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.4

Misra & Burrill

QBASE Radiologys3

Passing the Fellowship of the Royal College of Radiologists Part 1


examination is a pre-requisite for any doctor who wants a career in
radiology. The Part 1 examines candidates knowledge on both the physics

of medical imaging and the principles of radiation protection. This book


provides a series of multiple choice questions, structured in a format
similar to the examination, in order to evaluate candidates knowledge
on all the aspects that are required for Part 1. The radiation protection
questions are up to date with the current lR(ME)R 2000 regulations.
Detailed answers, with additional information are provided, along with
references, for each question.
The text is accompanied by a free CD-ROM containing the powerful
and easy-to-use QBase interactive MCQ examination package. This allows
the user to sit the pre-set exams as printed in the book, or to create their
own exams using questions drawn from the total pool available on
the CD-ROM. The program can either generate these exams randomly,
maintaining the same proportions of each subject as the 'pre-set exams

(and the real examinations themselves), or the user can select any number
of questions in any subject area to create their very own customised exam
to suit their examination practice and the length of time available for
each revision session. However the user chooses to set an exam, they can
then mark, analyse and store each attempt, review and re-sit the same

exam at a later date and compare their scores with previous attempts.
When re-sitting an exam, the user can also choose to shuffle the question
leaves AE, making it impossible simply to remember patterns of true
and false answers. A final, unique aspect of the program is that it allows the
user to select how confident they are of their answer, and the program
can then provide feedback on an individual user's guessing strategy.
A brand new feature of this title is that the MCQs are also supplied for

use on the Palm (TM) hand-held PDA, allowing the user to practise their
MCQs in the ward, in the common room, or even on the bus! This gives a
whole new level of flexibility to the acclaimed QBase software.

RAKESH MISRA is Consultant Radiologist at Wycombe Hospital.


JOSHUA BURRILL is Specialist Registrar in Radiology at Central Middlesex

Hospital.

\
1

QBASE RADIOLOGY 3
MCQs FORTHE PART 1 FRCR
Rakesh Misra, B.Sc. (Hons.), F.R.C.S., F.R.C.R
Consultant Radiologist
l/l/ycombe Hospital
Bucklnghamshire Hospitals NHS Trust

Joshua Burrill B.Eng., M.B., B.S., M.R.C.S.

Specialist Registrar in Radiology


Central Middlesex Hospital
North Thames Radiology Rotation

QBase developed by
Edward Hammond

CAMBRIDGE

;:;UNIVERSITY PRESS

_,_

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY r-nrss
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 ZRU, UK
Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York
www.cambridge.org
A
information on this title: www.cambridge.orgI97BD521573839
R. Misra and J. Burrill 2006

'

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception

and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,

no reproduction of any part may take place without


the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published Z006

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge


A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

'

ISBN-l3: 978-0-521-67383-9 paperback


ISBN-10: 0-521-67333-6 paperback
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for
external or ffiird-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not
guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

Every effort has been" made in preparing this publication to provide accurate and up-todate
information which is In accord with accepted standards and practice at the time of publication.

Although case histories are drawn from actual cases, every effort has been made to disguise the
identities of the individuals involved. Nevertheless, the authors, editors and publishers can make
no warranties that the information contained herein is totally free from error, not least because
clinical standards are constantly changing through research and regulation. The authors, editors
and publishers therefore disclaim all liability for direct or consequential damages resulting from
the use of material contained in this publication. Readers are strongly advised to pay careful

attention to information provided by the manufacturer of any drugs or equipment that they
plan to use.
All material contained within the CD-ROM is protected by copyright and other intellectual

property laws. The customer acquires only the right to use the CD-ROM and does not acquire
any other rights, express or implied, unless these are stated explicitly in a separate licence.
To the extent permitted by applicable law, Cambridge University Press is not liable for direct
damages or loss of any kind resulting from the use of this product or from errors or faults

contained in it, and in every case Cambridge University Press's liability shall be limited to the
amount actually paid by the customer for the product.

\
\

Contents
Preface..'............................ .............................................. ..

vii

installation instructions ..................................... _.


Note for Users ......................................................................... ..
List of Abbreviations .... ..:..................................................................... ..

viii
xiii
xv

Exam 1 ....................................................................... ..
Answers

Exam 2

......................................... ..

.3

...................................................... ..

20

Answers . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .. . . . . . . . ..
Exam 3 ....
............................................................ ..
Answers . .... .. . .. ... . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .
. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ..

28
35
43

Exam 4 ....................................... ..
.
...................................... ..
Answers . . .. .. . . . . ...... . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Exam_5 ....................................................................... ..

50
58
65

Answers

73'

........................................... ..

Exam 6 ................................................... ..
Answers
.................................... ..
Exam 7
....................................... ..

80
89
- 96

Answers

............. ..

104

iixam 8
Answers

.. . . ... .. . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . .... . . .. ... . . . .


. . .. .. . . . .. . . ..
............................................................ ..

110
1 18

Exam 9 ............................................................................ ..

125

Answers ............ ........................................................ ..

133

Exam 10 ......................................................................
Answers .................................................................................................

140 _
148

i.i_-.-.,,i_ZZ-A-___.__..__.. ..__.-_. _ __._.- _-....s._...__._...r...___f_.___... _._-._....__ _-._.._. ~._.- __..

.->-._V

Q
__

1
\

Preface

The first FRCR examination "expects candidates to have gained a


knowledge of radiation physics, to understand the principles of diagnostic
X-ray and radionuclide equipment and the various UK legislation affecting
the use of ionising radiations in the medical environment.
No minimum period of clinical experience or clinical radiology training
needs to have been completed in order to enter the examination nor is
confirmation of course attendance required. (www.rci:ac.uk)
The Part1 examination comprises a single paper of 25 multiple-choice

questions, of 1% hours in duration. QBase Radiology 3 provides 10


sample MCQ papers based on this new exam format, complete with
annotated and referenced answers. QBase Radiology 3 aims to allow a
candidate to practice and perfect their examination technique prior to.
sitting the Part 1 examination. it is aimed at first year radiology registrars
and doctors keen to obtain numbers in radiology, where having the Part
1 FRCR is definitely an advantage when it comes to short-listing and
interviews. . _
This new version of QBase includes up-to-date questions on radiation
protection, with particular reference to the ionising Radiations Regulations
1999 and ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000.

RRM was lead author on the previously successful self-assessment books,


QBase Radiology 1 and QBase Radiology 2. QBase Radiology 3 is
ideally suited to the new exam format and adds a new innovative Palm~

05*" software-based testing program to allow self-assessment on the


move. JB found the previous versions of QBase, with their testing
programs, very helpful in the latter stages of his revision. The authors
hope that you too will find the experience rewarding.

R.R.M.
1.8.
July, 2005

54

'

re .

rt
,_ .

INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS (CD-ROM VERSION)

QBase Radiology on CD-ROM


IVIINIIVIUIVI SYSTEIVI REQUIREMENTS

'

I An IBM compatible PC with a 80386 processor and 4MB of RAM


I VGA monitor set up to display at least 256 colours
n CD-ROM drive
I Windows 95 or higher with Microsoft compatible mouse
NB: The display setting of your computer must be set to display "SMALL

i
.

FONTS" (see MS Windows manuals for further instructions on how to do


this if necessary)
INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS

The program will install the appropriate files onto your hard drive. it
requires the QBase CD-ROM to be in installed in the CD-ROM drive
(usually drives D: or E:).
A
In order to run QBase, the CD must be in the drive
Print Readme.txt and HeIpfiIe.txt on the CD-ROM for fuller
instructions_and user manual
WINDOWS 95, 98, 2000, XP

1. insert the QBase CD-ROM into the drive

2. From the Start Menu, select the Run... option, type D:\$eI:up.eXe
(where D: is the CD.ROM drive) and press OK or OR open the
contents of the CD-ROIM and double-click the setup.exe icon

3. Follow the "Full install all files" to accept the default directory for
installation of QBase

4. Click Yes to the prompt "Do you want setup to create Program

Manager groups?" if you have a previously installed version of


.QBase, click Yes to the next prompt "Shoulcl_ the new Program

Manager groups replace existing duplicate groups?"


5. To run QBase, go to the Start Menu, then Programs, QBase and
QBase Exam. From Windows Explorer, double-click the QBase.exe
file in the QBase folder on your hard drive.

viii

_\

e:>, *.'-<.i~~
.\_

-II

\ X e-"'E

'[i'\|STALLATION INSTRIJCTIONS (PALMTM VERSION)

(gee also file Palm installation lnstructionsdoc and .pdf on CD-ROM)


MCQ Base is an application for a Palmf-based PDA. it allows users to 1
test themselves on specific MCQ databases. I wrote it originally prior to
my FRCR part 1 to quiz myself on the medical physics and radiation
protection parts of the exam.
This is a beta version of the program (v.0.9.0). So far i have not been able
to find any bugs in the program and have tested it on both monochrome
and colour displays without any problems. However, please remember
that it is a program written by a doctor, not a professional programmer
and therefore bugs are bound to-exist.
The Qbase Radiology 3 - MCQs for the FRCR Part 1 CD contains the
MCQ Base application as well as the FRCR Part1 MCQ database for it.
INSTALLATION

The CD contains two files, in the directory PALM, MCQB, the MCQ Base
application, and FRCR-Part1, the MCQ database file. These need to be
copied into the system memory of the Palmm. The application will not
work if it is copied onto a memory card e.g. SD card.
This assumes the user has a Palm PDA with the HotSync cradle and
appropriate Palm Desktop software, as supplied with the Palm PDA,
installed on a computer.
To install the necessary components to run MCQ Base for the FRCR
Part i, all one needs to do is double-click on the MCQB application and
on the FRCR-Part1 database and this will add these files to a queue
ready to be installed on the Palm. Once this has been done a simpleHotSync of the Palm will transfer the files onto the PDA.
if this however fails, open the install Tool application (part of the
Palm Desktop) and use the Add
button to add MCQB and FRCRPart1 to the file list. it is important that All Palm File Types is selected in
the File of Type option list, for the application to see both the MCQ Base
application and FRCR Part 1 database. Also ensure that the destination is

Handheld rather than SD card. The two parts of the software will then
be installed with the next HotSync of the Palm.

USING THE SOFTWARE


MCQ Base is very simple to use. The first screen is a list of available MCQ
databases. You should see the following screen.

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The only MCQ database, FRCR-Partfl; is already selected. The Info


button displays a window with infornjlation: agboutthesyelected database.
To start a new exam, click on the New
Ekarn button,
and
the following
z
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screen appears.

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' Using the left and right arrows selecvtthe number of questions you want
to be tested on. If the Negative marking check box is ticked then a
wrong answer is marked as 1, otherwise a wrong answer is marked as
O. The Randomise questions check box allows you to either go through
the questions in sequence, or if ticked will provide you with a random
set of questions in random order from the entire 250 available.

Once you have selected your choices, pressing the Start button starts the
MCQ.
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The left and right arrows next to this number move you to the next or
previous question. The up and down arrows at the bottom right of the
screen moves you up and down the different sub-questions from A to E.
To indicate your answer press on the T(rue) F(alse) ?(Don't Know) boxes
next to the question. To display the correct answers press and hold the
Answer button and the correct answers appear in the ? boxes. The Note
button brings up a window with explanatory notes about the current
question. The End button brings up the score dialogue box as below.
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OFD
OPG
PET
PMT
QA
RAT
RBE
RPA
RPS
SNR
SR
5v
Tc
Tc99m

object to film distance


orthopantomography
positron emission tomography

photomultiplier tubes
quality assurance
T
rotating anode tubes
radiation protection advisor

radiation protection supervisor

Wt

signal to noise ratio


spatial resolution
Sieverts
technetium
.
technetium-99m
thermoluminescent dosimeter
ultra-violet
window level
tissue weighting factors T

WW
ZnCdS

zinc cadmium sulphide

TLD

U-V
Wl_

windowwidth -

.>.
V

relative biological effectiveness

. I

E
S

Section 1 - Questions
Exam 1 ............................................................................................ ..
Exam 2 .... ........................................................................................... ..
Exam 3 ..................................................................................................... ..

Exam 4......,_............................................................................................... ..

50

Exam 5 ..................................................................................................... ..

Exam 6 .......................................................................................................
Exam 7 .......................................................................................................

Exam 8 ..................................................................................................... ..
Exam 9 ..................................................................................................
Exam 10 ..... ............................................................................................ .. 140

_ _ |_V_Y_
_
_

: __

List of Abbreviations
automatic exposure control
becquerel
1
calcium tungstate
characteristic curve
caesium iodide
computed tomography
Department of Health
digital subtraction anglography
effective dose
exposure latitude
electromagnetic radiation
focus to film distance
focus to object distance
full width at half maximum
Geiger-Muller

AEC

Bq
CaW
CC
Csl
CT
DoH
DSA

ElEL?

EMR
FFD
FOD
FWHM
GM
HIDA
HMPAO
HSE
HVL
HVT
lC
'
lF
ll
lRM ER
IRR 88
IRR 99
Kr-81 m

aminodiacetic acid
hexamethyl propylene amine oxime
Health & Safety Executive
halfvalue layer
half~value thickness
ionisation chamber
intensification factor

image intensifier
lonising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations
lonising Radiations Regulations 1988
lonising Radiation Regulations 1999

krypton-81m
peak kilovoltage
linear attenuation coefficient
lithium fluoride

kvp
LAC
Lil?

IP/mm
LSF
M(ARS)R 78
mA
MAA
MAC
MRI
MTF
NRPB

linepairs per millimetre


line spread function
Medicines (Administration of Radioactive Substances)
Regulations 1978
milliampere
macroaggregates
mass attenuation coefficient
magnetic resonance imaging

modulation transfer function


l

National Radiation Protection Board


XV

igag_\J_\w
; V g ,_V_VI.
_
I_

_*

_..,;v

X!

.< "iii

,
4:5-";_..

.f-",1_E.-, -"1-,

~ arrest-so '

u "

*5
__._ __ .. -,.1_;,s r

-.

eta .'- 1";-7'-"="r=-4"-I- i. ~ i

-1..= '.-It ;..,...'- --':-'


~

- .

7,\THE ATOM
@ 1.

Regarding the structure of an atom -

A. ln an electrically neutral atom, the number of neutrons is the


same as the number of orbital electrons
r<B. The atomic mass number (A) of an element is always equal to

or greater than its atomic number (Z)


C. An electron is characterised by having no mass and a unit
negative charge
(D. The binding energy of a K shell electron is greater than an
M shell electron
E. Nuclear exchange forces are effective at distances up to
0.001 mm

X-RAY TUBES

@2.

Regarding a rotating anode tube


A. Cooling is achieved primarily by conduction of heat along the

anode stem

B. A self-rectifying circuit may be used


C. Molybdenum is used in the anode stem due to its high
thermal conductivity
D. A tungsten-copper alloy is often used to form the target

F
.

material at the anode


,<E. A rotating anode tube has approximately the same
efficiency of X-ray production as that of a stationary
anodetube

X-RAY INTERACTIONS
IE 3.

The following statements are true

<A. Bone absorbs more radiation than muscle when low-beam


energy is used

QBase Mc'5?r3r'5e PQTTFEER M"

i *''"""'

I<
"

B.

4 \
(

ff.-'."..i~

:- {~i 3-1: 5;?-1

7!.|".'il7.1
-ex .;= ii:

The absorption of radiation is greater for soft tissue in close proximity to bone rather than soft tissue distant from
bone

Filters act by removing high-energy radiation whilst leaving


low-energy radiation unchanged

i.'~;.F.=i''-"1

i 3 .2 I.--fw
Y1;

-- at-'_-1 -
I 1.-.3 Jr -.,

rtgigz-ii-e~

<(E-

. 51I
>3
:i.1."l<,3*=*~
, =T,.
.r5"?'.

A filter attenuates radiation predominantly by the


photoelectric effect
An example of a compound filter is of several layers of
aluminium separated by a non-attenuating material

IMAGE QUALITY

_1:14;.
,, -

E14.

i,{?!iE.'
"J-, '1'!-1;: .-

Radiographic contrast is decreased by

iiziwizrjzz
i-.-. 1... -

Kn.

~.=:.~'.- '.i.l:-!7,fl1_
'';l<;?.""i;'-.
.3*1.','-:i=~.!5
:~';;'.:;rv ii?-
1,:(.'~\';57i.
';~:1<1=;*t*

/Q.
0.

32?
{#53
; i\:,._1,,_._;,;;,
wji;'
_i:.=

E.

'~;;!;~-1:. ti

B-

'.\7-" J 11'..f:

Increasing beam filtration


Reducing the field size irradiated
Increasing the k\/

Increasing the focus to object distance (FOD)


increasing the object to film distance (OED)

Yin. ,, .

ivrli-.~a

FILMS AND SCREENS

-ti
tn 12;
if

[Li] 5.

At a constant mAs, angincrease in the kVp will

,,.>

Produce X-rays of increased wavelength


g. increase the effectof scatter on an X-ray
increase the amount of scatter produced within the
patient
zi
D. increase film contrast
Increase film blackening

GAMMA IMAGING

IE6.

Regarding the Gamma camera

Q. The resolution is increased by increasing the number of


photomultiplier tubes
Collimators are not used
There is a light-tight housing between the crystal and the
photomultiplier tubes
D. The scintillation crystal consists of pure sodium iodide
E. Following a scintillation, light travels predominantly in the
forward direction
g

42:

MCQs fa the Parti'FRCR

I W

MAMMOGRAPHT

E117.

Mammography

/gi. The radiological differentiation of normal and abnormal


breast tissue is dependent upon photoelectric attenuation in
the normal breast
B. Maximum image contrast is obtained at photon energies of
the order of 45-60 kev
/1 The characteristic radiation of a molybdenum target occurs at

fa

gi

17.9 and 19.5 keV

D. For magnification mammography a focal spot of 0.5 mm


diameter is normally used
E. A molybdenum filter attenuates the majority of characteristic
radiation produced at a molybdenum target

ab?"

FILMS AND scasems


@8.

1&3? \

Regarding photographic density

A. Photographic density is a measure of the blackness


of a film
_
- . Photographic density can only be measured objectively The useful density range on a diagnostic X-ray lm is from
? 0.25 to 4
D. The lm base usually contributes a density of about 0.07
E. The background fog on an unexposed lm usually
contributes a density of about 0.05

ti.

;, rtatt-.,r~
:3_E-$2
...
g).;:;~%

CT
\ l]9.

Comparing gas-filled ionisation chambers and scintillating


crystals used as detectors in CT

A. ionisation chambers are more sensitive

B. Scintillation crystals provide a linear response to different


radiation intensities
C. ionisation chambers suffer from the phenomenon known as
after-glow
D. Scintillation crystals are more reliable and stable
/\E. The efficiency of ionisation chambers can be improved by
using xenon at high pressure as opposed to air

QBase ~MCQs for the Part 1 FRCR

W
-r

<
I

1.

X-RAY TUBES

I
I

. J...7,.,-.~_ _

?;<.$;1ir.'~;';l'

1:21;-ta
._v\;.-,'.,f1_v.-;>~,~i=I

I-=?.:; ~":-

_.r_;,:..Pi :r4="
~.,,

- X-raytu.b e5 hieldin
@10. Regarding
. g 9A

A- it contains oil to lubricate the bearings of the rotor in a

l.>" I-t>=~-5!-'

-ri!=:2:?=;:

.<C-

rotating anode tube


lt provides support for permanent beam filters at the tube
window'=
r
'
I
lt forms part of-the heat pathway

D . The maximum permitted leakageof radiation at

223,35.

-13-%'=1?
11}.'-'~l#iE

;rsa=?'i ;"

E.
'r:>-;':*#r.

1 m from thefocal spotvshould not exceed


1 Gy/h averaged over an area not exceeding 1 mGylh at 1 m
100 cm:
,
Expansion" of the lubricating oil secondary to overheating
will activate the exposure interlock, thus acting as a safety
cut-out

S-f'~3:~9;i-5
:'a:iiii.jr

:?{?{Y=;.

i;=-h;se'_+;;
'm-at-=
1*:-If?-=<-:.

*3/-iiie
,.

X-RAY INTERACTIONS

'

H! . "=

[I1] 11. Regarding the interactions which result in X-ray


production _'
j
'-'size

<21
C.

Vary withthle atomic number of the target material


Are always the result of an interaction between an electron
and an orbital electron, -_, 4
_
I

Includes characteristic radiation

D. _Are subject to a maximum energy limit related to the energ Y

"of the incident electron


E

QE. Bremsstrazhlung occurs at only discrete energies


continuous

a IMAGE QUALITY
-|]12. The following are true

'

The thicker the structure irradiated, the greater the subject


B.

contrast
_
The greater the difference in linear attenuation

coefficients (LAC) between 2 tissues, the less the subject


contrast
_
,
C. Increasing k\/ increases subject contrast
D. increasing filtration increases skin dose
E. Reducing the field sizeirradiated decreases contrast

ivicolrar the Part 1 race

'

tr-r~ 1*

-as-r

grtms AND SCREENS

-;\;1;=;'i'-.1,

:1.-r'g=.'-es.-'

13.
The followingfstatements regarding exposure latitude
are true

A. Exposure latitude (EL) is the range of exposure factors which


will give a correctly exposed image of a subject
QB. EL is independent of subject contrast
C. EL is dependent on film gamma
Q0. EL can be increased by using a lower l<V
E. EL can be increased by using a film of lower gamma

'.;.:_r;':
ire "tr ~.1
:'5F,rl-~*_~j~

{.&jf:fl.i1

r;=l;1<=

iv. 1.1,

~.-.|"|'lj=\"

'l'.tJ
tt?a:-

THE ATOM
[Q] 14. Regarding atoms and their structure
A. The mass number defines the number of nucleons within an
atom
'
$8. The L shell contains a maximum of 18 electrons
C. Isotopes of an element have different physical properties
QB. An alpha particle is four times heavier than an electron
E. An isobaris any nucleus which has the same atomic mass
number as another nucleus

ml.

