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Intelligence and Creativity

Book authors:
Samuel Wood
Ellen G. Wood
Denise Boyd

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Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006

Overview
The Nature of Intelligence
o The Search for Factors Underlying Intelligence
o Intelligence: More than One Type?
Measuring Intelligence
o Binet and the First Successful Intelligence Test
o Intelligence Testing in the United States
o Reliability, Validity, and Standardization

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Overview
The Range of Intelligence
o The Bell Curve
o Giftedness
o Mental Retardation
o Intelligence and Neural Processing

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Overview
The IQ Controversy
o The Uses of Intelligence Tests
o The Abuses of Intelligence Tests
o The Heritability of Intelligence
o Race and IQ
o Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable?
o Expectations, Effort, and Standardized Test
Scores
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Overview
Emotional Intelligence
o Personal Components of Emotional
Intelligence
o Interpersonal Components of Emotional
Intelligence

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Overview
Creativity
o The Creative Process
o The Nature of Creative Thinking
o Measuring Creativity
o Characteristics of Creative People
o Savant Syndrome

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Nature of Intelligence
Intelligence: an individuals ability to
understand complex ideas, to adapt
effectively to the environment, to
learn from experience, to engage in
various forms of reasoning, and to
overcome obstacles through mental
effort.
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Nature of Intelligence
The Search for Factors Underlying Intelligence
Spearman and General Intelligence
Charles Spearman observed that people who are
good at one type of thinking or cognition tend to do
well in other types as well.
He came to believe that intelligence is composed
of a general ability, or g factor, which underlies all
intellectual functions.
Spearman arrived at his g factor theory when he
found positive relationships among scores on the
subtests of intelligence tests.
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Nature of Intelligence
The Search for Factors Underlying Intelligence
(continued)
Spearman and General Intelligence continued
But some of the correlations between subtests were
much higher than others.
Spearman concluded that some other abilities in
addition to the g factor must be being assessed by
some subtests.
These other abilities Spearman named s factors for
specific abilities.
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Nature of Intelligence
The Search for Factors Underlying Intelligence
(continued)
Spearman and General Intelligence continued
Spearman concluded that intelligence tests tap a
persons g factor and a number of s factors.
Robert Plomin asserts that the g factor is among the
most valid and reliable measures of intelligence,
better than other measures in predicting success in
social, educational, and occupational endeavors.
Brain-imaging studies show that general intelligence
tasks are associated with specific areas of the frontal
cortex in one or both hemispheres.
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Nature of Intelligence
The Search for Factors Underlying Intelligence
(continued)
Thurstones Primary Mental Abilities

Louis L. Thurstone rejected Spearmans notion


of a general intellectual ability.
After analyzing the scores of many research
participants on 56 separate tests, Thurstone
identified seven primary mental abilities: verbal
comprehension, numerical ability, spatial
relations, perceptual speed, word fluency,
memory, and reasoning.
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Nature of Intelligence
Intelligence: More Than One Type?
Gardners Theory of Multiple
Intelligences
Howard Gardner denies the existence of
a g factor.
He proposes eight independent forms of
intelligence, or frames of mind.
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Gardners Eight Frames of Mind


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Nature of Intelligence
Intelligence: More Than One Type?
Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Gardner first developed his theory by studying
patients with different types of brain damage
that affect some forms of intelligence, but leave
others intact.
He also studied reports of people with savant
syndrome, who show a combination of mental
retardation and unusual talent or ability.
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Nature of Intelligence
Intelligence: More Than One Type?
Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Triarchic theory of intelligence: Sternbergs
theory that there are three types of intelligence
componential (analytical), experiential
(creative), and contextual (practical).
Sternberg claims that traditional IQ tests
measure only componential, or analytical,
intelligence.
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Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence


