979-81, 29 February 1972
Demetria v. Alba, G.R. 71977, 27 February 1987
Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. 140835, 14 August 2000
David v. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, G.R. 171396, 3 May 2006
Paguia v. Office of the President, G.R. 176278, 25 June 2010
c. Raised at Earliest Opportunity
People v. Vera, G.R. 45685, 16 November 1937
d. Lis Mota of the Case
Luis General v. Urro, G.R. No. 191560, 29 March 2011
IV. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES
Preamble of the 1987 Constitution
1. Principles
a. Sovereignty of the People and Republicanism
Art. II, Sec. 1- 1987 Constitution
Perez v. Suller, G.R. No. L-46710, 18 November 1939
Villavicencio v. Lukban, 39 Phil. 778

b. Adherence to International Law


Art. II, Sec. 2- 1987 Constitution
Kuroda v. Jalandoni, 83 Phil. 171, 178 (1949)
Secretary of Justice v. Lantion, G.R. No. 139465, 18 January 2000
Pharmaceutical Association v. Duque, G.R. No. 173034, 9 October 2007
c. Supremacy of Civilian Authority
Art. II, Sec. 3- 1987 Constitution
See Art. VII, Sec. 18- 1987 Constitution
See Alih v. Castro, 151 SCRA 279
d. Government as protector of the People; People as defender of the State
Art. II, Sec. 4- 1987 Constitution
See Lagman v. Zosa, 66 Phil. 13

e. Separation of Church and the State


Art. II, Sec. 6- 1987 Constitution
Art. III, Sec. 5 (Freedom of Religion clause)
Art. IX-C, Sec. 2 (5) (religion sect not allowed as registered political party)
Art. VI, Sec. 5 (2) (no sectoral representative from religious sector)
Art. VI, Sec. 29 (2) (prohibition against appropriation for sectarian benefit)
i. Establishment Clause
Aglipay v. Ruiz, 64 Phil. 201 (1937)
Garces v. Estenzo, 104 SCRA 510 (1981)
See Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971)
ii. Free Exercise Clause
American Bible Society v. City of Manila, 101 Phil. 386
Gerona v. Secretary of Education, G.R. No. L-13954, 12 August 1959
Ebranilag v. Division Superintendent, G.R. No. 95770, 1 March 1993
Exceptions:
Art. VI, Sec. 28 (3), 29 (2)
Art. XIV, Sec. 3 (3), 4 (2)
2. State Policies
Art. II- 1987 Constitution
a. Independent Foreign Policy and Nuclear-Free Philippines(Sec. 7, 8)
b. Just and Dynamic Social Order (Sec. 9)
i. Promotion of Social Justice (Sec. 10)
See Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil 726
ii. Respect for Human Dignity and Human Rights (Sec. 11)
iii. Sanctity of Family and Promotion of Youth (Sec.12, 13)
Imbong v. Ochoa, G.R. No. 204819, April 8, 2014
iiii. Equality of Men and Women (Sec. 14)
v. Promotion of Health and Ecology (Sec. 15, 16)See Oposa v. Factoran, 224 SCRA 792
vi. Priority to Education, Science and Technology (Sec. 17)
vii. Protection of Labor (Sec.18)
viii. Self-reliant and Independent Economic Order (Sec. 19, 20) See Taada v. Angara,
supra.
ix. Land Reform (Sec. 21)
x. Indigenous Cultural Minorities (Sec. 22)
xi.Independent Peoples Organizations (Sec. 23)

xii. Communication and Information (Sec. 24)