'tl. =:
1-~'%_g5;,r:
.5317! Ii "

-0'

5? Cw
ml. ..
; r II! ' L _ I

='-?-Li: F.--.
',v'.Q-'. 1'
.. 3.1.};
'2 I/1 .,-' .

-ii'==

FILMS AND SCREENS


15. Regarding the metallic replacement method of silver
recovery

- @ This can be used in conjunction with an automated


,
processor

B. Requires electric power


@Uses steel wool
. It is possible to reuse the fixer after silver reccivery with this
method
~
l E. The silver produced is 90-95% pure metallic silver
XRAYS INTERACTIONS
E] 16. Regarding the photoelectric effect

(A. The interacting photon disappears completely


B. This involves the interaction between a photon and a free
electron

QBase MCQS for rhE'r'=TF'c'Fi_ " 'm'" T 'l W " "W MM 'W' i '7'

Characteristic radiation is produced

"Y3%=".f-fie.

~;<:i:=5f'1

UP. Results in the production of an ionised atom

:>'=' f: '-tar
so .1
1.2-:
... -._,: ;.~--'
u.

Q2.

1;:-a'l
.~_ div->1
-.~..=-rt 11
.---..2'.-"-

As the p_h"otoel'ectron slows down and loses energy, no


further ionisation is produced

=_'i,.~.-mi.
= 31541.?-

.,

B-"-L 1 :"

J ""-If - rs

FIE!

DOSIMETRY

r5=,':,-.1,',t;;

[31] 17. Patient dose maybe reduced by

:-- r
"

T2...

=l<~i'<a-

i ~;jr-i1_m

D.
E.

Y;4'Fi
;
:,r<_-.t~.. at :

ti

ill {'2

-:r_=,?;.e
{"i>.=.t:iI
'-- I '3 Ir " 1
'~"=",a;-1.i
3%-"".3'

..

352..._.,;g~

The use of a bucky grid

A.
B.

{'11

.
r

The use of tube filtration


The use of a high kV
'
The use of a lower mA
The use of a larger focus to film distance

XRAY ruaes
[it] 18. Heat loss from an X-ray tube
.

(-

B.

Heat is-transferred by conduction from the anode disc to the


oil in the tube housing.
Heat is transferred by radiationfrom the anode disc to the oil

in the tube housing

The oil in the tube housing acts as both an insulator and as a


cooling agent
- ~ . ~ -0' r -.
r
(D Heat is transferred by convection through the oil to the tube
housing
"
"
. E. * Minimal heat is conducted along the anode stem in a
rotating anode tube
GAMMA IMAGING

@ 19. Regarding positron emission tomography (PET)


A. A positron has a unit positive charge and mass identical to

' </B.

Q0.

8 I

that of an electron
j
1
Positrons tend to _be emitted from nuclides with an excess of
neutrons
_
The scintillation detector is usually made of bismuth
germinate
_
The emitters that are used in PET imaging generally have
long half-lives l
Annihilation. radiation occurs resulting in the coincident
production of high-energy photons

-Q8513 MCOsforthePartlIliii<CR ifs

* 'j""'"'*'*"

RADIATION PROTECTION

-".\;?:T*,:_
F.
9;. 2
-4- |.:"-

@20. The following actions are measures for reducing


i
patient dose

g
M. \ I-_ "!\

/(A. Using a fast film screen combination


<8. Using low attenuation (e.g. carbon fibre) materials for
table tops
Using digital radiography equipment
/\- D. Use of gonad shields
E. Use of compression techniques where possible

RADIATION PROTECTION
@121. Regarding the '10 day rule

A. Applies to radiography of the skull


_
B. Should be applied to women who have been taking the oral
contraceptive pill for not less than 3 months and found it

effective

/<5. Should be applied to women who have an IUCD for not less
than one month and have found it effective
D. Should be applied to women who have been sterilised
E. Should be applied to women who are menstruating at the
time of the examination

P5?TO,
46..
1:-1=,1,';_;.

RADIATION PROTECTION
@22. Regarding non-stochastic effects
-11. All non-stochastic effects are dose dependent
\ B. Above a threshold dose level, the severity of non-stochastic
'
effects is proportional to the radiation dose -

/C. Lung fibrosis is an example of a non-stochastic effect


%D. Skin necrosis is an example of a non-stochastic effect

' (E. Diarrhoea is an example of a non-stochastic effect


RADIATION PROTECTION
|i23. The following statements are true
i? A. The annual whoie body dose limit for a patient undergoing

treatment is 500 millisieverts (mSv)


t The equivalent dose limit to the abdomen of a female of
reproductive capacity is 13 mSv/year

Qase _5\?c5?>?'T~''ir?i"?ii'c'ii"""'"5""'"#'#'_""'M""W"

'9'

Q3. Once pregnancy has been declared, the equivalent dose limit
to the pregnant abdomen must not exceed 2 mSv for the
remainder of the pregnancy
'

,I -.
, cm 11.. ._
'.--Isa":
-"=l1!:.

~IaF,z~=:;.

'=i;a~.=;;a;-1

Q0. The whole body'annuial"effective dose limit for staff (18 years

..I:;;:~_-1'

and over) is 30 mSv


'
- A
QE. The dose limit to the pregnant abdomen is 5 mSv'over the

'*ez~.-9.
~t~='i1;::
:"_
~.:;s.L'.
I-1.!.i;1v7.

term of the pregnancy

i;;'.';;fr,-t
-feqtizi
,?_m~,_,i3

age;
%._,-:l"'.'.=

'f~I.1.=.'-?_i'-I_!.?

RADIATION PROTECTION

@24. Regarding the exposure to natural background radiation

A. Contributes about 2.2-mSv of the total per caput annual dose


QB. ls greatest at sea level
C. 50% of the total natural background exposure is from radon
and thoron emissions
QB. Contributes ten times theidose as that from occupational
exposure
E. Food and drink contribute about 300 p.SV to the total per
caput annual dose
'

. . ...
7. r~'i."~%a"-

ti"?-!';!I}
-' 2-.;1._;1

4I;@=:e'_;_

-=?.7"'*i.:-ii
-=
5;
{J-;_';;

-..1-:~
.-'i~.~a".~;-.
:9.
1, /5,
"4 t,

,i>s,an."
_ .$5 .

ties.

{eff

RADIATION PROTECTION

[E] 25. The .following "statementsare true


,<A. A controlled area is required where constant exposure to a
shielded source would result in 3/10ths of a dose limit being

~ exceeded

10

>

' *

'

B. A controlled area is required if the exposure dose rate were


to exced_5 uSv/h g
C. Areas where the exposure dose rate lies between 2.5 and
5 p.Sv/h are known as supervised areas
D. The radiation protection supervisor is often an experienced
physicist
E. The radiation protection advisor is often a senior _
radiographer
a

QBase MCQs for the Partfl Face

-JP!$5 _

Section 2 - Answers
Exam 1 .................................................................................................... ..

13

Exam 2 ..................................................................................................... ..
Exam 3 .................................................................................................... ..
Exam 4".................................................................................................... ..
Exam 5 .....
......................................................................................... ..
Exam 6 .....
................................................................................. ..
Exam 7 ........................................................................................ ..
Exam 8 ................................................................................................ ..

28
43
58
73
89
104
118

Exam 9 .................................................................................................... .. 133

;Exam 10 .................................................................................................. .. 148

T3

{(5.

Once pregnancy has been declared, the equivalent dose limit


to the pregnant abdomen must not exceed 2 mSv for the
remainder-of the pregnancy
QB; The whole body annual effective dose limit for staff (18 years
and over) is-30 mSv A \
.1 V
QE. The dose limit to the pregnant abdomen is 5 mSv over the
' y term ofthe pregnancy I
u

-.>.'..>.;'.;-gir

-. ;-

-.3-.

E _~_2,=.:1:_\_
._,.....~
P:~:-s;.*.i-
if=",~:a1~a::

31%";-1?;
~..,;Ii%.:-,4:--

fig-. 52.

t>~11~
L;

RADIATION PROTECTION

7:7 '_

fem-1;-1%.
>-1. -.
1|-r.\
-,@;\-.;

B124. Regarding the exposure to natural background radiation


A. Contributes about 2.2 mSv of the total per caput annual dose
(/8, ls greatest at sea level 1

'
_
C. 50% of the total natural background exposure is from radon
and thoron emissions
,
y
QD. Contributes ten times the dose as that from occupational
exposure
_ _
E. Food and drink contribute about 300 |tSv to the total per
caput annual close
-

A-'P.r-a:'
v_

:-

-J:*3*L71

~!~T",7"
-'?:'~m.-

sat_.
J A-'

,..- .

RADIATION PROTECTION
<-

@25. -The following statements are true

10

,<A. A controlled area is required where constant exposure to a


A
shielded source would result in 3/10ths of a dose limit being
Iexceeded

.'
B. A controlled area is required if the exposure dose rate were
to exceed 5 p.SV/I1
C. Areas where the exposure dose ratelies between 2.5 and
S I.!..SV/I1 are known as supervised areas
D. The radiation protection supervisor is often an experienced
physicist
I
1
E. The radiation protection advisor is often a senior
l'adi9l'.aPh.e' '
_
,
.
_
.

QBase MCQsforthe Paniraca

*.r:"_- -

-\
\

Section 2 - Answers
Exam 1 .................................................................................................... ..

13

Exam 2 .................................................................................................... .. 28
Exam.3 .................................................................................................... ..
Exam
........................................................................................... ..
Exam
................................................................................... ..

43
58
73

Exam 6 .... ....................................................................................... .. 89


Exam 7 .................................................................................................... .. 104
Exam 8 .................................................................................................... .. 118
Exam 9 ...................................................................................................... 133

Exam 10 .................................................................................................... 148


ii?
;;
Fur.-

Fg-J .
.5..-

'v

-s

4::

At

it_i

Q.

Once pregnancy has been declared, the equivalent dose limit


to the pregnant abdomen must not exceed 2mSv for the
remainderof theypregnancy
Q0. The whole body annual effective dose limit for staff (18 years
y
and over) is 30 mSv "1 ' 4
QE. The dose limit to the pregnant abdomen is 5 mSv over the
term of-the pregnancy
'

I .-.1
I.._-,,1.1;?
.?1I:.-ti .-I;
=i...;g.; ,3"
''-~3,l.*;-1i --.==r1_~_
e.;e-!;.~
It-__;;;'g_
-_?.~s::g-1,;

I'\'.-'i?=?:-:3;
.-1_\f;"l:rf;I:
="-"~."ir',"l

::Dl.~;:.
. :3-

-*:=1=;

RADIATION PROTECTION ,

-;
mt '31.
<.*.1\'-'v..,'.
.\:.-H

@124. Regarding the exposure to natural background radiation

v.=.ti1.q

A. Contributes about 2.2 mSv of the total per caput annual dose
QB. ls greatest at sea _level

C. 50% of the total natural background exposure is from radon


and thoron emissions
.
_
</D. Contributes ten times the dose as that from occupational
exposure E
_
.
E. Food and drink contribute about 300 nSv to the total per
caput annual dose
_

-~$=3e;"/i
;[~{\<.|f!:1

-.%::qs;1s
5-frava;
\v

Q1

. Y

3.

mt;-=.=>
2r'l'i'~'f'-".\5T.
@153 1-vl';_,

~s. ..
5.! AI '
pi!

Bits

$3
1;;-,_f:"= '
" . K-'

RADIATION PROTECTION
@125. -The following statements are true
'

,<A. A controlled area is required where constant exposure to a


shielded source would result in 3/10ths of a dose limit being
[exceeded
'
'
I
B. A controlled area is required if the exposure dose rate were
to exceed 5 |.tSv/h
* I
C. Areas where the exposure dose ratelies between 2.5 and
S }..SV/I1 are known as supervised areas
D. The radiation protection supervisor is often an experienced

physicist

E. The radiation protection advisor is often a senior


radiographer
V
_

10

QBase ElvlCQsforTtheEl5art1FRCR E

tits

Section 2 Answers
Exam 1 .................................................................................................... ..
Exam 2 .................................................................................................... ..
Exam.3 ......................................................................................................

13
28
43

Exam 4 .................................................................................................... .. 58
Exam 5 ............................................................................................ .. 73
Exam 6 ..... .. ............................................................................................. .. 89
Exam 7 .................................................................................................... .. 104

Exam 8 .................................................................................................... .. 118


Exam 9 .................................................................................................... .. 133
Exam 10 .................................................................................................. .. 148
ii

3!E

,_-I
P
1

_iHvL,p1H\FJ

v9

-'=
.,~'*'=.-;-'"~::~.-'';{?."1ia~\:*.:_;i'
'-;.*<*.*.I;<;5w_.;;a-t.r-'
%i,'<if=1.~i-1_=-:_2
~1:.
- ._3;r1;=---;-~.::==.ey
'
~%
%ri ' .. =.. . = - .'-';'.._7-I
VHF

-he-:1.-,..g;.

: A5

'-'-u*I'l;"~.i

-L'I'- -.-_.>-.,

1.1?!

s$>%es?c3i
:+i-{%~:=*-
.- - - ~
I-~1 ri-.1
.4 ' s lut-2-="
'

A. false

B. true

C. false

D. true

E. false

in an electrically neutral atom, it is the number of protons that is


equal to the number of orbital electrons.

While an electron has a unit negative charge, it has a mass of


9.11 ><103kg.

Nuclear exchange forces are effective at only very short distances


in the order of 10l5 m.
Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

A. false

B. false

C. false

D. false

'

E. true

The principle mode of cooling is via radiation of heat. There is


minimal conduction through the anode stem to the bearings.
A full wave rectified circuit is required.
.
Molybdenum has low heat conductivity; this prevents the
passage of heat to the bearings.
A tungsten rhenium alloy is used. This improves the thermal
capacity of the anode and resists roughening.
The efficiency of X-ray production in both the rotating and
stationary anode tube is about 1%.
Curry, Thomas. Christensen? Physics of Diagnostic Radiology 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
I

A. true

B. true

C. false

D. true

E. false

Filtration removes useless low-energy radiation which

contributes to patient dose without contributing to the useful


image.
.
A compound filter usually consists of two or more layers of
different materials.
.
Curry, Thomas. Chi'istensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radio/ogy,_ 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
-

I
MQ=f@rthsP5r77?*?R T

M"'"'_' ' i

Q;

. .

Once pregnancy has been declared, the equivalent dose limit


to the pregnant abdomen must not exceed 2,mSv for the
remainder of the pregnancy
Q01. The whole body-annual effective dose limit for staff (18 years
_
and over) is 30 mSv V
QE. The dose limit to the pregnant abdomen is 5 mSv over the
' i term of-the pregnancy
c
A
i

Q. l
C

. J. ,-..
;?;,'_u_,f:

_ \
: >_=i@; i ~z

-,- .x-.-1:

i
l

yf."!%j
RADIATION PROTECTION

:<
J>:, -v;.m;
I;

'

[Q 24. Regarding the exposure to natural background radiation

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A. Contributes about 2.2 mSv of the total per caput annual dose
QB. ls greatest at sea level

'
C. 50% of the total natural background exposure is from radon
and thoron emissions
t
_
Contributesten times the dose as that from occupational
exposure c
_
E. Food and drink contribute about 300 |.1.SV to the total per
caput annual dose
A

,1:

':E"$

RADIATION PROTECTION

|]25. ~The following statements are true


'

,<A. A controlled area is required where constant exposure to a


I
shielded source would result in 3/10ths of a dose limit being
j exceeded
'
'
B. A controlled area is required if the exposure dose rate were
to exceed 5 p.Sv/h
" '
C. Areas where the exposure dose ratelies between 2.5 and
5 p.Svlh are known as supervised areas
D. The radiation protection supervisor is often an experienced

physicist

E. The radiation protection advisor is often a senior


radiographer
, _
_A
1

10

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Z;

Section 2 Answers
Exam 1 ................................................................................................... ..
Exam 2 ................................................................................................... ..
Exam.'3 ................................................................................................... ..

Exam 4 ................................................................................................... ..
Exam 5 ................................................................................................... ..
Exam 6 .... .._............................................................................................. ..
Exam 7 ..................................................................................................._.

Exam 8 .................................................................................................... ..
Exam 9 ................................................................................................... ..

Exam 10 ................................................................................................. ..

.'_C
~ T. .
;._- '1'
i ._(
I ".:-'5-1'
.,. ,..
41--'
L 1'.-.

4.A. true

B. false

C. true

D. false

E. false

ii

Filtration results in beam hardening, and thus reduces contrast.


Reducing the field size reduces the amount of scatter produced,
and thus improves contrast.
Radiographic contrast is independent of the FOD.
'

-E
i;_'
4-35 1.
=1.;;il;._-_*_r,:
.5;f-:55?-l'>i
..Q.. s ._-,
.-..._....
J;
.\=1;.-f;;(g_1.4
. :1

I
1

Increasing the OFD amounts to using an air gap technique,. and in

'-5.-.
.w'<.!~$ fr.sit
:<
*$l':9K:-.
;l'>;:\-.'-i-1;

this setting contrast is increased due to scatter missing the film.

Jgifiia

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Curry, Thomas. Christensen? Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
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in ~:.'_~

ii. 95+

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31
-"5a>'iI
_--2,5-.-.<

Els.

1i.1.5fti

A. fa_lse

B. true C. false

D. false

E. true

At higher kvp the X-ray emitted is of greater energy which has a


shorter wavelength.
At increased l<\/p the amount of scatter produced is reduced.
At increased kVp film contrast tends to decrease.

11:2;

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1;, ' v--.

="*"*~'ii?
i'7f"3

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Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
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6.A. true B. false C. true D. false E. false


As gamma radiation is emitted in all directions from the patient,

the use of the collimator is intended to match the pattern of


scintillation within the crystal, with the distribution of gamma
emissions from within the patient. .
4
The scintillation crystal consists of sodium iodide with added
thallium impurities.

There is no preponderance for light to travel in the forward

direction. l-following a scintillation, light can travel in any direction,


and some light is received by each of the photomultiplier tubes.

Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

E17.

A. true B. false C. true D. false E. false


The maximum tube voltage for mammography is abouc30 kVp
ln magnification mammography a very small focal spot diameter
is required; 0.1 mm focal spots are used.
A filter is transparent to its own characteristic radiation.

w=--.~.
\
\

s.A.

true

B. false

C. false

D. true

si J
1 ..' ...

E. true

,-51*.
. .".Zi:.-:3.
.rv_'.!; ii
-.-;~~1;.'<.='
_n .-=5

Photographic density can be subjective, as judged by the eye or


objective, as measured by a densitometry.
The useful density range is from 0.25 to 2. Densities less than 0.25
are too light to be seen by the human eye, and those greater
than 2 are too dark.

-.-zri-.=i.-=

.77 iii.-'-1'5"

.-1;
-

-.-I 1".
....
. v

-1;

K;3:1~e
:.l'l.

{ii-:.""-1'
.,,.: - in.

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radioiogy, 1st Edn. Clinical Press

1:21%J.? A5:I.1

Ltd., 1990.

Z5
dais
._..__..-,..

52"'13

iiigai t~

9.A.

false

B. false

C. false

D. false

*3=<<:~i*

E. true

g5:-Tri-W
'_w%i>i\-S1
=$?!.t\:<r

ionisation chambers are less sensitive, produce a linear response


to different radiation intensities, do not suffer from after-glow
and are more reliable/stable as compared to scintillation crystals.

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39.;

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Ltd., 1990.

Filv

llfljo. A. false B. true C._true D. false E. false


The oil within the tube shielding acts as an insulator for the high
voltage transformer. The rotor is lubricated with softimetal such
as silver.
1
The maximum permitted leakage is 1 mGylh at 1 m from the focal
spot over an area not exceeding 100 cm.
Overheating of the oil will activate the tube thermal interlock,
thus terminating the exposure. The exposure interlock is
activated if:

(i) there isan incorrect filament supply for the kV selected;


(ii) there is an incorrect current to the stator for anode rotation;
(iii) there is insufficient time for (i) and (ii) to occur.
Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
.

[Q11

A. true

B. false

C. true

D. true

E. false

interactions which produce X-rays may be the result of kinetic


energy lost by an electron as it is deflected by the positive charge

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Section 2 - Answers

an

Exam 1 .................................................................................................... ..
Exam 2 .................................................................................................... ..
Exam.3 .................................................................................................... ..

13
28
43

Exam 4 ......................................................................................... .. 58
Exam 5 ............................................................................................ .. 73
Exam 6 .................................................................................................... .. 89
Exam7 ...................................................................................................... 104

Exam8 .................................................................................................... .. 118


Exam9 .................................................................................................... .. 133
Exam 10 .................................................................................................... 14

9
:|E

.~_

, _;
"
l'"7:;"'l1'Ilj"

"

Once pregnancy has been declared, the equivalent dose lirr


to the pregnant abdomen_ must not exceed 2 mSv for the
remainder ofthe pregnancy
~
'
'
<. '.
1
.
.
.
Q0. The whole body annual effective dose limit for staff (18 yez
_
and over) is~3O mSv 1 "

The dose limit to the pregnant abdomen is 5 mSv over the


- term of-the pregnancy

s V

RADIATION P_ROTECTlON .
@24. Regarding the exposure to natural background radiation
.~;~';;fj;'\1

A. Contributes about 2.2 mSv of the total per caput annual do


_
_
ls greatest at sea level ,
C. 50% of_ the total natural background exposure IS from radc
and thoron emissions
1 1
. Contributes ten times the dose as that from occu P ational
exposure r
u V w 1 '
E. Food and drink contribute about 300 |.cSv to the total per
caput annual dose
4

5511?;

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3m'-7~Q

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f
" x,.=:.-Ker;

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l_| 25. The following statements are true


I
"

,<A. A controlled area is required where constant exposure to a


r _
shielded source would result in 3/10ths of a dose limit being
fexceeded
'

B. A controlled area is required if the exposure dose rate we


to exceed 5 p.Sv/h '
* 1
C. Areas whejre the exposure dose ratelies between 2.5 and
5 p.Svlh are known as supervised areas
D. The radiation protection supen/isor is often an experienced

physicist
I
E. The radiation protection advisor is often a senior
radiographer

. -

10

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~ -*1

4.A. truer B. false

C. true

D. false

E. false

Filtration results in beam hardening, and thus reduces contrast.