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Measuring Intelligence
Binet and the First Successful Intelligence
Test
Franz Gall proposed that measurements of the
size and shape of an individuals skull could be
used to estimate an individuals intelligence;
this proposal failed.
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon tested school
children in Paris in 1904 for intelligence levels.
They published their intelligence scale in 1905
and revised it in 1908 and again in 1911.
The Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale was an
immediate success.
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Measuring Intelligence
Binet and the First Successful Intelligence
Test (continued)
Binet established the concept that mental
retardation and mental superiority are a
function of the difference between
chronological age (actual age in years) and
mental age.
Binet believed that children with a mental age 2
years below their chronological age were
retarded and should be placed in special
education classes.
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Measuring Intelligence
Binet and the First Successful
Intelligence Test (continued)
William Stern devised a simple formula
for calculating an index of intelligence
the intelligence quotient (IQ).
He divided a childs mental age by his or
her chronological age to obtain this index.
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Measuring Intelligence
Intelligence Testing in the United States
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Lewis M. Terman published a thorough
revision of the Binet-Simon scale in 1916.
He revised and adapted the items for
American children, added new items, and
established norms standards based on the
test scores of a large number of individuals
and used as bases for comparison.
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Measuring Intelligence
Intelligence Testing in the United States (continued)
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (continued)
Termans revision was known as the Stanford-Binet
Intelligence Scale.
It is an individually administered IQ test for those
aged 2 to 23.
It contains four subscales: verbal reasoning,
quantitative reasoning, abstract visual reasoning, and
short-term memory.
An overall IQ score is derived from scores on the four
subscales, and the test scores correlate well with
achievement test scores.
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Measuring Intelligence
Intelligence Testing in the United States
(continued)
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (continued)
Intelligence quotient: an index of intelligence
originally derived by dividing mental age by
chronological age and then multiplying by 100; now
derived by comparing an individuals score with the
scores of others of the same age.

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Measuring Intelligence
Intelligence Testing in the United States
(continued)
The Wechsler Intelligence Tests
Deviation score: a test score calculated by
comparing an individuals score with the scores of
others of the same age on whom the intelligence
test was normed.
David Wechsler contributed the deviation score
and developed the first successful individual
intelligence test for adults, designed for those age
16 and older.
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Measuring Intelligence
Intelligence Testing in the United States
(continued)
The Wechsler Intelligence Tests continued
His test has been revised, restandardized, and
renamed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
(WAIS-III).
An individual intelligence test for adults that
yields separate verbal and performance IQ
scores as well as an overall IQ score.
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Measuring Intelligence
Intelligence Testing in the United States
(continued)
The Wechsler Intelligence Tests
(continued)
Wechsler believed that differences in a
persons scores on the various verbal and
performance subtests could be used for
diagnostic purposes.
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Measuring Intelligence
Intelligence Testing in the United States
(continued)
Group Intelligence Tests
Administering individual intelligence tests is
expensive and time-consuming.
The tests must be given to one person at a time
by a qualified professional.
For testing large numbers of people in a short
period of time on a limited budget, group
intelligence tests are the answer.
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Measuring Intelligence
Reliability, Validity, and Standardization
Reliability: the ability of a test to yield
nearly the same score when the same
people are tested and then retested on the
same test or an alternative form of the test.
Validity: the ability of a test to measure
what it is intended to measure.
Aptitude test: a test designed to predict a
persons achievement or performance at
some future time.
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Measuring Intelligence
Reliability, Validity, and Standardization
(continued)
Standardization: the process of establishing
both norms for interpreting scores on a test and
standard procedures for administering the test.
Test items that are valid in one cultural context
may lose their validity in a different context.
Intelligence tests must undergo continuous
revision to maintain their validity.
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The Range of Intelligence


The Bell Curve
When large populations are measured on
intelligence or on physical characteristics, such
as height or blood pressure, a graph of the
frequencies of all the test scores or results
usually conforms to a bell-shaped distribution
known as the normal curve, or sometimes as
the bell curve.
The majority of scores cluster around the mean
(average).
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The Range of Intelligence


The Bell Curve (continued)
The more the scores deviate, or the farther
away they are, from the mean either above or
below the fewer there are.
The curve is perfectly symmetrical, that is,
there are just as many scores above as below
the mean.
The average test score for all people in the
same age group is arbitrarily assigned an IQ
score of 100.
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The Normal Curve


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The Range of Intelligence


Giftedness
Termans Study of Genius
Lewis Terman launched a longitudinal study,
now a classic, in which 1,528 students with
genius IQs were measured at different ages
throughout their lives.
He concluded that there is no law of
compensation whereby the intellectual
superiority of the gifted is offset by inferiorities
along nonintellectual lines.
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The Range of Intelligence


Giftedness (continued)
Who Are the Gifted?
Beginning in the early 1920s, the term
gifted was used to describe the intellectually
superior, those with IQs in the upper 2-3%
of the U.S. population.
Today the term also includes both the
exceptionally creative and those who excel
in the visual or performing arts.
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The Range of Intelligence


