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# Stress Analysis of PSV connected Piping

## systems using Caesar II

PSV or pressure safety valves are very common to any process industry. To protect any equipment
from overpressure PSV systems are used in lines. Two types of PSVs are extensively used in process
industries: a) Open discharge PSV and b) Closed discharge PSV. Due to any uncertain event if
pressure of any equipment becomes higher than the set pressure of the installed PSV s then they
pop up and reduce the system pressure. During popong up activity the PSVs exert huge reaction
force over the system. During analysis of PSv connected stress systems we have to consider this
reaction force. This is the main reason that PSV connected systems become stress critical. The
following write up will try to explain the methods used during analysis of such systems using Caesar
II.
Required Documents for analysis:
The following documents are required while inputting in Caesar II.

Stress isometrics

## Reaction force Application philosophy:

Before we start the actual analysis we should first know the reaction force. Normal practice is to obtain the
reaction force from PSV vendor or manufacturer. However if during preliminary stage of analysis data is not
available then the reaction force for open discharge PSVs can be calculated using the below mentioned
formula (from API RP 520). But later it must be corrected for forces received from vendor.

## Fig.1: Typical Open discharge PSV connection

Reaction force at the point of discharge in lbf, F=[(W/366)* {K*T/(K+1)*M}]+A*P
Here, W=flow of any gas or vapour in lbm/hr
K=ratio of specific heats (Cp/Cv) at the outlet condition
T=temperature at the outlet in oR
M=molecular weight of the process fluid
A=area of the outlet at the point of discharge in inch^2
P=Static pressure within the outlet at the point of discharge in psig.
Cp and Cv=Specific heat at the constant pressure and at constant volume respectively.
For closed discharge PSV systems there is no specific method to calculate the reaction force. Complex time
history analysis can be used to exactly calculate the reaction force for closed discharge PSV systems.
The reaction force application philosophy for open discharge PSV (PSV output discharges into atmosphere)
connected systems is same throughout the process industries. But for closed discharge PSV connected system
the force application philosophy varies from organisation to organisation. Few organisation applies the
reaction force for closed dischare PSVs but few organisations does not consider it. So user to follow the
company specific project guidelines is such cases.

## Where to apply the reaction force:

The following figure (Fig. 2) shows the points where the reaction force is required to be applied for
open discharge PSVs.

Fig.2: Reaction force Application point for open discharge PSV connected systems.
Fig. 3 shows the application point (If required) of reaction forces for closed discharge PSV
connected systems.

Fig.3: Reaction force Application point for Closed discharge PSV connected systems.
Caesar II load cases for PSV connected systems:
PSV forces are considered as occassional forces. So occasional Stress due to PSV reaction force has to be
calculated and to be limited within 1.33 times Sh (As per code ASME B 31.3). Here Sh=Basic allowable
stress at hot condition. Based on company practise PSV reaction force is added either with Design
temperature case or with operating temperature case. Also some organisations have the practise of making
One PSV popping up and other stand by load cases. Accordingly make the load cases as shown below:

## Fig.4: Caesar II methodology to enter the reaction force

Fig.5: Caesar II simple load cases for analysis PSV connected system
The following load cases assumes two temperatures (T1=Operating temp, T2=design temp)
alongwith Wind and Seismic load cases:
L1.

WW+HP

HYD

L2.

W+T1+P1

L3.

W+T2+P1

L4.

W+T1+P1+F1

L5.

W+T1+P1+F2

L6.

W+T1+P1+WIN1

L7.

W+T1+P1+WIN2

L8.

W+T1+P1+WIN3

L9.

W+T1+P1+WIN4

L10.

W+T1+P1+U1

L11.

W+T1+P1-U1

L12.

W+T1+P1+U1

L13.

W+T1+P1-U1

## OPEOperating temp+Seismic from West

L14.

W+P1

SUSSustained case

L15.

L4-L2

L16.

L5-L2

## OPEOperating temp+Seismic from North

L17.

L6-L2

OCCPure Wind

L18.

L7-L2

OCCPure Wind

L19.

L8-L2

OCCPure Wind

L20.

L9-L2

OCCPure Wind

L21.

L10-L2

OCCPure Seismic

L22.

L11-L2

OCCPure Seismic

L23.

L12-L2

OCCPure Seismic

L24.

L13-L2

OCCPure Seismic

L25.

L15+L14

OCCPure Occasional+Sustained

L26.

L16+L14

OCCPure Occasional+Sustained

L27.

L17+L14

OCCPure Occasional+Sustained

L28.

L18+L14

OCCPure Occasional+Sustained

L29.

L19+L14

OCCPure Occasional+Sustained

L30.

L20+L14

OCCPure Occasional+Sustained

L31.

L21+L14

OCCPure Occasional+Sustained

L32.

L22+L14

OCCPure Occasional+Sustained

L33.

L23+L14

OCCPure Occasional+Sustained

L34.

L24+L14

OCCPure Occasional+Sustained

L35.

L2-L14

EXPPure Expansion

L36.

L3-L14

EXPPure Expansion

Output Study:

Check Code stresses for load cases L1, L14 and from L25 to L36. It is better to keep stresses for L1 and
L14 below 60% and for the rest within 80%.

## Few points to keep in mind:

It is a better practice to use 3 way restraints in both inlet and outlet piping of PSV connected systems if
feasible (As shown in figure 2 and 3 above). However if not possible then try to provide 3 way restraint
in outlet only by layout modification.

In normal operating case Safety valve inlet line temperature will be operating temperature up to inlet of
safety valve and Safety valve outlet line will be in ambient temperature up to the header.

Sometimes a Dynamic Load Factor (DLF) of 2 is used for calculating PSV reaction force.

If any stress failure or abnormal routing changes are required, then certain local area from header can be
used average temperature for 2 meters or 5D which is higher (Safety valve outlet joining at header
junction point) and also shall be taken process engineers approval.

If required stress engineer shall provide R.F pad for the trunnion type support.

If connection of psv closed system is emerging from header with 45 put SIF for this tapping. If required
tapping point of the outlet line and outlet header shall be reinforced to reduce SIF.

In case of any safety valve assembly is placed on top platform of any vessel, Support can be taken either
from top platform or support can be arranged from the top portion of vessel taking clip from the vessel. In