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TECHNICAL REVISION

September 2007

Process Industry Practices


Vessels

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded,
Shop-Fabricated Vessels

PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES


In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical
requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering
costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice
is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual
applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence
over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters
or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not
be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names
from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather
recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications
are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines
are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA
requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or
other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed.
Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material
contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time.

Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The


University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,
Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.

PRINTING HISTORY
March 1999
Issued
September 2007
Technical Revision

Not printed with State funds

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

Process Industry Practices


Vessels

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded,
Shop-Fabricated Vessels
Table of Contents
1. Introduction................................. 3
1.1
1.2
1.3

Purpose .......................................... 3
Scope ............................................. 3
Alternative Design Proposals ......... 3

2. References .................................. 4
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

Process Industry Practices............. 4


Industry Codes and Standards....... 4
Government Regulations................ 5
Other References ........................... 5

3. Definitions ................................... 5
4. General Requirements ............... 6
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6

Applicable PIP Documents............. 6


Code ............................................... 6
Jurisdictional Compliance............... 6
Units of Measurement .................... 6
Language ....................................... 7
Documentation to be Provided to
the Manufacturer ............................ 7

5. Design Requirements................. 7
5.1
5.2

Design Criteria................................ 7
Miscellaneous Design
Requirements ................................. 9

Process Industry Practices

6. Working Drawings and


Calculations.............................. 13
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

Information Required.................... 13
Special Notes ............................... 14
Purchaser Review ........................ 14
Calculations.................................. 14

7. Materials.................................... 14
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

Code Materials Required ............. 14


Unspecified Materials ................... 15
Flange Gaskets ............................ 15
Solution Anneal ............................ 15

8. Fabrication Details ................... 16


8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5

Weld Metal ................................... 16


Butt Joints Required ..................... 16
Nozzle Attachment Welds ............ 16
Nozzle Location............................ 16
Nozzles for Safety Relief and
Drainage....................................... 16
8.6 Flange Drilling .............................. 16
8.7 Seams in Formed Heads ............. 16
8.8 Intermediate Head Weld .............. 16
8.9 Grounding Clip ............................. 16
8.10 Gasket Contact Surfaces ............. 17
8.11 Tolerances.................................... 17
8.12 Welds ........................................... 17

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PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

8.13 Welding and Grinding


Restrictions ...................................17
8.14 Welded Pressure Joints that will be
Inaccessible after Assembly .........17
8.15 Clearance of Shell Seams ............17
8.16 Radiographic Examination............17
8.17 Postweld Heat Treatment .............18

9. Hydrostatic Testing ..................18


9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10

Vertically-Mounted Vessels ..........18


Horizontally-Mounted Vessels ......18
Compartmented Vessels ..............18
Water Quality ................................18
Holding Time.................................18
Metal Temperature........................19
Flange Assembly for Test .............19
Retesting Repaired Vessels .........19
Disassembly of Flanged Joints
after Testing ..................................19

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TECHNICAL REVISION
Septermber 2007

10. Manufacturers Nameplates..... 19


11. Required Information ............... 20
11.1 Reports .........................................20
11.2 Drawings and Calculations ...........20

12. Cleaning, Painting, and Shipping


Protection.................................. 20
12.1 Drying and Cleaning .....................20
12.2 Painting .........................................20
12.3 Protection of Machined
Surfaces........................................21
12.4 Welded Attachments.....................21
12.5 Loading for Shipment....................21

Process Industry Practices

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

1.

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

Introduction
1.1

Purpose
This Practice provides requirements for the construction of low-pressure, welded,
shop-fabricated vessels that generally meet the philosophy and requirements of
Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, henceforth
referred to as the Code. However, Code inspection and stamping are not required.

1.2

1.3

Scope
1.2.1

This Practice describes the general requirements for the design, materials,
fabrication, examination, inspection, and testing of aboveground, welded,
cylindrical shell, single-wall, shop-fabricated vessels having an internal and
external Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) not exceeding
15 psig (100 kPa) at the top of the vessel while in normal operating position.
An additional Low-Pressure Vessel Specification is required to define
options covered herein and other specific requirements considering service
(startup, normal operation, upset, shutdown), location, maintenance, etc. The
documents listed in Section 2.1 shall be used for a complete purchase
specification. See PIP VECV1001, PIP VESV1002, and PIP VEDV1003 for
vessels having an MAWP in excess of 15 psig (100 kPa).

1.2.2

This Practice is intended for low-pressure vessels capable of being


hydrostatically tested in both shop and operating positions. This Practice is
not intended for flat-bottom tanks or API-type field-erected storage tanks.
Unless approved by Purchaser, this Practice is not to be used for lowpressure vessels that will contain Lethal Substances as defined in Footnote
1 of Code Paragraph UW-2. PIP VECV1001, PIP VESV1002, and
PIP VEDV1003 apply for vessels that are classified for Lethal Service or
other highly hazardous chemical services.

1.2.3

Many recognized and generally accepted good engineering construction


practices are included herein. However, in light of the many diverse service
applications of low-pressure, shop-fabricated vessels, these practices shall be
employed with engineering judgment and supplemented as appropriate with
requirements related to specific materials of construction, service fluids,
operating environments, and vessel geometries. Accordingly, provisions of
this Practice may be overridden or supplemented by an Overlay Specification
(see Section 3 for definition).