Reducing the field sizeireduces the amount of scatter produced,
and thus improves contrast.
Radiographic contrast is independent of the FOD.
'
Increasing the OFD amounts to using an air gap technique,_and in
this setting contrast is increased due to scatter missing the film.

-=T.'.,:;;;_'

:?g;'s~L;a-

:7il:';51':}.

Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.

5-1-N.-1.5;
:f_l.7;;-,1
=1;

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

'

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A. false

2'. '25:*r1"l-f
Q1

At higher k\/p the X-ray emitted is of greater energy which has a


shorter wavelength.
At increased k\_/p the amount of scatter produced is reduced.
At increased kVp film contrast tends to decrease.

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B. true

C. false

D. false

E. true

Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
'

6.A. true B. false C. true D. false E. false


As gamma radiation is emitted in all directions from the patient,
the use of the collimator is intended to match the pattern of
scintillation within the crystal, with the distribution of gamma
emissions from within the patient. ,
_

The scintillation crystal consists of sodium iodide with added


thallium impurities.
There is no preponderance for ligh.t to travel in the forward
direction. Following a scintillation, light can travel in any direction,
and some light is received by each of the photomultiplier tubes.
Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

(E7.

A. true B. false C. true r-D. false E. false


The maximum tube voltage for mammography is abouet'30 kVp
In magnification mammography a very small focal spot diameter
is required; 0.1 mm focal spots are used.
A filter is transparent to its own characteristic radiation.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press
LtCl., 1990.
\
\

14

:;QB_a5e;. NlCQs for as tiara race

T if

l
l

l
l

. =1; ,

a.A.

true B. false

C. false

D. true

E. true

\ 5-!1\

., .., tag-,;_
..-E;-.r.='.
':4~,:;= _\fi~
-.:.;~.,_l=.~.-.
, ..- ..;..-_

Photographic density can be subjective, as judged by the eye or


objective, as measured by a densitometry.
The useful density range is from 0.25 to 2. Densities less than 0.25
are too light to be seen by the human eye, and those greater
than 2 are too dark.

1 |~l.Y\_-,.l-.7-. ,-

.?.i~l":'
5-"'
51:w.5-:'.Z
I5;_$'

"'1;-':"-r-.~"1
?5=i'*Ir=t
- -:-.=\=1_-_
-..-1{F221

.. r

1'~<:

i%~lsr.~*.i

;;;_>;ln;Er:
t- .=A

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press

<'Y'

Ltd., 1990.

[;}]9.

A. false

-ft!

B. false

C. false

D. false

.-:_r~1-I
-r up
g|;;,_
5F!?'
.1
.1
~.r.sI.i;4=,
:1~L'R." .~
_, 2 1%

E. true

ionisation chambers are less sensitive, produce a linear response


to different radiation intensities, do not suffer from after-glow
and are more reliable/stable as compared to scintillation crystals.

3Z'}{:Jl'=Z:_

m. --1.

-strait
.;=g?>@t
.F?;~r.'sC!>i.~.1
l.

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., 1990.

10A.

false

1-"f7r,*E:'-"
fit;-i*'~
~=7@%:'{

B. true

C._true

D. false

E. false

j.*v

. '5

The oil within the tube shielding acts as an insulator for the high
voltage transformer. The rotor is lubricated with softjhetal such
as silver.
The maximum permitted leakage is 1 mGylh at 1 m from the focal
spot over an area not exceeding 100 cmz.
Overheating of the oil will activate the tube thermal interlock,
thus terminating the exposure. The exposure interlock is
activated if:

I-"5 1*
-1.

(i) there is-an incorrect filament supply for the kV selected;


(ii) there is an incorrect current to the stator for anode rotation;
(iii) there is insufficient time for (i) and (ii) to occur.
Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams 81 Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
.

@ 1 1.

A. true B. false

C. true

D. true

E. false

Interactions which produce X-rays may be the result of kinetic


energy lost by an electron as it is deflected by the positive charge
of a nucleus. The energy lost is emitted as photons of radiation.
A continuous spectrum of energies is produced. Interactions of
15

QBase iiE5?i7:>?iii'Fi'i 'ii<'ii""T""""""

--

'

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electrons with a bound orbital electron produce characteristic


radiation.
g V
i

A7212! ._r:-

Bremsstrahlung is a continuous spectrum of energies.

Er,=~T=
i53:
.-v;_1~-;.l_;
"'.;-:_|. qt.

.*.-.,.-.-;{_;
';-Li- L" ::-*1
:."n .1;-1:-7,
.:.&=,._f,-,i.;._if-r..',s'.'>_5. 1

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

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A.

. Xeu
., .

true

B. false

C. false

D. false

E. false

Subject contrast, C, depends on (a) the thickness, T, of the


structure and (b) the differences in LACs of the tissues involved.
Hence C is proportional to (LAC 1 LAC 2) >< T.
increasing kV decreases subject contrast.
increasing filtrat-ion decreases skin dose.
_
Decreasing the field size reduces the amount of scatter radiation
and thus improves contrast.

v..m|:.;.'

.i'*:i3Z?
;-$e.>.''~..<
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:-r ;>E'J.'* '

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s

(E13.

A. true

B. false

C. true

D. false

E. true

<11?

With an increase in kV, with mAs reduced to compensate, subject


contrast is reduced. This results in some gain of exposure

-. .4'-5:.
Ag?

latitude.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

[$114. A. true B, false C. true D. false E. true

._\,.
F
:1

The L shell contains 8 electrons whilst the M shell contains


18 electrons.
An alpha particle is more than 7,000 times heavier than an
electron.
.
,
_ _
'
Curry, Thomas. Christensen? Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

@115

A. true

B. false C. true

D. false

E. false

This method involves the use of steel wool only and does not
require any electric power.

The fixer cannot be recycled and has to be disposed of.

16

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'_

-0;

la

;f_ -;.

The silver produced by this method is in the form of a silver


sludge which requires refining. However, in the electrolytic
method, 90-95% pure metallic silver is obtained.
Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

@]1s

A. true

B. false

C. true

D. true

r , :"
..
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- :.\-, .;"
s-; ,-1; ...

. ' .\ ~.=. 1 zif


a.-.
'?|-1;-1-..,,.~'r;~l-.:

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'.--".1!-mi
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if;-.!.;:-';1.'.=;';;
iv!-I_'-....-.-_
fr:-121
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=,;<

E. false

in the photoelectric effect the interaction is between a photon


and a bound electron.
'
The photoelectron loses energy by interacting with matter

:;#,"I.fr;r

resulting in further ionisations.


Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology 4th Edn.

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

@172

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B. true

C. true

it
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The use of a secondary radiation grid requires an inerease in


exposure factors, and thus increased dose to the patient.
Filters remove the useless unwanted low-energy photons which
do not contribute to the useful image.
The use of a lower mA will result in the need of a comqensatory
increase in exposure time. Thus the total exposure will remain
unchanged.
_ _
The number of photonsrequired to produce an X-ray image is
independent of the focus to film distance. Hence, the dose is also
independent of focus to film distance.

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i .:; *-

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-rein-.-.l;
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Curry, Thomas. Christensenis Physics of Diagnostic Radiology 4thEdn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

@113

A. false

B. true C. true

D. false E. true

Heat is transferred by conduction through the oil to the tube


housing, and then by convection to the surrounding air.
Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
_
.
/___

19A.

true

B. false

C. true

D. false

E. true

Positrons tend to be emitted from nuclides with an excess of

protons. A proton is converted into a neutron and a positron.


Q8358

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m_____-__.

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The radionuclides used in PET imaging have very short half-lives


e.g. Fiuorine1 8 (110 min), Carbon1i (20.5 min), Nitrogen-13
(10min), Oxygen15 (2 min)

e:-tale
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Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

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B. false

C. true

D. false

E. false

The '10 day rule aims at confining less urgent radiological


i
examinations of the lower abdomen and pelvis on females of
childbearing age, to the ten days following the. start of
menstruation. The rule applies to plain radiography and special
examinations such as barium enema and HSGs.'
The '10 day rule is not applicable to women who have had an
IUCD for not less than 3 months and have found it effective.

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British Journal of Radiology I976; 49: 201202.

22.

A. true

B. true

C. true

D. true

E. true

"*2

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Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
'

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@23.

A. false

B. false

C. true

D. false

E. false

There are no dose limits for patients undergoing treatment.


However, ALARA must be practised.
The dose limit to the abdornen of a female of reproductive
capacity is 13 mSv per quarter. s
The annual effective dose is 20mSv for staff (18 years of age and
over).
_
The proposed dose limit to the pregnant abdomen is about 2mSv

(<1 mSv to the foetus) over the term of the pregnancy.


The lonising Radiation Regulations 1999
.

18

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D. false

E. true

.
. K
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.

Natural background radiation contributes 85% of the total


background exposure. Of this 50% is due to radon and thoron,
12% to food and drink, 13% to gamma rays and 10% to cosmic
rays. Artificial exposure contributes 15% of which diagnostic
medial radiation is the largest artificial source (14%).
Occupational exposure contributes 0.3%. The total per caput
annual dose is about 2.6 mSv.

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B. false

C. false

D. false

Feiifasiaf
-;s'g:;;.;(;_

E. false

:5 <55%?-

Controlled area: exposure dose rate >7.5p.5v/h.


Supervised area: exposure dose rate = 2.5-7.5 p.Sv/h.
The radiation protection supervisor is a senior radiographer.
The radiation protection advisor is an experienced physicist.

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.:r=;::.~.:.3*3-.~~,:.-..,f.
iLllr,>f.s'?i:.

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-i

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4 ..

,,

_
,~

ti

|
I

!':"> -'

__
1

J. T

-1.

r '---V

zT:=?.:*.i"
H

g .,=.,'-I' 1-

,1.
J

\~.=~'=
'

1 2<

4}

~"'\~'at

rf_

~ .~

i
ri

FILMS AND SCREENS[Q] 1.

intensifying screens

"""'i-\. Calcium tungstate fluoresces blue light


\ B. The efficiency of production of light with a calcium tungstate

screen is 50%
C.
D.

.--E.
l

Lanthanum oxybromide emits green light


intensification factor is the ratio of exposure needed with the
screen to the exposure needed without the screen
A film cassette containing a double-sided emulsion film and
two intensifying screens, results in doubling of the speed of
exposure andlalsoidoubling of the resultant film contrast
obtained
.
_

FLUORQSCOPY

E] 2.

Regarding spot film fluorography

100 mm cameras have a slight increase in dose compared to


70 mm cameras
~
.
Both 70 and 100 mmfilm record the image directly from the
S
image intensifier output phosphor
(C. There is a substantial reduction in patient exposure dose
compared to film screen techniques
There is a loss of resolution with spot film compared to film
screen techniques
TE. The exposure time for spot film fluorography is about one
quarter to one sixth of that required for a full-size X-ray

ail

ii
at?
.\
32
*2
.~-5

.s~J.-a=.as

l?
X-RAY |NTERACT|0NS

[El 3.

Regarding coherent scattering

A. it is responsible for the majority of scatter which reaches a film


7 ('8. includes Thompson scattering
C. Results in a change in thewavelength of the scattered photon
r

-QBase?
Rica. for thaParr1 FRCRWVW

7l_ J

if ' S

Does not result in ionisation within the patient A


T
E. Accounts for 25% of the interactions in the diagnostic energy
range

4 34

.., I
-I} P
gr '3 1
\|
lr

1
"1

T-\

"i-i.-.=;+t
l'\"IY"l.?

l-ii-'&1s.l-ti

it.4:--it--.;
=:,=r.-zl-.*.

X-RAY TUBES

4.Regarding an X-ray tube

A. Bremsstrahlung radiation makes up the majority of the useful

beam throughout the diagnostic energy range


10% of the total X-ray production occurs as a result of an
interaction between filament electrons and M shell electrons
in the target
C. At 20 keV the photoelectric effect accounts for >50% of the
total interactions
D. The kVp is responsible for the tube current
F E. The interaction between an electron from the cathode
filament and the target anode produces Bremsstrahlung
radiation

B.

FILMS AND SCREENS

1.;.1w_._;a;9crr
I-5%-i*.'*i'!-1
stwttcrfis
-_-44;;

'i(~'*~:<-.u-=':i'?i.=r7<
.,_,.
-..,,,
ti
iv

vi

L15

3&1

1:-_.-s;:*.'_.(
1 gr
stab.-.
~i.'s~=it'a
si-.~.i2;1'ivi?i!i

2!.-r#;i\=.;t
s"i"l=""

Y
,3"Q_ ._n

i __\-_.L'.

-:2r'.~5I

:i.._-33;;
2l-il=P1'- '

.:-F" '
-i.@f_3'1.>f-'
2:"

'

5.

The following statements regarding intensification factor


(IF) are true
j

.-- .
1;] . 11-7 .;

at-5-;-Z-2 r

FA.

i;

at-1.
:5-'

iii-

IF is defined as the ratio of [exposure required for a film +


screen] : [exposure required for film alone]
PB. Typical values for IF are 120-150
Fc. IF decreases when the kV is increased
PD lF is increased by using both smaller phosphor crystals
and reducing the thickness of the phosphor layer on a
screen
_
E. Tungstate screens have a larger iF than rare earth screens

gi
%\

'3")

XERORADIOGRAPHY
:3

6.

The following statements are true

J5

A. In mammography, the average dose to glandular tissue in the

3?
-/1
)-

breast is 2 mGy per mammogram


B. in xeroradiography, double-emulsion film in a light-tight

cassette is used
F
.3

Tc. i in xeroradiography, the final image is transferred to paper as


opposed to film

QBase

----~--~-1":--m~-:n..":=::::

*****
P r

;i!.;';3.;E{l!EiT!i_1;;.!L}i5
. ..

T >.\.' u.re..
>1.?!==;',1*;-trl$;=>=.?,-{wig,.,->..,~,,-..._

.5

_I

{Q o.

/E.

_i"ZZ1~3i5:r->1

13$-3-=i<

V.-:1;-.-ma
= ..,<.. .
-"'TI9"iF""l

"if; '=;:.-'-

l,',,,r"1.-'
r=:
'-wzm

iii?

Xeroradiography generally incurs a lower dose to the patient if

than the use of lm-screen combinations

ln xeroradiography, the boundaries of a structure are


particularly well delineated

GAMMA IMAGING
L317.

The following are true

_,./
\ A. 400 mm general purpose gamma camera is optimised for

.=-'-iv~;\f-':r{

I." :

B
5-!;L..~7f>~}-;

\:~..-<-\"'

D.

'?q'l:.~-1:5

E.

:*,"5YEHe
_k5?13-*-.-*;

Tc-99m
Mobile gamma cameras are designed primarily for renal
imaging cardiac imaging
A large field of view camera is used principally for cardiac
9 mm.
imaging
'
A general-purpose collimator has a resolution of 5mm
Low-energy collimators can be used with gamma rays of up

to 400 keV

-_

tsw ..
.16. ;?:i

_Q is

-_._E._'g

@1351

.<Hm
,1,-s yr

FILMS AND SCREENS


[C1 8.

Regarding intensifying screens

A phosphorescent film is used


reflecting coat of iron oxide is used

P331' A

W/C. Rare earth phosphors have a higher absorption efficiency


compared to calcium tungstate phosphors
To. Light-absorbing dyes are used to improve the sharpness of
the image
E. Light-absorbing dyes are used to minimise the effect of
quantum mottle
. "

X-RAY INTERACTIONS

lg 9.

At 60 ke\/[the attenuation in fat is predominantly due to

T-;\'.;l
/(c.

At 30 keV, attenuation in bone is predominantly due to the


photoelectric affect
in soft tissue, the majority of electrons may be considered as
free electrons *
,
V

MCQs for the Part 1 FRCR

.1:

.-=\..-4:.1-:

__

Regarding the interaction of X-rays with matter


Compton interaction

-1~.

'-

>
C

F-D.

Regarding the Compton effect, the electron density is

constant for all elements

If E.

Scatter is more likely to occur in any direction with increase


in photon energy

_ , ,__,. _
1
flj? Ell"
l:;;F.E:~$>

.-i=.'aI\I'i.'l
.241,:-Q-55$
,i'_ _. ;

5:?t':'$_

DQSIMETRY

[Q] 10. Regarding the air gap technique

cirmii

An air gap of at least 30 cm is required


The mAs should be increased
A screen with an high intensication factor should be used
The object to film distance is increased
Scattered radiation travelling obliquely misses the film

1:.
vIiI:1*-T
#1.-;z;".

it,,~i"=%'.-1
.25:
L '5 -t~;.:
4-"

r4">."-,
Yqiitiii
~"' v\ 11; .

X-RAY TUBES

5J.:ia
*z\~;'ql<j>i.

[Q1 11. Regarding X-ray production

.;.

at <' '

=.F-*~?-7*tr?

ie:5';>~
'
.-.- 11;-.'Fj.~

-.-1r-ii-4,-5,3
$13?-ll)
_

l'.(1Z&.5.
iriallzaii

A. The filament is raised to incandescence to produce a space


charge of protons around the filament by the process of
thermionic emission
Q B. Tungsten is used as the filament material because it is D
relatively inexpensive
'
flc. A compound anode is usually made of copper angtin
-T1). The mA is related to the filament current
F E. X-ray production is over 99% efficient

Eu?
mt 1

.'.3"> *.
11*. ,"

S -..

ii:11+iz'
t'\:~:

|MAGE"QUALlTY
ll 12. Secondary radiation grids

we

'v;.'.

A. -They absorb only secondary radiation


The usual range of grid ratio is 4-16
('3M ln general, the higher the lead content of a grid, the more

'1\ .

efficient it becomes
D. The focal point of a parallel grid is at infinity
-r"E. Grid factor is the ratio of incident to transmitted radiation
FILMS AND SCREENS

[] 13. Regarding film copying


It. Film copying utilises the principal of solarisation
P B. With solarisation film, an increase in exposure produces an
increase in density
'
.
--._,

-.____ _>_.__..-,,__.c..___._ -,c.-..-_.__..__ __..-____.__._

Q3359 MCQs fr the Part1 FRCR


l

4; .4

'

The theory of solarisation involves the re~bromination


hypothesis
Solarisation emulsion is exposed with a red light source
Copy film is processed in the same way as standard X-ray film

u5!"'E"'7:

ti?
iii

-1"-:$?*';'-'
~f:l:'If*"

it-j;_I:W-_

1-2=,;i_j-:1};

GAMMA IMAGING

IiI\a'i5''i5
'\'X')>1q"_

E1] 14. Comparing the radionuclides krypton-81 m (Kr-81 m) and


technetium-99 m (Tc-99 m)

m=""f-Y.

.1;

.__r~

>1

ft.

11:; - , -2

8 .

\,C.
':i&$/:21
'-at. 1 4~:

-e/E.

*"'>==z';;,?i-

=. :f'.P:~,,.
..-R ' '51.

Kr-81 m has a longer half-life


Kr-81 m emits a lower energy gamma ray

Tc-99 m is less widely used than Kr-81 m


Tc-99m has a longer half-life than its parent Mo-99
Kr-81 m is used for lung ventilation studies

X-RAY INTERACTIONS
[]I5. Regarding the photoelectric effect

-Q l

ttmglggi

L__.s-~'
_s- "-1iu
t*'""

_'

FA. It is the predominant interaction between X-rays and tissues


when the photon energy exceeds 60 Kev
p B. Occurs only when the binding energy of an electron and the
photon energy are identical
i
T. May result in the generation of X-rays
Results in ionisation

F
5 Causes tissue heating in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
1I\_"\_, duringthe application-of the radiofrequency pulse
X-RAY TUBES

[:_:] 16. Regarding X-ray tubes


Rating of a tube is optimised if an exposure occupies less

25
;\

time than 1 revolution of the anode

The rating of a tube is greater from a 3-phase supply than a


half-wave rectified one
C. Rotating anode tubes conduct heat as fast as possible via
their bearings
D. The rating of a tube is increased when a small focal spot is
used
E. A rotating anode tube cannot be used with a self-rectifying
circuit
.

24

{QBa5e,.; 'MCQs'forthe Part1i=RCR

M"

Z
-

~v~.. ?~~~=:_-r.~7:7

YFILM5-AND SCREENS

<1-:F| 4.'s~<
.1;-., 1 r-;; ;'1

"-'..i'-.;.:~*

-1-; -ifl :1
.;>'5-~57 .lI',3.7.!.f:

E1] 17. The following statements are true

~.'._.|.,_
J'~1.-'i;.\.

'{1..:i15."
.=,,:-\\:~;,-_.3

A. Poor film screen contact increases screen unsharpness


VB. Unsharpness due to parallax commonly occurs insingle
emulsion films
C. Unsharpness due to crossover occurs most commonly in films
with tabular grains
D. Single emulsion films are used in nuclear medicine and digital
imaging
E.

.'.1?T-.43-5

rjr ~1~;'.

#9335555

'~.-.~.A,-,1.
'=t'%>i;
:_r_=--l'2

if ~..-$3;
jini

--rah.

~33

Single emulsion films are used when copying X-rays

Ylgteg.
..;_ A", -;

fgqizgrra
CT

_
a5'._qe;..h,.
-.~.$,<'q"'
._

IQ 18. Regarding computed tomography (CT)

4 "r&"-

A. The spatial resolution (SR) in CT is better than that in


conventional radiography
'
-(B. The contrast resolution in CT is better than that in
conventional radiography
Q
_
C. The CT number for air is 10O
'
~fD. The Cf number for water is O
E. The X-ray tube in a Cl" gantry is mounted with its axis parallel
to the slice chosen
__"

.~:r5:f.~.;{. Ia!-.r .
_.,:-..=v

O
.>_
rm
,'=f_*.""':
'\_<v-y
1 lg V 2'
Zzurfl

.9,

LQGAMMA IMAGING
19. Regarding quality assurance (QA) inlgamma imaging
I

A. Field uniformity is typically 12%


B. Cobalt-57 may be used to assess flood field uniformity
C . Intrinsic resolution of a gamma camera can be improved by
using a thinner crystal

F D. Intrinsic resolution refers to the resolution of the gamma


ca_mera plus the collimator
E._ System resolution is worsened by scattering of gamma rays

within the patient


RADIATION PROTECTION

; " @20. Radiation Protection

i '

'

F A. The effective dose limit for a member of the public is


SO mSv/year
QBase

MCQs for the Part T FRCR


I

' T

' '

'A=3-.iEllIiI55IEiilI.-=

'

1.

y.

s
.

