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7 Basic QC

Tools

This paper provides a high-level overview of the 7 Basic


QC Tools . These tools are applicable in Manufacturing as
well as Service industries. Knowledge of these tools is
mandatory for every working professional.

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7 Basic QC Tools
There are many ways to improve
processes. The use of 7 Basic
Quality Control Tools is the first

step towards successful process


improvements.

A Snapshot 7 Basic QC Tools


Cause & Effect Diagram
It is also known as Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram. It is a tool used for root-cause
analysis.

Check Sheet
Check Sheet can be used for various purposes. You can collect data, create a checklist for
others to follow, and much more.

Control Charts
Developed by Walter Shewhart. They depict health of any process/metric. They help
indicate any process changes over time.

Histogram
It is also known as a Frequency Plot. The difference between Histogram & Bar Graph is
that the Histogram plots frequency. Widely used graph.

Pareto Charts
Based on 80:20 rule, Pareto charts are best used to identify 20% causes that have an
impact on 80% problems.

Scatter Diagram
Displays the extent of correlation between two variables. Is used only for numerical data.
Effective tool to understand relationships between variables.

Stratification
Displays various patterns of the given data set such as clusters, mixtures, oscillations or
trends. Run charts are widely used to stratify data

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7 Basic QC Tools
The first of the 7 QC tools is Cause and Effect Diagram.

1. Cause and Effect Diagram


Cause and Effect Diagram is also known as Ishikawa Diagram and Fishbone
Diagram. It was developed by Kaoru Ishikawa in 1968.
Used for identification of rootcauses
Key problem is represented as eye
of the fish
Root-causes are represented as
bones and sub-bones of the fish
Mostly represented as 5Ms and
1P
5Ms Man, Machine, Material,
Method, Mother Nature
1P People
Easy Steps to perform Cause and Effect Diagram:
Conduct a brainstorming session with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) for the
required problem at hand
Document all the root-causes
Classify the root-causes in either of these categories 5Ms and 1P
Draw the cause and effect diagram as depicted in the picture above
Key Features of Tool Usage:
Very Difficult

Ease of Use?

Requires Team Work?

Is applicable in which phase of DMAIC?

Moderate

No
Define

Measure

Very Easy

10

Yes
Analyze

Improve

Requires Effective Facilitation Skills?

No

Yes

Requires Data to be collated?

No

Yes

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Control

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7 Basic QC Tools
Check Sheets a simple yet best tool for real-time data collation

2. Check Sheets
Check Sheets is one of the most simple tool that helps us standardize
activities. It can be used in any process and can be easily customized for use.
Used for real time data collection
A check sheet has marks as
described in the figure
The marks are divided in separate
groups
Mostly used to identify defects in
a process
Also used to standardize activities
and as a reminder tool for
effective planning

Easy Steps to use Check Sheets:

Identify the process where Check Sheet is required


Define the parameters which requires data collation
Document parameters and provide space for capturing required marks
Use the checksheet

Key Features of Tool Usage:


Very Difficult

Ease of Use?

Requires Team Work?

Is applicable in which phase of DMAIC?

Moderate

No
Define

Measure

Very Easy

10

Yes
Analyze

Improve

Requires Effective Facilitation Skills?

No

Yes

Requires Data to be collated?

No

Yes

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Control

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7 Basic QC Tools
Control Charts are also called as Statistical Process Control (SPC)

3. Control Charts
Control Charts were developed by Walter A. Shewhart in 1920s. It helps us
understand whether the process is in statistical control.
Used to track the performance of
the metric in focus (Y)
UCL and LCL are +/- 3 away
from the mean
When points fall outside control
limits, process is not considered in
statistical control
Concepts of common cause and
special cause variation are used
Different control charts are used
for different types of data
Easy Steps to create Control Charts:
Collate data and decide the frequency of updating Control Chart
Identify data type and decide which control chart to be used (p, u, c, np, X-R,
X-S, I-MR charts)
Draw the control chart and infer results per the desired frequency

Key Features of Tool Usage:


Very Difficult

Ease of Use?