Alternative Design Proposals


The Manufacturer shall provide a base bid in full compliance with the purchase
request for quotation. The Manufacturer may submit an alternative design if, in the
Manufacturers judgment, economy and/or improved schedule can be realized
without loss of capability or shortening the anticipated life of the vessel. The
Manufacturer shall comply with the following requirements when submitting an
alternative bid:
a. Alternative design quotations shall be accompanied by the base quotation and
shall be clearly noted as an alternative design.

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PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

b. Alternative designs shall be fully and clearly described and substantiated by


sketches or drawings. Specific exceptions to the Low-Pressure Vessel
Specifications or this Practice shall be identified as such.
c. An alternative design shall not be used unless approved in writing by the
Purchaser.

2.

References
Applicable parts of the following Practices, industry codes and standards, and references shall
be considered an integral part of this Practice. The edition in effect on the date of contract
award shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles are used herein when appropriate.
The documents listed in this Section are only those specifically referenced in this Practice.
In applications where there are laws or regulations issued by municipal, state, provincial, or
federal authorities covering low-pressure vessels, these laws or regulations shall be reviewed
prior to the initiation of design work since the requirements may be different or more
restrictive than the specifications covered in this Practice.
2.1

Process Industry Practices (PIP)


PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria
ASME Code Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2
PIP VEDV1003 Vessel Drawing/Data Sheet and Instructions
PIP VEFV1100/VEFV1100M Vessel/S&T Heat Exchanger Standard Details
PIP VEFV1101 Vessel Nameplate Bracket
PIP VEFV1102 Vessel Tolerances
PIP VEFV1103 Vessel Grounding Lug
PIP VEFV1105 Vessel Saddles Supported on Concrete
PIP VEFV1106 Vessel Saddles Supported on Structural Steel
PIP VEFV1117 Vessel Manway Vertical Davit
PIP VEFV1118 Vessel Manway Horizontal Davit
PIP VEFV1128 Vessel Skirt Attachment
PIP VESV1002 Vessel Fabrication Specification ASME Code Section VIII,
Divisions 1 and 2

2.2

Industry Codes and Standards


For the documents listed in Table U-3 of the Code, the edition listed in Table U-3
shall be used.
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section VIII, Division 1 Pressure Vessels
Section IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications

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Process Industry Practices

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

ASME B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings NPS 1/2 through NPS 24
ASME B16.9 Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings
ASME B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26 through NPS 60
ASME B46.1 Surface Texture (Surface Roughness, Waviness, and Lay)
ASME SA-193 Specification for Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting
Materials for High-Temperature Service
ASME SA-194 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for
High-Pressure and High-Temperature Service
ASME SA-480 Specification for General Requirements for Flat-Rolled
Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip
ASME PCC-1 Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange Joint
Assembly
American Welding Society
ANSI/AWS A2.4 Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing and
Nondestructive Examination
2.3

Government Regulations
US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA)
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous
Chemicals

2.4

Other References
Design Equations for Preventing Buckling in Fabricated Torispherical Shells
Subjected to Internal Pressure, G.D. Galletly, Proceedings, Institution of
Mechanical Engineers, London, Vol. 200 No. A2, pp.127-139.
Stresses in Large Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle Supports,
L.P. Zick, Pressure Vessels and Piping: Design and Analysis, A Decade of
Progress, Volume Two, 1972, p. 959.

3.

Definitions
For the purposes of this Practice, the following definitions apply:
Code: Section VIII, Division 1 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Construction: An all-inclusive term comprising materials, design, fabrication, examination,
inspection, and testing and pressure relief.
Designer: The party responsible for defining and specifying the mechanical design
requirements (e.g., Vessel Drawing/Data Sheet) consistent with the Low-Pressure Vessel
Specifications or User criteria for use by the Manufacturer. The Designer is frequently an
engineering contractor, but could be the User, third party consultant, or the Manufacturer.
Low-Pressure Vessel Specification: This term shall be understood to include any drawings,
specifications, or service-specific data designated by Purchaser for a particular vessel or

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PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

group of vessels. The Manufacturer is responsible for notifying the Purchaser in writing of
any apparent conflicts between the Low-Pressure Vessel Specification and this Practice.
See PIP VEDV1003 for Vessel Drawing/Data Sheet and Instructions.
Manufacturer (Supplier): The party entering into a contract with the Purchaser to construct a
vessel in accordance with the purchase order. In accordance with the Code definition, the
Manufacturer is the party that possesses a current and valid Certificate of Authorization to
manufacturer pressure vessels with the U or UM ASME Stamp. The Manufacturer may
or may not be the Supplier.
Overlay Specification: Technical requirements that supplement or override the provisions of
this Practice, such as a Low-Pressure Vessel Specification or a project specification
Purchaser: The party actually placing the order for the vessel or vessel components. This
may be the User or the Users designated agent.
User: The party responsible for establishing construction criteria consistent with the Code
philosophy and service hazards as described in the Purpose and Scope statements. This term
refers to the owner and/or operator of the equipment.

4.

General Requirements
4.1

Applicable PIP Documents


All vessels shall be designed in accordance with this Practice; PIP VEFV1101,
PIP VEFV1102, and PIP VEFV1103; other standard details in PIP VEFV1100 as
applicable; and PIP VEDV1003. Sections of PIP VECV1001 (e.g., Appendix B Welded Pressure Joint Requirements Form) and PIP VESV1002 (e.g., Appendix A Quality Overview Plan and Appendix B - Manufacturers Data Package) may be used
as needed.