xiii. Autonomy of Local Governments (Sec. 25)
xiiii. Equal Access of Opportunities for Public Service (Sec. 26)
xv. Honest Public Service and Full Disclosure (Sec. 27, 28)
V. STATE: SOVEREIGNTY, TERRITORY, PEOPLE & GOVERNMENT
State in General Collector of Internal Revenue v. Campos Rueda, 42 SCRA 23
1. Sovereignty
People v. Gozo, 53 SCRA 476
People v. Perfecto, 43 Phil. 887
Macariola v. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77
Dominium v. Imperium
A. Sovereign Immunity- Doctrine of Non-Suability of State
Art. XVI, Sec. 3- 1987 Constitution
Kawawanakoa v. Polybank, 205 U.S. 349 (1907)
Republic v. Villasor, 54 SCRA 83
i. Suit against the State
Republic v. Feliciano, 148 SCRA 424 (1987)
Sanders v. Veridiano, 162 SCRA 88
Lansang v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 102667, 23 February 2000
Tan v. Director of Forestry, 125 SCRA 302
Veterans Manpower v. Court of Appeals, 214 SCRA 286
PNB v. Commission on Internal Revenue, 81 SCRA 314
Farolan v. Court of Tax Appeals, 217 SCRA 298
ii. Need for Consent- Express or Implied
Republic v. Feliciano, supra.
Lansang v. Court of Appeals, supra.
Froilan v. Pan Oriental Shipping, G.R. No. L-6060, 30 Sept. 1950
U.S. v. Ruiz, 136 SCRA 487
U.S. v. Guinto, 182 SCRA 644
Republic v. Villasor, supra
iii. Suability v. Liability of State
Merrit v. Government, 34 Phil 311 (1916)
Fontanilla v. Maliaman, 194 SCRA 486
Commissioner of Public Highway v. San Diego, 31 SCRA 616 (1970)
NHA v. Heirs of Guivelondo, G.R. No. 154411, June 19, 2003
Makati v. Court of Appeals, G.R. Nos. 89898-99, October 1, 1990
Star Special Watchman v. Puerto Princesa City, G.R. No. 181792, April 21, 2014
2. Territory
Art. I-1987 Constitution
See Exec. Ord. No. 292 (1987), Book 1, Sec. 3
Republic Act No. 9522 (2009)
Magallona v. Ermita, et al, G.R. No. 187167, 16 July 2011
The Province of North Cotabato v. GRP Peace Panel, G.R. No. 183591, 14 October 2008
3. People
Art. IV, Sec. 1-5- 1987 Constitution
See Exec. Ord. No. 292 (1987), Book 1, Sec. 5-9
a. Citizens of the Philippines
Tecson v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 161434, 3 March 2004

Bengson III v. HRET, G.R. No. 142840, 7 May 2001


Valles v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 137000, 9 August 2000
Co v. HRET, G.R. No. 92191-92, 30 July 1991
Balgamelo Cabiling, et al v. Commissioner, G.R. No. 183133, 26 July 2010

Veterans Fed. Party v. COMELEC, G.R. No.


136781, 6 Oct.2000
Bagong Bayani v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 147589,
26 June 2001
Atong Paglaum v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 203766,
2 April 2013
BANAT v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 179271, 21 April
2009;
Resolution 8 July 2009
Ang Ladlad-LGBT v. COMELEC, G.R. No.
190582, 8 April 2010
Phil. Guardians Brotherhood v. COMELEC, G.R.
No. 190529, 29 April 2010

b. Loss and Reacquisition of Citizenship


Republic Act No. 9225 (2003)
Aznar v. COMELEC, 185 SCRA 703 (1990)
Mercado v. Manzano, G.R. No. 135083, 26 May 1999
Willie Yu v. Santiago, G.R. No. 83882, 24 January 1989
Labo, Jr. v. COMELEC, 176 SCRA 1 (1989)
Frivaldo v. COMELEC, 174 SCRA 245 (1989)
Frivaldo v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 120295, June 28, 1996
Angat v. Republic, G.R. No. 132244, 14 September 1999
Altarejos v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 163256, 10 November 2004
c. Dual Citizenship; Dual Allegiance
Republic Act No. 9225 (2003)
Mercado v. Manzano, supra.
AASJS Member Calilung v. Datumanong, G.R. No. 160869, 11 May 2007
4. Government (see next chapters)
VI. LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
1. Definition
2. By the People
a. Initiative
b. Referendum
3. By Congress
a. Composition, Qualification & Term of Office
Sec. 1, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
1. Senate
Secs. 1-4, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
2. House of Representatives
Secs. 5-8, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
i. District Representatives
Macias v. COMELEC, No. L-18684, 14
September 1961
Mariano v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 118577, 7
March 1995
Montejo v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 118702, 16
March 1995
Marcos v. COMELEC, 248 SCRA 300
Aquino v. COMELEC, 248 SCRA 400
Torayno v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 137329, 9
August 2000
Aquino v. Comelec, G.R. No. 189793, April 7,
2010
ii. Party-List Representatives
Republic Act 7941