Giftedness (continued)
Who Are the Gifted? (continued)
Traditionally, special programs for the gifted have
involved either acceleration or enrichment.
Acceleration enables students to progress at a rate
that is consistent with their ability.
Enrichment aims to broaden students knowledge
by giving them special courses in foreign
languages, music appreciation, and the like or by
providing special experiences designed to foster
advanced thinking skills.
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The Range of Intelligence


Mental Retardation
Mental retardation: individuals with IQ scores
below 70 and who have a severe deficiency in
everyday adaptive functioning the ability to
care for themselves and relate to others.
Individuals with IQs ranging from 55 to 70 are
considered mildly retarded; from 40 to 55,
moderately retarded; from 25-40, severely
retarded; and below 25, profoundly retarded.
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The Range of Intelligence


Mental Retardation (continued)
There are many causes of mental retardation,
including brain injuries, chromosomal
abnormalities such as Down syndrome,
chemical deficiencies, and hazards present
during fetal development.
Inclusion (or mainstreaming): educating
mentally retarded students in regular schools
and may involve placing these students in
classes with nonretarded students for part of
the day or in special classrooms in regular
schools.
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The Range of Intelligence


Intelligence and Neural Processing
Some scientists believe that biochemical
differences may explain variations in
normal intelligence.
Some researchers have found that
processing speed is related to
intelligence and that processing speed
accelerates as children get older.
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The IQ Controversy
The Uses of Intelligence Tests
IQ scores are fairly good predictors of academic
performance.
Neisser and others, Successful school learning
depends on many personal characteristics other
than intelligence, such as persistence, interest in
school, and willingness to study.
Studies indicate that intelligence test scores are
related to a wide range of social outcomes,
including job performance, income, social status,
and years of education completed.
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The IQ Controversy
The Abuses of Intelligence Tests
Abuses occur when scores on intelligence or
aptitude tests are the only, or even the major,
criterion for admitting people to various
educational programs.
Intelligence tests do not measure attitude and
motivation, critical ingredients of success.
Early categorization based solely on IQ scores
can doom children to slow-track educational
programs that are not appropriate for them.
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The IQ Controversy
The Abuses of Intelligence Tests
(continued)
Another problem with intelligence tests is that
they are sometimes designed in such a way
that their results reflect cultural bias.
Culture-fair intelligence test: an intelligence
test that uses questions that will not penalize
those whose cultural background and/or
language differs from that of the white middle
and upper classes.
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The IQ Controversy
The Heritability of Intelligence
Nature-nurture controversy: the debate over
whether intelligence and other traits are
primarily the result of heredity (nature) or the
environment (nurture).
Sir Francis Galton initiated the debate over
whether intelligence is predominantly the result
of heredity or the environment.
Heritability: a measure of the degree to which
a characteristic is estimated to be influenced by
heredity.
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The IQ Controversy
The Heritability of Intelligence (continued)
Thomas Bouchard reports that various types of
twin studies have consistently yielded heritability
estimates of .60 to .70 for intelligence.
Plomin and others found the heritability estimate
for general intelligence to be .52.
Adoption study method: a method researchers
use to study the relative effects of heredity and
environment on behavior and ability in children
adopted shortly after birth by comparing them
with their biological and adoptive parents.
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The IQ Controversy
The Heritability of Intelligence (continued)
Bouchard and others claim that although
parents may be able to affect their childrens
rate of cognitive skill acquisition, they may
have relatively little influence on the ultimate
level attained.
A great deal of convincing research does
argue for the importance of genes in
determining intelligence, including language
skills.
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The IQ Controversy
Race and IQ
Arthur Jensen published an article in which he
attributed the IQ gap to genetic differences
between the races.
He claimed that the genetic influence on
intelligence is so strong that the environment
cannot make a significant difference.
Jensen even went so far as to claim that Blacks
and Whites possess qualitatively different kinds
of intelligence.
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The IQ Controversy
Race and IQ (continued)
Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray argued that IQ
differences among individuals and between groups
explain how those at the top of the ladder in U.S.
society got there and why those at the lower rungs of
societys ladder remain there.
Jensens and Hernstein and Murrays views run counter
to the belief that an enriched, stimulating environment
can overcome the deficits of poverty and cultural
disadvantage and thus reduce any negative effects
these have on IQ.
There are studies that suggest that changes in
environment can increase IQ scores.
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The IQ Controversy
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable?
The high degree of similarity in the intelligence
scores of identical twins who have been reared
apart makes a strong case for the powerful
influences of genetics.
None of us inherits a specific IQ score, instead our
genes probably set the boundaries of a fairly wide
range of possible performance levels, called the
reaction range.
Our environments determine where we end up
within that range.
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The IQ Controversy
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable? (continued)
Adoption Studies
The IQ scores of adopted children tend to resemble
those of their biological parents more than their
adopted families.
Sandra Scarr and Richard Weinberg found a different
pattern among adopted children whose biological and
adoptive parents differed both in race and in
socioeconomic status.
Their study involved 130 Black and interracial children
who had been adopted by highly educated, uppermiddle class White families; 99 of the children had
been adopted in the first year of life.
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The IQ Controversy
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable?
(continued)