_.

_.

__

F B. Brick walls do not provide any useful shielding against


diagnostic X-rays
\/I C. Any individual who wears a film badge/thermoluminescent

~A

~_-.

dosemeter (TLD) should be classified


<0. For a given film density, increasing the focus-film distance
reduces the skin dose to the patient

E. The dose limit for a member of staff who is pregnant is


13 mSv over the declared term of her pregnancy
_

.,

RADIATION PROTECTION

21. The following are true regarding the Medicines


(Administration of Radioactive Substances) Regulations

F-1

1978.~__[M(ARS)R 78]

A.

1'5

.3
..

l<BH~'.v'

-.-t-st"
F4: '3~. .

Administration of radioactive substances should only be

carried out by an Administration of Radioactive Substances

Advisory Committee ARSAC certicate holder


V 4,
M
ARSAC certificates are issued by the Department of Health
C-

ARSAC certificates are issued to a set group of clinicians

within an X-ray department


Employers are responsible for the patients treated under the

".139-*4

ACE

O
5'" An application for an ARSAC certificate must be signed by
the radiation protection supervisor
RADIATION PROTECTION
(E 22. The following statements regarding doses and dose rates
are true
Fluoroscopy dose rate at the input phosphor: 1 ;.tGy/second
Cine-radiogra phy - dose rate at the input prosper: 1 pGy/fram 8
.' .Digit'alI'iffiaging: 1 p.Gylframe
I I
s>;\;\,
YD. Photospot film: 10 uGy/frame
E. Skin doses may be up to 300"times greater than the dose to
the input phosphor
RADIATION PROTECTION
@23. The following effective doses are appropriate for the
following radiographic procedures
'

efA. CXR:0.02mSv

i/

B. IVU: 2mS

26

"

yQBa5e MCQsforthe Part1FRCR

.,
1-

(C. Barium meal: 2mSv


D. Barium enema: 5mSv
FE. CT abdomen: 4mSv
RADIATION PROTECTION

-.; 3,}

E1] 24. Radiation protection


Absorbed dose = energy deposited per unit area
In most medical applications, the equivalent dose is
numerically equal to the absorbed dose in tissues
i? C. The radiation-weighting factor for neutrons and alpha particles is five times greater than that of electrons
(TD. The units of equivalent dose are the Sievert
.-YE. The effective dose is the sum of the weighted equivalent
doses for all the tissues which have been exposed

52'
\.

.f=<:'

;a

-.._ 5:1,;

T
_,_

I-

RADIATION PROTECTION

r_\

::>?;=.-1:
. , _.

[E 25. The following statements are true

F A. If a tube is operated for 1h, the leakage of radiation at a


distance of 1 m from the focus must not total more than
10 mGy

F8. The housing and support plate of an image intensifier have a


lead equivalence of 1.0 mm
C. When palpating a patient, a glove of at least 0.25 mm lead
~ equivalence should be worn
_i
_
D. A 0.25 mm lead equivalent body apron typically transmits _
only 10% of 90 degree scatter
E. ln intenrentional radiology, body aprons should have a
minimum of 0.35 mm lead equivalence

QBase McQs?3F1E_'r5??i"'?l?cEM

'

ii

JG-.
Ea.
IQ-=5.
: 53?

I
'4-=

-'

"27

~-1.;

' =" " T $:=~~,;_---';";-_<>sj-,-'.~_:_:-1-._._

F5

4%? *9 I:'i>'I1

4
~ r.-' *-.; -

IE1.

A. true

B. false

C. false D. false

1; 2-_e=_ '

< .-"-=~-.= .- .' =12,-.'.; _ -:' " ii. 1'

E. true

The efficiency of production of light in a calcium tungs-tate screen


is only 5%, whereas that in rare earth screens approaches 2_0%;

Lanthanum oxybromide-fluoresces blue light. -

. s

'

intensification factor is the ratio of the exposure needed without


screens to exposure needed with the screen.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, lst Edn. Clinical Press
- Ltd., 1990.

2.A. true

B. true

C. true

D. true

E. true

As the images recorded directly from the intensifier output


phosphor, there is some loss of information as the film is square
and the output phosphor circular. 70 mm cameras are capable of
operating at up to 6 frames/second..Due to the short exposure _
times required a photo-timer is necessary for consistent results.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., 1990.

_[1|3.

A. false

'

B. true

C. false D. true E. false

Coherent scattering counts for less than 5% of the interactions in


the diagnostic energy range.
in coherent scattering, radiation undergoes a ch.-ng' in direction
without a change in wavelength, and therefore no change in
energy.

*._

Curry, Thomas. Christensenis Physics of Diagnostic Radiology 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

4.A. true B. false C. true

D. false E. true D

As long as the tube KVp is high enough, the majority of


interactions occur between lament electrons and K shell
electrons of the target material;
28

;QBa5e.. 7MCQs for the Part iil5RCR

if K!

"

1 .:. . .-'1:-_-i:=.s;:s.-...=v...s:

_4C_.4_ -41

The mAs is responsible for the energy of any electrons that make

up tube current.
- I
J .-

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

=.

A. false

B. false

C. false

D. false

I '- -.-.
... tr.. 1. .7.-~

E. false

flit?

IF = [exposure required for film alone] 1 [exposure reguired for


the film + screen].
A typical range for IF 530-100.
I '
IF increases with increasing kV.
i
'
I
lF is increased with larger crystals and increasing thickness of the
phosphor layer.
Rare earth screen have a larger IF thantungstate screens.

J1;

_. ;..

-",-.'.;r.'
K
_7

t\<

.g_'
"vi
__-UT/-
.. 1
1

Farr. Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging. 1st Edition, W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

'E.i=.-;~':
.,. ..
:1-":= slit

=E7.7-V
.T~/;?'

A. true

B. false

C. true

D. -false

E. true

The average dose of 2 mGy per mammogram carries a risk of


inducing a fatal cancer of approximately 20 per milli6n at 30-50
years of age and 10 per million at SD-65 years of age.
'
ln Xeroradiography a sheet of aluminium coated with a layer of
selenium is used instead of film. The final image is transferred to
paper which is then heated to permanently bond the toner
particles.
Xeroradiography generally incurs a higher dose to the patient
than the use of film-screen combinations.
This is known as edge enhancement.

"a/l/lsuv

-1.
_vI
,; - .|
1'1:

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

A. true B. false

C. false

D. false

E. false

Mobile gamma cameras are used in cardiac imaging: 250 mm


field and 5 mm thick crystal. This makes it relatively easy to position. }
A large field of view camera is used for bone and gallium
imaging. These cameras can take in the whole width of a patient.
A general-purpose collimator has a resolution of 9 mm.

QBase MCQs for ts. Part 1 FRCR

_.._.__-___-_______..._-.._.._.-_ ..._...-.

-.- --

Low-energy collimators can be used with gamma rays of up to


150 keV e.g., Tc-99 m.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics fo r Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

:?,51%l':e":'

:'.T<ri:2t
._,..,..
~:.:>=- =2
41;

@ 8.

A. false

B. false

C. true

D. true

E. false

The phosphors used in intensifying screens are fluorescent.


The reflecting coat is rriade of a white substance such as titanium
oxide.
Lightabsorbing dyes he lp' to prevent diffusion of light in the
phosphor layer, which acts to reduce the area of the film exposed
to light. The screen unsharpness is therefore reduced.
Theiuse of light-absorbi n g dyes reduces quantum mottle indirectly.
This is achieved by the absorption of a greater proportion of the
emitted light by the dyes, necessitating a greater exposure.
Consequently, quantum mottle also tends to be; reduced slightly. -- <

'-"V.
L-9.5 3'2 i
-.';=; -i"."l'l

-.,
;15_==+-ta:
.'-,=_\:.2i :1
?'Z'i";T:r7

, -. -:_-;=,_ .\
:'>;<i~.~. ,
_ \.
- __ _\
.. 1.;
" a.
r-. '5. =

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.

.;_ _ 5.x .
\-

1 -.1

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

El 9.

A. true

B. true

C. true

D. false -E. false

At very low photon energies, however, the photoelectric


interaction becomes more predominant.
The electron density of hydrogen is aboutgtwice that of all other
elements.
With increasing photon energy, scatter is more likely to occur in a
forward direction.
Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physic of Diagnostic Radiology 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

(E10.

A. true

B. true

C. true ~.D. true

E. true

With air gaps of less than 30cm, a high proportion of scattered


radiation still reaches the film.
Due to the increased exposure factors required in the air gap
technique, a screen with a high intensification factor is required
to reduce tube loading.
Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physicsof Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.e
I

50

(QBase MCQsf0rth7Part1FRCRW

H:

"

"W

EH1. A. false B. false C. false D. true E. false

A space charge of electrons is produced around the filament.

'

Tungsten is used as the filament material because it is a good


thermionic emitter and does not vaporise easily.

'_ '

A compound anode is usually made of copper and tungsten.


X-ray production is less than 1% efficient; the remaining energy
is lost as heat.
.

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

ii X92?
1,9.-igf
fi|U.*
3'.'i'=1t-1.

[E11 A. false

B. true

C. true

D. true

E. false

~-.=7
1~.~=.'
~.:

In practice some primary radiation is also absorbed in


conjunction with a secondary radiation. As a result, the exposure
factors need to be increased when a grid is used.
The ratio of incident to transmitted radiation describes Bucky
factor. Grid factor is the ratio of the exposure required with a
grid to that without a grid. The usual range is 2'6.
g

..J>
D

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology 1st Edn.,Clinical Press

Ltd., 1990.

13.
A. true B. false

C. true

D. false

E. true

Solarisatiohmeans that increased exposure actually destroys the


developable state. Hence, an increase in exposure produces a

decrease in density.
Solarised film is exposed with an ultraviolet light source. Lowdensity areas in the original X-rays allow more light through and
are hence reproduced as areas of low density on the copy film.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics ofRadioIogy, 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., 1990.

lE14. A. false B. false

'

C. false

D. false

E. true

The half life of Kr-81 m is 13 s compared to the half-life of Tc-99 m


of 6h.

Kr-81 m emits a 190-Kev gamma ray, whereas Tc-99m emits a


140-Kev gamma ray.
Tc-99m is the main stay radionuclide used in everyday practice.

QB359 r\/ic"o'%I>Tii%'"i5arI "ii Eric?" " nu""_"'M"W'_" """"M M T ' 51


i

. .-

Molybdenum~99 has a half-life of 67 h.


3

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

L!
.,._
..~ p..

my E}.

@15-

A. false

B. false

C. true

D. true

E. false

Photoelectric interactions predominate at low photon energies


(e.g., 30 ke\/). The interaction is proportional to the cube
of Z and inversely proportional to the cube of the
photon energy.
_

=.;':'="'t'I."

Photoelectric interactions can only occur if the photon energy

J.-'55.-:~: -Ti.

applied is greater than the nuclide binding energy of, for


example, a K shell electron.
In MRI, the tissue heating during the application of a
radiofrequency pulse is due to the electromagnetic energy
contained within the radio frequency applied X-rays, and as a
consequence their interactions, are not involved in MRl.

1;?
*Z"='=1;
:P
s.~.:.;,->_
2- ~; :i.-5
l-'r"?T5{-?:\,r-;;.~y.;
=.-$1.'l}'\-T
55:; ;:;7~_'

.~;.~g'-1 1

1\.{ fv I:;~K
::~*.;-_-5;,-e:

'=\i,-r.~:*
as
- ..._,;_=

Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


~-. .3

A?
F.
b.-. -

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

16A.

true 8. true

C. false D. false

E. false

Minimal heat is conducted along the anode stem to the bearings


Heat is lost via radiation through the vacuum to the insulating
oil. Fronj here it is conducted to the tube housing.
Rating falls with the use of a small focal spot.
A self-rectifying circuit can be used with rotating anodes, '

but X-rays are only produced during half of the AC voltage


supply.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology 1st Edn. Clinical
Press Ltd.
_

11.
A.

true B. false C. false- D. true E. true

Parallax is seen with double-emulsion lms.


__
Unsharpness due to crossover commonly occurs with
granular/globular grains.

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

32

. QBase. lMCQsforthe Partl FRCR

zzzzI

{E13

A. false B. true C. false

D. true

E. false

The SR in CT is only 1 lp/mm, whilst a detailed film-screen

combination may have an SR of 10 lp/mm.

The improved contrast resolution of CT is visualised by the use of


windowing.
The CT number of air is - 1000.

The X-ray tube is mounted perpendicular to the slice chosen, in

order to reduce any heel effect.

31-;

Farr, Allisy7Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

[E19

A. true

' _

B. true

C. true

D. false

E. true

i{-:.g=;

intrinsic resolution refers to the resolution of the camera only.


System resolution is the additional blurring caused by the
l
collimator and by scattering within the patient. Copsequently, it
is worse for fat rather than thin patients.
*

.~2-.;~:1.;>1<'.
r::i_ 13*;
2-'..

e'.=eLI;i
.-1..
. "a.
4',_..-;':~*

Farr, Allisy~Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. 8. Saunders

3'. .=:: L-1:-s~,

Co. Ltd.

[I-1| 20. A. false B. false C. false D. true E. false

1 ' Y?!

The effective dose limit for a member of the public is 1 mSv/year.


120 mm of concrete provides approximately equal protective
power against X-rays as 1 mm of lead.
Staff who are likely to exceed 30% of any annual dose limit for
workers need to be designated as classified.
Once pregnancy has been declared, the mother should not
receive more than 1 mSv to the foetus for the remainder of her
pregnancy.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical
Press Ltd.

[E21

A. false

B. true

C. false

D. false

E. false

Administration of radioactive substances can be carried out


under the clinical stkervision of a person holding the ARSAC
certificate.
The ARSAC certificate is issued to an individual clinician.
Clinicians are responsible for the patients treated under the Act.

Q3359 'it/TiiafFE}{TFriEi_ """"''m""'"'" W

"

33

A_

- .-=

The application for an ARSAC certificate must be signed by a


radiation protection advisor.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders
C0. Ltd.

@22.

l-'-i.-'-.1>Z
- -'/~-,r'i

~1. , -._ .

'\

C. false

D. false

E. true

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, ist Edn. W. B. Saunders

I:*;'-ii;
I \l
,p I

B. false

Cine-radiography: 0.1 ptGylframe


Digital imaging: 10 p.Gy/frame '
Photospot film: 1 uGy/frame

5611;:

A. true

CO. Ltd.

'2

J.'T:.

[1323

_ 23?;

A. true

B. false

C. false

D. false

E. false

IVU: 5mSv.
Ba meal: 5mSv.

Ba enema: 9mSv.
CT abdomen: 8mSv.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Ed. W. B. Saunders

%.=;>E"-2

Co. Ltd.

-vb

. .:=*r".'!:i-;

@211. A. false B. true C. false D. true E. true


Absorbed dose = energy deposited per unit mass -(J/kg or Gy).
The equivalent dose is numerically equal to the absorbed dose as
both X-rays and gamma rays have a radiation-weighting factor
of 1.
'
Neutrons and alpha particles have a radiation-weighting factor
102O times greater than that of electrons.
M
One Sv = J/kg.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

@225.
D

A. false

B. false

C. true

D. true

E. true

The maximum permitted leakage is 1mGy.


The housing and support plate have a lead equivalence of 2.5 mm.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

QBa5 MCQs for the P;\i"t1l5RCR 1*

*"""__~_

FILMS AND SCREENS


1.