iii. Sectoral Representatives


b. Election
Secs. 8-9, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Tolentino v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 148334, 21 January 2004
Macalintal v. COMELEC, G.R. 157013, 10 July 2003
c. Organization & Sessions
i.Election of Officers
Sec. 16 (1), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
ii.Quorum
Sec. 16 (2), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Avelino v. Cuenco, 83 Phil. 17
See: SC Ruling on the Motion for Reconsideration filed March 14, 1949
Santiago v. Guingona, 298 SCRA 756
iii.Rules of Proceedings
Secs. 16 (3), 21, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Arroyo v. de Venecia, G.R. No. 127255, 14 August 1997
Pimentel v. Senate Committee, G.R. No. 187714, 8 March 2011
iiii.Discipline of Members
Sec. 16 (3), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Alejandrino v. Quezon, 46 Phil. 83
Osmena v. Pendatun, 109 Phil. 863
Santiago v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 128055, 19 April 2001
Pimentel v. Senate Committee, supra.
v.Journal and Congressional Records
Sec. 16 (4), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
a. Enrolled Bill Theory
Mabanag v. Lopez Vito, 78 Phil 1
Phil. Judges Assoc. v. Prado, 27 SCRA 703
Farinas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 147387, 10 December 2003
b. Probative Value of the Journal
U.S. v. Pons, 34 Phil. 729
c. Matters to be entered in the Journal
d. Journal Entry v. Enrolled Bill Theory
Astorga v. Villegas, 56 SCRA 714
Morales v. Subido, 27 SCRA 131

Arroyo v. de Venecia, supra.

vi. Congressional Record


Sec. 16 (4), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution

vii. Sessions
a. Regular Sessions
Secs. 15, 16 (5), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution

b. Special Sessions
Sec. 15, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Secs. 10-11, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 18, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
c. Joint Sessions
1. voting separately
Secs. 4, 11 (4), 9, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 23 (1), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 1 (1), Art. XVII, 1987 Constitution

2. voting jointly
Sec. 18, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution

d. Salaries, Privileges and Disqualifications


i.Salaries
Sec. 10, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 17, Art. XVIII, 1987 Constitution
Philconsa v. Mathay, 18 SCRA 300
ii.Privileges
1. Freedom from Arrest
Sec. 11, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
People v. Jalosjos, G.R. No. 132875, 3 Feb. 2000
2. Privilege of Speech & Debate
Sec. 11, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Jimenez v. Cabangbang, 17 SCRA 876
Pobre v. Santiago, AC No. 7399, 25 August 2009
iii.Disqualifications
Secs. 13, 14, 12, 20, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Adaza v. Pacana, 135 SCRA 431
Puyat v. de Guzman, 113 SCRA 31
Liban v. Gordon, G.R. No. 175352, 15 July 2009 & 18 Janaury 2011
Villegas v. Legaspi, G.R. No. 53869, 25 March 1982
e. Electoral Tribunals
Secs. 17 & 19, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Vera v. Avelino, 34 Phil 725
Tanada v. Cuenco, G.R. No. L-10520, 28 Feb. 1957
Pimentel v. HRET, 141489, 29 Nov. 2002
Codilla v. de Venecia, G.R. No. 150605, 10 Dec. 2002
Barbers v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 165691, 22 June 2005
Vilando v. COMELEC, G.R. Nos. 178831-32, 1 April 2009
Vilando v. HRET, G.R. Nos. 192147 & 192149, 23 August 2011
f. Commission on Appointments
Secs. 18 & 19, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Daza v. Singson, 180 SCRA 496

Coseteng v. Mitra, 187 SCRA 377


Guingona v. Gonzales, 214 SCRA 789
Drilon v. de Venecia, G.R. No. 180055, 31 July 2009
g. Legislative Powers
i. General Plenary Powers
Sec. 1, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Sema v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 1775597, 16 July 2008
ii. Limitations on Legislative Power
1. Substantive Limitations
a. Express
Art III, 1987 Constitution
Secs. 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 4 (3), Art. XIV, 1987 Constitution
Abakada Guro Party List v. Purisima, G.R. No. 166715, 14
August 2008
Belgica, et al. v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 208566
November 19, 2013

b. Implied
Non-Delegation of Legislative Powers
Exceptions:

1) Delegation to the President (Secs. 23 (2) & 28 (2) Art. VI, 1987
Constitution

2) Delegation to the People (Sec. 32, Art.VII)


3) Delegation to Local Governments - Non-Passage of Irrepealable Laws
2. Procedural Limitations
Secs. 26-27, 1987 Constitution

a. only one subject expressed in the title


b. three readings on separate days
iii. Question Hour
Sec. 22, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution

iiii. Legislative Investigation


Sec. 21, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Bengzon v. Blue Ribbon Committee, 203 SCRA 767
Sabio v. Gordon, G.R. No. 174177, October 17, 2006
Standard Chartered v. Senate, G.R. No. 167173, December 27,
2007
Blue Ribbon Comm. v. Hon. Majaducon, G.R. No. 136760, July 29,
2003
v. Board of Canvassers for Presidential Elections
Sec. 4 (4), Art. VII, 1987 Constitution

vi. Call for Special Election for President & Vice-President


Sec. 10, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution

vii. Revoke or Extend suspension of privilege of writ of habes corpus or Declaration of Martial Law
Sec. 18, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution

viii. Approve Presidential Amnesties

Sec. 19, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution

ix. Confirm Certain Appointments


Secs. 9 & 16, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Sarmiento v. Mison, G.R. No. 79974, 17 Dec. 1987
x. Concur in Treaties
Sec. 21, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Bayan Muna v. Romulo, G.R. No. 159618, 1 Feb. 2011
xi. Declare War & Delegate Emergency Powers
Sec. 23, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
xii. Judge Presidents Fitness
Sec. 11, par. 4, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
xiii. Power of Impeachment
Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
1. Impeachable Officers
Sec. 2, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
In re Gonzales, 160 SCRA 771
2. Grounds
Sec. 2, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
3. Procedure
Romulo v. Yniguez, 141 SCRA 263
Francisco, Jr. v. House of Representatives, G.R. No. 160261, 10 Nov. 2003
Gutierrez v. House of Representatives, G.R. No. 193459, 15 Feb. 2011 & 8 March
2011

4. Effects
Sec. 3 (7), Art. XI, 1987 Constitution

xiiii. Allow Utilization of Natural Resources


Sec. 2, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution

xv.Amend or Revise the Constitution

John Hay PAC v. Lim, G.R. No. 119775, 24 October 2003


Lung Center v. Quezon City, G.R. No. 144104, 29 June 2004
ii. Procedure for Passage of Bills
Sec. 26 (2), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, supra.
Gonzales v. Macaraig, G.R. No. 87636, 19 November 1990
Farinas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 147387, 10 December 2003
iii. Veto by President
Sec. 27, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Gonzales v. Macaraig, supra.
Bolinao Electronics v. Valencia, 11 SCRA 486
PHILCONSA v. Enriquez, G.R. No. 113105, 19 August 1994
iiii. Effectivity of Laws
Tanada v. Tuvera, 136 SCRA 27
E.O. 200, 18 June 1987
PVB Employees v. Hon. Vera, G.R. No. 105364, 28 June 2001
VII. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
1. The President
a. Qualifications, Election, Term & Oath
Secs. 2, 4-5, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Pormento v. Estrada, G.R. No. 152154, 15 July 2003
Macalintal v. Presidential Electoral Tribunal, G.R. No. 191618, 23 Nov. 2010; 7 June
2011
b. Privilege and Salary
Sec. 6, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
c. Prohibitions
Sec. 13, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Doromal v. Sandiganbayan, 177 SCRA 354 (1989)
Civil Liberties Union v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 83896, 22 Feb. 1991
Public Interest Center v. Elma, G.R. No. 138965, 30 June 2006