Adoption Studies (continued)


The adoptees were fully exposed to middleclass cultural experiences and vocabulary,
the culture of the tests and the school.
The average IQ score among the studied
adoptees was 106.3.
On the average, the earlier the children
were adopted, the higher their IQs.
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The IQ Controversy
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable? (continued)
Early Childhood Interventions
Research examining the effects of preschool
programs involving infants and young children from
poor families clearly indicates that early educational
experiences can affect intellectual functioning.
Craig Ramey carried out an intervention program and
experiment in which 6- to 12-month-old infants of
low-IQ, low-income mothers were randomly assigned
either to an intensive 40-hour-per-week day-care
program that continued throughout the preschool
years or to a control group that received only medical
care and nutritional supplements.
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The IQ Controversy
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable?
(continued)
Early Childhood Interventions (continued)
When the children reached school age, half in
each group (again based on random
assignment) were enrolled in a special afterschool program that helped their families learn
how to support school learning with educational
activities at home.
Ramey followed the progress of children in all
four groups through age 12, giving them IQ
tests at various ages.
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The IQ Controversy
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable? (continued)
Early childhood interventions (continued)
Children who participated in Rameys infant and
preschool program scored higher on IQ tests than
peers who received either no intervention or only the
school-age intervention.
During the elementary school years, about 40 percent
of the control group participants had IQ scores
classified as borderline or retarded, compared to only
12.8 percent of those who were in the infant program.
Recent research shows that the cognitive advantage
enjoyed by the infant intervention group has persisted
into adulthood.
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The IQ Controversy
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable?
(continued)
Changes in Standard of Living
James Flynn analyzed 73 studies involving
some 7,500 participants ranging in age from 12
to 48 and found that every Binet and Wechsler
sample from 1932 to 1978 has performed
better than its predecessor.
The consistent improvement in IQ scores over
time that accompanies changes in standards of
living is known as the Flynn effect.
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The IQ Controversy
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable? (continued)
Changes in Standard of Living
Some researchers suggest that the Flynn effect is
caused by those parts of IQ tests that measure
learning rather than the g factor.
Some observers claim that improved nutrition and
prenatal care are responsible for gains in
neurological functioning that have resulted in
increased IQ scores.
However, Flynn argues that such changes should
affect those at the bottom of the IQ scale more
than those at the top.
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The IQ Controversy
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable?
(continued)
Changes in Standard of Living
Flynn points out that there has been just as
much change among high scorers as among
those whose scores are below average.
Flynn argues that the more general cultural
changes, such as the increased popularity of
cognitively demanding leisure activities, have
produced these gains.
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The IQ Controversy
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable?
(continued)

Changes in Standard of Living


Decreased family size is another cultural
change that could contribute to these gains.
Some psychologists believe that changes in
standards of living may also be narrowing
the Black-White IQ gap.
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The IQ Controversy
Expectations, Effort, and Standardized Test Scores
Harold Stevenson and others compared the math
scores of randomly selected elementary school
children from three comparable cities: Taipei in
Taiwan, Sendai in Japan, and Minneapolis in the
United States.
Though all groups were fairly equal at the beginning
of school, by the fifth grade, the Asian students were
outscoring the Americans by about 15 points.
The Asian superiority held firmly from the highest to
the lowest achievement levels.
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The IQ Controversy
Expectations, Effort, and Standardized Test Scores
(continued)
Cultural Beliefs
Stevenson and his colleagues interviewed the
parents of their study participants.
The Chinese and Japanese mothers considered
academic achievement to be the most important
pursuit of their children, whereas American parents
did not value it as a central concern.