- -aa@m%$.
~. "a ./~s.s a .-~
.

~~~~

~ai'" ->-

, -_' -1

5. 5* 1blE5l=.HS:

1. ~.'

'

The following types of screen can be used with film


sensitive to the blue region of the light spectrum

T111

wPnPP

Calcium tungstate screens


Barium strontium sulphate screens
Silver-activated zinc sulphide screens
Zinc cadmium sulphide (ZnCdS) screens
Terbium-activated screens
'

X-RAY INTERACTIONS
E112.

The amount of scatter reaching the film may be reduced

by

I
Restricting field size

Decreasing the part thickness irradiated


Using an air gap technique

PUP?

jis.-

Using a secondary radiation grid

gsgx-RAY iruses
3.

'

Placing a filter between the X-ray tube and the


patient

__

Regarding the focal spot

A. Focal spot size decreases with an increase in the tube


current
Focal spot size increases with an increase in kVp
The modulation transfer function (MTF) worsens with an
increase in the focal spot size
TD. A star test patternimaging tool is useful for assessing focal

'1.

spot sizes of less than 0.3 mm


E. The star test pattern measures the actual focal spot size

Q8359 McQ?rzT_i>'ER?E""""'"A""""'"'"h if

DOSIMETRY
@4.

'

Regarding the Geiger-Muller (GM) tube


The outer cylinder is the anode cathode.
Detection of ionising radiation occurs through the process of
gas amplification
argon
The anode and the cathode are surrounded by hydrogen
gas
The tube is sensitive to the detection of high-energy
radiation
A voltage of 25 kV is applied across the tube V

_ c_--3..
P.if=':i11l{t-

;1E'L:~

..'?l'1'l.--

_0J12.
-f}

3l>.Zi_'f;;
" 1:}
~._=1ri,:.;_C::<;-

;:~:(;?"-3%;

IMAGE QUALITY
@5.

1'-Z-i',.'55i

Resolution may be_ expressed as line pairs per mm


Line spread function (LSF) is calculated from an image
produced by a narrow line source of X-rays
When measuring LSF, image boundaries are less well
recorded with highspeed screens than with slower-speed
screens
The LSF of an X-ray exposed without a screen deteriorates as
compared to a film exposed with a screen
~
The resolving power of an imaging system is its ability to
record, as separate images, small objects placed very close
together

'-c-..T.~:\Y
'==';;='=.T-.at.-:=_?:

.3;*ii.;;~:v:r
>,._ _
- I~;_"

'~~.:\

i -1

i.-r

Regarding resolution of an image

';:;.

-is

RADIOACTIVITY

[El 6.

Regarding radioactivity
ls a random process
ls produced when annihilation radiation is produced
ls an exponential decay-process for a given radionuclide
ls more likely to happen when a radioactive source is heated
Beta particles have a range of only a few millimetres <

GAMMA IMAGING
7.

Regarding a photomultiplier tube

\/ A. Electrons are accelerated through a series of dynodes


<8. It needs to be shielded from light

36

:QBase. MCQsf_or the Part 1 FRCR mt A

-K

'

/\ C.
,1 D.
E.
X

The insides of the tube are coated with a reflective layer


The tube contains a vacuum
Radiations of different energies can be distinguished from
each other
'
1

X-RAY INTERACTIONS
@8.

Regarding the mass attenuation coefficient (MAC)

(A. Of an absorber, is proportional to the linear attenuation


co-efficient of the absorber
'

F B. Of wateris greater than that of ice


QC. Of an absorber, varies with the physical density of that
absorber
P
.
.
YD. Has units of grams per square centimetre
Q.

_.

.
( -A a'.;':~

-=2-"-we
:. llii

=.;5T':~:
.~.'.;

-1-

_ _,-:1;

ii:-

....~ _-3:-i
:;':?.==;

.-2521:"-.
::,:.'.t;;;
':~,':-I-v,'.:
- .,
~i-2:51"-.11"!
._y..
__
-$.16): :1-

ls equal to the density of an absorber divided by its linear

"_"~,2_:'
_,

attenuation coefficient

*s,..:.:

ai-

. =';w.~

.3;?!'_=__::-:\-_'_3f;-;-

X-RAY fuses
[]9.
'

T.
D
3

1-_?.1-5

X-ray production

A. In all forms of diagnostic radiology, 80% or more.'of the


X-rays emitted are Bremsstrahlung radiation
<8. The photon energy of the K-radiation increases as the atomic
number of the target increases
_
*
C. lncreasing the kV shifts the X-ray spectrum curve to the
left
.
lncreasing the mA does not affect the shape of the X-ray
spectrum
E. The ripple factor for a 6-phase generator is less than that of a

12-phase generator

'@_n

st-we

-r---... =
v-;O_~:

. J3 -," '2.
.~'.\!'%'$r
-.. =:i.
- -~.'-?~ -1 i

.:

i"'|MAGE QUALITY
10. Secondary radiation grids
The line density of a moving grid is typically 25 lines/mm
Grid lines reduce fine detail definition on an X-ray

/ii .

. Crossed grids are more efficient at removing scattered

radiation than uncrossed grids 9


D. Decreased exposure doses are required when using a crossed
grid as opposed to an uncrossed grid

E. Moir fringes are typically seen with uncrossed grids


QBase

Mcoor the_P_a_;-a._F_R..C.R

.__._,._-_,_. .__._

M37

IFILMS AND SCREENS


[El 11. Regarding films and screens

-{A. -The front of an X-ray cassette is usually made of aluminium

~_,..

or carbon fibre

t
.1. ~ .

_-I==-*.:I'.-.

5'} -';."Y?.~i
5;? :72

->+1'-'2i'

17*-'4-:-1
.7 #15::

-3
..my.
.'-.~"~!~ . 5

<!''~:?.~"=s--t
?.~.'.'?-'7:~.
'.E=':E-'/.~;-"
,:-:?'_.;i_;;2

-"a~l"=.'"I'L

->;_..=;j.s:-.-

/<8 .

The back of an X-ray cassette usually incorporates a thin leadw


sheet to reduce backscatter
I
"
/\/c. An intensifying screen consists of a polyester base40.2S mm |
thick with phosphor crystals 310p in size
_
i
_ /D. The most frequently used phosphors in an intensifying"
1
\,
.screen are calcium tung_state, lan_thanum and
" ~
'
gadolinium
<E. Rare earths screens are more efficient than tungsten in
converting absorbed X-rays into light

:"i.<Z<-.<i
7l_"1i-I-22?.

!.\.';_f":

>i=:;x_
:Zi1T5.?

FILMS AND SCREENS

1'=15.';;<e-

.-:.-.:-_-gs
if--'='s?n>L-'2}

~ #:3-

.
Ii:

12. Exposure factors

A. A high mAs is generally desirable when selecting exposure


factors
43. The kV chosen should be as high as possible when selecting
exposure factors
- '
'
Exposure times can be reduced by using a larger focal

are

D. Exposure times can be reduced by using a single-

phase generator rather than a threephase


generator
E. Exposure times can be reduced by using both a lower speed
and smaller diameter anode disc

U :7:
.53

.1

'1

GAMMA IMAGING

ii

El 13. Regarding the gamma camera


A. Sensitivity can be measured by imaging a line
source
B. The use of a thinner crystal improves sensitivity
_
C. Quantum mottle is improved by using a shorter
exposure
D. Spatial resolution is unaffected by high count rates
4 E. Gamma imaging is said to be noise limited

as

'*QBase_ MCOsforthePart1FRCR W _

if
~_ S

';";..
.'-~
.\.,_.;..
, r .

12;ss>'-

:9? V

AND SCREENS

_14.
Regarding unsharpness

= .
,

T5 ,<A. Parallax unsharpness is usually seen when viewing wet


fI I m
"TB. In order to minimise total unsharpness, the values of the
separate unsharpness components should approximate each
other
/(C. Screen unsharpness results from diffusion of light within the
screen phosphor
'
4). Poor film screen contact increases the degree of
unsharpness
"\/E. Fast screens have an unsharpness of about 0.3 mm
.

',_
-, '

.-'%"r"'~

$5!

s; ~
.

X-RAY INTERACTIONS AND FILTERS

;\ 1

[Q 15. The airgap technique

A. There is a significant degree of filtration within the air gap


itself
B. In the diagnostic energy range there is a strong bias towards
fon/vard scattering
T
C. The results are equivalent to using a grid, but higher patient
exposures are necessary
(TD. In order to preserve image sharpness, the focus to film
distance needs to be increased in conjunction with an
increase in object to film distance
(FE. The ratio of scattered to primary radiation reaching the film

I
I

._

for a given thickness of an absorber depends on the size of

the air gap present

X-RAY TUBES

@ 16. Regarding X-ray generating apparatus


(VA. In the transformer assembly the filament circuit is supplied by
a step-down transformer
F8. in the transformer assembly the potential difference across
'
the step-up transformer is usually 50 kV
TC. The transformer assembly contains oil which acts to prevent
electrical sparking between the transformer assembly
components

QBa5e MCQ-sffo-r_t'l1_e-;a'ct_1-vi-:RC~R_

' '

_ M

' '9

54,

? 0.
-~

-1-.
a-

.! s; 2 1;;

='~:=i1>;-

'. =1;

T H1 i

through the filament

TOMOGRAPHY
[Q 17. The following are true regarding tomography

CA
C.
-',.- Iirs
if-'-~T.~ ,.

;.11frat.

1"=_>T.-"
:,j"_'_;
f.

,=- ~:'::. :

1-.;__-,3. 2;
;

/E. In the filament circuit a current of 3-5 A is usually produced

1- X-is

E.~_'g
E-3 5:7-;.r_.

In the filament circuit a potential difference of about 100V is


applied across the filament

D1

E,

:.-;'-:l~E.-

In autotomography the X-ray tubemoves in a circular arc


In autotomography exposure times in the order of 250 ms
are used
Pantomography is a technique which produces a panoramic
radiograph of a curved surface
In pantomography both the X-ray tube and film rotate
during an exposure
_
ln orthopantomography (OPG) the X-ray apparatus changes
its axis of rotation twice during a single exposure

~! 9 1,

1-.5

IMAGE QUALITY
@18. Regarding grids used in radiography

.;B_

iii

They improve contrast "


The grid ratio is defined as the ratio of total area covered by
the lead foil strips to the total area covered by the interspace
material
Consists of a series of lead strips separated by a transparent
spacing material
The grid ratio for a crossed grid is equal to the product of the
ratios of the two superimposed linear grids
An X-ray tube can be angled when using a linear grid
without cutoff occurring

GAMMA IMAGING

'

@19. Gamma imaging

/(A.
?B.

4s-

Rectilinear scanners produce images more slowly than


gamma cameras
A high-energy collimator is routinely used when imaging
with Technetium-99 m
Radioisotopes are less well resolved at depth in tissue
compared to those near the skin ~_

E _ QBase MCQs for the Part 1H FRCR

'

up

iiil
:3
is

ji

I D. A desirable isotope should have a short half-life to reduce


patient dose

'
_/ E. The greater the sensitivity of a collimator, the lower its
\
spatial resolution
~

RAD|AT|ON PROTECTION

'

(*4-.
-ts

1.="7:~.;=.~

F -T? ii "

@120. The following statements are true

?A. Localrules are enforced by the radiation protection


supervisor (RPS)
A
i
A
g "
B. Local rules are a legal document .
I
C. The department of the environment is responsible for
enforcing the Radioactive Substances Act 1993
D. The Health & Safety Executive (HSE) _is responsible for
enforcing the lonising Radiations Regulations I999
(IRR 99)
?E. The Department of the Environment is responsible for
enforcing the IRR 99
"

;'_|'l.
.- xv!-

.,:'- :-'=~:

15:
-1-, - M_;

1-"r11ft'_;_
.-,.
.'-!1L',..
.t- ..-,~. .

-,

i1=';';t::';
'i3f_\'~

1;.-F3:

_2."-2;;
.t:z='*:*;
'.=_*:;;;' ~

3:5 5:_~,;:
31??-t"--_~
-:r.._=,=
-*-"1 ~>.z!T

RAD|AT|ON PRQTECTKIN

E] 21. The following are true

SQQ1_S8l'lO

A. lncreasing kV reduces the skin dose to the patient


B. lncreasing kV reduces the dose to deeper tissues _
C. lncreasing the focus to film distance (FFD) reduces patient
dose
,
? D. The entrance dose for a PA chest X-ray is greater than that of
an AP abdominal X-ray
?E. Skin dose increases exponentially with increasing mAs

T
E
T"

?fRAo|A"r|oN PROTECTION
E2] 22. The feliowing statements are true

'

(\A. Human error resulting in serious patient over-exposure


should be investigated by the Department of Health
(DoH)
Fla Equipment fault causing a patient over-exposure greater
than twice the dose intended, results irPthe equipment being
withdrawn from use
TC. The Department of Health should always be informed of
equipment failures

QBase MCQs for'lTe7%?i'TFT1Ei?"' """_M''_~_"'"m"" ' i

41

'
~
L
_ '_i'-

_V

l'-.__r,,,,,\_.

Q D. lt is not necessary to retain the completed request form afte


an X-ray has been taken
/ E. The Department of Health recommends that lms and other
\
records be kept for a minimum of 6 years

RADIATION PROTECTION
[E 23. Regarding radionuclides and their effective doses

1'?_!\l_=

A. Tc-99m macroaggregates (MAA) of albumin: effective dose 1

i it (ED) = 5rn5v

4:; Galium-67:ED=18mSv

=(c. Tc-99m MAG3: so = 1mSv

"

Kr-81 m gas: ED = 1mSv


E. Tc-99m phosphonates: ED = 1 mSv

T RADIATION PROTECTION
f

E] 24. The following entrance doses are appropriate for the


following radiographs
AP lumbar spine X-ray: 10mGy
AP abdominal X-ray: 5 mGy
'
AP pelvic X-ray: 5 mGy
PA chest X~ray: 0.3 mGy
PA skull X-ray: 5 mGy

I".=i$l>
s

RADIATION PROTECTION
[|25. Persons may receive higher radiation doses in the
following types of work

tau

Cardiac catheterisation
4
lnterventional radiology '
Radiopharmaceuticalpreparation
Nursing a patient undergoing brachytherapy
Preparation and insertion of radioactive implants

w.
\

41?

A1 QBa$eV_

MCQs for the

_'

C ~ '

-1

_1-.,;u~.

'~.

ii , < ._
. .
- .-~>"_'-..r:.~=j:_=.~-=.--2
1-. .-

1:",-'*r=='
-5,1-=i:=;.1,-. '
- ,;1;.=:.'\,1

'*'>--;_~-,:._- 3*.-.--;.=, _~_* -1*

~e#Xnsvvers

[Z]1.

A. true

B. true C. true

D. false

E. false

The light emission from calcium tungstate, barium strontium

sulphateand silver-activated zinc sulphide screens occurs in the


blue region of the light spectrum.
ZnCdS is used as the output phosphor in an image intensifier.
lt emits light in the yellow-green region.
Terbium is an activator in rarer screens which emit light in the
yellow-green region.
A
Curry, Thomas. Christensenv's_Physics of Diagnostic Radiolqjqy 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

2.

A. true

B. true

C. true D. true

E. false

A filter in this position removes the useless low-energy radiation


which would not have had sufficient energy to reach the film.
ii.

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams &Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

*4:

=1-2

s
: "Y:

.2

K.

.F

A. false

B. false C. true

D. true

E. false

Focal spot size increases with an increase in the tubecurrent. This


effect is called blooming and is more markedat low peak kVp
and high mAs-.
The focal spot size decreases slightly with increasing peak
kVp.

The pinhole camera technique measures actual focal spot size,


whereas the star test pattern measures the resolving capacity of
the focal spot.
Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

QBase "rTc5'rZ>?'iFi5TiTE'RcR

.__ _

. .-._ _......_;1_

A. false

B. true

C. false D. false

E. false

,.

The outer case is the cathode.


The tube is usually surrounded by an inert gas, usually

argon, which is combined with either alcohol vapour or a

3?-'
1if
1,

halogen gas, and maintained at low atmospheric pressure


(10 cmHg).
A
High-energy radiation tends to pass through the tube and is thus
less likely to be detected.
_

-i

1;-r _1-.~'.-I
61"-i=.

;!;'~r.

L ..

A voltage of 900l,O50V is applied across the tube when alcohol


1;;

I Z:=.'~?.

ii-1\;'-it

?.<-is.
fi.l,~!

vapour is used. Alternatively a voltage of 2004_i00V is applied '


when a halogen gas is used.
Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

rEf'"l
5 .;-Lila

A. true

B. true

C. true

D. false

E. true

in-{.15

sfei
_';!

The LSF of an X-ray film which is exposed without screens is


improved, as there is no light diffusion from the screen.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., 1990.

A. true

V
l

B. false

C. true

D. false

E. true

When a positron and an electron annihilate each other,


electromagnetic radiation is emitted.
The process of radioactivity is not influenced by external
factors.
-

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


I

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

A. true

B. true

C. true 'D. true

E. true

if external light were not excluded, incident light would


stimulate the photocathode and produce a pulse. The inside is
coated to reflect back any light that might otherwise have
escaped. Different energies can be assessed, as the size of the
electrical pulse emitted is proportional to the amount of light
emitted from the photocathode. This in turn is proportional to
the energy of the incident photon. The dynodes act as an

QBase, ' MCQS f6rrhe P=SF1"i5ir<W"T_T"T-T "'_'_' _"''T

amplification process for the photoelectrons emitted, so as to


produce a readable output current from the tube.

'

.=1

Curry, Thomas. Christensen s Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


I

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

[E8.

A. true B. false C. false

D. false

xql-2';
5..-i<*. -.
-,,..-t
~.. ,

E. false

=s~'|'|1=.;

The MAC of water is identical to that of ice.


The MHAC is independent. of the physical density of an absorber.
MAC has units of square cm per gram.
l w

The MAC equals the linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) divided


by the physical density of an absorber.

1 ma .

<1

-Y .1.
.-:':~::.

;?_~'1;-5.

.t;_-\s:_~,-,
LI <1."-'
.~ *' ~,_

Curry, Thomas. Christa-nsens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
-

=;s;;;<I-*
:;-. -~ -i it-?:_+'

|:_i:|9.

"

A. false B. true C. false D. true E. false

-- I; .~ _-.

'-

In mammography, characteristic radiation forms.the majority of


the X-ray spectrum.
Increasing the kV shifts the X-ray spectrum curve to the
right.
"
lncreasing mAs increases tube output.
' i
Ripple factor: 6-phase generator -13%; 12-phase generator 3%

=1....,.

sq _-.,

1>
:1;

-In ~.

.;=-;

Farr, Allisy~Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

10. A. false B. true C. true


'
"

D. false

E. false

Line density of a- moving grid .= 5 lines/mm


Increased exposure doses and careful centring are required with
crossed grids.
Moir fringes are a coarse interference pattern seen when the
crossed grids are not at right angles to each other.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
.. Co. Ltd.

|El11. A. true

a
B. true

C. true

D. true

E. true

Aluminium and carbon fibre reduce attenuation of an X-ray


beam, thus reducing patient exposure.

QBase 'aEa2'i'."1t;'1;s;;facti

as

~41 -\_n~-

Lanthanum and gadolinium are classed as rare earth phosphors.


Rare earth screens are 20% efficient; calcium tungstate screens

have an efficiency of 5%.


i

f,,. 1

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

PT. -

.iIs."5
9=<:-'
(-.v.

l::ff

@12.

B. true

C. true

D. false

E. false

The mAs should be kept as low as is needed in order to reduce


-exposuretimes.
,
lncreasing kV increases penetration and latitude of exposure.
However, the kV should not be so high that insufficient contrast
results.
Exposure times are reduced by using a three-phase generator
rather than a singlephase generator.
Exposure times can be reduced by using a higher speed and
larger diameter anode disc.
-

5; '1.

=1 .-.;;
:'
-i3 L-Y
c/5'
.
2'

. .1 ,:Tl<

2 54

= !':?'

{52311
.'

==->33

A. false

Farr, Al|isy~Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

@13. A. false B. false C. false D. false E. true


Sensitivityiis assessed by imaging a flood field phantom.

%?.i1i

'

Using a thinner crystal improves resolution at the expense of


decreased sensitivity.
With shorter exposures, counts fluctuate from pixel to pixel
resulting in increased noise.
At high count rates, there are an increasing number of counts
lost due to the dead time with a consequent reduction in spatial
resolution.
_

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.
.

[Em

A. true

B. true

C. true

D. true

E. true

Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
B

Z
15.
A. false B. false C. false D. true E. true

The air gap technique is effective because scattered photons


simply miss the film.
.
-

.QBa;e tieaifortiae PZFJFREE

iT_T_ '

No forward scattering bias exists._ln the diagnostic energy


range a photon is likely to be scattered equally in any
direction.
Lower patient exposures are necessary than with a grid-.
A large air gap will reduce the ratio of scattered to primary
radiation reaching the film.
Curry, Thomas. Christenser|s Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Vllilkins (Europe) Ltd. g

A. true B. false

C. true

D. false

E. true

The potential difference across the step-up transformer may be


as much as 150 kv.
In the filament circuit, an incoming mains supply of 220V is
stepped-down to provide a potential difference of about 10V
across the filament.
...... .. . .
_
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, ls_t Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., 1990.
s~

A. false

9'".l~'l@@F

B. false

C. true

D. true

E. true

Autotomography is a technique which involves patient


movement while keeping the X-ray tube and film stationary.

Long exposure times, in the order of 5s, are used for this
technique.
The OPG machine needs to change its axis of rotation twice to
allow for angulation of the jaw.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., 1990.

Hiiki

A. true

B. /___
false C. true

D. _____
false E. true

The grid ratio is defined as a ratio of the height of the lead strips
to the distance between them.
The grid ratio of a crossed grid is equal to the sum of the two
superimposed linear grids.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, lst Edn. Clinical
Press Ltd.

Q3559 McQ{?5rl'1HE_Pa'Ei'1'riicri
:_

if

MSUV

ifs.

Rib!

@191. A._ true B. false C. true D. true E.-true


Tc-99 m emits a gamma ray of 140 KeV._ This is usually used in
conjunction with a low-energy general~purpose collimator.

.-Ti
ll -.T.~_
I ;="--.'
.

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

~
E3~~'-E1 5-I-I

:4 2
.i=!;-'1

[E20

A. false

C. true

D. true

E. false

The local rules are policed by the RPS, but enforced by_the local
HSE lnspector.
Enforcing the IRR 99 is the responsibility of the Secretary of Stat
E
for Health who uses the appropriate HSE.

;:;
_';.-__.

3-:7.f=5<.

._ ,_.._,

'=.:~_:r.=,-T=
,._
l '=<~}<S>.
.l;l'<:s
5 '.~ 3;.-;_2.
t
i,iL:;.7i--';

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

F. =:-?- ~1-

21.
A.
2-.
' .3
-:.i?Z
;q"4-_=, _1:<>':_will
~:

B. true

,<."i-=. -J13:-'1?

true

B. true

C. true

D. false

E. false

The entrance dose for a PA chest X-ray = 0.3 mGy: AP


abdomen = 10mGy.
~
Skin dose increases linearly with increasing mAs.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, Est Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

@22.

A. true

B. false

C. true

D. false

E. true

If the overexposure is greater than 3 times the dose intended,


the equipment should be withdrawn. Nevertheless, all faults
should be investigated and rectified.
'
The DoH should always be informed so that hazard-warning
notices can be issued nationally as appropriate.
A completed request form, signed by a medical practitioner, is a
legal document and should be retained, often in the X-ray
packet.
Films and records should be kept for 6 years for possible future
litigation and for calculations of total patient dose.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.
\

QBa5e" McQ$1ZFi':T'FiEF'"" '1'":" '""""""m"_'_""

S"-'1.''7_T'g Q
53.
:

5.

23.
A. false

B. true C. true

D. false

E.false

Tc-99 m MAA: ED - 1 mSv.

Kr-81 m: ED - 0.1 mSv.


Tc-99 m phosphonatesz so - 5 mSv.

Farr, AllisyRoberts. Physicsfor Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

E124. A. true

B. false C. false

D. true _E. true

AP.abdomen: 10 mGy.
AP pelvis: 10 mGy.

'

11-.;~.=z:"

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

@25. A. true 8. true

C. true

D. true

E. true

e~ ~'5g:::

lt is unlikely that many persons in a hospital will need to be designated as classified persons on the basis of likely exposure.