4.2

Code
Materials, design, welding, and fabrication shall be in accordance with the Code,
except as modified herein. Examination, inspection, and testing shall be in
accordance with the requirements of this Practice. The Manufacturer shall be a valid
ASME Code U Symbol stamp holder and shall comply with all aspects of their
Code Quality Control System, except that inspection by the Authorized Inspector and
Code stamping are not required.

4.3

Jurisdictional Compliance
All aspects of the work shall comply with applicable local, county, state, and federal
rules and regulations. This includes, but is not limited to, the rules and standards
established by EPA and OSHA, if applicable.

4.4

Units of Measurement
U.S. customary (English) units shall be regarded as standard; metric (SI) units may
be included for reference only and shall not be interpreted as a precise conversion.

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Process Industry Practices

TECHNICAL REVISION

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

September 2007

4.5

Language
The language of all documents shall either be English or include the English
translation.

4.6

Documentation to be Provided to the Manufacturer


Design requirements to be provided to the Manufacturer shall be in accordance with
PIP VEDV1003.

5.

Design Requirements
Vessels or parts of vessels shall be in accordance with the following requirements. Any
differences between this Practice and laws or regulations issued by regulatory authorities
shall be brought to the attention of Purchaser for review and approval of any necessary
changes or additions.
5.1

Design Criteria
5.1.1

Design Calculations
Low-pressure vessels shall be designed in accordance with the formulas and
allowable stresses in the Code, except that use of standard flanged and dished
heads shall be permitted if the following conditions are met:

5.1.2

The inside crown radius shall not be greater than the OD of the skirt

The inside knuckle radius is not less than three times the head
thickness

The minimum head thickness after forming is computed in


accordance with Code rules

Design Pressure
Vessels shall be designed to withstand the specified internal design pressure
(nameplate pressure rating) plus any additional loadings (e.g., wind and
seismic loadings) at both the maximum and minimum design metal
temperatures. The internal design pressure applies to the top of the vessel in
its operating position and shall be established considering: startup and
startup following an emergency shutdown; normal, temporary, and
emergency operation; and normal and emergency shutdown. The internal
design pressure (e.g., MAWP) shall not exceed 15 psig (100 kPa) at the top
of the vessel (see Section 5.1.4).

5.1.3

Hydrostatic Tests
All provisions of Code Paragraph UG-99 must be met. UG-99(b), including
Footnote 34, shall be considered the standard hydrostatic test. The test
pressure or applicable Code paragraph number shall be specified on the LowPressure Vessel Specification. All vertical vessels shall be designed to be
capable of a field hydrostatic test in the vertical position.

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PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

5.1.4

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

Design Temperature
Vessels shall have both maximum and minimum design metal temperature
ratings. Both of these ratings shall be marked on the vessel nameplate. The
maximum design metal temperature shall be 150F (66C) or higher. The
minimum design metal temperature shall not be warmer than 30F (-1C).
The MAWP at the maximum and minimum design metal temperatures shall
be the same.

5.1.5

Corrosion Allowance
The specified corrosion allowance shall be added to all pressure parts in
contact with the service fluid. Non-pressure internal parts that are welded in
place shall include a corrosion allowance on all wetted surfaces of not less
than 75% of that for pressure parts. Non-pressure internal parts that are
removable shall not require corrosion allowance unless specified in the LowPressure Vessel Specifications or required by the Manufacturers standard
practice.

5.1.6

Compartmented Vessels
Common components of compartmented vessels shall be designed for the
most severe combinations of pressure, vacuum, temperature, and other
loadings that may occur during operation and test conditions. Design on the
basis of simultaneous loading of internal pressure in adjacent compartments
shall not be permitted.

5.1.7

Wind or Earthquake Loads


Vessels shall be self-supporting and designed to resist the specified wind
pressures or seismic loadings. Do not design as if wind and earthquake loads
occur simultaneously. The vessel, vessel supports, and anchor bolting shall
be designed to withstand the greater of the wind or seismic moments when
acting simultaneously with other loadings imposed upon the vessel. Load
combinations shall be in accordance with Section 5.4 of PIP VECV1001.
5.1.7.1 Wind Loads

Design wind loads shall be determined in accordance with design


criteria established by the Purchaser. The basic wind speed, exposure
category, and topographic factor shall be as specified in the LowPressure Vessel Specifications. For ASCE 7 wind load design all
horizontal vessels and for vertical vessels having a height-todiameter ratio (h/D) not greater than 1.0, the force coefficient, Cf,
shall be 0.5. For vertical vessels having h/D greater than 1.0, the
value shall be 0.7. Apply wind load to the total projected area of the
vessel including insulation, ladders, platforms, attached piping, and
other appurtenances.
5.1.7.2 Earthquake Loads

Seismic loads shall be determined in accordance with design criteria


established by the Purchaser.

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TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

5.1.8

5.1.9

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

Minimum Thicknesses
5.1.8.1

Material thicknesses for shells and formed heads, exclusive of


corrosion allowance, shall not be less than 3/16 inch (5 mm) for
high-alloy steel and 1/4 inch (6 mm) for carbon and low-alloy
steels.

