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eCNS600 V100R002

Feature Description

Draft

Date

2013-04-09

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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eCNS600
Feature Description

Contents

Contents
1 Basic Features............................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Basic Service ............................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1.1 eCNSFD-010200 Mobility Management ........................................................................................... 1
1.1.2 eCNSFD-010300 Security Management ............................................................................................ 3
1.1.3 eCNSFD-010400 Path Management .................................................................................................. 7
1.1.4 eCNSFD-010500 IP Address Allocation from Local Address Pool ..................................................... 8
1.1.5 eCNSFD-010600 Integrated Subscriber Data Management ................................................................ 9
1.1.6 eCNSFD-010700 Session Management ............................................................................................ 11
1.2 User Plane ................................................................................................................................................13
1.2.1 eCNSFD-030100 QoS and Traffic Management ...............................................................................13
1.3 IP Network Management ..........................................................................................................................13
1.3.1 eCNSFD-040100 Routing ................................................................................................................13
1.3.2 eCNSFD-040200 NTP .....................................................................................................................15
1.3.3 eCNSFD-040300 VLAN Supporting ................................................................................................16
1.3.4 eCNSFD-040500 Eth-Trunk.............................................................................................................18
1.3.5 eCNSFD-040600 OSPFv2 ...............................................................................................................19
1.3.6 eCNSFD-040700 VRF .....................................................................................................................21
1.3.7 eCNSFD-040800 Local Routing ......................................................................................................22
1.3.8 eCNSFD-040900 SGi Redirection ....................................................................................................23
1.4 Reliability.................................................................................................................................................25
1.4.1 eCNSFD-050200 Board Redundant Backup .....................................................................................25
1.5 Operation and Maintenance ......................................................................................................................26
1.5.1 eCNSFD-060100 Software Management ..........................................................................................26
1.5.2 eCNSFD-060300 Performance Management ....................................................................................27
1.5.3 eCNSFD-060400 Fault Management ................................................................................................29
1.5.4 eCNSFD-060500 Equipment Management .......................................................................................30
1.5.5 eCNSFD-060600 Configuration Management ..................................................................................32
1.5.6 eCNSFD-060700 Security Management ...........................................................................................33
1.5.7 eCNSFD-060800 Online Documentation ..........................................................................................35
1.5.8 eCNSFD-060900 Tracing Function ..................................................................................................36
1.5.9 eCNSFD-061000 Log Management .................................................................................................40
1.5.10 eCNSFD-061100 Daylight Saving Time .........................................................................................40
1.6 Interface Function.....................................................................................................................................41
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1.6.1 eCNSFD-070100 S1 Interface ..........................................................................................................41


1.6.2 eCNSFD-070200 SGi Interface ........................................................................................................43
1.6.3 eCNSFD-070300 S10 Interface ........................................................................................................44
1.6.4 eCNSFD-070400 S5 Interface ..........................................................................................................46
1.6.5 eCNSFD-070500 S8 Interface ..........................................................................................................47
1.6.6 eCNSFD-070600 Ga Interface .........................................................................................................49
1.6.7 eCNSFD-070700 S6a Interface ........................................................................................................50
1.7 Basic Platform ..........................................................................................................................................52
1.7.1 eCNSFD-080300 Linux Security Hardening.....................................................................................52

2 Optional Features ................................................................................................................... 56


2.1 Security Management ...............................................................................................................................56
2.1.1 eCNSFD-110001 NAS Encryption and Integrity Protection (AES) ...................................................56
2.1.2 eCNSFD-110002 NAS Encryption and Integrity Protection (SNOW3G) ...........................................57
2.1.3 eCNSFD-110003 O&M SSL ............................................................................................................58
2.2 Service Management ................................................................................................................................59
2.2.1 eCNSFD-110004 Static IP Address Allocation ..................................................................................59
2.2.2 eCNSFD-110005 Multiple PDN Connection ....................................................................................60
2.2.3 eCNSFD-110008 SPI-based QoS Profile Control..............................................................................61
2.2.4 eCNSFD-110009 Offline Charging ..................................................................................................62
2.2.5 eCNSFD-110011 UE IP Address assigned by the Radius AAA Server ...............................................66
2.2.6 eCNSFD-110012 E2E Subscriber Tracing ........................................................................................69
2.3 Reliability.................................................................................................................................................71
2.3.1 eCNSFD-110006 eCNS Redundancy ...............................................................................................71
2.4 Networking ..............................................................................................................................................72
2.4.1 eCNSFD-110007 Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) ...........................................................72
2.4.2 eCNSFD-110010 Routing Behind MS ..............................................................................................74
2.4.3 eCNSFD-110013 UE Fixed IP MultiHoming ....................................................................................76

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eCNS600
Feature Description

1 Basic Features

Basic Features

1.1 Basic Service


1.1.1 eCNSFD-010200 Mobility Management
Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
The EPS mobility management (EMM) was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
EMM controls the access of a UE to the evolved universal terrestrial radio access network
(E-UTRAN) and traces location information about the UE. The location information includes
information about the tracking area (TA) and the eCNS where the UE is located.
EMM is implemented in the following procedures:

Attach

Detach

Tracking area update (TAU)

Service request

Handover

Paging

Purge

Benefits
As a basic feature of the eCNS, it enables UEs to move in an enterprise's network.

Description
EMM controls the access of a UE to the E-UTRAN and traces location information about the
UE.

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UE states in the E-UTRAN are divided into EMM states and EPS connection management
(ECM) states:

EMM states are classified into EMM-DEREGISTERED and EMM-REGISTERED.

ECM states are classified into ECM-IDLE and ECM-CONNECTED.

The main EMM procedures are described as follows:

Attach
A UE must register on the network before using network services. This registration
procedure is called network attach. During the attach procedure, a default EPS bearer,
which provides a permanent IP connection, is established. The policy and charging
control (PCC) rules that apply to the default EPS bearer can be predefined in the PDN
GW and activated by the PDN GW itself in the attach procedure.

TAU
In an EPS network, the basic unit of location management is TA. A TA list can contain
one or more TAs. A TA list can be dynamically generated or statically configured; and.
prevents a UE from frequently initiating TA update procedures. For example, when a UE
frequently moves between several TAs, you can define these TAs as a TA list. This
prevents the TAU procedure from being generated.
A UE initiates a TAU procedure in the following scenarios:

a)

The UE detects that the current TA identity does not exist in the TA identity (TAI)
list on the network where the UE is registered.

b)

The access type of the UE is changed.

c)

The load balancing TAU is required.

d)

The TAU procedure is triggered during a handover procedure.

e)

The periodic TAU timer has expired.

f)

The RRC connection has failed.

Service request
A service request is used to change the ECM state from ECM-IDLE to
ECM-CONNECTED and to establish radio and S1-U bearers during the transfer of
uplink and downlink data.
When the UE is in ECM-IDLE mode, it initiates a service request procedure in the
following scenarios:

The downlink signaling or data needs to be transmitted from the network side.

The uplink signaling or data needs to be transmitted from the UE side.

Generally, a service request procedure is initiated by a UE. When the downlink data or
information is transferred in ECM-IDLE mode, the network initiates a paging procedure.
This triggers a UE to initiate a service request procedure as the paging response.

Handover
When the UE is in the ECM-CONNECTED state, a handover procedure is triggered after
the E-UTRAN determines that reselection is required.
The eCNS supports S1-based handover.

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S1 refers to the interface between the eNodeB and the eCNS.

Detach

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The detach procedure is used in the following scenarios:

A UE is detached from the EPS service.

A UE is disconnected from the last PDN connection.

The network informs a UE that it cannot be connected to the EPS.

A UE can be detached explicitly or implicitly.

Explicit detach: A UE or network side requests the detach, and the originating party
informs the other party of this event.

Implicit detach: A network side detaches a UE without informing the UE. For
example, the network side performs implicit detach to a UE when it determines that
the UE is unreachable.

The detach procedure is classified into three types:

Detach procedure initiated by a UE

Detach procedure initiated by an eCNS

After the detach procedure is complete, the EPS bearer contexts of the UE are
deactivated locally. After a UE is detached from the network, the network cannot obtain
the UE location information.

Paging function
This is the PS domain paging function. The network originates paging by using a certain
ID of a subscriber, such as GUTI or IMSI, in a known area. After obtaining a response
from the subscriber, the network performs the subsequent signaling flow or data transfer.

Purge
After removing the subscription data and MM context of a detached UE, the MME
notifies the HSS of the removal through a purge procedure.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards

3GPP TS 23.060, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description"

3GPP TS 23.401, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access"

3GPP TS 24.008, "Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification; Core Network protocols
- Stage 3"

3GPP TS 25.413, "UTRAN Iu Interface RANAP Signaling"

3GPP TS 24.301, "Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) protocol for Evolved Packet System


(EPS); Stage 3"

3GPP TS 36.413, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); S1


Application Protocol (S1AP)"

1.1.2 eCNSFD-010300 Security Management


The security management feature can:

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Identify and authenticate users.

Ensure that only legal users can access the network.

Guarantee confidentiality of user identity, user data, and signaling transfer.

The security management feature consists of the following sub-features:

Authentication

User ID confidentiality

Identity check

1.1.2.1 eCNSFD-010301 Authentication


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
The EPS authentication was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The authentication feature is used in subscriber identification, authentication, and
synchronization of the encryption key. This feature checks the validity of a subscriber's
service requests to ensure that only legal subscribers can use network services. The
authentication procedure is performed in association with EMM procedures.
The authentication function has two types: authentication of the network by a UE and
authentication of a UE by the network.

Benefits
As a basic feature of the eCNS, it prevents illegal users from accessing the network, and
ensures service operation profits.
Subscribers who require high security can use this function to prevent their access to
unacknowledged networks, and eliminate possible security risks.

Description
The EPS authentication is based on a USIM. An EPS authentication vector is composed of a
quartet, namely, RAND, AUTN, XRES, and KASME.

Random Challenge (RAND)


A RAND is a random value that the network provides to a UE. The length is 16 octets.

Authentication Token (AUTN)


An AUTN is used to provide the information for a UE so that the UE can use the AUTN
to authenticate the network. The length is 17 octets.

Expected Response (XRES)


An XRES is an expected response parameter of UE authentication. It is compared with
the RES or RES+RES_EXT generated by a UE to determine whether the authentication
is successful. The length ranges from 4 to 16 octets.

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Key ASME (KASME)


A KASME is a root encryption key deduced from the CK/IK and the public land mobile
network (PLMN) ID of the ASME (MME). The length is 32 octets.
Access Security Management Entity (ASME): In E-UTRAN access mode, the MME serves as an
ASME.

Figure 1-1 shows the EPS authentication procedure.


Figure 1-1 EPS authentication procedure

1. The eCNS sends the Authentication Request message to the UE to trigger the authentication
procedure. The authentication vectors, such as RAND, AUTN, and Key Set Identifier
(KSIASME) are contained in the message.
2. The UE sends the Authentication response message to the eCNS.

The UE authenticates the network based on the AUTN. If the authentication fails, the UE
returns the Authentication Failure message to the MME, indicating the cause.