Secs. 1-2, Art. XVII, 1987 Constitution

h. Legislative Process
i. Requirement as to bills
1. titles of bills
Sec. 26, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Cruz v. Paras, 123 SCRA 569 (1983)
Giron v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 188179, 22 January 2013
2. as to specific laws
a) Appropriation Laws
Secs. 24-25, 29, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 3, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Demetria v. Alba, 148 SCRA 208
Guingona v. Carague, 196 SCRA 221
Tolentino v. Sec. of Finance, 235 SCRA 630
Pichay v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 196425, 24 July 2012
b) Tax Laws
Sec. 28, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 4 (3) & (4), Art. XIV, 1987 Constitution
Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, G.R. No. 115455, 25 Aug. 1994

Exceptions:
i. Vice-President as member of the cabinet
[Sec. 3 (2), Art. VII, 1987 Constitution]
ii. DOJ Secretary as Judicial and Bar Council (JBC) member
[Sec. 8 (1), Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution]
d. Succession
i. vacancy at the beginning of term
[Secs. 7, 10, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution]
ii. vacancy during the term
[Secs. 8, 10, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution]
Estrada v. Desierto, G.R. Nos. 146710-15, 2 March 2001
Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, 3 April 2001
iii. temporary disability
Estrada v. Desierto, supra.
e. Removal
Secs. 2-3, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
f. Powers and Functions
i. Executive Power
Secs. 1 & 17, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution

Marcos v. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668 (1989)


Birago v. Philippine Truth Commission, G.R. No. 192935, 7 Dec. 2010
ii. Control of Executive Departments
Sec. 17, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
De Leon v. Carpio, 178 SCRA 457 (1989)
Dadole v. Commission on Audit, G.R. No. 125350, 3 Dec. 2002
DENR v. DENR Employees, G.R. No. 149724, 19 August 2003
Rufino v. Endriga, G.R. No. 139565, 21 July 2006
iii. General Supervision over Local Governments & Autonomous Regions
Secs. 4, 16, Art. X, 1987 Constitution
Drilon v. Mayor Lim, G.R. No. 112497, 4 August 1994
iiii. Appointment Power
Sec. 16, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Government v. Springer, 50 Phil. 257 (1927)
a. With consent of the Commission on Appointments
1. Heads of Departments
2. Ambassadors, Public Ministers &Consuls
3. AFP Officers from Colonel & Naval Captain
4. Constitutional Commissions Chairpersons & Members
5. Regular Members of the Judicial and Bar Council (JBC)
[Sec. 8 (2), Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution]
6. Sectoral Representatives
[Sec. 7, Art. XVIII, 1987 Constitution]
Sarmiento v. Mison, supra.
Quintos-Deles v. Comm. on Appointments, 177 SCRA 259 (1989)
Calderon v. Carale, G.R. No. 91636, 23 April 1992
Matibag v. Benipayo, G.R. No. 149036, 2 April 2002
Rufino v. Endriga, G.R. No. 139565, 21 July 2006

b. Upon Recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council (JBC)


1. Members of the Supreme Court & all other courts
[Sec. 9, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution]

2. Ombudsman & deputies


[Sec. 9, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution]

c. Appointment of Vice-President as cabinet member


[Sec. 3, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution]

d. Appointments solely by the President


Sec. 16, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution

1. Appointments not otherwise provided by law


2. As maybe authorized by law to appoint
e. Limitations to Appointing Power
1. Prohibited &Midnight Appointments
Secs. 13 & 15, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Arturo de Castro v. JBC, G.R. No. 191002, 17 March 2010
2. Interim or Recess Appointments
Sec. 19, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 16 (2), Art. VII, 1987 Constitution