5.1.8.2

Nozzle neck thicknesses, including those of manways, shall not be


less than permitted by Paragraph UG-45 of the Code.

Torispherical Heads
To prevent internal pressure-induced buckling of large diameter, thin (ratio
of spherical or crown radius-to-required head thickness greater than 300),
formed (torispherical) heads, a design check of the Code-required thickness
shall be performed. One acceptable method (among several that have been
published) is found in G.D. Galletlys Design Equations for Preventing
Buckling in Fabricated Torispherical Shells Subjected to Internal Pressure
(see Section 2.3). This check may reveal the need for a head thickness greater
than the Code-required minimum thickness.

5.2

Miscellaneous Design Requirements


5.2.1

Vessel Connections
5.2.1.1 Nozzle Connections

External nozzle flanges for nozzle sizes NPS 24 (DN 600) and
smaller shall be in accordance with ASME B16.5. Larger flanges
shall conform to ASME B16.47 Series B. Couplings shall not be less
than Class 6000, smaller than NPS (DN 19), or larger than NPS 2
(DN 50).
5.2.1.2 Lap Joints

Flanged joints for stainless steel and nonferrous components may be


of the lap-joint type with carbon or low-alloy steel flanges. Lap joint
flanges NPS 24 (DN 600) and smaller shall be furnished in strict
accordance with ASME B16.5. Flanges for fabricated laps larger than
NPS 24 (DN 600) shall be in strict accordance with ASME B16.47.
Flanges for aluminum lap-joint stub ends shall be galvanized. The
nominal OD of laps shall correspond to dimensions in ASME B16.9
when used with standard (in accordance with ASME B16.5) flanges.
5.2.2

Nozzles and Manways


5.2.2.1 Projection

For nozzles up to and including NPS 8 (DN 200), the minimum


projection from the outside of the vessel wall to the nozzle face shall
be 8 inches (200 mm). For nozzles larger than NPS 8 (DN 200), the
minimum projection shall be 10 inches (250 mm).
5.2.2.2 Minimum Manway Size

The nominal recommended manway size is NPS 24 (DN 600) with a


finished ID not less than 23 inches (584 mm). Manways shall not be

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PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

smaller than NPS 20 (DN 500) or have a finished ID of less than


19 inches (483 mm). Larger diameter manways shall be used to
satisfy additional needs such as, but not limited to, installation of
internals/catalyst, packing, maintenance requirements, long
projection due to thick insulation, etc.
5.2.3

Vessel Supports
The type of vessel support (skirt, legs, saddles, lugs) shall be as specified in
the Low-Pressure Vessel Specifications (see Section 5.2.4 for anchor
bolting).
5.2.3.1 Design Stresses

Allowable design stresses for all vessel support components shall be


the same as specified in the Code for pressure parts, except as
follows:
Stresses resulting from direct bending in anchor ring base plates shall
not exceed 1.5 times the Code-allowable tensile stress values.
Compressive stresses in anchor ring gussets and other compression
members shall not exceed 1.25 times the Code-allowable tensile
stress values.
5.2.3.2 Skirt Supports

Support skirts for vertical vessels with bottom head having a knuckle
radius < 6% of the head skirt ID shall be continuously welded to the
straight flange (cylindrical portion) of the head with the weld sized
so as to provide for the maximum imposed loadings. The skirt
attachment detail shall be the lapped type (e.g., the skirt is lapped to
the straight flange of the head).
Skirts shall be attached to bottom heads having a knuckle radius
> 6% of the head skirt ID by a continuous weld sized so as to provide
for the maximum imposed loadings. The preferred skirt attachment
detail shall be butt type (skirt butted to knuckle portion of head such
that the centerlines of the skirt plate and the head flange are the same
nominal diameter or such that the outside diameters of the shell and
skirt coincide). A lapped-type skirt design (skirt lapped to straight
flange of head) may also be used.
See PIP VEFV1128 for some illustrative weld attachment details and
associated minimum weld sizes.
All butt weld joints within the skirt shall be Type No. 1 of Code
Table UW-12. Alignment tolerance at plate edges to be butt-welded
shall be in accordance with Code Paragraph UW-33. The type of
skirt attachment detail, the style of anchor ring assembly (e.g., single
ring with gussets, single ring with chairs, double ring with gussets,
etc.), and the type/degree of nondestructive examination of the skirt
assembly welds shall be a matter of agreement between the User and
the Designer.

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Process Industry Practices

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

5.2.3.2.1

Access Openings - Skirt diameter permitting, one or


more openings 24 inches (600 mm) in diameter or
larger shall be provided to allow free access for
inspection and/or maintenance work inside the skirt.
Other opening geometries are acceptable and are a
matter of agreement between the User and the
Designer.

5.2.3.2.2

Vent Openings - Provision shall be made for venting


of the skirt with a minimum of two, 2-inch (50 mm)
openings, located near the top of the skirt, but below
the head insulation or fireproofing.

5.2.3.2.3

Reinforcement of Skirt Openings - All skirt


openings shall be provided with rings or collars,
sized to provide 100% reinforcement of the opening.