Requires Team Work?

Is applicable in which phase of DMAIC?

Moderate

No
Define

Measure

Very Easy

10

Yes
Analyze

Improve

Requires Effective Facilitation Skills?

No

Yes

Requires Data to be collated?

No

Yes

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Control

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7 Basic QC Tools
Probability Distributions cant exist without Histograms

4. Histogram
Histogram is also known as Frequency Plot. It was first developed by Karl
Pearson.
Used to identify the probability
distribution of continuous data
Can only be used for continuous
data
Resembles bar chart bar chart is
created from count data
histogram
is
create
from
frequency
Histogram
requires
limited
statistical knowledge

Easy Steps to create Histogram:


Collate numerical data
Divide the data into classes (bins) and identify frequencies of
Draw the control chart and infer results per the desired frequency

Key Features of Tool Usage:


Very Difficult

Ease of Use?

Requires Team Work?

Is applicable in which phase of DMAIC?

Moderate

No
Define

Measure

Very Easy

10

Yes
Analyze

Improve

Requires Effective Facilitation Skills?

No

Yes

Requires Data to be collated?

No

Yes

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Control

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7 Basic QC Tools
Pareto Charts best tool for effective root cause identification

5. Pareto Charts
Pareto Charts were developed by Vilfredo Pareto. They are based on 80:20
rule where 80% causes are due to 20% problems.
Helps identify and quantify top
root-causes from trivial many
Is used for discrete data
Requires data collation (defects,
errors, count data, etc)
Easy to understand graphical
representation allows users to
easily infer results
Helps in immediate notification of
the results

Easy Steps to create Pareto Charts:


Collate attribute data
Identify percentage contribution of each parameter
Draw bar chart and add percentage contribution as line chart (secondary
axis) ensure that data is arranged in descending order of defects

Key Features of Tool Usage:


Very Difficult

Ease of Use?

Requires Team Work?

Is applicable in which phase of DMAIC?

Moderate

No
Define

Measure

Very Easy

10

Yes
Analyze

Improve

Requires Effective Facilitation Skills?

No

Yes

Requires Data to be collated?

No

Yes

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Control

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7 Basic QC Tools
Scatter Diagram is an important tool to understand relationship between data sets.

6. Scatter Diagram
Scatter Diagram or Scatterplots were developed by Francis Galton to identify
the relationship between two continuous variables.
Helps understand the extent of
relationship
between
two
variables
Is used for continuous data only
Requires data collation (for both X
and Y variables)
Easy to understand graphical
representation allows users to
easily infer results
Data can be positively or
negatively
correlated.
No
correlation also exists
Easy Steps to create Scatter Plots:
Collate variable/continuous data for both X and Y variables
Draw scatter chart
Infer results

Key Features of Tool Usage:


Very Difficult

Ease of Use?

Requires Team Work?

Is applicable in which phase of DMAIC?

Moderate

No
Define

Measure

Very Easy

10

Yes
Analyze

Improve

Requires Effective Facilitation Skills?

No

Yes

Requires Data to be collated?

No

Yes

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Control

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7 Basic QC Tools
The last of 7 QC tools is Stratification.

7. Stratification
Stratification is bifurcation of data into meaningful groups. Most widely used
stratification tool is run chart.
Helps understand whether data is
stable?
Is used for continuous data only
Identifies if data has clusters,
mixtures, trends or oscillations
Resembles to a line chart
Data is collected and plotted over
time (time scale is used as X-axis)
Centre line is always the
median of the data set

Easy Steps to create Run Chart:


Collate variable/continuous data for the desired metric
Draw Run Chart
Infer results

Key Features of Tool Usage:


Very Difficult

Ease of Use?

Requires Team Work?

Is applicable in which phase of DMAIC?

Moderate

No
Define

Measure

Very Easy

10

Yes
Analyze

Improve

Requires Effective Facilitation Skills?

No

Yes

Requires Data to be collated?

No

Yes

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Control

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