Matibag v. Benipayo, supra. v. Executive Clemency


Sec. 19, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 5, Art. IX, C, 1987 Constitution
a. pardon distinguished from probation
People v. Vera, 65 Phil. 56
b. pardon distinguished from parole
Torres v. Gonzales, 152 SCRA 272 (1987)
c. pardon distinguished from amnesty
Barrioquinto v. Fernandez, 82 Phil 642
1. who may avail of amnesty
Macagaan v. People, 152 SCRA 430
d. effect of pardon
Monsanto v. Factoran, Jr., G.R. No. 78239, 9 Feb. 1989
vi. Commander-in-Chief
Sec. 18, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 3, Art. II, 1987 Constitution
IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, 15 August 2000
Lacson v. Perez, G.R. No. 147780, 10 May 2001
Sanlakas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 159085, 3 Feb. 2004
David v. Ermita, G.R. No. 171396, 3 May 2006
Fortun, et al v. Gloria Arroyo, G.R. No. 190293, 20 March 2012
vii. Emergency Powers
Sec. 23 (2), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
David v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 171390, 3 May 2006
viii. Contracting and Guaranteeing Foreign Loans
Secs. 20-21, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
ix. Power over Foreign Affairs
Sec. 21, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Pimental v. Ermita, G.R. No. 158088, 6 July 2005
Bayan v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 138570, 10 Oct. 2000
Lim v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 151445, 11 April 2002
Secretary of Justice v. Lantion, G.R. No. 139465, 17 Oct. 2000
Go Tek v. Deportation Board, 79 SCRA 17 (1977)
x. Power over Legislation
a. to address congress
Sec. 23, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
b. budget preparation & submission
Sec. 22, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
see Guingona v. Carague, supra.
c. veto power
Sec. 27, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
see Gonzales v. Macaraig, supra.
see Bolinao Electronics v. Valencia, supra.
d. emergency powers
Sec. 23 (2), Art. VI, 1987 Constitution
xi. Executive Immunity
Beltran v. Makasiar, G.R. No. 82585, 14 Nov. 1988
Estrada v. Desierto, supra.
Gloria v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119903, August 15, 2000

xii. Executive Privilege


Senate v. Ermita, G.R. No. 169777, 20 April 2006
Neri v. Senate Committee, G.R. No. 180843, March 25, 2008
2. The Vice-President
a. Qualifications, Election, Term & Oath
Secs. 3-5, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
b. Privilege and Salary
Sec. 6, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
c. Prohibitions
Sec. 13, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
d. Succession
Sec. 9, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
e. Removal
Secs. 2-3, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
VIII. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
Judicial Power
Sec. 1, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Santiago v. Bautista, 32 SCRA 188 (1970)
Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice, G.R. No. 132601, 19 January 1999
See: Chapter III
1. Supreme Court
a. Composition
Sec. 4, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Vargas v. Rilloraza, 80 Phil. 297 (1948)
b. Appointments and Qualifications
Sec. 7, 8, 9, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Kilosbayan v. Ermita, G.R. No. 177721, 3 July 2007
Arturo de Castro v. JBC, G.R. No. 191002, 17 March 2010, supra.
c. Salary
Sec. 10, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 17, Art. XVIII, 1987 Constitution
Nitafan v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, G.R. No. 78780, 23
July 1987

d. Security of Tenure
Sec. 11, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Vargas v. Rilloraza, 80 Phil. 297 (1948)
De La Llana v. Alba, 112 SCRA 294

e. Removal
Sec. 11, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 2, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
f. Fiscal Autonomy
Sec. 3, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Bengzon v. Drilon, G.R. No. 103524, 15 April 1992
g. Jurisdiction
Sec. 1, 2, 5, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 30, Art. VI, 1987 Constitution

Sec. 18, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution


Bengzon v. Drilon, G.R. No. 103524, 15 April 1992
Joya v. PCGG, G.R. No. 96541, 24 August 1993
Macasiano v. NHA, G.R. No. 107921, 1 July 1993
Mariano v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 118577, 7 March 1995
Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. No. 140835, 14 August 2000
h. Presidential Electoral Tribunal
Sec. 4, par. 4, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
i. Administrative Powers
i. Supervision of Lower Courts
Sec. 6, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Maceda v. Vasquez, G.R. No. 102781, 22 April 1993
Fuentes v. Ombudsman, G.R. No. 124295, October 23, 2001
ii. Temporarily assign judges to other stations
Sec. 5 (3), Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
iii. Order change of venue/trial
Sec. 5 (4), Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
iv. Discipline of judges
Sec. 11, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
v. Appointment of officials and employees
Sec. 5 (6), Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
j. Rule Making
Sec. 5 (5), Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 14 (2), Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 18 (3), Art. XIII, 1987 Constitution
Bustos v. Lucero, 81 Phil 640 (1948)
In re Cunanan, 94 Phil. 534 (1954)
Javellana v. DILG, G.R. No.102549, 10 Aug.1992
k. No quasi-judicial and administrative work for judges
Sec. 12, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
In re Judge Mariano, 166 SCRA 246 (1988)
l. Report on the judiciary
Sec. 16, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
m. Manner of sitting and votes required
Sec. 4, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 2, Rule 56, Rules of Court
Sec. 3, Rule 125, Rules of Court
Fortich v. Corona, G.R. No. 131457, 19 August 1999
People v. Dy, G.R. Nos. 115236-37, 16 January 2003
People v. Ebio, G.R. No. 147750, 29 Sept. 2004
n. Requirements as to decisions
Secs. 13-14, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Air France v. Carrascoso, 18 SCRA 155 (1956)
Valdez v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 85082, 25 Feb. 1991
People v. Lizada, G.R. Nos. 143468-71, 23 Jan. 2003
i. Period for deciding cases
Sec. 15, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 18 (3), Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Secs. 12-14, Art. XVIII, 1987 Constitution
2. Lower Courts