5.2.3.3 Leg Supports

Leg supports shall be limited to vessels that meet the following


conditions:
1. Design temperature does not exceed 450F (232C)
2. Service is noncyclic and nonpulsating (see Note 1)
3. Vessel h/D does not exceed 5 (see Note 2), where height, h,
is defined as the distance from the base of the supports to the
top tangent line of the vessel. The diameter, D, is defined as
the outside diameter of the vessel, exclusive of any
insulation that may be present.
Note 1: Vessels having agitators experience transient
transverse forces due to dynamic bending moments from
the agitator and sloshing of the liquid. Therefore, design
of leg-supported vessels with agitators requires the
application of experience-based engineering judgment to
ensure that displacement stiffness and stress levels
essential to satisfactory operation are provided.
Note 2: Caution is advised for leg-supported vessels
where h/D 5 but could have excessive axial and/or
bending loads on the legs or an overstress condition in
the vessel wall at the points of attachment.
5.2.3.4 Saddle Supports

Vessels that will be horizontally installed shall be mounted on two


saddle-type supports. Supports shall extend over at least one-third
(120 degrees) of the circumference of the vessel shell. Wear plates
shall be provided with radiused corners and shall be welded to the
shell with a continuous fillet weld (see Section 8.15). Wear plates
shall be provided with two telltale holes. The holes shall be plugged
with a Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV) silicone sealant. The

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PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

bottom of the supports shall extend at least 1 inch below nozzles or


other projecting vessel components.

5.2.4

5.2.3.4.1

Slide Plates - One of the two saddles shall be


designated as the fixed saddle with holes provided to
receive the anchor bolts. The other saddle shall be
designated as the sliding saddle and slotted holes of
sufficient length to permit the maximum anticipated
expansion or contraction shall be provided. Slide plates
shall be furnished by Purchaser under all sliding
saddles. See PIP VEFV1105 and PIP VEFV1106 for
examples of standard saddle details that may be used.

5.2.3.4.2

Saddle Design - The effect of the saddles on the shell


shall be analyzed using the method developed by L. P.
Zick in Stresses in Large Cylindrical Pressure Vessels
on Two Saddle Supports (see Section 2.3).

Anchor Bolting
5.2.4.1 Design Stresses

Anchor bolts shall not be smaller than 3/4 inch (19 mm). Allowable
design tensile stresses for carbon steel anchor bolts, as calculated
using the tensile stress area of the threaded portion, shall be
20000 psi (138 MPa).
5.2.4.2 Spacing and Location

Anchor bolts for vertical vessels shall be selected in multiples of four


bolts and shall straddle the natural centerlines of the vessel.
Orientation shall be furnished by Purchaser.
5.2.4.3 Supplier

Anchor bolting will be furnished and installed by others. Anchor


bolts shall be hot-dipped galvanized.
5.2.5

Lifting Lugs
5.2.5.1 Vessel Lifting Lugs

Vertical vessels shall be furnished with lifting lugs designed to


permit erecting the vessel from a horizontal position. A minimum
impact factor of 2 shall be applied to the design lift weight. Where
two ear-type lugs are spaced 180 degrees apart and welded to the
straight flange portion of the top head and shell, the weld across the
bottom of the lug shall be omitted to allow drainage. The crevice
between the lug and the top head dish surface shall be sealed by a
bead of RTV silicone sealant after painting. Another common type is
a single lug welded to a blind flange that is bolted to the nozzle in the
center of the top head.
5.2.5.2 Lugs for Removable Covers

Removable vessel covers and manway covers shall be provided with


suitable lifting lugs (see PIP VEFV1117 and PIP VEFV1118).

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TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

5.2.6

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

Vessels with Agitators


When an agitator is mounted on a nozzle (or studding outlet), in a formed
head, the head thickness based on Code formulas for pressure loadings and
static local loadings analysis is often not sufficient to provide the rigidity and
stress levels acceptable for the dynamic loadings that will be applied. The
agitator manufacturer shall be consulted regarding the recommended
minimum head thickness and nozzle attachment details for the agitator
installation under consideration.

6.

Working Drawings and Calculations


6.1

Information Required
Manufacturer shall provide certified fabrication drawings for all low-pressure, shopfabricated vessels. Drawings shall be complete and shall include all relevant design,
materials, fabrication, examination, inspection, and testing requirements. All welds
shall be either detailed or identified by the standard welding symbols of ANSI/AWS
A2.4. In addition, drawings shall include the following information:
1. Purchasers item number, purchase order number, and shop order number
2. Reference to all applicable PIP, Manufacturer, and other specifications and
standards. When reference is made to Manufacturers own standards, copies of
such standards shall be included with the drawings.
3. Facsimiles of Manufacturers nameplates as stamped by the Manufacturer
4. Design specific gravity, maximum liquid level, and other operating loads
5. Corrosion allowance (Specify as none when applicable.)
6. Service-specific requirements
7. Hydrostatic test pressure (see Section 5.1.3). Show the hydrostatic test pressure
in both the operating position and the shop test position, if different.
a. Horizontal position (referenced to top of vessel)
b. Vertical position (for vertical vessels only, referenced to top of vessel).
This may be a shop test or a future test in the operating position.
8. Estimated weight of vessel when empty, maximum operating, and full of water
9. Capacity of vessels or each compartment
10. Surface preparation and painting or other protective coating specifications
11. Designations for nozzles, manways, and skirt openings. These designations shall
be the same as those shown on Purchasers drawings. For nozzles located normal
to a cylindrical shell, the vessel assembly drawings shall include dimensions
from the centerline (axis) of the shell to the nozzle faces.