If the authentication is successful, the UE calculates the RES based on the RAND and
returns the RES to the MME. The MME compares the XRES in the authentication vector
set with the returned RES. If they are consistent, the authentication succeeds. Otherwise,
the authentication fails. In this case, the MME sends the Authentication Reject message
to the UE.

If the authentication succeeds, the UE calculates and saves the KASME value for later
encryption and integrity protection.

----End
In addition to basic authentication features, the eCNS provides the feature to obtain
authentication sets in advance. The CNS can request authentication sets before all
authentication sets are used up. Therefore, the duration of the procedure for the UE to access
to the eCNS is shortened and user experience is improved.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

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Standards

3GPP TS 33.102, "3G Security; Security architecture"

3GPP TS 33.401, "3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE); Security architecture"

1.1.2.2 eCNSFD-010302 User Identity Confidentiality


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
The EPS user identity confidentiality was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The EPS user identity confidentiality is implemented through GUTI allocation. The GUTI is
used to provide a unique temporary UE identity in the EPS network. This identity does not
reveal the permanent UE identity on the LTE-Uu interface.

Benefits
As a basic feature of the eCNS, user identity confidentiality prevents the IMSIs of UEs from
being stolen, improving network security.

Description
A GUTI consists of the following parts:

GUMMEI: A GUMMEI consists of a mobile country code (MCC), a mobile network


code (MNC), and an eCNS identity.

M-TMSI: A 32-bit M-TMSI uniquely identifies a UE in an eCNS.

The GUTI can be implicitly allocated in the attach or TAU procedure or explicitly allocated in
the GUTI reallocation procedure.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards

3GPP TS 24.301, "Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) protocol for Evolved Packet System


(EPS); Stage 3"

3GPP TS 24.008, "Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification; Core Network protocols
- Stage 3"

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1.1.2.3 eCNSFD-010304 Identity Check


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
The EPS identity check was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The network requests different user identities, such as IMSI and IMEI, to check the real
identity of a UE.

Benefits
This is a basic feature of the eCNS.

Description
When a UE attaches to the network using a GUTI, to obtain the real identity of the UE, the
network sends the UE an Identity Request for IMSI, IMEI, or IMEISV. Then the UE returns
an Identity Response to notify the network of its identity.
After obtaining the real identity of the UE, the network checks the user identity with the
HLR/HSS or EIR. For details, see section 1.1.2.1 eCNSFD-010301 Authentication.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards

3GPP TS 24.301, "Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) protocol for Evolved Packet System


(EPS); Stage 3"

3GPP TS 24.008, "Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification; Core Network protocols
- Stage 3"

1.1.3 eCNSFD-010400 Path Management


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

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Summary
The system can manage the paths by using path detection messages, and clear invalid paths.

Benefits
The communication between devices can be ensured.

Description
A GTP path is determined by a quaternary, namely, local IP address, local port, peer IP
address, and peer port. The path management messages are usually sent and received between
the GTP entities.
The path management feature is used to detect whether the peer GTP Entity is available. The
eCNS can send the path management message on all paths in use. When a path is detected as
faulty, the eCNS may deactivate all PDP/EPS bearer contexts related to the path so that data
packets are no longer along this path.
If no signaling or data is sent or received on a path for a long period, the eCNS determines
that the path is invalid and clears the path.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards

3GPP TS 29.060, "GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTPv1) across the Gn and Gp interface"

3GPP TS 09.60, "GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTPv0) across the Gn and Gp interface"

1.1.4 eCNSFD-010500 IP Address Allocation from Local Address


Pool
Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The eCNS allocates IPv4 addresses to UEs from its local address pool.

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Benefits
This feature provides an enhancement to eCNSFD-110004 Static IP Address Allocation and
enables the eCNS to automatically create routes to UEs.

Description
A UE must obtain at least one IP address before it is able to access PS services. A PDN
Address Allocation IE is specified during the setup of a default bearer for the UE. This IE
contains protocol information (including an IP address field) the UE must obtain before it is
able to access an external PDN. In addition, this IE indicates the method the UE expects to
use to obtain an IP address.
3GPP TS 23.401 defines three modes of allocating IP addresses to UEs:

IP address allocation from the local address pool


In this mode, the eCNS allocates a dynamic IP address to a UE from the local address
pool during the activation of a bearer for the UE.
The local address pool contains the IP addresses planned by the enterprise customer.

Static IP address allocation


In this mode, the eCNS allocates IP addresses to UEs from its integrated subscriber data
module. This module matches the IMSI of each UE to an IP address range planned by
the enterprise customer. This mode is a pure static IP address allocation mode, which
requires complex configurations.
Static allocation is an optional feature and is under license control.

IP address allocation from the RADIUS server


In this mode, the eCNS allocates dynamic IP addresses obtained from the RADIUS
server during UE authentication in the bearer activation procedure. Note that dynamic IP
addresses are carried in access response messages sent by the RADIUS server.
This mode is applicable to enterprise customers or internet service providers (ISPs) who
manage the RADIUS server and plan IP addresses for their internal users.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
3GPP TS 23.401, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access"

1.1.5 eCNSFD-010600 Integrated Subscriber Data Management


Applicable NEs
eCNS

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Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The eCNS implements the subscriber data management function, which is generally provided
by the home subscriber server (HSS) in an EPC.

Benefits
This feature meets the requirements of the enterprise customer for higher space utilization,
low power consumption, simple service delivery system, independent service management,
and capability to terminate LTE local services.

Description
Compared with the HSS, the eCNS has the following unique characteristics in terms of
subscriber data management:

Integrated subscriber data management interface


The eCNS does not need to provide a standard S6a interface.

Differentiated service delivery system


For end users, the eCNS delivers services using MML commands. For enterprise
customers, the eCNS does not interconnect with their service delivery systems.

Differentiated subscriber data management


The eCNS stores and manages subscriber data and simplifies data templates. The eCNS
can substitute for an LTE-HSS, but not an IMS-HSS, GSM-HSS, or UMTS-HSS.
The eCNS manages subscriber data as follows:

Defines a USIM card


The eCNS accepts the input of the information about a USIM card.

Cancels a USIM card


The eCNS removes the information about a USIM card.

Defines a subscriber
The eCNS enables services for a subscriber and allocates a phone number to the
subscriber.

Deregisters a subscriber
The eCNS disables services for a subscriber and removes the information about this
subscriber.

Allows the query of static subscriber information


The eCNS allows the query of static subscriber information, including subscribed
services and locking status.

Manages EPS QoS templates


The eCNS allows the enterprise customer to create EPS QoS templates and set
default QoS parameters.

Manages APN templates


The eCNS allows the enterprise customer to create access point name (APN)
templates.

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Manages PDP context templates


The eCNS allows the enterprise customer to create PDP context templates.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards

3GPP TS 23.008, "Organization of subscriber data"

3GPP TS 29.002, "Mobile Application Part (MAP) specification"

1.1.6 eCNSFD-010700 Session Management


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
The EPS session management (ESM) was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The objective of EPS session management (ESM) is to manage EPS bearers. Through the
E-UTRAN and EPC networks, the EPS provides an IP connection, known as the PDN
connection, between a UE and the PDN. Each PDN connection consists of at least one EPS
bearer. The EPS bearer refers to the logical combination of one or more service data flows
(SDFs). EPS bearers are created to meet requirements of QoS management and provide
control for a bearer granularity.

Benefits
As a basic feature of the eCNS, it enables subscribers to connect to an external PDN and
perform data services.

Description
The ESM procedure can be initiated by the network or requested by a UE. The ESM involves
the following procedures:

Default EPS bearer context activation


This procedure is used to set up a default EPS bearer context between a UE and the EPC.
It can be part of the attach procedure or an independent procedure.

Dedicated EPS bearer context activation


This procedure is used to set up the special QoS and traffic flow template (TFT) bearer
contexts between a UE and the EPC.

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EPS bearer context modification

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This procedure is used to modify the QoS and TFT of the EPS bearer context.

EPS bearer context deactivation


This procedure is used to deactivate one, several, or all the EPS bearer contexts to the
PDN. If all the EPS bearer contexts to the PDN are deactivated, the connection to the
PDN is disconnected.

UE-requested PDN disconnection


This procedure is used when the UE requests to be disconnected from the PDN. In this
procedure, all the EPS bearer contexts, including the default bearer context, related to the
PDN are released.
NOTE

The last PDN connection can be disconnected only by the detach procedure initiated by the UE or the
MME, and not by the UE-requested PDN connection.

UE-requested EPS bearer resource modification


The procedure involves the allocation and release of UE-requested EPS bearer resources.
The allocation part involves allocating EPS bearer resources to new SDFs on request
from the UE. The UE can request or modify a specified QoS. It can also initiate the
guaranteed bit rate (GBR) request or change the existing GBR.
The release part involves releasing the EPS bearer resources related to a specified SDF
on request from the UE.
NOTE

The UE-initiated detach procedure is used to release all bearers.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards

3GPP TS 23.060, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description"

3GPP TS 23.401, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access"

3GPP TS 24.008, "Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification; Core Network protocols
- Stage 3"

3GPP TS 25.413, "UTRAN Iu Interface RANAP Signaling"

3GPP TS 29.060, "GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTPv1) across the Gn and Gp interface"

3GPP TS 24.301, "Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) protocol for Evolved Packet System


(EPS); Stage 3"

3GPP TS 36.413, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); S1


Application Protocol (S1AP)"

3GPP TS 29.274, "Evolved General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Tunneling Protocol
for Control plane (GTPv2-C); Stage 3"

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1.2 User Plane


1.2.1 eCNSFD-030100 QoS and Traffic Management
For details, see section 1.2.1.1 eCNSFD-030101 EPS QoS.

1.2.1.1 eCNSFD-030101 EPS QoS


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The eCNS supports EPS QoS control at the bearer level.

Benefits
As a basic feature of the eCNS, it guarantees the end-to-end QoS in the EPS network.

Description
EPS QoS parameters are included in the EPS bearer context.
EPS QoS parameters contain uplink/downlink GBR, uplink/downlink maximum bit rate
(MBR), allocation/retention priority (ARP), QCI, APN-AMBR, and UE-AMBR.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
3GPP TS 23.401, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access"

1.3 IP Network Management


1.3.1 eCNSFD-040100 Routing
For details, see section 1.3.1.1 eCNSFD-040101 Static Routes and Default Routes.

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1.3.1.1 eCNSFD-040101 Static Routes and Default Routes


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The eCNS, together with routers, implements routing using static routes, which are manually
configured by network administrators. Default routes are special routes and can also be
manually configured.
The eCNS uses static routes to communicate with a network or equipment. Specifically, the
configured static routes are added to a routing table. Before the eCNS sends signaling, user
data, or OM packets, it searches the routing table for a next-hop router or an interface by the
specified destination address and subnet mask.

Benefits
This feature provides multiple route options for the enterprise customer.