a. Jurisdiction
Sec. 1, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
b. Appointments and Qualifications
Sec. 7 (2-3), 8 (5), 9, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
c. Salary
Sec. 10, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
d. Tenure
Sec. 11, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
e. Removal
Sec. 11, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
f. Requirements as to preparation of orders
Sec. 14, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
i. Period for deciding cases
Sec. 15, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
Secs. 12-14, Art. XVIII, 1987 Constitution
3. Judicial and Bar Council
Sec. 8, Art. VIII, 1987 Constitution
IX. NATIONAL ECONOMY AND PATRIMONY
A. Objective
Sec. 1, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
B. Natural Resources
1. Regalian Doctrine
Lee Hong Kok v. David, 48 SCRA 372, 377 (1972)
2. Citizenship Requirement
Secs. 2 & 7, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
Chavez v. PEA and AMARI, G.R. No. 133250, 9 July 2002
3. Classification, Size, & Conditions for grant of public lands
Sec. 3, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
Director of Lands v. IAC, 146 SCRA 509 (1986)
Republic v. Court of Appeals, 155 SCRA 344 (1987)
4. Conservation of forest lands and national parks
Sec. 4, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
5. Protection of ancestral lands of indigenous cultural communities
Sec. 5, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
See: Cruz v. DENR, 347 SCRA 128
C. Private Lands
1. Citizenship requirement
Sec. 7, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
Godinez v. Pak Luen, 120 SCRA 223 (1983)
a. Exceptions
i. legal succession
Ramirez v. vda. De Ramirez, 111 SCRA 704 (1982)
ii. acquisition by former natural-born citizens
Sec. 8, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
2. Agrarian Reform
Secs. 4-8 Art. XIII, 1987 Constitution
3. Urban land reform and housing

Secs. 9-10, Art. XIII, 1987 Constitution

D. Economic Activities
1. Rationale
Secs. 6, 12 & 13, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution

2. Organization and regulation of private corporations


3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Sec. 16, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution


NADECO v. PVB, 192 SCRA 257
Operation of public utilities
Secs. 11, 17 & 18, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
Albano v. Reyes, 175 SCRA 264
Tatad v. Garcia, Jr., G.R. No. 114222, 6 April 1995
Associated Communications v. NTC, G.R. No. 144109, 17 Feb. 2003
JG Summit v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 124293, 24 Sept. 2003
State Operation of private enterprises
Secs. 17-18, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
See: David v. Ermita, G.R. No. 171396, 3 May 2006
Practice of Professions
Sec. 14, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
Money, Banking and Credit
Secs. 20-21, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
Cooperatives
Sec. 15, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
Monopolies, Combinations & Unfair Competition
Sec. 19, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution
Eastern Assurance v. LTFRB, G.R. No. 149717, 7 Oct. 2003

X. ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS


A. Public Office as Public Trust
Sec. 1, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Hipolito v. Mergas, A.M. No. P-90-412, 11 March 1991
1. Disclosure of assets, liabilities and net worth
Sec. 17, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
2. Ban on financial accommodation
Sec. 16, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
B. Impeachment by Congress
See: Chapter VI
C. Sandiganbayan
Sec. 4, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
P.D. 1606, 10 December 1979
Nunez v. Sandiganbayan, 111 SCRA 433 (1982)
Mayor Lecaros v. Sandiganbayan, 128 SCRA 324 (1984)
D. Ombudsman
1. Composition
Sec. 5, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Gonzales v. Office of the President, G.R. No. 196231, September 24, 2012
Gonzales v. Office of the President, G.R. No. 196231, January 28, 2014
2. Powers and Functions
Secs. 12-13, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Raro v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 108431, 14 July 2000