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PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

6.2

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

Special Notes
Manufacturers drawings shall also include the following notes as applicable:
1. All vessels - Chlorides or substances that contain chlorine that will decompose
to form chlorides (e.g., coatings to prevent adhesion of weld spatter) shall not be
applied to any part of the vessel.
2. Stainless steel or nickel-alloy vessels - Zinc-coated (galvanized or painted)
components shall not be in contact (welded, bolted, or loose) with any alloy parts
of the vessel.
3. Nickel or nickel-alloy vessels - Substances containing sulfur (e.g., lubricants to
aid machining) shall not be applied to alloy parts of the vessel.
4. All PWHT vessels shall have the following notice painted on two sides of the
shell and insulation covering, if present, in 3-inch (75 mm) high letters visible in
the shipping position from grade:
POSTWELD HEAT TREATED - DO NOT BURN OR WELD
5. All vessels with nonmetallic linings shall have the following notice painted on
two sides of the shell and insulation covering, if present, in 3-inch (75 mm) high
letters visible in the shipping position from grade:
LINED VESSEL - DO NOT BURN OR WELD

6.3

Purchaser Review
Manufacturers drawings shall be reviewed by Purchaser prior to the start of
fabrication unless a release to proceed is obtained from Purchaser in writing.

6.4

Calculations
Calculations are required for each vessel in sufficient detail to demonstrate
compliance with the requirements of this Practice and the referenced documents.

7.

Materials
7.1

Code Materials Required


Materials for pressure parts, vessel supports, and other nonpressure parts welded to
pressure parts shall be materials allowed by the Code (see Code Foreword).
7.1.1

Impact Test Exemptions


Impact test exemptions for carbon and low-alloy steels shall be established in
accordance with Code requirements. Attachments welded to the pressurecontaining components shall be treated as being essential to the structural
integrity of the vessel.

7.1.2

Pressure Bolting
Bolting materials for pressure-resisting flanged joints shall be SA-193 Grade
B7 bolts with SA-194 Grade 2 or 2H heavy hex nuts. When stainless steel
bolting is required, SA-193 Grade B8, Class 2 bolts with SA-194 Grade 8 or
8A heavy hex nuts shall be used.

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Process Industry Practices

TECHNICAL REVISION

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

September 2007

7.2

Unspecified Materials
Materials not completely defined in the Low-Pressure Vessel Specifications shall
conform to the requirements of Section 7.1.

7.3

Flange Gaskets
Gaskets, except metal gaskets made integral by welding and nonmetallic (e.g.,
flexible graphite) tape gaskets with abutting ends suitably joined, shall be seamless.
Manufacturer shall provide a means for positioning (centering) the gasket during
joint make-up. No joint sealing compound or lubricant shall be used unless specified
by Purchaser. A light dusting of 3M 77 or equal spray adhesive may be used if
required to hold the gasket in place during assembly.
7.3.1

Service Gaskets
When service gaskets are designated to be furnished by the Manufacturer
(e.g., for manways and blind flanged nozzles), the gaskets shall be as
specified in the Low Pressure Vessel Specifications. When gaskets are cut
from sheet stock they shall be 1/16 inch (1.5 mm) thick minimum.

7.3.2

Test Gaskets
Any flanged joint for which the service gasket is to be furnished by the
Manufacturer and which will not be disassembled after testing shall be tested
with the specified service gasket (see Section 7.3.1). If the joint is to be
disassembled after testing and employs flanges in accordance with ASME
B16.5 or B16.47, the test gasket may be selected by the Manufacturer subject
to the approval of the Purchaser and the limitations in Section 7.3.2.1. If the
joint is to be disassembled after testing, employs non-standard flanges (e.g.,
not in accordance with ASME B16.5 or B16.47), and the service gasket is not
specified, the test gasket shall be approved by Purchaser.
7.3.2.1 Limitations

Test gaskets shall be the same type as the service gaskets. In no case
shall the nominal thickness of sheet or laminate gasketing be greater
than 1/8 inch (3 mm).
7.3.2.2 Flanged Joints Disassembled After Testing

Flanged joints specified to be furnished with service gaskets (e.g.,


manways and blind flanged nozzles) and disassembled following
tests shall be reassembled using new service gaskets. If such joints
are shipped unassembled, new service gaskets for field installation
shall be suitably packaged, marked, and shipped with the vessel.
7.4

Solution Anneal
When specified in the Low-Pressure Vessel Specifications, all formed heads
fabricated from austenitic (types 304 and 316 only, including low-carbon and
stabilized grades) or duplex stainless steel shall be solution annealed after forming in
accordance with ASME SA-480.

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PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

8.

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

Fabrication Details
8.1

Weld Metal
Deposited weld metal shall be essentially of the same mechanical, chemical, and
toughness properties as the material joined.

8.2

Butt Joints Required


Welded joints of Code Categories A, B, and butt-type Category C (when used) shall
be Type No. 1 of Code Table UW-12. Butt welds with one plate edge offset [Code
Figure UW-13.1(k)] and permanent weld-joint backing strips shall not be permitted.

8.3

Nozzle Attachment Welds


Attachment welds connecting nozzles (including manways, couplings, sight glasses,
and studding outlets) to the vessel wall shall be full penetration welds extending
through the entire thickness of the vessel wall and through the inside edge of
reinforcing plates (when used). Nozzles designated to extend beyond the inside
surface of the vessel wall shall have a fillet weld at the inside corner.