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The IQ Controversy
Expectations, Effort, and Standardized Test Scores
(continued)
Cultural Beliefs (continued)
The Asian, but not the American, families structured
their home activities to promote academic
achievement as soon as their first child started
elementary school.
The Asian parents downplayed the importance of
innate ability, but emphasized the value of hard work
and persistence.

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The IQ Controversy
Expectations, Effort, and Standardized Test Scores
continued
Cultural Beliefs (continued)
American parents, in contrast, believed more firmly in
genetic limitations on ability and achievement.
In follow-up studies, Stevenson and others found that
the achievement gap between Asian and American
students persisted over a 10-year period.
Researchers suggest that Asian teenagers typically
enjoy support and encouragement for their academic
achievement from family and peers alike.
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The IQ Controversy
Expectations, Effort, and Standardized Test
Scores (continued)
Formal education
For many years the National Center for
Educational Statistics (NCES), a branch of the
U.S. Department of Education, has tracked the
math and science achievement test scores of
thousands of children all over the world in a
study known as the Trends in International
Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).
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The IQ Controversy
Expectations, Effort, and Standardized
Test Scores (continued)
Formal education (continued)
The most recent data show that children in
many European nations and in Canada,
societies with cultural values quite similar to
those of the United States, achieve scores
that are comparable to those of students in
Asian nations.
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The IQ Controversy
Expectations, Effort, and Standardized Test
Scores (continued)
Formal education (continued)
Researchers have looked at other kinds of
environmental factors besides differences in
cultural values.
In Singapore, the nation ranked first in
mathematics in the TIMSS data, parents begin
teaching their children about numbers and the
relationships among numbers long before the
children enter school.
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The IQ Controversy
Expectations, Effort, and Standardized Test
Scores (continued)
Formal education (continued)
Teaching methods, too, can vary widely from
one country to another.
Another important aspect of math teaching,
emphasis on computational fluency, has been
found to contribute to math achievement
differences both across cultures and across
classrooms within the United States.
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Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence is a type of intelligence
that includes an awareness of and an ability to
manage ones own emotions, the ability to
motivate oneself, empathy, and the ability to
handle relationships successfully.
Peter Salovey and David Pizarro proposed that
emotional intelligence includes the ability to
perceive emotions, the capacity to use
emotions to aid cognitive processes, and a
comprehension of emotions.
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Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence is unrelated to IQ
scores.
Scores on tests of emotional intelligence
predict both academic and social
success.
Those who are high in emotional
intelligence often emerge as leaders.
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Emotional Intelligence
Personal Components of Emotional Intelligence
Awareness and Management of Ones Emotions
Daniel Goleman, one of several authors who have
popularized the notion of emotional intelligence,
insists that the goal is balance and that every
feeling has value and significance.
Among individuals who experience intense
emotions, individual differences in the ability to
assign meaning to those feelings predict
differences in the ability to manage them.
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Emotional Intelligence
Personal Components of Emotional Intelligence
(continued)
Self-motivation
Self-motivation refers to strong emotional selfcontrol, which enables a person to get moving and
pursue worthy goals, persist at tasks even when
frustrated, and resist the temptation to act on
impulse.
Of all the attributes of emotional intelligence, the
ability to postpone immediate gratification and to
persist in working toward some greater future gain is
most closely related to success.
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Emotional Intelligence
Interpersonal Components of Emotional
Intelligence
Empathy
Empathy: a sensitivity to the needs and
feelings of others; appears to be a higher level
of development that springs from selfawareness.
One key indicator of the empathy component of
emotional intelligence is the ability to read and
interpret nonverbal behavior.
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Emotional Intelligence
Interpersonal components of emotional
intelligence (continued)
Handling relationships
Emotional intelligence has a great deal to do
with forming and maintaining successful
relationships.
Two components of emotional intelligence that
are prerequisites for handling relationships are
(1) the ability to manage ones own emotions,
and (2) empathy.
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Creativity
Creativity: the ability to produce original, appropriate,
and valuable ideas and/or solutions to problems.
The Creative Process
Research studies indicate that useful and genuine
creativity rarely appears in the form of sudden
flashes.
Creative ideas that come to conscious awareness
have been incubating for some time.
Most experts agree that genuine creativity is an
accomplishment born of intensive study, long
reflection, persistence and interest.
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Creativity
The Creative Process (continued)
There are basically four stages in the creative problemsolving process:
1. Preparation: searching for information that may
help solve the problem
2. Incubation: letting the problem sit while the
relevant information is digested
3. Illumination: being suddenly struck by the right
solution
4. Translation: transforming the insight into useful
action
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Creativity
The Nature of Creative Thinking
J.P. Guilford studied creativity for several decades
and believes that creative thinkers are highly
proficient at divergent thinking.
Divergent thinking: the ability to produce multiple
ideas, answers, or solutions to a problem for which
there is no agreed-on solution.
Convergent thinking: the type of mental activity
measured by IQ and achievement tests; it consists
of solving precisely defined, logical problems for
which there is a known correct answer.
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Creativity
The Nature of Creative Thinking (continued)
Convergent thinking is characterized by greater
activity in the left frontal cortex, while divergent
thinking is marked by higher levels of activity in
the right frontal cortex.
Carlson and others found striking differences in
the frontal lobe activity between participants
who were engaged in highly creative thinking
and those who were not.
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Creativity
The Nature of Creative Thinking
(continued)
Some psychologists have criticized what
might be called the trait approach to the
study of creativity the notion that
creativity is a unique type of thought
characteristic of certain people.
John Baer argues that creativity is a
domain-specific set of cognitive skills.
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Creativity
Measuring Creativity
Tests designed to measure creativity emphasize
original approaches to arriving at solutions for openended problems or to producing artistic works.
Mednick and Mednick, who reasoned that the
essence of creativity consists of the creative thinkers
ability to fit together ideas that to the noncreative
thinker might appear remote or unrelated, created the
Remote Associates Test (RAT).
The main weakness of creativity tests is that they
measure creativity in the abstract.
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Creativity
Characteristics of Creative People
1. Expertise
2. Openness to Experience
3. Independence of Mind
4. Intrinsic Motivation
5. Perseverance
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Creativity
Savant Syndrome
Savant syndrome, an unusual combination of mental
retardation and genius, is a condition that allows an
individual whose level of general intelligence is very low
to perform certain highly creative or difficult mental
tasks.
Savants demonstrate high levels of performance
across a variety of domains.
Savants who can rapidly determine day-date
associations in the past and future, known as
calendrical savants, appear to have enhanced abilities
to calculate and to associate all kinds of verbal and
numerical stimuli.
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Review of Learning Objectives