Acop v. Ombudsman, 248 SCRA 566 (1995)
Deloso v. Domingo, 191 SCRA 545 (1990)
Ombudsman v. Santiago, G.R. No. 161098, September 13, 2007
Qualifications
Sec. 8, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Appointment and Term
Secs. 9 & 11, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Rank and Salary
Sec. 10, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Disqualification
Sec. 8, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Sec. 2, Art. IX-A, 1987 Constitution
Fiscal Autonomy
Sec. 14, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Appointment of Personnel
Sec. 6, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Office of the Special Prosecutor
Sec. 7, Art. XI, 1987 Constitution
Zaldivar v. Sandiganbayan, 160 SCRA 843 (1988)

XI. CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSIONS


A. Civil Service Commission
1. Scope of Civil Service
Art. IX, B, Sec. 2 (1)
Gamogamo v. PNOC Shipping, G.R. No. 141707, May 7, 2002
Leyson v. Ombudsman, G.R. No. 134990, April 27, 2000
PNOC v. Leogardo, G.R. No. 58494, July 5, 1989
2. Commission- Composition and Qualifications
Art. IX, B, Sec. 1 (1)
Art. VII, Sec. 13, par. 2
3. Commissioners- Appointment and Term of Office
Art. IX, B, Sec. 1 (2)
4. Personnel- Appointment
Art. IX, A, Sec. 4
5. Salary
Art. IX, A, Sec. 3
Art. XVIII, Sec. 17
6. Disqualifications and Removal
Art. IX, A, Sec. 2
Art. XI, Sec. 2
7. Review of Decisions
Art. IX, A, Sec. 7
8. Fiscal Autonomy
Art. IX, A, Sec. 5
B. Commission on Elections
1. Powers and Functions
Art. IX, B, Sec. 2 (1-9)

2. Commission- Composition and Qualifications


Art. IX, C, Sec. 1 (1)
Art. VII, Sec. 13 (2)
3. Commissioners- Appointment and Term of Office
Art. IX, C, Sec. 1 (2)
9. Personnel- Appointment
Art. IX, A, Sec. 4
10. Salary
Art. IX, A, Sec. 4
Art. XVIII, Sec. 17
11. Disqualifications and Removal
Art. IX, A, Sec. 2
Art. XI, Sec. 2
12. Review of Decisions
Art. IX, C, Sec. 2 (2)
Art. IX, A, Sec. 4
13. Fiscal Autonomy
Art. IX, A, Sec. 5
C. Commission on Audit
1. Powers and Functions
Art. IX, D. Sec. 2-3
Art. VI, Sec. 20
2. Commission- Composition and Qualifications
Art. IX, D, Sec. 1 (1)
4. Commissioners- Appointment and Term of Office
Art. IX, D, Sec. 1 (2)
14. Personnel- Appointment
Art. IX, A, Sec. 4
15. Salary
Art. IX, A, Sec. 3
Art. XVIII, Sec. 17
16. Disqualifications and Removal
Art. IX, A, Sec. 2
Art. XI, Sec. 2
17. Review of Decisions
Art. IX, A, Sec. 7
18. Fiscal Autonomy
Art. IX, A, Sec. 5
XII. NATIONAL COMMISSIONS
A. Commission on Human Rights
Art. XIII, Sec. 17 (1-4)
1. Powers and Functions
Art. XIII, Sec. 18 (1-9)
B. National Police Commission
Art. XVI, Sec. 6
C. National Language Commission
Art. XVI, Sec. 9
D. Commission on Indigenous Cultural Communities

Art. XVI, Sec. 12

XII. LOCAL GOVERNMENTS (See: Atty. Amando Virgil Ligutans Syllabus on Local
Government)
---END--The future does not belong to the fainthearted, it belongs to the brave.
-Ronald Reagan
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