8.4

Nozzle Location
Plate layouts shall be arranged so that, to the maximum extent possible, longitudinal
and circumferential weld seams clear all nozzles, manways, and their reinforcing
pads by 2 inches (50 mm) minimum, measured from weld edge to weld edge.

8.5

Nozzles for Safety Relief and Drainage


Nozzles intended for use with a safety relief device or as vessel drains shall be
trimmed flush inside the vessel wall.

8.6

Flange Drilling
Bolt holes in all fixed flanges and studding outlets shall straddle the natural
centerlines. For nozzles in heads, the bolt holes shall straddle centerlines parallel to
or coincident with the natural vessel centerlines. Bolt holes in flanges shall be
1/8 inch (3 mm) larger than the diameter of the bolts.

8.7

Seams in Formed Heads


Seamless formed heads are recommended. As a minimum, weld seams in formed
heads shall be radiographed in accordance with Code Paragraph UW-51 in the
straight flange, knuckle region, and 2 inches (50 mm) into the spherical portion
regardless of the joint efficiency used.

8.8

Intermediate Head Weld


For compartmented vessels having an intermediate formed head, the end of the
intermediate head skirt shall be seal-welded to the shell of the compartment
(see Code Figure UW-13.1(f)).

8.9

Grounding Clip
Provide each vessel with a grounding clip in accordance with PIP VEFV1103.

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Process Industry Practices

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

8.10

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

Gasket Contact Surfaces


All gasket seating surfaces shall be plane and true. If necessary, shop-fabricated
flanges and lap rings shall be machined after welding, heat treatment, or other
fabrication steps that can result in warpage or distortion from a plane and true
surface. Surface finish shall have 125 - 250 microinch (3.2-6.4 micrometers) Ra
roughness as defined in ASME B46.1 with spiral or concentric circular serrations.
Surface finish for flanges in accordance with ASME B16.5 and ASME B16.47 shall be
in accordance with the applicable ASME standard.

8.11

Tolerances
Dimensional tolerances shall apply to the completed vessel after final pressure test
and shall conform to PIP VEFV1102.

8.12

Welds
All welds, including those attaching non-pressure parts to pressure parts, shall be
made by welders (or welding operators) and welding procedures both qualified under
the provisions of Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
Approval shall be obtained from Purchaser before any welding or preparation for
welding is subcontracted to another shop or supplier. Such approval shall require
knowledge by Purchaser of the qualifications of the subcontractor performing the
work. The Manufacturer retains accountability for the subcontracted fabrication
work.

8.13

Welding and Grinding Restrictions


Welding on pressure resisting components and grinding (including cosmetic
grinding) on pressure-resisting welds shall not be permitted after pressure testing
unless approved in writing by Purchaser.

8.14

Welded Pressure Joints that will be Inaccessible after Assembly


Finished surfaces of welded pressure joints that will be inaccessible after assembly
(e.g., those surfaces between lap joint flanges and associated nozzle necks, shells and
lap-ring, or lap joint stub end attachment welds) shall be examined using either the
magnetic particle or the liquid penetrant method in accordance with Appendix 6 or
Appendix 8, respectively, of the Code. Required repairs shall be completed prior to
painting.

8.15

Clearance of Shell Seams


The minimum distance from the toe of fillet welds that attach saddle supports or wear
plates to the centerline of either a longitudinal or circumferential shell seam shall be

Rt where R = shell inside radius in inches (mm) and t = shell thickness (in inches
(mm), exclusive of corrosion allowance).
8.16

Radiographic Examination
Radiographic examination of butt-welded seams is not required except as specified in
Section 8.7.

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PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

8.17

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

Postweld Heat Treatment


8.17.1 Alternative PWHT requirements of Code Table UCS-56.1 for carbon and
low-alloy steels shall not be employed.
8.17.2 The equipment shall be adequately supported during PWHT to avoid
distortion.
8.17.3 If any high nickel alloy equipment must be PWHT, the atmosphere shall be
free of sulphur.

9.

Hydrostatic Testing
9.1

Vessels shall not be painted or shot peened prior to the hydrostatic test except as
specified in Section 12.2.

9.2

Vertically-Mounted Vessels
Vertical vessels shall be tested in their operating position if practicable. If a vertical
vessel is shop-tested in the horizontal position, Manufacturer shall be responsible for
determining the need for and providing any temporary supports to prevent distortion
or other damage to the vessel during the test.

9.3

Horizontally-Mounted Vessels
Horizontal vessels shall be tested on their operating supports without additional
temporary supports or shoring. All supporting lugs, rings, saddles, legs, and other
permanently attached supports shall be attached to the vessel before the test.

9.4

Compartmented Vessels
For vessels that consist of two or more compartments, each compartment shall be
given a separate and individual test with atmospheric pressure in the adjacent
compartments.

9.5

Water Quality
Testing of vessels shall be conducted with test water that is clean and free of debris.
Brackish or untreated water shall not be used.
Potable water as delivered through municipal systems is acceptable for carbon or
chrome steel vessels or components.
For vessels or components made of austenitic stainless steel materials, testing water
shall contain no more than 50 ppm chloride. Water containing more than 50 ppm
chloride, but no more than 250 ppm, may be used only if the test procedure is 72
hours or less in duration and includes rinsing with water containing less than 50 ppm
chloride.