The Nature of Intelligence
1. What factors underlie intelligence,
according to Spearman and
Thurstone?
2. What types of intelligence did
Gardner and Sternberg identify?

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Review of Learning Objectives


Measuring Intelligence
1. What is Binets major contribution to
intelligence testing?
2. How did the work of Terman and Wechsler
influence intelligence testing in the United
States?
3. Why are reliability, validity, and
standardization important in intelligence
testing?
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Review of Learning Objectives


The Range of Intelligence
1. What does the term bell curve mean when
applied to IQ test scores?
2. According to the Terman study, how do the
gifted differ from the general population?
3. What two criteria must a person meet to be
classified as mentally retarded?
4. What is the relationship between intelligence
and the efficiency and speed of neural
processing?
Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006

Review of Learning Objectives


The IQ Controvery
1. Of what are intelligence tests good
predictors?
2. What are some abuses of intelligence
tests?
3. What is the nature nurture controversy
regarding intelligence, and how do twin
studies support the view that intelligence
is inherited?
Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006

Review of Learning Objectives


The IQ Controvery (continued)
4. What are Jensens and Herrnstein and
Murrays controversial views on race and
IQ?
5. What kinds of evidence suggest that IQ is
changeable rather than fixed?
6. How might parental expectations and
teaching methods influence scores on
standardized tests?
Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006

Review of Learning Objectives


Emotional Intelligence
1. What are the personal components of
emotional intelligence?
2. What are the interpersonal
components of emotional intelligence?

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006

Review of Learning Objectives


Creativity
1. What are the four stages in the creative
problem-solving process?
2. How does creative thinking differ from other
forms of cognition?
3. What are some tests that have been used to
measure creativity?
4. What are some characteristics of creative
people?
5. How do savants differ from other people?
Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006