Description
Static routes apply to networks with simple architectures and static network topologies. Static
routes help implement security policies. Only authorized network administrators are allowed
to modify the routing table.
The eCNS use static routes to communicate with OM networks, eNodeBs, and PDNs.
Implementation
Static routes are added to the routing table after being configured by network administrators.
Multiple static routes can be configured for the same destination address. If these routes are
assigned the same priority, they work in load sharing mode. If they are assigned different
priorities, they work in route backup mode.
Default routes are used only when no matched entries are found in the routing table. Default
routes can be manually configured by network administrators or generated using dynamic
routing protocols such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System to
Intermediate System (IS-IS).
The configuration for default routes is simple and robust. Together with other routes, default
routes ensure that packets are forwarded when no matched entries are found in the routing
table.
Detection
Bidirectional forwarding detection (BFD) is used to check the next hop of one or more static
routes. If BFD detects that the next hop is unreachable, the associated static routes are
removed from the routing table. When the next hop becomes reachable, the associated static
routes are added back to the routing table.
Application

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In a network with a simple structure, static routes can be configured to ensure that the network
works properly. Correct static route settings provide network security and save bandwidth
resources for important applications.
Default routes are used to reduce the time for selecting routes and the bandwidth for
forwarding packets. Default routes can meet the requirements for simultaneous
communication by a large number of users.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Application Limitations
When the network is faulty or the network topology is changed, the static routes become
unavailable and must be reconfigured by network administrators.
Interaction with Other Features
Table 1-1 Interaction with other features
Related Feature

Interaction

eCNSFD-110007
Bidirectional
Forwarding
Detection (BFD)

Static routes do not have self-healing capabilities and require


intervention from the network administrators when faults occur.
If BFD is enabled, the route management system can check the BFD
session status to determine whether the IPv4 static routes in the public
network are reachable.

Standards

RFC 791, "Internet Protocol"

RFC 1155, "Structure and Identification of Management Information for TCP/IP-based


Internets"

1.3.2 eCNSFD-040200 NTP


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used to synchronize the time across the entire network.
The eCNS supports NTPv3 and serves as an NTP client. The eCNS periodically obtains the
standard time from an NTP server located on a PS network and adjusts the system time based

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on this standard time. To prevent time deviation, the time on the network needs to be
synchronized with the external standard time.

Benefits
The NTP protocol ensures the time consistency of all NEs on a network, and guarantees the
accuracy and consistency of functions such as performance measurement.

Description
The NTP protocol is a TCP/IP protocol that is used to synchronize time on all devices across
the network. NTP is based on the UDP protocol. RFC 1305 stipulates the complex algorithm
used by NTP to guarantee accuracy of time synchronization.
The eCNS supports connecting to a remote NTP server in client mode. The eCNS periodically
obtains the standard time from an NTP server or OMC server and adjusts the time across the
entire network based on this standard time.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
RFC 1305, "Network Time Protocol"

1.3.3 eCNSFD-040300 VLAN Supporting


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
A virtual local area network (VLAN) is a logical network comprising multiple physical
network devices. A VLAN forms a broadcast domain. Different VLANs communicate with
each other through routes.
The eCNS implements VLAN functions by setting VLAN IDs on sub-interfaces.
If VLANs are implemented based on layer 3 networking, sub-interfaces are configured on
Ethernet ports or trunks and defined as the members of VLANs to distinguish users or
services.

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Benefits
Broadcast traffic and unicast traffic in a VLAN are not forwarded to other VLANs. This helps
control network traffic, reduce equipment investments, simplify network management, and
improve network security and reliability.
Traffic can be isolated by adding interfaces to different VLANs.

Description
The eCNS provides the following VLAN functions:

Isolates traffic
When the eCNS uses a set of switching equipment to construct a LAN, it can assign the
interfaces between NEs to different VLANs to implement traffic isolation. The eCNS
can also assign the interfaces between PDNs to different VLANs to isolate users.

Adapts to the peer


If the routers, switches, or firewalls that are directly connected to the eCNS are assigned
to different VLANs, the relevant ports on the eCNS must be divided into sub-interfaces.
These sub-interfaces must also be assigned to the corresponding VLANs.

Increases the number of available interfaces


If the ports on the eCNS are insufficient for connecting to the routers, switches, or
firewalls, these ports can be divided into sub-interfaces and VLAN IDs can be
configured on these ports.
If a sub-interface on the eCNS is configured with a VLAN ID, the layer-2 or layer-3 device that is
directly connected to the eCNS must also be configured with the same VLAN ID.

Enhancement
Table 1-2 Release history and enhancement
Feature
Version

Product Version

Details

eCNSFD-040
300, 02

eCNS600 V100R002

Added the function of binding VLANs and


sub-interfaces.

eCNSFD-040
300, 01

eCNS600 V100R001

First official release.

Dependency
Application Limitations
This feature is applicable only when the routers, switches, and firewalls that are directly
connected to the eCNS also support VLAN functions.
Interaction with Other Features

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Table 1-3 Interaction with other features


Related Feature

Interaction

eCNSFD-040100
Routing

Route information must be configured on the eCNS. Otherwise,


packets cannot be forwarded between VLANs.

1.3.4 eCNSFD-040500 Eth-Trunk


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
Eth-trunk supports traffic load sharing between multiple Ethernet interfaces, which improves
network reliability.

Benefits
This feature increases the bandwidth, improves the reliability of networking, and ensures load
sharing.

Description
Trunk is a bundling technology. Multiple Ethernet physical interfaces can be bound into a
logical interface that is known as an Eth-trunk interface. Physical interfaces that are bound are
called member interfaces.
The trunk link can be regarded as a point-to-point direct link. The two ends of a trunk link can
be two switches, or two routers, or one switch and one router.
The advantages of the Trunk technology are as follows:

Increased bandwidth. The total bandwidth of the Trunk interface is the sum of the
bandwidth of each member interface. In this case, the bandwidth of the trunk interface is
multiplied.

Improved reliability. When one physical link connected to the member interface is faulty,
traffic is switched to other available links connected to the member interface. Therefore,
the reliability of the entire Trunk link is improved.

Load sharing support. Load sharing can be achieved among member interfaces of the
Trunk interface. Network congestion occurs when all the traffic is transmitted over a
single link. The trunk interface prevents network congestion by distributing the traffic
among different links. The destination of the traffic remains unchanged.

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Dependency
Table 1-4 Interaction with other features
Feature

Interaction

eCNSFD-040700 VRF

Eth-Trunk supports to be joined in VRF

eCNSFD-040600 OSPFv2

eCNS and PE device can learn dynamic routes by


Eth-Trunk through OSPF route protocol.

Standards
IEEE 802.3AD Amendment to carrier sense multiple access with collision detection
(CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications-aggregation of multiple link
segments

1.3.5 eCNSFD-040600 OSPFv2


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.

Summary
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) based on link states.
OSPF is more applicable to large complex networks.
The eCNS uses OSPF Version 2 (OSPFv2) on the SGi interface to exchange routing
information with peer equipment and implement network topology sharing.

Benefits
This feature enables data packet routing over the SGi interface between an EPC and an
external data network and allows flexible networking based on the customer requirements, at
same time it raised up the reliability of transmission because of the mesh network.

Description
The eCNS supports OSPFv2.
OSPF is a link-state-based IGP developed by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It
supports networks in different scales and allows hundreds of routers deployed in a network.
OSPF has the following characteristics:

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Fast convergence: OSPF sends link state update packets within the autonomous system
(AS) immediately after detecting changes in the network topology.

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Loop-free routing: OSPF computes the shortest path tree for each route based on link
states by using a shortest path first algorithm that can ensure loop-free routing.

Area-based administration: OSPF allows the AS to be divided into routing areas for
administration. OSPF uses abstract routing information between areas to reduce the
network bandwidth usage.

Support of equal-cost routes: OSPF supports multiple equal-cost routes to the same
destination address.

Route hierarchy: OSPF divides routes into four types. In descending order of priorities,
these types are intra-area, inter-area, external type 1, and external type 2.

Support of packet authentication: OSPF performs interface-based packet authentication


to ensure the security of route computing.

Support of packet multicast

Routers in the AS use OSPF to process routing tables. Each router gathers its link state
information and broadcasts it within the entire AS using a flooding algorithm so that the AS
can maintain one link state database. Based on this database, each router computes its shortest
path tree with the router itself being the root and other routers being leafs.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Application Limitations
OSPFv2 is an IGP and can be used only within an AS. For routing between different ASs,
border gateway protocols such as BGP-4 need to be used.
The eCNS uses OSPFv2 only on the SGi interface.
Interaction with Other Features
Table 1-5 Interaction with other features
Feature

Interaction

eCNSFD-110007
Bidirectional Forwarding
Detection (BFD)

BFD increases the OSPF convergence rate by rapidly


detecting link faults between neighboring routers.

eCNSFD-040700 VRF

VRF isolates routes through VRF-route binding and


forwards data based on routing tables and virtual private
network (VPN) IDs.

eCNSFD-040100 Routing

The routing feature uses routing policies to control issue,


reception, and reference of OSPF routing information.

eCNSFD-040500 Eth-Trunk

eCNS and PE device can learn dynamic routes by


Eth-Trunk through OSPF route protocol.

Standards

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RFC 791, "Internet Protocol"


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RFC 1155, "Structure and Identification of Management Information for TCP/IP-based


Internets"

RFC 1131, "OSPF specification"

RFC 1247, "OSPF Version 2"

1.3.6 eCNSFD-040700 VRF


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.

Summary
Virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) is a means of implementing the virtual private network
(VPN) function. It enables the functions of multiple virtual routing devices to be implemented
on a single routing device. It is also used to logically define a physical device. Each VRF has
a separate routing table and address space.
eCNS supports VRF, and the functions of multiple logically separated virtual eCNS can be
implemented on one eCNS device. VPN instances can be created on the eCNS to implement
VRF.

Benefits
This feature facilitates connections between the eCNS and intranets because the address
spaces of APNs of carriers' private networks can be reused.
APN traffic can be separated to ensure network security.
Interfaces of different VPN instances can use the same IP address, which conserves public IP
addresses.

Description
A VPN keeps the transferred data private from other VPNs. By taking advantage of this
feature on the eCNS, you can bind each APN to a separate VPN to divide the traffic of
different APNs. Through traffic separation and network division, the APN resources of a VPN
will not be used by other VPNs or subscribers of other VPNs on the network. Therefore, the
information in the VPN is secure.
A eCNS can be logically divided into multiple virtual eCNS through VRF. Each virtual eCNS
works independently as a eCNS and has its own routing table and interface for data
forwarding. In addition, traffic of different services can be separated.
Networking application: The problem of insufficient IP addresses can be solved by binding
physical interfaces (or Eth-trunk interfaces or sub-interfaces), logical interfaces, and routes to
VRF, and the traffic of the signaling plane, user plane, and operation and maintenance (OM)
data can be separated.
Service application: By binding APNs to VRF, multiple virtual routing areas are available on
one eCNS to realize the separation of addresses and routes among APNs.

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Resource application: By binding address pools to VRF, address resources can be reused.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Table 1-6 Interaction with other features
Feature

Interaction

eCNSFD-040900 SGi Redirection

VRF does not take effect if SGi redirection is


enabled.

eCNSFD-040600 OSPFv2

One VRF support more than OSPF process, while


one OSPF process belongs to only one VRF.

eCNSFD-110007 Bidirectional
Forwarding DetectionBFD

In the network scenario of dual active ports with


static routes, BFD should be activated in VRF in
order that eCNS could switch route when old route is
fault.

eCNSFD-040500 Eth-Trunk

Eth-Trunk supports to be joined in VRF

eCNSFD-110010 Routing Behind


MS

Different UEs which support Routing Behind MS


can be separated by different VRFs

Standards
RFC 2764, "IP Based Virtual Private Networks"

1.3.7 eCNSFD-040800 Local Routing


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.

