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# Introduction to FEM

Overview

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 1
Introduction to FEM

Course Coverage

## III. Computer Implementation of FEM

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 2
Introduction to FEM

## The field of Mechanics can be subdivided into 3 major areas:

 Theoretical

Mechanics Applied

Computational

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 3
Introduction to FEM

Computational Mechanics

## Branches of Computational Mechanics can be distinguished according

to the physical focus of attention

Nano and Micromechanics

Continuum Mechanics:
Computational Solids and Structures

Mechanics Fluids
Multiphysics

Systems

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 4
Introduction to FEM

## A convenient subdivision of problems in Computational

Solid and Structural Mechanics (CSM) is

Computational
 Statics
Solid and Structural
Mechanics (CSM)
 Dynamics

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 5
Introduction to FEM

CSM Statics

## A further subdivision of problems in CSM Statics is

 Linear
CSM Statics

 Nonlinear

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 6
Introduction to FEM

## For the numerical simulation on the computer we must now

chose a spatial discretization method:

##  Finite Difference Method

Boundary Element Method
CSM Linear Statics

##  Finite Volume Method

Spectral Method
Mesh-Free Method

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 7
Introduction to FEM

## Having selected the FEM for discretization, we must next

pick a formulation and a solution method:

 Displacement

Equilibrium
Formulation of FEM Model
 Mixed
Hybrid

 Stiffness
Solution of FEM Model Flexibility
 Mixed

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 8
Introduction to FEM

## Solved by the stiffness method

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 9
Introduction to FEM

## Archimedes' problem (circa 250 B.C.): rectification of the

circle as limit of inscribed regular polygons

3
4 2 4
r 2r sin(π/n)
d 5 1 5 i j
2π/n

6 8
r

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 10
Introduction to FEM

## n πn = n sin(π/n) Extrapolated by Wynn-ε Exact π to 16 places

1 0.000000000000000
2 2.000000000000000
4 2.828427124746190 3.414213562373096
8 3.061467458920718
16 3.121445152258052 3.141418327933211
32 3.136548490545939
64 3.140331156954753 3.141592658918053
128 3.141277250932773
256 3.141513801144301 3.141592653589786 3.141592653589793

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 11
Introduction to FEM

member
Roof Truss
support

joint
Physical Model

IDEALIZATION &
DISCRETIZATION

## Mathematical and Discrete Model

;
;
;

;
;
;

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 12
Introduction to FEM

## Two Interpretations of FEM for Teaching

Physical Mathematical

## Breakdown of structural system Numerical approximation of a

into components (elements) and Boundary Value Problem by
reconstruction by the assembly Ritz-Galerkin discretization
process with functions of local support

## Emphasized in Part I Emphasized in Part II

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 13
Introduction to FEM

Physical FEM
generally
Ideal irrelevant
Mathematical
model

CONTINUIFICATION
SOLUTION

## Physical FEM Discrete Discrete

system model solution

## IDEALIZATION & VERIFICATION

DISCRETIZATION
solution error
simulation error= modeling + solution error
VALIDATION

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 14
Introduction to FEM

Mathematical FEM

model

SOLUTION

## Ideal Discrete Discrete

physical model solution
system

IDEALIZATION &
DISCRETIZATION VERIFICATION
solution error
generally irrelevant

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 15
Introduction to FEM

## Model Updating in Physical FEM

EXPERIMENTS

Physical Experimental
FEM Parametrized Discrete
system database discrete solution
model

simulation error

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 16
Introduction to FEM

## Synergy Between Mathematical

and Physical FEM

NT
P ONE
atic
al COMEVEL (Intermediate levels omitted)
a t hemel L
M mo d
ent
ponns
y Com
brar at i o
Li equ
ent
FEM Com
pon e
t TEM
SYS EL
r e
disc del
mo
LEV e
plet
Comution
so l
em
Systrete
i s
d delc
l mo
sica
Phy tem
s y s

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 17
Introduction to FEM

## Recommended Books for Linear FEM

Basic level (reference): Zienkiewicz & Taylor (1988), Vols I (1988), II (1993).
A comprehensive upgrade of the 1977 edition. Primarily an encyclopedic
reference work that provides a panoramic coverage of FEM, as well as a
comprehensive list of references. Not a textbook. A fifth edition has appeared.

Basic level (textbook): Cook, Malkus & Plesha (1989); this third edition is
fairly comprehensive in scope and up to date although the coverage is more
superficial than Zienkiewicz & Taylor.

## Intermediate level: Hughes (1987). It requires substantial mathematical

expertise on the part of the reader Recently reprinted by Dover..

## Mathematically oriented: Strang & Fix (1973). Most readable mathematical

treatment although outdated in several subjects.

Most fun (if you like British "humor"): Irons & Ahmad (1980)

Best value for the \$\$\$: Przemieniecki (Dover edition 1985, ~\$16). Although outdated
in many respects (e.g. the word "finite element" does not appear in this reprint of
the original 1966 book), it is a valuable reference for programming simple elements.

## Comprehensive web search engine for out-of print books: http://www3.addall.com

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 18