However, in the types of work listed, persons may receive higher
d oses.
-

I
Regulation 9 AC7/64. T-he lonising Radiations Regulations 1988 (IRR 88).

mm;
, 7- .
'51"

I-'1

Q3359 Vc5"iE>}"{rgi=Zr{i Fae? i if ' _" " M M

49

"r

':.= "1-Q

.-

/-

eff.

~..'

_.

11- "P 4 (1:


1; . ' " 4:
=
V . - It
<

3!

,5
P

' ~ _ '-I-"$5.5 _"--'- '- [1


-.
7- -.

5',;._ .

RADIOACTIVITY
[E 1.

The followihg are true

A. The nucleus of an elerrjient is composed of neutrons and


electrons
. B. The half-life of a radioisotope is analogous to the decay
constant
C. Beta particles tend to be emitted from nuclides with an
excess of electrons
-"YD. When a radioisotope emits a positr0n;,its atomic number
decreases by unity
E. A radioisotope in a metastable state emits a gamma ray and

turns into another element


X-RAY INTERACTIONS

IQ 2.

The following are true

FA. Attenuation = absorption scatter


B. Coherent scattering accounts for generally less than 5% of all
X-ray interactions
C. The photoelectric effect results in ionisation of an atom
D. For pair production to occur, the incident radiation must have
a minimum energy of at least 1.02 MeV
? E. Attenuation of polychromatic radiation is usually exponential
IMAGE QUALITY

E113.
P

'

The following are true:

\A. Magnification is reduced by using a shorter focus to film


distance (FFD) or by increasinjg the object to film
distance
(OFD)
,.

YB. Distortion is increased by using a longer FFD

/C. Geometric unsharpness is reduced by using a smaller focal


\
spot
_
'
-*"---

50

_.* ._ V

-QBa5e

lVlCQs for the Paiiii fliCR

W .=.... ___.-..._ _...,.____._._..__,..-.__..__.__.._

vw

7-.

Geometric unsharpness is increased by increasing the OFD


Movement unsharpness may be reduced by immobilisation

as

r. -1-if.

X-RAY TUBES
1
,4- r

i @4. Regarding rotating anode tubes (RAT)


_,

A. RATs cool by conduction of heat along the anode stem


B. RATs have a limited use in diagnosticradiology
C. ln routine diagnostic radiology RATs rotate at approximately

_1s;00.0 rpm

V r

~ The target anode disc is usually made from pure tungsten


alone
Heat dissipation from the anode assembly is proportional to
the fourth power of the Kelvin temperature of the anode

E-''.*5-i

=-.s<"-

.513 F

E Q13:

2.1

.-_ -.>_'.~_
~-~i_:-5-E
<1'<. cl : i,

5-,-_..

i?:'_w.~.i;:
l-" >'-; 5.

~E=-

FILMS AND SCREENS _


l @ 5.

The following are true


A.
B.

/(c.
D.

='t-1.11 :1.
-'_.:-:~.f1.7-=.'.

-:=.,=_\..r.-;-T
.~.e.'I;Is

::.:r;:;=
:.>:- -

Photographic emulsion is a suspension in gelatin of 50%


iodide and 50% bromide
f_
Photographic emulsion is not affected by creasing or
mechanical pressure
'
in silver halide crystals, sensitivity specks absorb electrons to
form a latent image
About 90% of X-rays falling on a film cassette are absorbed
by the front intensifying screen
Silver halide crystals are about 1 pm in size

gmo
I-I1

~24

sl-

.. .111
!-:-VA"._.-~.-pa-.
...r.. .

.'~7i-.-'-

TEEILMS
AND SCREENS
$2-.
;

51??

6.The following statements are true


(A. Automatic exposure control (AEC) cannot be performed with

-a plate ionisation chamber


AEC may be carried out using a phosphor coupled to a
photomultiplier tube
A
c
C. AEC devises are generally larger than the film cassette
D. When measuring the kV for quality assurance, the actual
tube kV should bevwithin +/S% of the set value
$2. A penetrameter is not a suitable method for measuring
tube k\/
B.

Q5359 T/i'EF)ior'ih Part 1 rR'ci=i'

"'

'

Si

C --

ff '

25

GAMMA IMAGING
|i7.

131*

Regarding radionuclides

A. An ideal radionuclide should be polyenergetic


B. An ideal radionuclide should emit both beta particles and
gamma rays
'
C. In a technetium (Tc) generator, at transient equilibrium,
Tc-99m decays with a half-life of 6 h.
,_gD. In a Tc generator, Mo-99 is absorbed onto an alumina \
exchange column i
- E. Tc-99m is eluted with sterile dextrose saline solution
-

-2&2?

. c_._ . .
.12.,l1"J:1.
I

:11.-/=7:'

Mg;

-_q.3Z;!;.a.;

r;i.=:;e:=-

FlLM AND SCREENS

' >.. Iii;-I :

Q] 8.

The following are true of X-ray film

'41 '
:,=._': _ as
=_:;;;t .,_i
I-'-:'I;_'5'.

:1 i.j.Z_"'.
;;"I;?.5-X
.=,;;'f_-'.'.\.7__
'12-~;"5,='<

..

t
is

X-RAY TUBES
El 9.

In an unexposed film, base plus fog is approximately 0.5


. Fiimfoggingis independent of the film age
. Film fogging is independent of the processor temperature
The greater the film latitude the lower the film gamma
Fl_Uo.1;> The greater the film latitude the higher the film gamma

Regarding rectification

A. Rectification refers to the process of changing direct current


into alternating current
./B. Full-wave rectification utilises the full potential of the
\
electrical supply in the production of X-rays
C. In a three-phase generator, three separate voltage pulses in
phase with each other are produced to provide almost

i
I
I

constant potential
The ripple factor for a six-pulse generator is 13%
E. The ripple factor for a single-phase generator is 3%
X-RAY INTERACTIONS
@ 10. The following are ways in which X-ray interact with

matter
H

52

.A. Coherent scattering


\B. Photoelectric effect
Compton scattering

*~

1-t,_QBa5'e MCQs for theFa_rt1 FRcr<_~fW3: mu"

" err.
4
~~
'1

,gag.2~.'3*.
_-42.1.

,\m/

Pair production
Photodisintegration

-iaoslmernv

E1] 11.

The following are methods of dosimetry


Erythema test dose
Conversion of ferric sulphate to ferrous sulphate
A colour change induced in barium platinocyanide

<\ rnq_nu:;>

1.532
.',g

Q x 7'.

Change in the colour of litmus paper from blue to red

Fluorescence

'

'*_.?.:',
2 {,1 -

r.-'f- ii:-1
__,
\,..

XERORADIOGRAPHY

E1] 12.

=-_~,=-til. =

H ,. .
_>=>+r'
-.;.'-, 4-:
";_~\
=<-3

The following are true of xeroradiography

.__) _

A. There is better edge contrast

3.
1:

_
Q3 Developing speed of a xeroradiographic plate is longer than
conventional techniques
C. The dose incurred to the patient is generally higher than film
screen systems

Special handling is required for the plates


__
PTO The resolution achieved with this technique is relatively poor

I (-

a;-"r ,'-1.;-If
~_.. .. ._
,..-.,.,,-,_
;' ft; 1

reg.-.
-._.,

.~_z.;,-_
. .-,_...
I;}1.=.,1-,2.

1.3nO
1 O ;."='

.-55:
4-

{Iii/IAGE QUALITY
:31.

13. The following are true


,2--

A. ln a tomogram the contrast is independent ofrthe thickness

of the cut
B. The shadow of a circular object held parallel to a film is also

wsft i t i

\'
Y.
C.

i:.'L

circular
Magnification is increased when the focus to object distance

is increased
D. Radiographic contrast is D2 D1, where D2 and D1 are

optical density on two adjacent areas of a lm

E. Contrast depends upon both thethickness and the difference

in attenuation coefficients in the structures that go to create it

RADIATION PHYSICS " -

' 14.

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR)


A. The velocity of EMR in air is about half of that in a vacuum
B. in air, all forms of EMR obeys the inverse square law

QBase r\?)s?5FIHE'P?ii'FR"""

'

' I

53

//C.

_/

\D

i mi?

*;:33~tiit-R12
f..:'; :_->1
:.f'-I-:45

.-er '1"-2;.
Etlliita-

t;-5%;
i -ililffli

{,2-1;; 5;".

3 -~.=_~ ;i;;
Il".7':r;.~;=

.-_!_

.-.

The wavelength and frequency of EMR are always inversely


proportional to each other

The intensity of EMR is the amount of energy passing


through a unit area per unit time

E.

X-rays and gamma rays are of lower photon energy than


visible light

X-RAY INTERACTIONS AND FILTRATION

[Q 1s. Regarding filtration


/?A.
\e.

AI

ln a compound filter, the higher atomic number material


should face the patient
Aluminium and tin are the most commonly used compound

filters

if J-"5-'3

Filters used in diagnostic radiology, reduce the exposure dose


to a patient
D. Filtration increases both the minimum and effective photon

C.

energies of an X-ray spectrum


-.

E.

it
=_ . .
.

Excess filtration increases exposure times A

:5:I

=U_'\ s

X-RAY TUBES

EQ] 16. The following are true


A

Z:

The heel effect is most prominent at the cathode end of


the tube
The steeper the target the greater the heel effect
A
The shorter the focus to film distance (FFD), the less is the

heel effect for a given film size

,<D. When a body part of considerable varying thickness is to be

X-rayed, it is advantageous to place the thicker part towards


the cathode side of the tube
E. The intensity of an X_ray beam is uniform across its field
FILIVIS AND SCREENS

[E 17/. The following are true


n
A. Optical density depends upon the number of silver grains per
unit area of film
B. Optical density = Log to base 10 (transmitted light : incident

~\

light)

5;

QBase iMa;isr the l;art1FRCR "'

A logarithmic scale is used for optical density primarily in


order to make graphical analysis easier
lf 1% of light from a viewing box is transmitted through an
X-ray lm, then the optical density is 2.0
If both the front and rear emulsions of an X-ray film each
providean optical density of 1.2, then the total optical
density is equal to the product of these values = 1.44

IMAGE QU2\L|T.Y

~ _

18 The fol_low_ing.s1:atementslare true

'

Focal spot modulation transfer function (MTF) is reduced


with macr0radiography
Screen MTF is increased with macr.o-radiography
ln macro-radiography, screen unsharpness is also magnified
In mammography, subject contrast is achieved primarily via
photoelectric absorption
' H
In mammography, an appropriate operating lcvp would be
28 k\/

E 19 Regarding noise in computed tomography (CT)

suo
xsano

Noise may be reduced by decreasing the number of photons


absorbed in each voxel
Noise may be reduced by either decreasing slice thickness or
reducing pixel size
Noise may be reduced by either increasing mA or increasing
the scan time
Narrow windowing makes noise more noticeable
Zoom enlargement of a CT display increases noise

it"

RADIATIQN PROTECTION
20 The following statements are true
Any individual is allowed to be present in an X-ray room
when radiation is being generated
The doors of an X-ray room should be closed during
examinations
For persons of reproductive capacity, gonad shields must
always be used

|/<1;>~<>

M'E113r<':%'i5ar i Fiicii

ss

An anteroposterior rather than a posteroanterior, projection


of the chest can greatly reduce the dose to the breast
Phantoms should be used for training in radiography and
research into examination techniques
l I";-3" \'
' E if
'
.

";':;-.

Y i_E?i I RADIATION PROTECTION


21. The following statements areitrue
'

..,,,, ,
'5:*~-{-z-

. \

Stochastic effects are threshold dependent

; ';l'._:_;.'_;. I

i:*i%E:"
rf-:=:'-f

!=.~,-'-?J7'~
:%'\-:4-i
21:1-Y r

It
ru

A dose of 1Sv to the testes produces sterility


Nonstochastic effects are threshold dependent ,
A dose "of 2 Sv to the eyes will produce cataracts

A.\.PPI"P

A whole body dose of 1OSv or more is 100% lethal to

humans

e~ M-_

1 ?;<f_:!?::

RADIATION PROTECTION
@22. Regarding film badge dosimetry

*--~45,

_ \/A.

it,5 30 V "

B'

-2*!

'

C.

<?o.
E.

Personal monitoring film is exposed with a single intensifying


screen
Personal monitoring film badges are doublecoated; one
emulsion is slow, the other emulsion is fast
' ,
A film badge contains at least 3 pairs of filters
Spots of intense blackening seen on a personal monitoring
film badge, suggests exposure to high-energy photons
A single exposure to direct X-rays from one direction, would
produce a sharp edge to the shadow of a film badge filter

RAD|AT|ON PROTECTION

|:2:] 23. The following statements are true

A. Body aprons should be available with a protective equivalent

of not less than 0.25 mm lead for X-rays over 100 kV


Gloves and aprons should be thoroughly examined at least
once a month to ensure that no cracks have developed
_/\'C. During operation of a CT scanner, an operator should be
present at the control panel while high voltage is applied to
the X-ray tube
D. Gloves should be available with protective equivalent of not
less than 0.35 mm lead for X-rays up to 150 l<\/
_/\E. Body aprons should notibe folded

MCQsfor ti; 1551-1 FREE"

"'__"_W

"M

_
2.

5IRADlATlON PROTECTION
i @124. The following statements are true
A. The annual background radiation exposure per caput of the
UK population is about 1.5 mSv
B. Natural radiation contributes 60% of the total per caput
radiation exposure from all radiation sources
A
C. The largest contributor to natural background radiation is
from gamma ray exposure
"
u
40. Medical exposure contributes approximately 13% of the total
percaput radiation exposure from all radiation sources
Food and drink contributes approximately 5% of the total

per caput radiation exposure from all radiation sources

f;

if

-: ; ;;~:1
:-'; l:"l;_

::=,i-;'_-it
r*1};
..~ : === -;ifiii-:-'}'-'

;':.1.e; "

RAD_lATlON PROTECTION

::'6';7

.,\-='._,='
_-,;. ;ta

E] 25. Regarding the Geiger-Muller (GM) tube

1-1"

-c .; 11:

15:1

It is able to detect any type of ionising radiation


V
F? It is able to distinguish between different types of radiation
\7 and different energies of the same radiation
c. It is more efficient in detecting lower energy as fipposed to
higher energy beta particles
.
?D. The efficiency of detection for gamma rays is only 10%

Y:3.-I
.,:.~;.;
..

-sgmry " '

.'5'?~7-*1
ii
.,_.
2..-

E. The principle use is one of contamination monitoring

_z.
Q.

ti

QBase Mc'?F6rTH7>r?T?rr?m_'_""_"'""MT

A E " m"""s'7

IE3-3127;-1:11., ~'--x;;.~:,<s.;=

-*-5'Tv- *;e.:er1~r'-t--*
wt.;
*_-my a
f-,..
4. -.4; _-~ .1.:,,.;;'.'-'
~$1;;';*;.?'E:*-45",:-'i'-e-."i*~r--'.' '
:~.--=.~.-treat:
.v
'}|;'*.'':; -.'. -4 .: -rr 1.4,-_;,
\.""?- W-.

IE1.

A. false

B. false

C. false

' -

Z"...

:.

D. true E. false

Thenucleusis composed of protons arid neutrons. T


The half-life of an isotope is the time taken for the amount of
the radioactivity present to decay to 50% of its original value.
Beta particles tend to be emitted from nuclides with an excess of
neutrons.
A metastable isotope emits a gamma ray and becomes the stable
daughter product of the same element.
~
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, ist Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd.

Ell

A. false

B. true

C. true

D. true

E. false

Attenuation = absorption + scatter.


'
Attenuation of monochromatic radiation is exponential.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders C0.
Ltd.

3.A. false

B. false

C. true

D. true E. true

Magnification is reduced by increasing the FFD or decreasing the


OFD.
Distortion is increased when using a shorter FFD.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for-.MedicaI Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.

Ltd
A

E14.

A. false

B. false

C. false

D. false E. true

Cooling is via radiation of heat to the insulating oil and then


conduction to the tube housing.
7
RATs are widely used in diagnostic radiology.
RATs usually rotate at about 3,000 rpm. High-speed RATs
e.g., 15,000 rpm are used inangiography.

sa

.QBa5e *ra&a;'iw the Bart-1FRCR__ M"-if

-M'

um

-t _-u '
; ,'_.~

The target is usually tungsten with about 10% rhenium.lThis has


better thermal properties and is less likely to roughen with use.
Q

.=.~ Q

t.

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

'._"=t:'-?'*i
.;' 1.5.:
;i

A. false

B. false

C. true

D. false

E. true

Photographic emulsion consists of about 90% bromide and 10%_


iodide.
_
_
.
Emulsion is also affected by chemical liquids and static electricity,
which all have implincatiorisfor storage.
A
'
About a third of the X-rays are absorbed by the front screen.

B. true

C. true

D. true

Ei-31f~'-

~': 91'.
<15 5

.e.=;.
i-'5

1-

.';~

""51 #51-.
-X fl-.
'42Tw_':.-,

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, ist Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.
.

A. false

:1 ;.;<"r
~l7.ii~'=<3?-.z1."5

.'

.>....,_.. .
v.$:.1-5-!
~ . = bl .1;

B -'\ 5.5) T3,:-

2;\:Jl_"
;~,7.=;. -

E. false _

-5:; If

The tube kV may be estimated indirectly by the penetrameter


method.
.
_
suy

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, ist Edn. W.. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

A. false

-i,-.
.3:

E5.
..

m.
-5.
-V.-L.-I '
; - '3=.._
. .i...

B. false

C. false

D. -true

E. false

An ideal radionuclide should be monoenergetic, so that scatter


can be easily eliminated by the pulse height analyser. i
An ideal radionuclide should emit gamma rays only; these
produce the image. Beta (and alpha) particles contribute only to
patient dose.
'
At transient equilibrium, both the parent Mo-99 and the
daughter Tc-99 m decay together with the half-life of the
parent 67 h.
Tc-99 m is eluted with a sterile saline solute.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

A. false B. false

C. false

D.' true

E. false

Base plus fog is approximately 0.2.


Fogging is increased with both the age of the film and with an
increase in processor temperature.

QBa5g Tvzeistarrw.-1';a'ia'ai '

''

' '

59

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

\;.

Elsi.

A. false B. true

at Q
'!1%.t_

C. false

D. true E. false

Rectification refers to the process of changing alternating


current into direct current.
Three-phase generators produce three separate voltages which
are 120 degrees out of phase with each other to produce almost
constant potential. " .
The variationin the voltageacross an X-ray tube expressed
as a percentage of the maximum value is the ripple factor.
For a sixpulse generator this is 13%, and for a twelve-pulse
generator 3%. Single-phase generators have a ripple factor

-ZRFET

2'3";

11:5-=z.2;

as :~:.-L:

=l'L;-iiqf
?I_1".r"
z-::1;= 2
nee
=-=rr;'-g
W315.
. t.,_-.._,,_,
1- =-

!X'|=1*'.

" '.I=i;@1;-

of 100%.

It-=
l1;3:.r.'
:2.

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics ofadioiogy, lst Edn. Clinical Press

vl -E4 L

Ltd., 1990.

>?1'
f'F.@
aw:-5;

'

liiw. 1

: E

lr

@110.

A. true

B. true C. true

D. true

E. true

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press

li

Ltd., 1990.

Elm

A. true

B. true

C. true

D. false E. true

Litmus paper is used in the detection of acid or alkali and is not a

method of dosimetry.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, lst Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., 1990.

12.
A.

true

B. false

C. true

D. true E. false

As it is possible to use high kVs, with associated less tissue


absorption, there is still better edge contrast than with
conventional techniques.
There is approximately 30 second development which is dry as no

chemicals are involved.


A high resolution is obtained with this technique.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the fhysics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press

Ltd., 1990.

Y0

QBase

MCQs for the Part1 FRCR

Z L-"ml"

Hm

u .:.

' 13 A. false B. true C. false D. true E. true

"ff

In tomography contrast is diminished with the very thin cuts.


Magnification is the ratio of the focus-film distance (FFD) to

'3

focus-object distance (FOD). Usually the FOD is kept as long as


possible relative to the FFD to reduce the amount of
.
magnification to a minimum.

i.

sf

._ , .

* -.-.~>;~

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, lst Edn. Clinical

Press Ltd.

i Ills

@114. A. false B. false C. true D. true E. false


All forms of EMR travel with the same velocity as light when in a
vacuum. The velocity is NOT significantly less in air.
All forms of EMR obey the inverse square law only when in
vacuum.
intensity = watts per square millimetre.
1
The energy of X- and gamma rays = MeV. Visible light = eV.'

- _.:-..1=.-_;.; ,, . ,
11.1.-5'_{E

.1: ;..;__.. ._
.-_-iltii-
,.

==.tf.:i< .'
_

2 ,-.~.=~ Jiw",.=

J>
:1 A:
.E

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

eat;

L -.~
.-

Q10
~, wt.-.

;l.:~ 1

-}if~@1s.
3
.,.

A. false

B. false

C. true

D. true

E. true

In a compound filter the material with the higher atomic number


should face the X~ray tube.
A compound filter normally consists of aluminium and copper.
Filters however increase the exit dose to entry dose ratio.
Filtration does not affect the maximum photon energy. The area
of the X-ray spectrum and the total output of X-rays isreduced
by filtration.

at
'1"-'

.~E
11%
Q

%
17'.
-'4~
.3?

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

@116

A. false B. true

C. false

D. true E. false

It is known as the anode heel effect.


'
B
For a given film size, the heel effect is reduced when the FFD is
increased.
Placing the thicker part of the body towards the cathode side
decreases the anode heel effect.
QBase

MC6;_?(;-?:1;Fa_r.t_i?R_Eg__._...__-__.__ .-...__ ...______.--.__.._.

..

- _ -.

The intensity of an X-ray beam is non-uniform for


2 reasons:
i) The anode heel effect
'
ii) The inverse square law: X~rays at the edge of the field have
further to travel.

'

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

3 Z4'.:';,=,Z

trf;-=,=@?
e.:1\.:>."

.5 ~:.~'1&;

;-rm
~=><<.
.23

3:..
v. 1
.*
. P;

-a

QQ17. A. true B. -false C. false D. true . E. false

I P59.-;%.

'

Optical density = Log to base 10 (incident lightrtransmittecl


light).
A log scale is used as the eye responds logarithmically to the
brightness of light.
Optical densities are additive, therefore, the total optical
density = 2.4.
.

'-:i"' '1

-'..?E~J*.

iE1~;=z=2;

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

l t. _

~ ":#i~;r='
"\

A 1a.

A. true

B. true

C. false

D. true

E. true

Screen unsharpness is not magnified although the image is.


Farr, _Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.
A

E119.

A. false

B. false

C. true D. true E. true

Noise is reduced by increasing the number of photons absorbed


in each voxel.
r
_
V
Noise is decreased by either increasing slice thickness or
increasing the pixel size.

lncreasing mA or increasing the scan time reduces noise at the


expense of increased patient dose.
Noise becomes more noticeable with narrow windowing as each
grey scale covers a smaller range of CT numbers, and hence there
are fewer X-ray..photons absorbed in each voxel.
As the available information is spread more thinly over the pixel
I
matrix with zoom enlargement.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B, Saunders
Co. Ltd.
I

'QBa5e_ Mco foritlue Part 1 FRCR

'

20. A. false

B. true C. false

D. false VE. true

Only those persons whose presence is essential should remain in


an X-ray room when radiation is being generated; they should
stand well away from the radiation beam and preferably behind

a protective screen.
For young persons and persons of reproductive capacity, gonad
shields should be used in examinations which are likely to give
' high gonad dose, unless these,shields interfere with the
proposed examination.
. g ,
I
A' posteroanterior, rather than anteropost_e_rio_r, projection can
greatly reduce the dose to the breast. if I
A

i.>

'/15:

111%?

cg...
.5"

1-L3,-'~:'_= .
yrs 1 ~

ca 2 z;-=1 ,

,,.. ,-_.\->~
, _ .,.

AC2l2, AC2/10 and Regulation 12: IRR 88.

EIZ1. A. false

B. true

C. false

D. false

..1"=;<'.'= "

-sii
'_~.---1--\'\;.
. ..
-.;;.;:_-.

E. true

2%-.ki='~.;-a

=45
9::
7": 1 >.:".

45v to the testes causes sterility;


'
For stochastic effects, the probability of an effectbccurring
increases with dose.
~
'
A threshold of about 5Sv produces cataracts.

,
l
l

._.a...

SUV

I2-.1

.1 (91.3;

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

'

.-1-.