Summary
This feature enables the eCNS to directly forward packets between UEs connected to this
eCNS.

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Benefits
This feature does not require additional network equipment on the SGi interface for packet
forwarding between UEs and therefore reduces end-to-end forwarding delay.

Description
After the eCNS receives an uplink packet from a UE, the eCNS checks the target UE. If the
eCNS has admitted the target UE, the eCNS directly forwards the packet to the target UE, as
shown in Figure 1-2.
Figure 1-2 Local routing

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Table 1-7 Interaction with other features
Feature

Interaction

eCNSFD-040900 SGi Redirection

Local routing does not take effect if SGi


redirection is enabled.

Standards
None

1.3.8 eCNSFD-040900 SGi Redirection


Applicable NEs
eCNS

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Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.

Summary
This feature prohibits the eCNS from directly forwarding packets between UEs. Instead, this
feature redirects uplink packets through the SGi interface to a specified device (for example, a
firewall) in the PDN.

Benefits
This feature protects enterprise customers' networks and ensures end users' communication
security.

Description
Most firewalls do not support bidirectional packet transmissions through an interface.
Therefore, the configurations as shown in Figure 1-3 are required for SGi redirection.
The blue line in this figure represents the direction of redirected packets. Uplink packets of
UE 1 are sent through physical port a to the firewall. After being filtered by the firewall, the
packets are sent through physical port b to the eCNS.
Figure 1-3 Packet forwarding when SGi redirection is enabled

If SGi redirection is disabled, uplink packets from UEs are not filtered by the firewall. Instead,
the packets are directly forwarded by the eCNS, as shown in Figure 1-4. In this situation,
packet security cannot be ensured.

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Figure 1-4 Packet forwarding when SGi redirection is disabled

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Table 1-8 Interaction with other features
Feature

Interaction

eCNSFD-040800 Local Routing

Local routing does not take effect if SGi redirection is


enabled.

eCNSFD-040700 VRF

VRF does not take effect if SGi redirection is enabled.

Standards
None

1.4 Reliability
1.4.1 eCNSFD-050200 Board Redundant Backup
Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

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Summary
The eCNS performs 1+1 backup for all the processes. The redundancy backup ensures that the
system is not impacted by any faulty process. Process redundancy backup, automatic fault
detection, and self-healing function guarantee the system reliability.

Benefits
As a basic feature of the eCNS, it guarantees the system reliability.

Description
Process redundancy backup provides a backup mechanism for all the processes in the system.
That is, all the processes work in the active/standby mode. A standby process can back up the
data periodically or when the backing up process is triggered by an event. If the active process
is faulty, the standby process takes over the service.
Automatic fault detection means when the system is faulty because of a software abnormality
or hardware fault, the system can automatically detect the fault by using a certain method
without user intervention. This is the basis for fault isolation and fault recovery.
Self-healing means after a fault occurs; the system can take some measures, such as
switchover and reset, to rectify the fault without affecting the normal operations of the
system.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
None

1.5 Operation and Maintenance


1.5.1 eCNSFD-060100 Software Management
Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

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Summary
Software management is used to achieve software management of the eCNS, including
software installation and loading in addition to patch installation, loading, and activation.

Benefits
As a basic feature of the eCNS, it can flexibly manage the running software. Patches can
correct software faults without service interruption.

Description
Software management mainly includes software installation, software upgrade, online
patching.
The eCNS supports software concurrent upgrade. That is, all the processes in the eCNS can
load the software at the same time. As a result, the time spent in loading the software is
greatly reduced.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
None

1.5.2 eCNSFD-060300 Performance Management


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The eCNS can measure network performances to provide the performance measurement data.
Performance measurement data is an important basis for measurement, design, operation, and
management of communication networks.

Benefits
As a basic feature of the eCNS, it can provide network data for network operating, planning,
and management.

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Description
The eCNS provides various test indexes. To simplify the management of these indexes, the
indexes correspond to different measurement units, and the measurement units correspond to
different measurement clusters. The measurement clusters provided by the eCNS include
charging GTP-C, GTP-U, S1 mode EMM and ESM.
The eCNS reports all the measurement results at a specified period, which means that users do
not need to configure measurement tasks. The eCNS reports all measurement data to the
operation and maintenance (OMS). Users can filter, query, collect, analyze, and print the
measurement data by using the OMS.
The eCNS generates performance alarms when the values of measurement indexes exceed
preset thresholds or terraces.
The performance alarms are categorized into threshold alarms and terrace alarms.

Threshold Alarm
A threshold refers to a preset limit. The unit of the threshold must be the same as the unit
of the index. The system compares the measured data with this threshold.
For each measurement index, there are four alarm severities, namely, critical, major,
minor, and warning. You can set the direction (greater or smaller than a value) and the
value of each alarm severity.
For example, the threshold alarms of the average CPU usage are as follows:

Critical: > 90

Major: > 80

Minor: > 70

Warning: > 50

When the value of average CPU usage reaches 75, the system generates a minor
performance alarm and reports the alarm in the Browse Alarm window to notify
maintenance personnel.

Terrace Alarm
A terrace refers to the change degree of two values, reflecting the change rate of the
measurement index. The unit of the value is percentage. The system compares the
change rate of the measured data to this value.
The calculation formula of the change rate is as follows:
(Measured data of this period-Measured data of last period)/Measured data of last period
If the terrace of the measurement index exceeds the preset terrace threshold, the system
generates the performance alarm.
For example, the terrace alarms of the average CPU usage are as follows:

Critical: > 70%

Major: > 50%

Minor: > 30%

Warning: > 10%

If two consecutive values of the average CPU usage are 30% and 20% respectively, the
terrace value is 50%. In this case, the system generates a Minor performance alarm and
reports the alarm to the Browse Alarm window to notify maintenance personnel.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards

3GPP TS 12.04, "Performance data measurements"

3GPP TS 32.403, "Telecommunication management; Performance Management (PM);


Performance measurements - UMTS and combined UMTS/GSM"

3GPP TS 32.426, "Telecommunication management; Performance Management (PM);


Performance measurements Evolved Packet Core (EPC) network"

1.5.3 eCNSFD-060400 Fault Management


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The fault management feature is used to monitor system operations. The eCNS notifies
maintenance personnel of faults and events through alarms.

Benefits
As a basic feature of the eCNS, it provides detailed alarm information to help maintenance
personnel easily locate and handle faults.

Description
The eCNS generates various types of alarms that cover faults and events related to software
functions, hardware parts, and external environment to ensure that faults can be immediately
detected and handled.
To simplify management, these alarms are assigned different severities.
The eCNS alarms are classified into the following severities:

Critical

Major

Minor

Warning

You can adjust the alarm severities based on certain requirements.

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When an alarm occurs, the system reports the detailed information about the alarm so that
maintenance personnel can locate and handle the fault. Maintenance personnel can shield
alarms that they consider as unimportant.
The alarm tool uses different colors and windows to differentiate the alarms of different
severities, so that users can focus on alarms of high severity first. Alarms can be queried by
specifying a combination of criteria such as the time range, alarm severity, and alarm type.
The results returned help in analysis and location of faults.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
None

1.5.4 eCNSFD-060500 Equipment Management


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
Equipment management includes operations such as monitoring, controlling, and testing the
functions of entities such as system hardware and links.

Benefits
As a basic feature of the eCNS, it helps maintenance personnel in knowing the operations of
the system so that they can flexibly maintain and manage the system.

Description
The equipment management feature helps in monitoring, control, and testing.

Status monitoring
The eCNS provides MML commands for querying status of devices. For boards and
ports, it also provides a graphical query interface. Figure 1-5 and Figure 1-6 show the
front view and rear view of a subrack.

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Figure 1-5 Front view

Figure 1-6 Rear view

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Device control
Device control includes operations such as switchover, reset, block, and disable. The
monitored objects are board, process, port, link, and logical entities (such as signaling
point).

Device test
The device test is an important method for finding and locating problems. The eCNS
provides tests such as link self-loop test and path connectivity test.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
CCITT X.731 Information Technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Systems
Management

1.5.5 eCNSFD-060600 Configuration Management


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
Configuration management includes operations such as adding, deleting, modifying, and
querying of system data.

Benefits
As a basic feature of the eCNS, it helps engineers configure and manage parameters for
system operation to make the system work properly.

Description
The eCNS provides both dynamic and static modes for data configuration:

Dynamic data configuration means directly modifying system data without interrupting
the operation of the system.

Static data configuration means editing the data script file (MML.TXT) offline.
Modification of the file takes effect after the system resets.

Configuration management also provides backup or export configuration data.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
None

1.5.6 eCNSFD-060700 Security Management


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The security management provided by the eCNS ensures that only authorized users can
perform operations on the system, and guarantees system security. Security management
includes account management, right management, operation period control, account validity
control, access control list (ACL), account lockout policy, password policy, and operation log.

Benefits
Only authorized operators can perform authorized operations on legal terminals. It prevents
unauthorized operators from performing operations intentionally or unintentionally, and
ensures system security.

Description
Security management includes account management, right management, operation period
control, account validity control, ACL, account lockout policy, password policy, and operation
log.

Account Management
To maintain the eCNS, the operator must have a valid account. All accounts are managed
by the system administrator. The system administrator can add or delete operator
accounts as required.

Rights Management
The eCNS classifies commands to different command sets. You can manage the rights of
each account by assigning the account with the execution rights of a specified command
set.
For convenient management, account rights are defined in user groups, and then users in
different user groups can be assigned different rights. A user group is a collection of
users who share the same rights. By default, the system provides four user groups:

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Administrators: There is only one administrator account in a system.

Operators: Users in this group can check the data, maintain the system, and configure
the data.

Users: Users in this group can check the data and maintain the system.

Guests: Users in this group can only check the data.

The administrator can assign rights to users by assigning users to different user groups,
and can assign special rights to a user account.

Operation Period Control


You can control the time period for which users log in and operate the OMU. If the
current time is not in the specified time period, users cannot log in and operate the OMU.

Account Validity Control


The administrator can change the account validity by modifying the user attributes.
When a user account is invalid, the user cannot log in to the OMU server.

ACL
Generally, the OMU does not restrict the IP address of the client that a user uses. After
the ACL function is enabled, the IP address of the client that the user uses to log in to the
OMU must be contained in the ACL. Otherwise, the login fails.

Account Lockout Policy


You can set a threshold for the number of login failures. If the number of failures to log
in using an account exceeds the threshold, the system locks out the account. During a
specified period, the system rejects login requests from this account.
The account lockout policy can prevent malicious hackers from logging in and misusing
the data.

Password Policy
The complexity and regular modification of passwords guarantee system security. The
eCNS can customize the password policy as follows:

Specify the validity period of a password

Specify the password length

Specify the characters that can be used in a password

Operation Log
An operation log records all the operation information about a user, including user name,
user number, IP address, commands that the user runs, time when the command is run,
and result of the command. You can check the operation log on the LMT and trace
suspicious operations.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
None

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1.5.7 eCNSFD-060800 Online Documentation


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
Each version of the eCNS has its own online help, which contains:

O&M system online help


It is used to help users correctly use relevant interfaces and different management
functions, and provides alarm descriptions and suggestions for handling alarms.