9.6

Holding Time
Test pressure shall be maintained for a minimum of one hour. Following the
application of the hydrostatic test pressure, an inspection shall be made of all joints
and connections. This inspection shall be made at a pressure not less than two-thirds
of the test pressure.

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Process Industry Practices

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

9.7

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

Metal Temperature
For the entire duration of the test, vessel metal temperature shall not be colder than
the Minimum Design Metal Temperature plus 30 F (17C) (MDMT + 30 F (17C))
(see Section 5.1.4).

9.8

Flange Assembly for Test


The Manufacturer shall furnish all blind flanges, gaskets, and bolting (or other types
of blanking covers) necessary for testing. For connections not specified to be
furnished with blind flanges, the blind flanges and bolting (or other type covers) may
be removed after testing and remain the property of the Manufacturer (see Section
12.3.2 for shipping covers). All flange bolting procedures shall be in accordance with
ASME PCC-1.

9.9

Retesting Repaired Vessels


Repairs to eliminate leaks revealed during pressure testing shall be tested by
reapplying the original pressure test(s).

9.10

Disassembly of Flanged Joints after Testing


If practicable, body flanges, manways, and nozzles specified to be furnished with
blind flanges shall be left undisturbed and assembled after testing. If disassembly is
necessary for shipping, draining, or other purposes, new gaskets shall be furnished as
specified in Section 7.3.2.2.

10.

Manufacturers Nameplates
Each vessel shall be furnished with the Manufacturers nameplate made of austenitic stainless
steel and attached by an austenitic stainless steel nameplate bracket in accordance with
PIP VEFV1101. The nameplate shall include:

MAWP and associated Maximum Allowable Working Temperature (MAWT)

Design external pressure and associated temperature

MDMT at the MAWP

Purchasers vessel identification

Manufacturers name

Manufacturers serial number

Year built

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Page 19 of 21

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

11.

TECHNICAL REVISION
September 2007

Required Information
11.1

Reports
The Manufacturer shall furnish Purchaser with:

11.2

Material test reports or certificates of compliance in accordance with Code


requirements

Heat treatment charts (time/temperature record)

Hydrostatic test report or record

Drawings and Calculations


Copies of certified drawings, calculations, and other pertinent data required by this
Practice and the referenced documents shall be submitted to Purchaser (see
Section 6).

12.

Cleaning, Painting, and Shipping Protection


12.1

Drying and Cleaning


Immediately after completion of the hydrostatic test, the vessel interior shall be
completely drained, thoroughly dried, and cleaned of foreign matter.

12.2

Painting
12.2.1 All required coatings shall be as specified in the Low-Pressure Vessel
Specifications. Only surfaces that are required by the Low-Pressure Vessel
Specification to be painted and that will be inaccessible after assembly
(e.g., mating surfaces between lap-joint flanges and associated nozzle necks,
shells, lap rings or stub ends; bolt holes; and welded joints) shall be painted
prior to assembly and hydrostatic testing (see Section 8.14). Otherwise, all
painting shall be performed after hydrostatic tests (see Section 9.1).
12.2.2 All PWHT vessels shall have the following notice painted on two sides of the
shell and insulation covering, if present, in 3-inch (75 mm) high letters
visible in the shipping position from grade:
POSTWELD HEAT TREATED - DO NOT BURN OR WELD
12.2.3 All vessels with nonmetallic linings shall have the following notice painted
on two sides of the shell and insulation covering, if present, in 3-inch
(75 mm) high letters visible in the shipping position from grade:
LINED VESSEL - DO NOT BURN OR WELD

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TECHNICAL REVISION

PIP VESLP001
Specification for Low-Pressure, Welded, Shop-Fabricated Vessels

September 2007

12.3

Protection of Machined Surfaces


12.3.1 All gasket seating, threaded, or other machined surfaces shall be protected
for shipment as follows:
12.3.1.1 Assembled Joints

Body joints, manways, blind-flanged nozzles, plugged couplings,


and other connections specified to be furnished with service covers
shall be shipped assembled if practicable (see Section 7.3.2.2).
12.3.1.2 Exposed Surfaces

For carbon and low-alloy steels, all exposed machined or threaded


surfaces shall be cleaned with solvent and coated with temporary
rust preventive grease. The following products are acceptable:
Ashland Oil-Tectyl 858C, Sanchem No-Ox-Id-A, Exxon-Beacon
325, Houghton-Rust Veto Heavy. Other equivalent products are
acceptable. Shipping covers shall be furnished in accordance with
Section 12.3.2.
12.3.2 All flange faces other than those furnished with permanent blinds shall be
covered with 1/2 inch (13 mm) thick wood or 1/8 inch (3 mm) thick steel
plate no smaller than the flange OD. These covers shall be secured with a
minimum 25% complement of evenly spaced carbon steel bolts, but no fewer
than four. All flange faces furnished with permanent blinds or metal covers
shall have full face non-asbestos gasket installed between the flange face and
the metal cover.
12.3.3 Welding stub ends shall be provided with bevel protectors.
12.4

Welded Attachments
Welding of attachments to vessels for shipping purposes shall not be permitted
(see Section 8.13).

12.5

Loading for Shipment


The Manufacturer shall take all necessary precautions in loading, blocking, and
bracing the vessel to prevent damage during shipment.

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