_I_n:-.
' '-=r:.'
...:*.-'1. .

-T1.

A. false

B. true C. true

D. false

E. true

Film badges are exposed without screens.


The film badge contains a thick plastic, aluminium and tinlead filter.
Spots of intense blackening suggests exposure to a radioactive
spill.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

lE]23. A. false

B. false

C. true

D. false E. true

Body aprons with a protective equivalent of not less than


0.25 mm lead for X-rays up to 100 kV and not less than 0.3 mm
lead for X-rays over 100 kV should be available.
Gloves and aprons should be examined thoroughly at least once
a year to ensure that no cracks have developed.

Q_Ba'se McQsr<>7F?"F5rT7'F?5F<' H"'_*'_M"_""'

'

'

63

An operator should beat the control panel of a CT scanner while


high voltage is applied to the X-ray tube, since the equipment
will not normally have an exposure switch which has to be
pressed continuously.
Gloves should be available with not less than 0.25 mm lead for

X-rays up to 150 kV.


Regulation 5; IRR as. A

i?l:"i

'

[E]24. A. false B. fa|se' . false

D. true. E..false

av

i: \

'

Annual bacl<g'round'radiatio_n = 2.5 mSv.


Natural radiation contributes 85%.
Radon gas is the largest contributor to natural background
radiation. This permeates through the ground into buildings.
Food and drink contribute 12%.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, is-tEdn'.'W. B. Saunders Co.

I-=l5(<i.'=
1.._,_:._v

Ltd

15155
.
1

aw' .;-.\.4.-':
_
=
'

E 25

true

B false

C true

D false

E true

'-l e GM is able to detect any ionising radiation but not able to


P
1distinguish between them.
'
The efficiency of detection of gamma rays is only 1%. This can be
increased to 5% by the usepof a lead cylinder as a cathode.

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

1
1

v.
\.

11_* .QBase' MCQsiorthe_F>art1FFiCR

Km -_ -11

_
r

.1
=.

==- .='IJ=e=:; - fan:


:*

,- .

T*_=- E .-

1--"ti;

.-'

.=-='r.=- -:1 '== 1:=;-

~ V

;~r-

GAMMA IMAGING
1.

Regarding gamma imaging

opt,

A multi-hole collimator consists of a lead disc, typically 25 cm


thick and 400 mm in diameter
A single large phosphor crystal of Nal (activated with
thallium) is positioned adjacent to the collimator
The gamma crystal is hygroscopic '.
The gamma crystal absorbs about 90% of Tc-99 m gamma
rays
_
Tc99 m emits a 190 keV gamma ray
r

3GAMMA IMAGING

;-\.=.

_-A
=1-,~
3'1".
-v.

2.
Tc-99 m is labelled to the following compounds for the
following -uses
l
4

$3.

V ...

l.
F.
5.

Sestamibi: cardiac perfusion imaging


Diphosphonates: bone imaging
Hexamethyl Propylene Amine Oxime (HMPAO): imaging the
liver, spleen and red bone marrow
Aminodiacetic acid (HIDA): renal imaging
Human serum albumin macroaggregates: imaging of the
liver, spleen and red bone marrow

Eli

%FlLMS AND scneems


3. _ Regarding film storage
l.

1"

A. Film fog increases when the lm is stored at low humidity

TD.

./(E

Films should ideally be stored horizontally" with lm packets


stacked on top of each other
.
'
Bending the lm is not detrimental to the final image quality
The maximum storage temperature should be 21 degrees
centigrade
Films should be handled at its edges

= QBase MCQ; f=>F?5?*;5'ri'iF*F'

X-RAY INTERACTIONS
[:I_:| 4.

Regarding scattered radiation

:;=z==

-VA. Scattered radiation adds to the final image quality

achieved
5 ca tt er ma k es up about l5 /0 of the total number of photons
emerging from a patient
i
Apart from scattered radiation the only other secondary
radiation reaching the film is characteristic radiation arising
from contrast media such as barium ' D. lncreasing scatterris produced with large eldsof view
E. lncreasing scatter is produced when irradiating thick
body parts

'
11%

r mi;
_

Cg-Z-.S..

1* .. .

=2-'=e'
j 51$:-f~,-,'. ~:i

X-RAY TUBES
The following are true regarding the stationary

._,<$.t.. T ;'l-1.
"'~'~>e-s="

anode tube

- 5"?i=

liggi

. ;. 1-,-

The real focus is the area bombarded by electrons emitted


from the filament

F The principal heat path is via conduction


'\ D X-ray output is limited primarily because the anode is made
-<' of copper

V
.

D. it has very limited use in diagnostic radiology


E. The quality of the X-ray beam will be identical to that
of a rotating anode tube if both have target materials
of tungsten and operate at the same kVp

'

IMAGE QUALITY
l

lg] 6.

The following are criteria for attaining a radiograph of


satisfactory quality __
The choice of contrast is unimportant _
A wide" contrast scale should be used
A narrow contrast scale should be used
The contrast scale used should be sugh that differences
between densities can be readily made
E. Contrast is controlled by the choice of target material
used

/\PPP?

\.
\

I56

~.QBase H655 for at Part1FRCR

1- m__

1- 5

J $25.1. _
._..- 1 .

GRAY
INTERACTIONS
" ;;7:

1 0-?

E 7.

The following statements are true


y

A material is relatively transparent to its own characteristic


radiation
-<13. Barium and iodine are suitable contrast agents as their
'K-edges are closely related to the mean energy of the
incident X-ray beam
.
_/
\ C. The total linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) is the sum o_f
the LACs of the contributions from elastic, photoelectric and
Compton scattering

~
A
ecfo. ln the diagnostic imaging range, the Compton effect
predominates for air, water and soft tissue
The Sl units for mass attenuation coefficient are square
centimetres per gram
g

13

;-3' r ~..-

1.;xi

'-.~N:="

U11
=-tr;-;<-W

.'-"CF:-3'7-'.<

"-;-f==:-25

;~__5;:;g-.~

i5;"i7.-:1
+-I-f::'.

E29?! "ti

-2=3!;l..
-1551
ca;
-;=,._.-/1.,
_<}-_ La;

'S:-:5
1_-'*'-1 '*
,-,-.13,
-<5 '1
.~

FILMS AND SCREENS

._;-T.-jr \.
23.25" '

3.

The following are true

A
<3.
D.

The speed of a film is the reciprocal of the exposure


needed to produce an optical density of l aboi/Ta base
+ fog
A
Inherent fog has typically an optical density; D = 0.12
Storage conditions affect inherent fog
Emulsions with rounded crystals are faster than those with

.E _
.m

:iJ_::

~~m.-- '

flat crystals

."

_.
5;-\
2-as
.i_.

E.

The speed of a film decreases with increasing average


grain size

,.;:
5'5

=lVlAGE QUALITY
\1.-;..

5+, i

9.

Regarding image quality


A. Spatial resolution (SR) of an imaging system is defined as the
spatial frequency of the finest pattern in a test tool that can
be resolved
Spatial frequency is usually denoted as the number of-line
Hairs per millimetre (lp/mm) detectable
The SR of an X-ray film is about 100 lplmm
'
A detailed intensifying screen has an SR of about 30 lp/mm
'<'\
F A fast screen has an SR of about 15 lp/mm

PP

A Q3559 rvicosTi55FFi"EiErE"""

67

f..<

CT
5;.

l]10. Regarding CT artefacts

.=.~r-7 4 :;=

>5.1.-'$."_L

Cardiac motion produces streak artefacts


In fourth-generation scanners, detector malfunction is
manifest as ring artefacts
Dental amalgam gives rise to star artefacts
. Cupping occurs as a consequence of beam hardening
Aliasing may occurvat sharp and high-contrast boundaries
/\!/
,5

is
'_;,\

J-"T:'iI-V
.+_m=;_.

w=_-.-.

. s

RADIOACTIVITY

vrI!=nt-T-I

,_3_;-.-;_-~_-

!T?}.i-'l+
1..
- t
Z 1
5;:f_t::{>1';'

:<_'\

H=-'".2:
?~_; .

3'31".

0'"!

"

Frat
~...\

3'993.;
!-5

.2:

=1
_,~I
'3

.3]

Q 11 . Reg ardm g radioactive deca y


Cl
-=1.-Q5:
ill-'
":1.-.';:-,=6

rt.E

.<*\P
,

In beta minus decay there is no change in the atomic number,


but the mass numb_er increases by one
_,
\,B. In isomeric transition, the parent nucleus decays direc~tly~tothe daughter nucleus by the emission of a negative beta
4
particle
In beta plus decay, there is no change in the atomic number, '1si
1<"\P
but the mass number decreases by one
_
(,1). In positron emission, two photons of annihilation radiation
'are emitted at right angles to each other
i
QE. The Sl units of radioactive decay is the becquerel (Bq),
_
where one Bq = the number of disintegrationsper
minute
_
:3
GAMMA IMAGING

is

El 12. Regarding gamma imaging

i
I

A.

There are usually between 37 and 90 photomultiplier tubes

(PMT) connected to the gamma crystal .


Each PMT consists of aglass envelope containing xenon gas
at 4 atmospheres
'
'
_Phot0electrons emitted in a PMT undergo amplication by
interacting with a series of dynodes
The purpose of the pulse arithmetic circuit is to combine the
pulses from all the PMTs and generate three separate voltage
pulses
E. The purpose of the pulse height analyser is to reject pulses
which are either lower or higher than pre-set levels

Q42.

5?-

MCQsforthel;z;rt1FRC_ii~w_~;

l "

=;-3;:- IMAGING

1; .~l~.

Radionuclides and administered activities

Kr-81 m gas in lung ventilation studies: 6,000 MBq


Tc-99m MAG3 in renal imaging: 1OOMBq
Tc-99m phosphonates in bone imaging: 100 MBq

E?l
. ._\_ s
f -/x .. r
:,<:_<

s-=;%;

., L''-5;.
Ee=

'-.>.i:~.5.>:i
r, ,:\-.,
-=x'~
~\'5'::'_

Tc-99 m DTPA in renal imaging: 80 MBq

E"pd?
,>Tc-99 m DTPA aerosol in lung ventilation studies: 80 MBq

ti-RT

li-

Y" at-RAY wees

T 14.

Regarding quality assurance as assessed by a physicist

Focal spot measurement should be assessed annually


Focal spot size is usually assessed by the pinhole method
C. Beam alignment is usuallyassessed-every 3 months
D. The tolerance limits for beam alignment are +/ 2%
E. X-ray tube output and kV should be assessed every
3 months

<,.'
_;.
K.
11

}I.J1.i 1
- *3-"-L -T; :
*4<..__,
\ -.
\_;
|._'_'5 ~".~;'
,w',-;!~!~;:~.

3 :53
-'f: Iii
I -

1%-

0C. .

. :2

*=
:", F

I NTERACTIQNS

5515. Th e

.,_
1:
i ".1
..,
. -.-<1 V
:2 .

?e

v
, ~.
r _...~
..,'
rs. ".

,. ,_..__.
A ,, .
.4.-._
__,.,.

AND FILTERS

PQ

following are true regarding the half-value thickness -

T7135,'5

g!:.~';

-: *'>"<

4"

It is the absorber thickness required to reduce the intensity of

the original beam by half


3- In the diagnostic energy range, the half-value thickness is
usually measured inrnillimeters of aluminium
/c. ls inversely proportional to the linear attenuation coefficient
ls a measure of the penetrating power of a beam
,<e. The product of half-value layer and the linear attenuation
coefficient is always a constant

4;.___.,
4.; _

OSIMETRY1 16. Regarding lm badge dosimetry


1

11*

E5:

'.

A.
B.
C.

Double-emulsion film is used, one with a high gamma and


one with a low gamma
'
The cadmium-lead filter is used to detect exposure to neutrons
The use of plastic, tin and aluminium filters in the film badge,
allows differentiation between the penetrating radiations
used in both radiotherapy and in the range of energies usual
in radiodiagnosis

QBa5 Mc5'?6'F}'h1?>'}i ra''a'

"'"'*""~'W'""'
'

69

-~ _...~

'~?D. Latent imaging fading does not occur if there is a delay


between exposure and development of a film badge
E. Control films must be processed with each batch of film
dosimeters going through the processor
F77 -':.-SJ

a*;?i%Eir?

FILIVIS AND SCREENS

El 17. Regarding modulation transfer function (MTF)


i . xii?

W55?
J

,'

iifzt.

-Z: 7.;
i'' .Le"='
."=

,_
,-_.,.s..

fa

'
~

-'<':c;:S_-ZWE

Has units of line pairs per millimeter

\, B. ls normally greater than one V


_
C. MTF is a ratio of the information recorded to the information
available
Di_ The MTF can be used to compare the resolving power of one
imaging system versus another
_e. A 10% response on an MTF cun/e is the definition of the
resolving power of an imaging system _

D 3! j=:

: I .-,=;.=

' '._';;'.:;

iii
l- ~

'15

DOSIMETRY
[Q 1 8. Concerning thermoluminescent materials in dosimetry
(TLD)

. e

l1
l
l
1

'

A. The electron traps in the forbidden zone of

thermoluminescent materials are normally full


/<8. The electron traps are well below the conduction band
C. Electrons in the electron traps enter the conduction band
when the material is heated to 100 degrees centigrade
/<0. When the TLD material is heated, the total amount of light
emitted is proportional to the amount of radiation absorbed
E. The material most commonly used in TLDs is zinc cadmium
sulphide
X-RAY INTERACTIONS

i.

@ 1 9. The linear attenuation coefficient of an _X-ray beam

?'A.
B.
C.
(ID.
E.

50

ls defined as the reduction in intensity per unit area of


absorber
9
-ls greater in bone than in fat at 35 keV
Can be used to calculate half-value thickness (HVT)
Applies to both mono- and polychromatic radiations
ls a constant for a monochromatic beam
'

.Q_Base Iiv1cQs f0rtheKPart1NFRCR*

' I W

_-~\ _

,.

:-

.,;. ,

EADIATION PROTECTION g
a

20.
The National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB)
l$15"
,,

recommends that the following views should not be part

1 _.
1

.
.
of a routine. X-ray examination

Lateral chest view


V
V
Coned view of the pituitary fossa
jC. Oblique views of the cervical spine
\ D. Postmicturition film of an IVU
E. A post-evacuation film after_a barium enema

FLT.

'

Bl

._
.
gin,
_1..r1',-'.,-

Bi 21 . Radiation Protection

:1:-=.
V ...=.

' =~>r-."1:5-.11-.=Z.,i'

RADIATION PROTECTION

<

1;-,e;.'_<

./(A. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiation is the


' ratio of the number of Grays of two radiation_qualitis that
give the same biological effect on the same material in the
same time
,
B. The RBE for X-rays is IO
C. The annual effective dose limit for a radiation worker (18
and over) is ten times greater than that for a member of the
public
' "
D. Natural background radiation contributes 5 mSv to the
annual whole-body dose per person in the UK

E2*
"-3%
-"5
e"

i
p

.'?3f.'.?'~

"A
'rKB.

.,;

'- 4

.0
E

_f;ii;
' =;w~=.:..

The largest contributor to natural background radiation is

'1
A

radon and thoron

I}

ADIATIONPROTECTION
.
22. Regarding dose limits
,,.
=.

A. The annual effective dose limit for members of staff, 18 years

of age and older, is 20 mSv


The annual effective dose limit for members of the public or
visitors is 15 mSv
-TC. The annual equivalent dose limit to the eyes for a trainee
aged less than 18 years is 50 mSv
TD. The annifal dose limit to the extremity for a member of staff,
18 years of age and older, is 500 mSv
E. Staff are designated as classified if they exceed 20% of any
annual dose limit
B.

Q8559 iviE5l'i'<5T{iE?i"?i5<_cE' W "W

71

:-

RADIATION PROTECTION

@123. lonising Radiation (IRMER) Regulations 2000

.
_,
1 c

. .i_-3;:

~ =!.=':';"'
~.=,e;: :.-,-;

B.
C.

?;~,T'.i4,?~
=.-:..='?-1;
-_-;._::,_-'1.
~1:;<.'.-.1"

-,.\.-

:1ix'7;-.-

*ii-.~;.L-i
;-?=-i :

\/E '

P1

All persons directing an exposure need to be adequately


trained in radiation protection matters
IRMER does not apply to scientic research for in vitro studies
The responsibility for an exposure lies with the person
clinically directing it
-The ALARA principle does not apply in IRMER . " _
_
No exposure should be directed unless its introduction

produces a positive netbenet * <


-

==\:s:::<':;'
-A

-Ea-'_*%5~"-*

l.tj;_;~;
a?-1 ,;_.

RADIATION PROTECTION

..
$5-.-'21:?
1:?-~-Flj.
E,-'23"-:!=
,7-7:k'a?-Q.-T~J
::>_'
--'=:=-,-.;',
,.._-7:.;-_-

[|24. The following UK legislation is appropriate for the


individuals described
,

A. Staff and members of the public: lonising Radiation

5?.-;;~':-
.__, _,

: s=..'-~_
ei.=-yI~t-1,

Regulations 1999 (IRR 99)

c
l'

'

'

Patients: lR(M E)R 2000


Staff and members of the public: Radioactive Substances Act
1993

"

Patients: The Medicines, (Administration of Radioactive


Substances) Regulations 1978: M(ARS)R 78
. E. Approved Codes of Practice and Guidance Notes; these do
not play a part in UK legislation

RADIATION PROTEC-TlON

.1.

(Q25. Radiationcprotection
_l
;'

/-
YA.

/~

Q c.
Q).
2:

E.

In the UK the average annual total effective dose (ED) to the


population is 2.5 Sv
5% of the average annual total ED is from medical

investigations or treatment
Medical staff in a radiologydepartment commonly receive an
annual total ED twice that of the national average
Potassium-40 is a major contributor to the ED from
background radiation arising through the ground
The residents of Cornwall receive an annual total ED seven
times the national average
'
\
\.

MCQs for the Part 1 FRCR

'

Tm;

M_mm_'_

_r

L_-~1j ~- '- 4- ' = x

- :2-1:
x
-_
ties
>':;ic*:.

"f-;-:i:r=-.*=
psi. '

2'._.':- 33" l --.-1.,/.';+-'T3.<. _= -._.-.~-,' 3.

1.A.

false

B. true

C. true

D. true

E. false

Multi-hole collimator: the lead disc is typically 25 mm thick,

and is drilled with about 20,000 hexagonal or circular


holes.
As the crystal is hygroscopic, it is encapsulated in an aluminium
cylinder to protect it from changes in temperature, light and

atmosphere.
'
Tc-99 m emits a 140 keV gamma ray. .
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. Vii. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

A. true

B. true C. false

D. false

E. false

,_

HMPAO: cerebral imaging.


HIDA: biliary imaging.
Macroaggregates of albumin: lung perfusion imaging.

Lg

'\

=-.
'
.

r
L

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders C0.
Ltd.

07
1-.
..w=

FA 3.

A. false

B. false

C. false D. true

E. true

.6..

When film is stored it should be stored at low humidity, side on


and care must be taken not to flex the film. Increased humidity
tends to increase film fog.

$17.
f
.'l~'

Ii:

=5?
i

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.

s:

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

; Elli.

A. false

B. false

C. true

D. true

E. true

Scattered radiation serves no useful value, and if it reaches


the film impairs film quality. It decreases contrast
resolution.
qsase

R;|.c.E).S..f_6_r_.t.Fe..].D...rt1.;:_..C.R .. ..

_....-.-_..-.-- -.--

-- s...__.-

-.

Scatter makes up about 50-90% of the total number of pl10t0n


emerging from a patient.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Pres;
Ltd., 1990.
I.

r'-'-..~?<?
1' Z J "-

s.

A. true

B. true

C.-false

D. true

E. true

c- "r

rs |'|'l1*

The X-ray output is limited from stationary anode tubes due to


the heat limitation from tube-loading characteristics,
-

s=0 Q! _.
:4

-1

T?

'ii"> 1 =15

li....w~.!.=i
:' he-.~..=
-l 5-i
Ieisifiiii
I=i.<
.111;

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

'7'???-Y5
.5::.:=;-.
'- .f,'.

. .. .=.

E] 6

A. false

B. false

C. false D. true

E. false

i~;i~".f~.'-:1

iiiii
~ - 1_-...i , _r-Z='
lllyizi '5:3*'
I _ _.=fI:'. ='.

Naturally the use of contrast media is important, hence its


extensive use in radiology.
'Radiographic contrast is dependent on many factors

II~'?.

La

such as selection of k\/, mA, patient factors and film

factors.

2 M =1.

l?

Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physics of Diagn0stic'.Radi0Iogy, 4th E_dn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
-

(E7.

A. true

B. true

C. true

D. true

E. true

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

E18.

A. true

B. true C. false D. false E. false

Inherent fog arises from some silver halide crystals acquiring


latent images during manufacture, and also from the film base
absorbing light when viewed. Storage conditions affect
additional fog.
Emulsion film with flat crystals are faster than-those with
rounded crystalsl
'
Film speed increases with increasing average grain size.
Farr, Ailisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

74

QBase. Mcos for the aai FRCR

'- __'_'"'_*___

.._:

-11'

'3. E;-."?'_ ;-' ; '


P:: P11-._.;a 2
E
1

A. true

B. true

C. true

D. false

E. false

Detail screen: SR -10lp/mm.


Fast screen: SR S lplmm.

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

l
l

[;]10.

'

. 'tiI~-_'<
'-1.-5-.54
'."- 25*, .>

v.
;:q...._

A. true

B. true C. true D. true

E. true

Ring artefacts usually signify detector malfunction in thirdgeneration scanners.


V
Star artefacts may also occur with metal implants or high-density
contrast medium.

*3?

: 1-1-Va.

'1-'-*."'.
2'1. _

-. =~t =-.- =

5"~:"1-=1

;5.':\*;'{T-_.

Farr. Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

r IIL.

=1 -1,

~.

-$4.-.1-iii.

[\]11.

A. false

B. false

C. false

D. false

E. false:

xi

SM A-

:z.;,g.= :-

Beta minus: there is no change in mass number, the atomic

-EL
2'.

'5'

5%

A~~|'

number increases by one.


isomeric transition: the daughter nucleus remains in a metastable
state fora variable length of time, prior to emittinga gamma ray
and decaying to the ground state.
Beta plus: there is no change in mass number, the atomic number

decreases by one.

SJQMSUV

'

The photons of annihilation radiation are emitted in opposite

directions.

. ~,W.
Jr;
~ Y-1.
.5-

\
s.
."
.

Farr, Allilsy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, W. B. Saunders Co. Ltd.

2?

12.

1 Bq = 1 disintegration per second.

A. true B. false C. true D. true E. true


Each PMT consists of an evacuated glass envelope.
Typically a single photoelectron may be amplied by a factor of 1
million.
Three voltage pulses are generated: X, Y and Z. X and Y give
positional information. The Z pulse is proportional to the gamma
ray energy absorbea.
The pulse height analyser may be set to only let through those
pulses which lie within a window of +/-10% of the photopeak
energy.

v: QBase iza;ara;?.aTae"'**'**""**'"" i

75

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders C0_
Ltd.
'

13.
A.

'*~
5.
t
,:'*~.

B. true

C. false

D. true

E. true

Tc-99m phosphonates: administered activity 600 MBq.

- -4:1.
5'25?>1
t~. 1.55
-. *2=:f

gm:-2

true

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co_
Ltd.
g O

14.
A. true B. false C. false D. true E. true
-l'~:'=l7.I

.%('>;<I
155;:-1

ii-W15
fl-'?Zb.Z='

_-fat"-,'~
: its---:
'5<.\"'=.
,Z,1.~_?;:'-I
?5;*.?.$".'.
=i7j{'

The pinhole method is the oldest method for assessing focal spot
size, and is now outdated. lt could only be used for focal spots
greater than 0.3 mm. Focal spot size is now assessed via a STAR
test tool.
Beam alignment is assessed annually. Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press,

H...

F 2-. an
, ;!;.Q.'

. M.

El 15. A. true B. true C. true D. true E. true


HVL >< linear attenuation coefficient = 0.693
Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

16
. A.

i
I
l

true

B. true

C. true

D. false E. true

The slow emulsion allows extension of the range of


measurement up to 100 Sv in case of large accidental exposures. '
The different filters allow a distinction to be made as to whether
the exposure resulted from beta emission, high or low-energy
X-rays or gamma emission.
Latent image fading can occur, particularly in humid conditions,
if there is a delay betweeri __exposure and development. This is
due to the gradual loss of electrons which formed the latent
image by conversion of the sensitivity speck to metallic silver.
The processing conditions have a critical affect on film badges
and so control films must be processed with each batch of film
1; dose meters.
Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd. ~

3 ;iQBase MCQsforthe Part 1FRCR

'_

'

fl

"c..
.
.?1'Z'#
- \>K;.' .-

- 17.

A. false

B. false C. true

D. true E. true

1 l

:
I

.2-

31;

Modulation transfer function has no units.


As the recorded information can never exceed the available
information, the MTF is always less than one.
Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

@118.

A. false B. true

C. false D. true

., _ \ .
-.i.;:\_'
-.1! r. 1:;

ZK

E. false

Thermoluminescent materials contain electron traps which are


normally empty.
Electron traps are well below the conduction band, so there is