MML command online help


It is used to explain each MML command and help users correctly use these commands.

An online help provides the following functions:

It is organized based on common tasks performed by users. In the client window, choose
Help > Help Topics to display the online help. You can obtain the information about a
task through the navigation tree.

It provides the detailed description of all operations supported by the system. Operation
help is associated with certain interfaces, so you can obtain relevant information by
pressing F1 to activate the help you want to query.

It also provides powerful index function, so you can obtain help information by typing a
key word.

Benefits
As a basic feature of the eCNS, it guides an operator to use and maintain the system.

Description
The contents of the online help are as follows:

Interface online help


It describes the meanings of the LMT user interfaces and how to use maintenance
functions and alarm management functions.

Alarm help
It describes each alarm and provides suggestions to handle alarms.

MML help
It describes the function, notes, parameter description, and example of each MML
command.

Performance index help


It describes the meaning, triggering point, measurement object, and unit of each
measurement index.

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There are several ways to trigger the online help:

Press F1 to invoke the interface online help.

The MML help is automatically triggered after a command is selected or entered.

The alarm help is automatically triggered when you check the alarm.

Choose Help > Help theme to display all online helps.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
None

1.5.8 eCNSFD-060900 Tracing Function


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
Tracing can be classified into subscriber tracing, group tracing, and interface tracing. The
tracing functions can be used to store, resolve, and review a tracing file. Interface tracing
involves establishment, capture, and resolution of tracing messages processed by the
interfaces of eCNS.

Benefits
This feature guarantees flexibility in locating and solving problems for enterprise customers.
The tracing feature is used in the daily maintenance of a device. This feature can locate where
a fault occurs in the service procedure through message tracing. After a device is configured
for data, the device can validate whether signaling links run normally by setting up tracing,
and locate faults.

Description
The eCNS provides subscriber signaling and data tracing based on the IMSI or MSISDN. The
eCNS supports the following types of message filters:

MM messages of the S1 interface: NAS_MM and GTP_C

SM messages of the S1 interface: NAS_SM and GTP_C

S1-AP message of the S1 interface: S1-AP

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The eCNS can create subscriber tracing for a UE that does not attach to the network. Once the
UE initiates the attach procedure, all the signaling and user data can be captured.
Group tracing means tracing the signaling message and interface message on a certain group.
Interface tracing means tracing all the messages on a certain interface.
The eCNS allows a tracing file to be saved to the hard disk in different formats through both
automatic and manual modes.
The tracing messages can be saved in following format:

Trace message file (*.tmf): It is used to browse messages offline through the Trace
Viewer. This type of message browsing is intuitive.

Text file (*.txt): It is used to save the messages displayed in the tracing interface.

Protocol text file (*.txt): It is used to save protocol explanation of messages.

CSV file (*.csv): It is used to save the complete code flow. The LMT interface displays
only part of the code flow.

The OMS provides a message analyzer that can be used to view messages online. You can
double-click a certain message in the Message Browser window to query the detailed
information about this message.
When browsing messages online, you can select and double-click a record that you want to
query. A window containing the detailed information and explanation of the record is
displayed, as shown in Figure 1-7.
Figure 1-7 Message Browser

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NOTE

The window is divided into two parts, the upper pane and the lower pane. You can adjust the view by
moving the bar that separates the two panes. If you select a row in the upper part of the window, the row
is highlighted in blue and the blue bar in the lower pane indicates the hexadecimal information of the
selected row.

The tracing files that are saved on local devices can be viewed in the Trace Viewer. The
Trace Viewer can be used to perform the following operations:

View message streams


Complete tracing message procedures can be viewed, including the directory, time, type,
and content of a message, as shown in Figure 1-8.

Figure 1-8 Trace Viewer

Resolve messages
Select and double-click a record that you want to query. A window containing the
detailed information and explanation of the record is displayed, as shown in Figure 1-9.

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Figure 1-9 Message Browser

NOTE

The window is divided into two parts, the upper pane and the lower pane. You can adjust the view by
moving the bar that separates the two panes. If you select a row in the upper part of the window, the row
is highlighted in blue and the blue bar in the lower pane indicates the hexadecimal information of the
selected row.

Sort messages
Messages can be sorted according to the serial number, time, direction, and type.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
None

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1.5.9 eCNSFD-061000 Log Management


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The eCNS provides and manages run logs, debug logs, operation logs, and security logs. It
allows log export and upload.

Benefits
This feature meets the requirements of enterprise customers for log management.

Description
The eCNS supports the following logs:

Run logs: record the running status of system software, for example, record system
deployment status and system status changes. Using the run logs, OM personnel can
learn the running status of the system.

Debug logs: record the running status of system software, for example, object status
migrations and message exceptions. Using the debug logs, R&D personnel can locate
problems and analyze system efficiency.

Operation logs: record the commands delivered from LMTs. Using the operation logs,
OM personnel can manage OM records.

Security logs: record the security events that occur on the eCNS. The security events
include user login, account management, and account authentication.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
None

1.5.10 eCNSFD-061100 Daylight Saving Time


Applicable NEs
eCNS

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Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The eCNS can set information about time zone and Daylight Saving Time (DST) management,
such as time zone where the system is located, the start time of DST, and the end time of DST.

Benefits
This feature meets requirements for enterprise customers in different areas.

Description
The eCNS can set information about time zone and DST in the following ways:

By data

By week

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
None

1.6 Interface Function


1.6.1 eCNSFD-070100 S1 Interface
Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The S1 interface includes the S1-MME interface and the S1-U interface in LTE/SAE.
The S1-MME interface is a standard interface between the eNodeB and the eCNS.

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The S1-U interface is a user-plane interface between the eNodeB and the eCNS. It is used to
transmit uplink and downlink user-plane data flows between the eNodeB and the eCNS.

Benefits
This feature enables the S1 interface to transmit user-plane and control-plane data.

Description
The S1-MME interface is the signaling interface between the eNodeB and the eCNS. Figure
1-10 shows the protocol stack of the S1-MME interface.
Figure 1-10 Protocol stack of the S1-MME interface

The protocol layers are described as follows:

S1 Application Protocol (S1-AP): It refers to the application layer protocol between the
eNodeB and the MME.

Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP): It is used to guarantee the transmission


of signaling messages between the eNodeB and the MME.

IP: It contains IPv4 that is defined in RFC 791 and IPv6 that is defined in RFC 1883.

L2/L1: The data link layer/physical layer protocol can be 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, or 1000
Mbit/s Ethernet.

The S1-U interface uses the GPRS Tunneling Protocol version 1 (GTPv1). Figure 1-11 shows
the S1-U interface protocol stack.

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Figure 1-11 S1-U interface protocol stack

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
3GPP TS 36.413, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); S1
Application Protocol (S1AP)"

1.6.2 eCNSFD-070200 SGi Interface


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The SGi interface is an interface between eCNS and the packet data network (PDN), or
between the eCNS and the authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) server. It is
used to transmit PS session data.

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Benefits
For...

Benefits

Enterprise
customers

This feature enables the eCNS to interwork with PDN devices of


various vendors by using the SGi interface, complying with 3GPP
specifications.

Subscribers

Subscribers are unaware of the SGi interface feature.

Description
SGi Interface Protocol Stack
Figure 1-12 shows the SGi interface protocol stack.
Figure 1-12 SGi interface protocol stack

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

1.6.3 eCNSFD-070300 S10 Interface


Applicable NEs
eCNS

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Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.

Summary
The S10 interface is a standard interface between MMEs.

Benefits
The S10 interface of the eCNS complies with 3GPP specifications and therefore can connect
MMEs provided by different vendors.

Description
Figure 1-13 shows the S10 protocol stack.
Figure 1-13 S10 protocol stack

The protocols in the stack are as follows:

GTP-C
GTP-C is used to reliably transmit signaling between MMEs. The version used is GTPv2.
Signaling transmitted on the S10 interface includes GTP path management messages and
mobility management messages.

UDP
UDP is used to transmit user data between MMEs. UDP is defined in RFC 768.

IP

IPv4 is defined in RFC 791, and IPv6 is defined in RFC 1883.


L2 and L1
L2 is the data link layer, and L1 is the physical layer. Both can use 10, 100, or 1000
Mbit/s Ethernet.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
3GPP TS 29.274, "Evolved General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Tunneling Protocol for
Control plane (GTPv2-C); Stage 3"

1.6.4 eCNSFD-070400 S5 Interface


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.

Summary
The S5 interface is a standard interface between an S-GW and a P-GW in the same network.
This interface can be used in both the control plane and user plane.

Benefits
The S5 interface of the eCNS complies with 3GPP specifications and therefore can connect an
S-GW and a P-GW provided by different vendors.

Description
Protocol Stack
Figure 1-14 and Figure 1-15 show the S5 protocol stacks using GTPv2 and GTPv1,
respectively.
Figure 1-14 S5 protocol stack using GTPv2

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Figure 1-15 S5 protocol stack using GTPv1

Application Scenario
The S5 interface connects an S-GW and a P-GW in the same network.

Signaling Procedure
The S5 signaling procedures are as follows:

Session setup

Bearer setup

Bearer modification

Session release

Bearer release

Bearer update

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
3GPP TS 23.401, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access"

1.6.5 eCNSFD-070500 S8 Interface


Applicable NEs
eCNS

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Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.

Summary
The S8 interface is a standard interface between an S-GW and a P-GW in different networks.
This interface can be used in both the control plane and user plane.

Benefits
The S8 interface of the eCNS complies with 3GPP specifications and therefore can connect an
S-GW and a P-GW provided by different vendors.

Description
Protocol Stack
Figure 1-16 and Figure 1-17 show the S8 protocol stacks using GTPv2 and GTPv1,
respectively.
Figure 1-16 S8 protocol stack using GTPv2

Figure 1-17 S8 protocol stack using GTPv1

Application Scenario

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The S8 interface connects an S-GW in a visited network and a P-GW in a home network.

Signaling Procedure
The S8 signaling procedures are as follows:

Session setup

Bearer setup

Bearer modification

Session release

Bearer release

Bearer update

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
3GPP TS 23.401, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access"

1.6.6 eCNSFD-070600 Ga Interface


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.

Summary
The Ga interface is a standard interface between a P-GW and a charging gateway (CG). It
uses GTP'.

Benefits
The Ga interface of the eCNS complies with 3GPP specifications and therefore can connect a
P-GW and a CG provided by different vendors.

Description
Figure 1-18 shows the Ga protocol stack.

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Figure 1-18 Ga protocol stack

GTP' is a GPRS protocol used for CDR transfer.


The Ga signaling procedures are as follows:

CDR generation

CDR delivery

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
3GPP TS 32.295, "Charging Data Record (CDR) transfer"

1.6.7 eCNSFD-070700 S6a Interface


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.

Summary
The S6a interface is a standard interface between an MME and an HSS.

Benefits
The S6a interface of the eCNS complies with 3GPP specifications and therefore can connect
an MME and an HSS provided by different vendors.

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Description
Figure 1-19 shows the S6a protocol stack.
Figure 1-19 S6a protocol stack

The protocols in the stack are as follows:

Diameter
Diameter is used to transmit subscription and authentication data between an MME and
an HSS. Diameter is defined in RFC 3588.

SCTP
SCTP is used to transmit signaling between an MME and an HSS.

IP
IPv4 is defined in RFC 791, and IPv6 is defined in RFC 1883.

L2 and L1
L2 is the data link layer, and L1 is the physical layer. Both can use 10, 100, or 1000
Mbit/s Ethernet.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards

3GPP TS 29.272, "Mobility Management Entity (MME) and Serving GPRS Support
Node (SGSN) related interfaces based on Diameter protocol"

RFC3588, "Diameter Base Protocol"

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1.7 Basic Platform


1.7.1 eCNSFD-080300 Linux Security Hardening
Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
This feature hardens Linux operating system (OS) security and protects against attacks without
interruptions to ongoing services. A secure OS is essential to ensure proper running of NEs and
prevent unauthorized operations. An OS with vulnerabilities is open to attacks from hackers and
viruses, leading to issues such as network service interruption, information loss, data corruption,
and low efficiency.

Linux security is hardened using the following means:

Minimized OS

OS passwords, file permissions, and kernel parameters

OS logs

Interconnection security data

Benefits
This feature enhances system robustness and security, protects against hackers and viruses,
and improves user satisfaction.

Description
This feature hardens Linux security and protects against attacks without interruption to
ongoing services.
OS Security Threats and Vulnerability Causes
The Linux OS faces the following security threats:

Manipulated attacks

Manipulated attacks are major attacks the OS faces. Hackers attack the system by
utilizing OS vulnerabilities that are caused by various factors such as OS leaks, insecure
passwords, or configuration defects. After seizing the super control rights, the hackers
tamper with important files and data, wrecking havoc for the network security.
Programmed attacks
Programmed attacks mainly refer to computer viruses, including executable file viruses,
worm viruses, script viruses, and backdoor programs.

The following factors make the OS vulnerable:

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OS leaks arise from program design or function defects such as identity authentication
defects and service loopholes.

Insecure accounts or passwords


Hackers and viruses can easily crack insecure accounts and passwords using means such as
password dictionaries or brutal-force crackers.

Incorrect file permissions


With file permissions, users can operate files such as reading, writing, or executing files. File
permissions are essential to file sharing, protection, and confidentiality.
To protect files and directories against unauthorized access, the Linux OS defines three types
of users: owner, user group, and others. These users can be assigned different permissions.

If incorrect permissions are granted to user groups or others, important files may be
unexpectedly read, written, or executed.

Insecure network services


All network services have security risks. For example, Telnet does not encrypt or verify
sessions; it transmits user names and passwords over the network in plaintext. In addition,
network services such as Samba have security leaks. If the OS is not promptly patched,
hackers or viruses may utilize these leaks to attack the system.

Incorrect operations
Incorrect operations (for example, directly powering off the Linux OS) may lead to system
faults or system breakdown. If users open email attachments sent from unknown addresses or
visit unknown websites, the system may get infected with viruses.

OS Security Hardening Policies


Linux security is hardened using the following policies:

Minimizing the OS
The default software package of the Linux OS contains many services and components,
most of which are optional. These services and components affect OS performance and
security. Therefore, the OS needs to be streamlined for different purposes, including:

Reducing the system size

Increasing the startup speed

Improving the system security

Retaining existing services and functions after minimization

The minimized OS supports system security measures, for example, closing ports, closing
services, and clearing leaks.

Configuring OS passwords, file permissions, and kernel parameters


Different users are assigned different file permissions to protect important files from being
written, read, or executed by unauthorized users.
In addition to the default user root, the Linux OS creates a user named omu, as described in
Table 1-9. The administrator can also create other users for routine operations and
maintenance (OM).

Table 1-9 OS users and rights


User
Name

Function

Rights

root

User root is the default user. This user can control


all resources, create other users, assign file

User root has the highest huawei


rights, and can install and

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permissions to them, and perform all operations


supported by the OS.

uninstall
applications.

server

During system deployment, user root can perform


installation and
configuration.
After
the
deployment, this user cannot perform routine OM,
and the password is managed by the enterprise
customer.
omu

User omu is created during the installation of the


OMU. This user manages OMU processes and
performs routing OM functions by using, for
example, alarms, and logs.

User omu has permissions


to control the status of
OMU processes.

omu

Managing OS logs
To better manage OS logs and protect their security, the OS uses different log management
policies based on log types, saving paths, and log formats.

Linux OS logs are classified into two types:

Login logs
utmp and wtmp are key log files in the Linux OS log system.
utmp records the information about users who have logged in to the system. wtmp
records the information about login, logout, data exchange, power-off, and restart.

System logs
System logs are configured in the /etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf file.

Different logs are saved in different paths:

The saving path of a system log can be specified by the destination messages
parameter in the /etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf file. The default path is
/var/log/messages.

utmp is saved in /var/run/utmp.

wtmp is saved in /var/log/wtmp.

The policies for managing OS logs are as follows:

Creates a centralized log management mechanism.


If multiple computers use the SuSE Linux OS, use a central log server to save and
managing logs. Centralized log management can reduce the daily workload of
querying logs and to help trace attackers.

Backs up logs.
Controls the access to logs.

Compresses logs and save logs for a long period.

Configuring interconnection security data


To harden system security, the OS supports the configuration of the following security
data for interconnection between an OMU (or another board) and an OM node (such as
an LMT):

Client digital certificate


A client digital certificate is used to authenticate a client that communicates with the
OMU. The client supports two types of certificates:

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Common Cert: To apply a certificate to all offices, set the certificate as Common
Cert.

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Server Cert: To apply a certificate to only one office, set the certificate as Server
Cert.

SMM security data


To harden system security during deployment and routing OM, the OS allows the
following security configurations for the shelf management module (SMM):

Prohibiting a user from accessing the SMM from an external network port

Prohibiting user root from accessing the SMM, and allowing only user smm to
access the SMM

Secure transmission mode between a client and the OMU


By default, the system supports SSL connections and common connections. SSL
connections are recommended for secure data transmission.

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
None

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Optional Features

2.1 Security Management


2.1.1 eCNSFD-110001 NAS Encryption and Integrity Protection
(AES)
Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
This feature uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to protect non-access stratum (NAS)
signaling and improve system security.
NAS is a protocol layer between the UE and the EPC, used to transmit user data and signaling
between them.

Benefits
This feature ensures the security and reliability of NAS signaling in addition to user data.

Description
AES is the most widely used encryption and integrity protection standard in the world. 3GPP
defines two AES algorithms, EPS Encryption Algorithm 2 (EEA2) and EPS Integrity
Algorithm 2 (EIA2), with the key length of 128 bits.
After a UE attaches to the network, the UE notifies its supported encryption and integrity
protection algorithms to the eCNS.
If the UE supports AES, the eCNS determines whether to use AES according to local policies.
If AES is used, the eCNS uses AES to encrypt and protect the integrity of signaling between
the UE and the eCNS.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
3GPP TS 33.401, "3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE); Security architecture"

2.1.2 eCNSFD-110002 NAS Encryption and Integrity Protection


(SNOW3G)
Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
This feature uses SNOW 3G to protect NAS signaling and improve system security.
NAS is a protocol layer between the UE and the EPC, used to transmit user data and signaling
between them.

Benefits
This feature ensures the security and reliability of NAS signaling in addition to user data.

Description
SNOW 3G is an EPS security standard. 3GPP defines two SNOW 3G algorithms, EPS
encryption algorithm 1 (EEA1) and EPS integrity algorithm 1 (EIA1), with the key length of
128 bits.
After a UE attaches to the network, the UE notifies its supported encryption and integrity
protection algorithms to the eCNS.
If the UE supports SNOW 3G, the eCNS determines whether to use SNOW 3G based on the
local policy to encrypt and protect the integrity of signaling between the UE and the eCNS.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

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Standards

3GPP TS 33.401, "Security architecture"

ETSI Specification of the 3GPP Confidentiality and Integrity Algorithms UEA2 & UIA2,
Document 2: SNOW 3G Specification

2.1.3 eCNSFD-110003 O&M SSL


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.

Summary
The eCNS employs Huawei SeCert Transport Layer Security (TLS) development library and
supports SSLv3.0, TLSv1.0, and TLSv1.1 by default.
The Secure Socket Layer (SSL) feature can be implemented when the eCNS communicates
with the M2000 or LMT to enhance security through encryption. Therefore, the MML channel,
binary channel, SOAP interface, Web interface, and FTP file transfer channel between the
eCNS and the M2000 or LMT can be encrypted to ensure secure transmission.

Benefits

The security of accounts and passwords of Internet service providers (ISPs) for operation
and maintenance is guaranteed, data is transmitted over networks while remaining intact,
and the network operation expenditure is reduced.

By providing the SSL value-added service to enterprises and individuals, an ISP


establishes closer long-term cooperative relationships with them and improves service
quality as the ISP makes full use of the existing network resources. The ISP therefore
becomes more competitive and will be exposed to greater business profits.

Description
SSL is a security protocol that was first proposed by Netscape to provide secure
communication for the application layer based on TCP transmission. In the TCP/IP protocol
stack, SSL is applied between the transport layer and the application layer and adopts TCP to
carry messages, therefore ensuring secure transmission for the application layer. SSL is
widely used in services such as Web, FTP, and Telnet.
Currently, available SSL versions are SSLv1, SSLv2, and SSLv3, among which SSLv3 is the
latest version. The standardized versions of SSL are TLS1.0 and TLS1.1.
SSL provides the following security services:

Identity authentication
Identity authentication means checking whether the peer end is the actual end with which
you want to communicate. SSL authenticates the server and the client based on digital
certificates to confirm that they are legitimate users. Both the client and the server have
their own identifiers, which are numbered with a public key. To verify that a user is

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legitimate, SSL requires digital authentication during data exchange in the handshake
stage.

Connection privacy
Connection privacy means that data is encrypted before transmission to avoid data
cracking by illegitimate users. SSL ensures connection privacy by employing encryption
algorithms. The common encryption algorithms are DES, 3DES, RC2, and RC4.

Data integrity
Data integrity means that any modification to data during transmission can be detected.
SSL sets up a secure channel between the client and the server so that all SSL-processed
data can reach the destination without being modified. SSL guarantees data integrity by
employing message digest algorithms. The common message abstract algorithms are
MD5 and SHA-1.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
None

2.2 Service Management


2.2.1 eCNSFD-110004 Static IP Address Allocation
Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.
This feature is an optional feature and is under license control.

Summary
The eCNS allocates static IP addresses to UEs based on subscriber data.

Benefits
This feature provides a basic function for radio access.

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Description
A UE must obtain at least one IP address before it is able to access PS services. A PDN
Address Allocation IE is specified during the setup of a default bearer for the UE. This IE
contains protocol information (including an IP address field) the UE must obtain before it is
able to access an external PDN. In addition, this IE indicates the method the UE expects to
use to obtain an IP address.
3GPP TS 23.401 defines three modes of allocating IP addresses to UEs:

IP address allocation from the local address pool


In this mode, the eCNS allocates a dynamic IP address to a UE from the local address
pool during the activation of a bearer for the UE.
The local address pool contains the IP addresses planned by the enterprise customer.

Static IP address allocation


In this mode, the eCNS allocates IP addresses to UEs from its integrated subscriber data
module. This module matches the IMSI of each UE to an IP address range planned by
the enterprise customer. This mode is a pure static IP address allocation mode, which
requires complex configurations.

IP address allocation from the RADIUS server


In this mode, the eCNS allocates dynamic IP addresses obtained from the RADIUS
server during UE authentication in the bearer activation procedure. Note that dynamic IP
addresses are carried in access response messages sent by the RADIUS server.
This mode is applicable to enterprise customers or internet service providers (ISPs) who
manage the RADIUS server and plan IP addresses for their internal users.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
3GPP TS 23.401, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access"

2.2.2 eCNSFD-110005 Multiple PDN Connection


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.
This feature is an optional feature and is under license control.

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Summary
A UE can create several PDN connections to access different networks at the same time. The
UE also needs to support the feature.

Benefits
The multiple PDN feature enables a UE to connect to several networks at the same time.
Therefore, the UE can use other services without stopping the current service. For example,
the UE can receive multimedia messages when surfing on the Internet or send pictures on the
websites through multimedia messages.

Description
The EPS can support simultaneous exchange of IP traffic between a UE and multiple PDNs
by using one or several PDN GWs. The usage of multiple PDNs is controlled by network
policies and defined in the subscription data.
To allow one or several connections to the PDN, the EPS must support the UE-initiated PDN
connection procedure. The UE-initiated PDN connection procedure includes the
establishment of a default bearer.
The UE can use the disconnection procedure to disconnect from any PDN. In this
disconnection procedure, all bearers related to the disconnected PDN, including the default
bearer, are released.
The disconnection procedure cannot be used to disconnect the last PDN connection. The UE
or eCNS can initiate a detach procedure to disconnect the last PDN connection.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
3GPP TS 23.401, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access"

2.2.3 eCNSFD-110008 SPI-based QoS Profile Control


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.
This feature is an optional feature and is under license control.

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Summary
This feature uses the shallow packet inspection (SPI) technique to recognize traffic flows and
provide QoS guarantees. SPI refers to the inspection of quintuples in IP packet headers at L3
and L4. A quintuple contains the source address, destination address, source port number,
destination port number, and protocol type.

Benefits
This feature enables the eCNS to perform effective control and refined management, provide
different QoS guarantees for different services, and improve user satisfaction.

Description
In the uplink, the eCNS resolves quintuples in packet headers after GTP decapsulation. If the
filtering rules for L3 or L4 are configured, the eCNS filters the packets based on the
quintuples and according to the rules.
In the downlink, the eCNS resolves quintuples in packet headers. If the filtering rules for L3
or L4 are configured, the eCNS filters the packets based on the quintuples and according to
the rules.
After the filtering, the eCNS applies different QoS profiles to different types of packets. For
example, the eCNS initiates a dedicated bearer setup procedure.
If a dedicated bearer fails to be set up, the eCNS can age the quintuple used for setting up the
dedicated bearer. The purpose is to trigger the SPI procedure again and to prevent a temporary
setup failure from becoming a permanent setup failure.

Enhancement
Table 2-1 Release history and enhancement
Feature
Version

Product Version

Details

eCNSFD-110
008, 02

eCNS600 V100R002

Added the function of reestablishing


dedicated bearers after establishment failures.

eCNSFD-110
008, 01

eCNS600 V100R001

First official release.

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards
None

2.2.4 eCNSFD-110009 Offline Charging


Applicable NEs
eCNS
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Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.
This feature is an optional feature and is under license control.

Summary
This feature enables the eCNS to send generated original CDRs to CGs using GTPv2. The
CGs perform original CDR storage, consolidation, and standardization, and then send the
processed data to the billing system (BS) for generating final bills.
Currently, the eCNS does not support content-based offline charging.

Benefits
Enterprise Customers
This feature enables enterprise customers to perform exact charging based on information
about data services used by end users. In addition, this feature provides reference data for
accounting between enterprise customers and for accounting between an enterprise customer
and an Internet service provider (ISP).
Information about end users' data services helps analyze end users' behaviors and habits, and
helps develop operating policies.
End Users
This feature helps end users reduce consumption based on information about data services
they used.

Description
Application Scenario
This feature applies to the following scenarios:

Traffic-based charging

Duration-based charging

Network Structure
The network structure for offline charging is as follows:

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Figure 2-1 Network structure for offline charging

The eCNS records information about data services used by end users, generates original
CDRs, and sends the original CDRs to CGs using GTP'. The CGs perform original CDR
storage, consolidation, and standardization, and then send the processed data to the BS for
generating final bills.

Load Sharing Between CGs


The eCNS can connect to multiple CGs and configure priorities for these CGs. If the CGs
have different priorities, the eCNS selects the CG with the highest priority.
When a large number of original CDRs are generated, the eCNS can send the original CDRs
to different CGs. This reduces the performance requirement on a single CG and improves the
reliability of original CDR transmission.

CG Link Detection
If the eCNS does not receive any response after sending original CDRs to a CG, the eCNS
sends again the original CDRs to the CG. If the response times out, the eCNS considers the
CG to be faulty.
If there is no original CDR to send, the eCNS sends an Echo message to the CG every one
minute. If the eCNS does not receive any response for N consecutive times, the eCNS
considers the CG to be faulty. N is set to 3 by default.

CDR Buffering

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If the communication between the eCNS and CGs are broken, the eCNS buffers original
CDRs. After the link recovers, the eCNS sends the original CDRs to the CG.

CDR Generation
The eCNS can control whether to generate original CDRs for an APN based on a specified
charging characteristic.
A CDR contains multiple fields such as user ID, service time segment, and service duration,
based on which the BS charges end users.
The original CDR generation procedure consists of the following three phases:

Generating start original CDRs


The eCNS generates start original CDRs when the services are activated, and records the
user's subsequent actions that require charging.

Generating intermediate original CDRs


The eCNS generates intermediate original CDRs for the end user when the service
duration, traffic volume, charge rate, number of QoS changes, or another parameter
value reaches their threshold.

Generating final original CDRs


After the end user stops the services, the eCNS generates final original CDRs.

The preceding procedure shows that the eCNS may generate multiple original CDRs for a
service procedure. The BS consolidates these CDRs and generate final bills.
The original CDRs generated by eCNS only comply with R9 CDR version.

CDR Transfer
After the eCNS generates original CDRs, it encodes the original CDRs in Abstract Syntax
Notation One (ASN.1) format, encapsulates the original CDRs using GTP', and then sends the
GTP' packets to CGs.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
Table 2-2 Interaction with other features
Feature

Interaction

eCNSFD-070600 Ga Interface

Offline charging depends on Ga interface to CG

Standards

3GPP TS 32.240, "Charging management; Charging architecture and principles"

3GPP TS 32.298, "Charging management; Charging Data Record (CDR) parameter


description"

3GPP TS 32.251, "Charging management; Packet Switched (PS) domain charging"

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3GPP TS 32.295, "Charging management; Charging Data Record (CDR) transfer"

2.2.5 eCNSFD-110011 UE IP Address assigned by the Radius AAA


Server
Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.

Summary
eCNS600 cooperates with Radius AAA Server, to implement centralized assignment of
wireless terminal IP addresses in whole network.

Benefits
Enterprise Customers
Wireless terminal IP addresses are centralized managed by enterprise customers. Though
when wireless terminals roam across core networks, their IP addresses can be centrally
assigned by Radius AAA Server. For example, in railway industry, the IP addresses of
terminals in vehicles are required to be centrally assigned and when these terminals roam
across core networks, their IP addressed should be unique and fixed.

Description
Application Scenario

Centralized management of UEs for enterprise customers


Enterprise customers require the deployment of multiple P-GWs and central
management of UE IP addresses, as shown in the following figure.

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P-GW

PGW

AAA Server

LTE UE

MME

HSS

S-GW

P-GW

eCNS600

Capacity expansion of the authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) server


for enterprise customers
If the number of UEs in an enterprise network exceeds the threshold of an AAA server's
capacity of authentication or assigning UE IP addresses, the enterprise customer can add
RADUIS AAA servers to share the load of processing authentication messages sent by
P-GWs, as shown in the following figure.

P-GW

P-GW

AAA Server

MME

HSS
AAA Server

LTE UE

S-GW

P-GW

eCNS600

Services and Functions


The eCNS600 obtains UE IP addresses from the RADIUS AAA server and provides various
services and functions.

UE IP address assignment by RADIUS AAA server


The eCNS600 obtains UE IP addresses from the AAA server through RADIUS
authentication.

Mapping between APN and AAA server


The eCNS600 supports the configuration of active/standby AAA servers for each APN.

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Configuring authentication message resend count and expiration time


The eCNS600 supports the configuration of authentication message resend count and
expiration time based on network conditions.

Striping domain name from user name


The eCNS600 supports the ability to select whether to include a domain name in the user
name of the authentication message sent to the RADIUS AAA server.
Before an authentication message is sent, the eCNS600 checks whether the APN is
configured to strip a domain name. If yes, the domain name will be stripped from the
user name before an authentication message is sent to the AAA server. That is, the
message sent to the AAA server carries the user name without a domain name. If no, the
domain name will not be stripped from the user name. By default, the domain name is
kept.

Configuring port numbers for communicating with the AAA server


The eCNS600 supports optional configuration of the destination ports of the eCNS600
for communicating with the AAA server. By default, the port number for authentication
is 1812 and that for accounting is 1813. The port number for authentication ranges from
1 to 65535 for compatibility with other AAA server ports whose numbers are not the
default values.

Active/Standby AAA server


The eCNS600 allows the AAA servers to receive RADIUS authentication messages in
active/standby mode. In this mode, if the active AAA server works normally, it will
receive all RADIUS authentication messages. If the active server is faulty, all the
messages are sent to the standby server. The eCNS600 only supports active/standby
mode connection with AAA Servers.

3GPP extended attributes


3GPP 29.061 defines the protocols of interfaces between the P-GW and the AAA server.
The eCNS600 transmits the extended attributes defined in the 3GPP 29.061 protocol (for
example: IMSI, MCC, and MNC) to the AAA server for authentication reference.

Context deactivation according to RADIUS Packet of Disconnect (POD) messages


The eCNS600 retrieves a UE IP address according to a POD message.
POD messages, which are used to deactivate subscribers, are sent actively by the
RADIUS AAA server to the P-GW.
The eCNS600 deactivates context according to POD messages. It checks the validity of
POD messages and receives only PODs containing server IP addresses. Then it
deactivates subscribers based on their IMSIs and NSAPIs.

Enhancement
None.

Dependency
This feature depends on the PCO setting of the UE. The UE must support at least the
Authentication Type, User Name and Password items in its PCO Setting. The Initial UE
Message shall send the EPC the three information elements in the UE Attach process.

Standard
RFC 2865 Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)

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3GPP TS 23.401, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved Universal
Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access
3GPP TS 29.061 Interworking between the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) supporting
packet based services and Packet Data Networks (PDN)

2.2.6 eCNSFD-110012 E2E Subscriber Tracing


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.

Summary
The end-to-end subscriber trace feature enables multiple MEs to trace signaling messages of a
subscriber in a trace task and to send traced messages to a specified device such as an NMS.

Benefits
Enterprise Customers
The end-to-end subscriber trace feature can improve fault location efficiency for refined
network maintainance.

Description
Operation and maintenance engineers can use the end-to-end subscriber trace feature to trace
subscriber signaling messages and then analyze the traced signaling messages for handling
customer complaints, locating network faults, adjusting and optimizing networks, analyzing
subscriber behaviors, and testing new features.
Figure 2-2 shows the end-to-end subscriber trace procedure.

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Figure 2-2 End-to-end subscriber trace

NMS

Itf-N

Itf-N
Itf-N

Vendor B

Vendor A

3
1

EMS 3

2 PGW

EMS

EMS

1
3

3
2 SGW

HSS

1
S1

2
MME

eNB

S1
eNB

1.

The element management system (EMS) sends a trace command to MME through a
management link and the instruction includes creating, checking, and deleting trace
sessions. Alternatively, the EMS sends a trace command to the HSS and the HSS
informs the MME of the instruction through a message over the S6a interface. The trace
command is subscriber-specific and the subscriber is specified by the IMSI or MSISDN.

2.

MME sends trace control parameters to the S-GW, P-GW, and eNodeB through
signaling links.

3.

MME traces signaling messages and sends traced signaling messages in file report mode
to the EMS through the trace data link. Then, the EMS displays the traced messages.

Trace data includes the trace reference ID, trace depth, trace ME list, and trace interface list of
each ME.

Trace reference ID
It uniquely identifies a trace session.

Trace depth
It indicates the content depth of traced messages reported by the MEs. Currently, only
the maximum depth is supported, that is, complete messages are reported.

Trace ME list
It lists the MEs required to trace signaling messages in a trace session, including the
eNodeB, MME, S-GW, and P-GW. The MME sends trace data to the MEs in this list.

Trace interface list


It lists the interfaces on which messages need to be traced. Each ME has a trace interface
list. When the eCNS600 servers as the MME, the messages on the S1-MME, S6a, and
S10 interfaces can be traced.

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Enhancement
None.

Dependency
The complete end-to-end subscriber trace function requires that all of the EMS, MME,
eNodeB, S-GW, P-GW, and HSS support the end-to-end subscriber trace function. For the
eCNS600 to implement the end-to-end subscriber trace function, at least the EMS must
support the end-to-end subscriber trace function.

Standard
3GPP TS 32.422, Telecommunication management; Subscriber and equipment trace: Trace
control and configuration management

2.3 Reliability
2.3.1 eCNSFD-110006 eCNS Redundancy
Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.
This feature is an optional feature and is under license control.

Summary
eCNS redundancy is a disaster tolerance mechanism where multiple eCNSs serve the same
radio coverage area (called the eCNS redundancy area). These eCNSs connect to all the
eNodeBs in this area and work in load sharing mode.

Benefits
This feature implements disaster tolerance and improves the network availability.

Description
In eCNS redundancy scenarios, the eNodeB selects an eCNS for a UE based on the load
sharing policy configured on the eNodeB. Therefore, the eNodeB needs to know the status of
the eCNSs. If the eNodeB detects that an eCNS is unavailable, it adjusts the load sharing
policy and assigns new service requests to other eCNSs. In addition, the eNodeB needs to
obtain the load sharing weights of the eCNSs through the S1 interfaces so that the eNodeB
can select an eCNS for a UE from available eCNSs.

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An area served by multiple eCNSs is called an eCNS redundancy area. If one or more
tracking areas (TAs) are served by multiple eCNSs, these TAs form an eCNS redundancy
area.
eCNS redundancy mainly implements disaster tolerance and improves the network
availability. In addition, eCNS redundancy can be used to increase the maximum data
throughput when the forwarding capability of the network becomes a bottleneck.
Table 2-3 lists eCNS redundancy specifications.
Table 2-3 eCNS redundancy specifications
Item

Specification

Network
usability

1 - (1 A)N

Maximum data
throughput

N x 4 Gbit/s

Remarks
A: system availability of an eCNS
N (5): number of eCNSs
4 Gbit/s: maximum data throughput of
an eCNS

Enhancement
None

Dependency
This feature does not depend on other features.

Standards

3GPP TS 23.401, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved
universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access"

3GPP TS 23.236, "Intra-domain connection of Radio Access Network (RAN) nodes to


multiple Core Network (CN) nodes"

2.4 Networking
2.4.1 eCNSFD-110007 Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD)
Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R001.
This feature is an optional feature and is under license control.

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Summary
Bidirectional forwarding detection (BFD) is used to detect communication faults between
devices and notify the upper layers of the faults.
The major characteristics of BFD are as follows:

Implements bidirectional link detection, which does not significantly add to the network
load and requires little time to complete.

Dynamically modifies BFD parameters without affecting the status of ongoing sessions.

Benefits
This feature provides a transmission-media-independent detection mechanism that enables
fault detection at the millisecond level.

Description
The eCNS supports single-hop BFD, which refers to detection of IP connectivity between
directly connected devices.
For a data protocol, only one BFD session exists on a specified interface such as a physical
port, virtual circuit, or tunnel.
BFD packets are encapsulated in UDP packets. The destination port number is 3784. The
source port number is within the range of 49152 and 65535. All the BFD packets of a session
use the same source port number.
The eCNS supports BFD in asynchronous mode, but not in demand mode. In asynchronous
BFD, the devices periodically send BFD packets to each other. If one device does not receive
any packet from the other device within a specified period, the session is considered to be
down. Asynchronous BFD is most commonly used.
Table 2-4 lists BFD specifications.
Table 2-4 BFD specifications
Item

Specification

Shortest detection time (ms)

30

Maximum number of BFD sessions

16

Maximum number of static routes bound to a BFD session

512

Maximum number of default routes bound to a BFD session 6

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Table 2-5 Interaction with other features
Feature

Interaction

eCNSFD-040700 VRF

In the network scenario of dual active ports with


static routes, BFD should be activated in VRF in
order that eCNS could switch route when old route is
fault.

Standards

Draft-ietf-bfd-v4v6-1hop-04

Draft-ietf-bfd-base-04

Draft-ietf-bfd-multihop-04

2.4.2 eCNSFD-110010 Routing Behind MS


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature is introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.
This feature is an optional feature and is under license control.

Summary
This feature applies to mobile VPNs.
This feature allows terminals to access an enterprise network through a wireless device and
allows mutual visits between the terminals and the enterprise network.Unlike Network
Address Translation (NAT), this feature allows the wireless device to obtain a network
segment address (not only an IP address) and assign IP addresses to the terminals. With these
addresses, the terminals can communicate with the enterprise network.
The eCNS can determine whether to use this feature for an APN.

Benefits
Enterprise Customers
This feature provides a new business model for mobile VPNs, improves working efficiency,
and reduces operating costs.
End Users

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Feature Description

2 Optional Features

This feature enables end users to access the enterprise network through a wireless device. In
addition, this feature allows mutual visits between branches and headquarters in a flexible,
rapid, and secure manner.

Description
Application Scenario
This feature is mainly applicable to enterprise customers' mobile VPNs.
Both mobile VPN users and common home users can access a network through a wireless
device. However, the technologies for the two applications are very different.
Common home users visit a network through a wireless router. The router uses NAT for
address translation and allows multiple users to access the network at the same time even
when the router obtains only one IP address during an EPS bearer activation procedure.
In comparison, mobile VPN users need to visit or be visited by an enterprise network. As NAT
cannot meet this requirement, the Routing Behind MS feature is introduced to address this
issue.
Figure 2-3 shows the network structure for the Routing Behind MS feature.
Figure 2-3 Network structure for the Routing Behind MS feature

Main Functional Units

CPE
The CPE is a wireless device. It originates the setup of a default EPS bearer, obtains a
network segment address, and assigns IP addresses to the connected terminals.

eCNS
The eCNS receives uplink data from the CPE and forwards the data to PDNs. The eCNS
also receives downlink data from PDNs, selects tunnels in the enterprise network based
on the destination IP addresses, and sends the data to target terminals.

IP terminals
IP terminals are connected to the CPE. These terminals may be mobile phones, WiFi
terminals, or computers.

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Enhancement
None

Dependency
Table 2-6 Interaction with other features
Feature

Interaction

eCNSFD-040600 OSPFv2

One VRF support more than OSPF process, while


one OSPF process belongs to only one VRF.

Standards
None

2.4.3 eCNSFD-110013 UE Fixed IP MultiHoming


Applicable NEs
eCNS

Availability
This feature was introduced in eCNS600 V100R002.
This feature is an optional feature and is under license control.

Summary
This feature applies to mobile virtual private networks (VPNs). The eCNS dynamically
delivers route information containing the UE fixed IP address as the destination IP address
over the SGi interface through the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol. In this way, a
UE can access multiple interconnected eCNSs at different time points without changing its
fixed IP address.

Benefits
Enterprise Customers
With enterprise networks, most traffic is originated by the network side and the IP addresses
of the UEs are fixed. Normally, these UEs attach only to a specific eCNS. The UE Fixed IP
MultiHoming feature enables the UE to change the route with the eCNS accessed by the UE.
This improves the UE's capability to perform cross-EPC services. EPC is short for evolved
packet core.

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Description
Application Scenarios
Cross-region access: In this scenario, the enterprise network consists of multiple eCNSs that
cover different regions without any overlap. The UE has a fixed IP address and retains its
fixed IP address after attaching to the eCNSs in different regions.
Network redundancy backup: In this scenario, the enterprise network consists of multiple
eCNSs whose coverage regions are overlapped. The UE has a fixed IP address and retains its
fixed IP address after attaching to another eligible eCNS in the same region.
The following figure shows the networking for UE Fixed IP MultiHoming.
Figure 2-1 Networking for UE Fixed IP MultiHoming
eCNS A
S1

SGi

Router
eNodeB A
S10

OSPF
Area

S5

APP Server

UE
S1
SGi

eNodeB B

eCNS B

Main Functional Units


UE: A UE has a fixed IP address and selects an eCNS on an EPC to attach to.
eCNS: When a UE attaches to the eCNS, the eCNS delivers route information containing the
UE fixed IP address as the destination IP address over the SGi interface through the OSPF
protocol. When a UE detaches from the eCNS, the eCNS notifies the router to delete the route
over the SGi interface through the OSPF protocol.
Router: A router learns the route information containing the UE fixed IP address as the
destination IP address through the OSPF protocol. When the router receives downlink data
sent by the APP server, the router sends the data to the eCNS that recently delivers the route
based on learned routes.
APP Server: An APP Server initiates services to the UE, sends downlink data to the UE, and
receives uplink data from the UE.

Enhancement
None

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Dependency
Table 2-7 Interaction with other features
Related Feature

Interaction

eCNSFD-040600 OSPFv2

This feature depends on the eCNSFD-04600 OSPFv2 feature.

eCNSFD-110010 Routing
Behind MS

This feature is mutually exclusive to the eCNSFD-110010


Routing Behind MS feature.

Standards
None

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