little chance at ordinary temperatures of electrons being
elevated into the conduction band. I
Electrons enter the conduction band when the material is heated
t0. _20.Qr3Q0. C.
The material most commonly used in TLDs is lithiuim fluoride
powder.
A
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press
-I-1;
3;...

Ltd., 1990.

"1

'5

>1 mfg
.-_~-..-a .. .
.1: Z-L 5

'.F3:~.=.'+
--.';=:'_<=-,=:~
1% =:,'.-~

1;; ;.>I.___i;
.1-)7. ..
l 1-". 5: -1
.'.a'_- '.L .-

:.-;7_;->;,.;

.'~I;' P1

f;I3".
'.'r""""

21
55$
.
T
1495' 5
~-'#:.'_

.-2:

19. A. false B. true C. true D. false E. true


. -1

s
'11
_1,-

The linear attenuation coefficient is defined as the fractional


reduction in intensity per unit length of absorber. The units are
per centimetre.
The HVT equals 0.693 divided by linear attenuation coefficient.
Linear attenuation coefficient applies to monochromatic
radiation only, and is specific both for the energy of the X-ray
beam and for the type of absorber.
.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., 1990.

5:;1__.
-M

:<:.@
, . 20. A. true B. true C. true D. true E. true

ts,-

The NRPB also recommends that the following views should not
be performed as part of routine radiography:
1) Flexion and extension views of the cervical spine
2) Coned L5/S1 and obliques of the lumbar spine
3) Skyline and tunnel views of the knees

QBase 'Wi6sKF5?F1_FiEiih"nm'

' '__"" "W W

"77

~.-an:u--

' 4) 1-min film_ from an iVU.

iii:

The NRPB also recommends the following:

i) The occipito-mental view should be the only view performed


when examining the sinuses.

ii) The submento-vertical view should not be routinely performed


when examining the skull.
iii) An AP odontoid peg view should not be taken unless there is
a history of trauma.

1.3;:-<_fl.
Ig F-";l"L
'=I2"2s=%;

Report by the Royal College of Radiologists and the National Radiation


Protection Board (1990). Patient Dose Reduction in Diagnostic Radiology.
National Radiation Protection Board.
Es,-:
cbif.
*1 '_.

@21. A. true

B. false

C. false

D. false

E. true

541;E ':

-,=-:;- :2

The RBE for X-rays is 1.


The annual effective close limit for a radiation worker (18 and
over) is 20 mSv; that for a member of the public is 1 mSv.
The average annual whole-body dose per person in the UK due
to natural background radiation is approximately 2.5 mSv.

;
.

Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.

.5

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

El22. A. false

B. false C. true D. true

E. false

Annual dose limit for members of the public = 1 mSv.


Exceeding 30% of any annual dose limit results in the individual
being classified.
Farr, AllisyRoberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

EIZ3. A. true

B. true

C. true D. false E. true

The ALARA principle should always be applied when directing


ionising radiation.
_ g V
V
The lonising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000

24.
A. true

B. true

C. true D. true

E. false

The Approved Codes of Practice and Guidance give detailed


and practical recommendations on how the legislation should
l_8-m

._QBa5

MCQs for the Part 1 FRCR

77

"

("*7 T

_-. ..~.,_

,'

,_, .
.1
=

be implemented locally in X-ray and nuclear medicine


departments.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.
.

[t] 25.

A. false

B. false

C. false

D. -false

1v
i
.~_<..~
:-

E. false

'-.-'1.-. '_=.:
;-_{_:: :1

The average annual total ED to the population is 2.5 mSv.

\;-=.>:i.:;

Medical investigations contribute about 14% of the average

jlilll

annual ED.
' _
i
D
Medical staff, through adequate shielding, should receive very
low doses, almost on par with the general population.
Potassium-40 is a natural radionuclide in food. The major
contributors from the ground are radon and thoron.
People in Cornwall receive an annual total ED about three times
the national average.

12' ill?
-1* 3:1 '

~. ...
25..
wt.,;,<,.-<
..;=_...;r
ta: 1'-<
'..

""I'l?57Fi:,

11555;?
L; . ~_'-as 3
3

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

=-;5.;:.-Li! '-

:J9Mu\-/

- .5 '.';"_,

'_

I
_. Z
._',v
Is
1'

=-11

v 7!5
__~.
t~.

QBase

McQ;_;(;_r_;E_};__;;__i_F;{_C___,_

-_-...._.-__. ___._._.-_-..._... .-. .. ..-._- -

_.

'36

'

l=

;-=v=,f:-,1,:='.7a,,;\:~..*;-.~{.1~w_-5,-3.-'.;_3.-3-;j"Lt~L . 4;!

=@'{-r <-.:.,_:>{;_-- :;::.=;a--:.:,'~'.=-3i'- 1. ~:


P
|2' L1
B :1, '1-. . -'i
.3 atria
1 _ I r~51-.5;
C.
_ , .

=7
1
.
.~c-

-=--r- r-

..:.+aaL;a==~

X-RAY TUBES
' 1.

The line focus principle

31.

A. Maximises the area over which heat is generated

B. Minimises the geometric unsharpness of an image


Vt. Ensures that the effective focal spot is larger than the true
focal spot
D. Ensures that the real focal spot is larger than the effective
focal spot
E. In the majority of X-ray tubes, the target is at an angle within
the range of 6-20 degrees
'
DQSHVIETRY

El 2.

I
l
I

The following are true

A. The absorbed dose is the energy deposited per unit area of a


material
r
.
<
B. Kerma is the kinetic energy released per unit mass of an
irradiated material
(g thimble' chamber can be used to measure air kerma
'
D. A standard free air chamber is commonly used in most _
departments to measure air kerma
V E. Silver bromide is used for dosimetry in thermoluminescent
dosimeters (TLD)

TDMOGRAPHY
@3.

'

Regarding tomography
A. The greater the tomographic angle of swing, the thinner the

cut

' -

3; B. Orily structures at right angles to the film are imaged


sharply
C. The further a structure is from the pivot plane, the greater
the movement blur

Q3359 MCQs'for the Part 1 FRCR

l -<

D. Tomography is most useful when imaging structures of high


inherent contrast
Xj E.
1&2,"

Larger tomographic angles are used in zonography as


compared to tomography

ii

iiitivis AND scneews


ii"

@014.

' 'i

.7_ )'.;. ,.

The following statements are true

I ..

A. lncreasing developer temperature increases speed of

development and reduces fog

(B. lncreasing the developer temperature may cause an initial


increase in film gamma
C. Developer concentration and developing time have little
effect on the quality of film development
(n. Quality assurance (QA) of a processing unit may be carried-

Out with a .-wnsitometer

= 1 sq
5 iif='lfI.'
:_'\"e
..\.--,.__.,

~'~._-=1
F3?
i=~:'.a
" '- L5.
- .1
1
at
*4

E. In QA of a processing unit, a daily variation in densities of


' 30% is acceptable

\ J,-.

_\_~-s
'l

I"-_\';i"~

151,

,4NGl0GRAPHY

.5
_
5. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

. G
--<.u:_:-_
=9. $.-3!.
Gt;

. The mask image is taken before the administration of

contrast
Qt"
=3i

vA
Q:

.3,

it!

"

'

>
F5 A small field image intensifier with good contrast resolution

Ta

is required
C. Following subtraction the signal to noise ratio (SNR)is
reduced
FD. In energy subtraction, a mask image is routinely taken
In hybrid subtraction, two energy subtracted pre~contrast
images and two energy subtracted post-contrast images are
temporally subtracted from each other

a~.
6.Regarding spiral helical scanning
J
1

TA. Partial volume artefacts are reduced compared to


conventional axial scanning
P B. Slice to slice misregistration is exaggerated compared to
conventional axial scanning

Q5359 MCQs for r;;r=;;?azr"rr"""'"""""""cs"

s1___

*1-as~~

E
i
*
g
s
~-.1 ..<<.
-1-~.
,...

EmT_,_.

TC. Pitch is the slice thickness (mm) divided by the


distance (mm) moved by the table during one rotation of
the tube
/CD. When a pitch of greater than 2:1 is used, artefacfs may arise
due to gaps in the volume data acquisition
Heat loading of the tube is greater with conventional axial
_
scanning compared to helical scanning

GAMMA,lMAGlNG
Regarding collimators used in gamma imaging

A. The greater the number of holes in a collimator, the better


the spatial resolution (SR)
The wider the holes in a collimator improved SR

PP The shorter the holes in a collimator improved SR


(D. Spatial resolution and sensitivity of a collimator are inversely

related

.-v.-='..\:

E. The SR of a collimator is improved if it is placed as close as


possible to the patient

GAMMA IMAGING
2

[E 8.

Regarding positron emission tomography (PET)

ff A. The process of annihilation radiation produces two photons


of S11 keV moving in opposite directions
B. The detectors usually used are Nal (activated with traces of
- thallium)
C. The photomultiplier tubes are coupled to a parallel hole
collimator

D. The effective dose to the patient is much higher than in


planar gamma imaging
--TE. The spatial resolutioqin PET may be 5 mm or less
MAMMOGRAPHY
@9.

Regarding quality assurance performed by a radiographer


in mammography

A. Processor performance and sensitometry should be assessed


daily
? B. Automatic exposure control should be assessed weekly

82

aQBase1. MCQsf0rthe Part1FRCR

'w"'~" N Z

7 A

_._,__
1- fr

~.
7

-.

_V

m
_

. X-ray kV accuracy and.output should be assessed weekly


. Screen film contact should be assessed monthly
. A full change of chemicals and servicing of processor
is suggested every 4 weeks for a screening
programme

/\."}Z

'

>_~-, a. -:3
I~~.

l. is

RADIOACTIVITY

~ ..
;:..~<7:t-

=imX;@-,

E5] 10. Regarding radioactivity

0".-

A. The unit of radioactivity is the becquerel (Bq), where 1,Bq is i

disintegration per second


'
The concentration of radioactivity is measured in Bq/kg
C. At a temperature of absolute zero the radioactive decay
process is unaffected
D. In stable heavy nuclei, there are an excess number of
neutrons relative to the number of protons
\E. X-rays have a greater maximum possible energy than gamma
rays
.
_

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4%!-RAY INTERACTIONS AND FILTERS


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4 EQ 1 1. Regarding the filtration of X-rays

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\':A. Tissue contrast is increased


r A
B. The photoelectric effect predominates
.
C. A beryllium window results in less attenuation of the beam
compared to a glass window
V D. When aluminium is being used as a filter facing an anode, a
backing lter is also required
E. For undercouch fluoroscopy, 2.5-4 mm of aluminium is the
recommended added tube filtration

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12-. Dosimetry

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B. An exposure rate meter requires a resisto? in parallel to a
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rs
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{I C. In an exposure meter, the outer wall of an ionisation
chamber is connected to the capacitor

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increasing wall thickness
_E. The use of a lead cylinder cathode in a Geiger-Muller tube,
increases the detection of efficiency of gamma rays

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FILMS AND SCREENS

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[Q 13. Concerning X-ray film


_
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The supercoat consistsyof a thin later of polyester A
P? Film speed is a reciprocal of the exposure needed to produce
a density of 1 above base plus fog
FC. Exposing a film to bright light after fixation will destroy the
image ofthe film
D. Fog is more noticeable at low densities
E. Incomplete washing of the film following fixation will result
- in the film developing a brown layer ofsilver sulphide
.

s.

X-RAY TUBES

El 14. In a rotating anode tube, the X-ray tube assembly is


primarily irrimersedin oil for the following reasons

m.,.
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f

To provide lubrication for the rotating anode


To filter the X-ray beam
"To assist in the cooling of the anode following an exposure

. To provide electrical insulation


WU??? To provide mechanical protection to the X-ray tube
assembly

FILMS AND SCREENS


A

[l 15. The following are true__

A. -The gamma of a film refers to the maximum slope of the I '


shoulder region of the characteristic curve
<8. High gamma films have a narrow exposure latitude
C. Low gamma films have a narrow exposure latitude
_

"(13. Low garrima films have low inherent film contrast


E. The optical density of a film plotted against the reciprocal of
the exposure given to that film is known as the characteristic
curve

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AGE QUALITY

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.

Regarding film processing

P<\

Films are washed with water prior to fixing

..>== The developer is kept alkaline to keep the pH between 9.6

Cc.

and 10.6
Glutaraldehyde in the developer acts as an anti-fogging
agent

.,.
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,D. The purpose of the fixer is to immediately stop any further

development of latent image centres


-E. The fixer contains aluminium salts which harden the film and

reduce drying time

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@

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A.
The centre of the image intensifier screen has a brighter
image than the periphery

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resolution than the central field


1:
,
C. There is less geometric distortion at the periphery of the
intensifier screen compared to the centre
D. The effects of geometric distortion are more pronounced in
small-field intensifiers
g
Electrons at the periphery of the intensifier field are less
TE accurately focused than those at the centre and produce
unequal magnification

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-RAY INTERACTIONS

L 18. Regarding the interaction of X-rays or gamma rays with


.
tissue

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A Produce secondary electrons


B. Are more for higher atomic number materials
P C. At lower energies, the interaction occurs in a manner which

7;.-'

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ii

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is predominantly inversely proportional to the square of their


energy _
Scatter predominantly in a fowvard direction
The interaction may occur with either free or bound
electrons

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X-RAY TUBES
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thicker the cut
When multiple simultaneous tomographic cuts are made, all
the film screen combinations .have the same sensitivity
Rotating anode tubes do not need to be filled with oil

RADIATION PROTECTION
igzil
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@ 20. The following are non-stochastic effects

1 EEC?-'.

Cataract formation
1

Skin erythema

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Muscular dystrophy

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RADIATION PROTECTION
ll2!. The following statements are true
A

In fluoroscopy with an undercouch tube, drapes of at least

B.

0.35 mm lead equivalence are attached to the lower edge


In gamma imaging, body aprons should have at least 0.5 mm
lead equivalence

/fc. 2.5 mm lead equivalence is often satisfactory for use in the


walls, doors and windows of an X-ray room
60 mm of concrete is approximately equal to 1 mm lead
equivalence
(E. 12 mm of barium plaster is approximately equal to 1 mm lead
equivalence
'i
D

RADIATION PROTECTION

@ 22. The following statements are true


In an X-ray tube, the total filtration should never be less than
the equivalent of 0.5 mm aluminium
$1.8. For radiography of the chest, the focal spot to skin distance
should not be less than 30 cm
A

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In hypocycloidal tomography and cerebral angiography, the


use of lead or lead-containing shields should be considered
for protection of the lens of the patient's eye
? D. During fluoroscopy, palpation with the hand should only'be
undertaken with an overcouch tube
i
E. A protective glove with a lead equivalent thickness of at least
0.25 mm should be used for X-rays up to 150 kV

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RADIATION PROTECTION

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@23. Regarding tissue weighting factors (Wt)

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Gonads: Wt 0.2
Red bone marrow: Wt 0.12
Breast: Wt 0.12
Lung: Wt 0.05
Thyroid: Wt 0.05

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24.
Regarding dosimetry

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in a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)


B. TLDs are suitable for finger dosimetry
A

\:C. Whenusing film badges it is not possible to identify the type


and energy of an exposure
I
D. LiF chips are annealed in order to remove any residual stored
energy from a previous exposure
QE. TLDs are not affective over a wide range of exposure doses

~'
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' DIATION PROTECTION

.$

25. The following statements are true


The inherent filtration of every tube assembly should be
marked permanently and clearly on the tube housing
For normal diagnostic work, the total filtration of the beam
should be equivalent to not less than 2.5 mm of aluminiufn of
which 1.5 mm should be permanent
C. All radiographic X-ray equipment should be provided with
properly aligned adjustable beam-limiting devices to keep

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the radiation beam within the limits of the X-ray film


selected for each examination
i

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The housing and supporting plates of an X-ray image

5 ~
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intensifier should provide shielding equivalent of least 1 mm


lead for 100 kV
_ ~/ E. In mammography, the total permanent filtration should
~
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never be less than 0.3 mm molybdenum
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Curry, Thomas. Christensenis Physics of. Diagnostic Radiology, iith Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

[IQ 2.

A. false B. true C. true

'

i I

D. false E. false

Absorbed dose is the energy deposited per unit mass (J/kg).


Kerma and absorbed dose are more or less synonymous with
each other and are measured in Grays (-1 Gy = I J/lgg).
Standard free air chambers are 800 times larger than thimble
chambers and are therefore impracticable for use in most

departments.
'
Silver bromide is used in film badge dosimetry.

3.
44

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e.-s
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Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. Wj B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

as
.

%:2"iF
3.

B. false C. true

D. true E. false

Structures parallel to the film are imaged sharply, those at right


angles tend to be blurred to a greater extent.
Tomography is useful when imaging, for example, the inner ear
and in pyelography.
Zonography: 5-10 degrees, tomography: 30-50 degrees.

l-. _

Farr, Aliisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co


Lei.

....
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'~'~"lZ\] 4.

A. false B. true C. false

Speed of development is increased by increasing the developer


temperature but there is also an associated increase in fog.
When the developer temperature rises above a temperature
recommended by the manufacturer, there is an increase in fog
which reduces the average film gamma.

1-'
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D. true

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lncreasing developer concentration and increasing developing


time have similar affects to those of increasing developer
temperature.
QA involves measuring the density, following processing, of a
film on which a step wedge image is pre-exposed.

L__:i:}

.ln QA a O-15% daily variation in densities are acceptable.

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Co. Ltd.

- A. true

B. false

C. true, D. false

E. true

A large field intensifier (300 mm) is needed.


Fpllowing subtraction, the signals subtract but the noise is
reinforced, thereby reducing the SNR.
With energy subtraction, rapid switching between a high kV e.g.,
140 and a lower kV e.g., 65, avoids the need for a mask
image. ..
..
~

In hybrid subtraction, the temporal subtraction would eliminate


bone, for example, leaving the vessel filled with contrast medium.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

6.A. true B. false

C. false

D. true

E. false

Partial volume artefacts are reduced since-the volume acquisition

data can be reconstructed in small steps.

l
|

As there is volume acquisition of data, the problem of slice to


slice misregistration is overcome, especally in the region of the
diaphragm.
Pitch is defined as the distance moved by the table during one

rotation divided by the slice thickness.

if

As there is no cooling period between slices in helical scanning,


heat loading of the tube>is greater than in conventional axial
scanning.
_
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

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A. false B. false

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D. true

E. true

The resolution deteriorates but the sensitivity improves with


increasing the number of hdles in the collimator.

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when using collimators with both wider and shorter holes.

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Bismuth germinate is usually used for the detectors.


Collimators are not routinely used in PET imaging
The effective dose to a patient is much the same as in routine
gamma imaging as the short half-lives of the radionuclides used
compensates for their beta emission.
The resolution in PET is better than in SPECT and is the same at
all depths in a patient. ln SPECT, however, spatial resolution
worsens with increasing depth.
'

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A. true

B. false C. true

D. false

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daily basis.
Screen film contact should be assessed every 3 months.

aveLwa-.r

Thomas. The Technique of Mammography Quality Assurance. Jarvis

Screening Diagnostic and National Training Centre Manual.


s

>31 [3 10. A. true B. false C. true D. true E. false


The concentration of radioactivity is measured in Bq/ml. Bq/kg is
a measure of the specific activity of a radioactive sample.
Gamma rays have a greater maximum possible energy than
X-rays. This is because gamma rays originate at a nuclear level
whilst X-rays originate from changes in the electron shells. A

-.

=
4:
a
4'
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Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.

Williams 8: Wilkins (Europe) Ltd,

A la

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11. A. false

B. true

C. true

D. false

E. true

As the mean kV of the beam is increased with filtration, tissue


contrast is reduced.
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Automatic exposure control: Exposure of a 4cm perspex


phantom should yield a film giving a consistent optical density
from a consistent exposure 'rnAs. This should be checked ona

-i

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#= 7-?-_"

No backing filter is required as the characteristic radiation


emitted by the aluminium is of low energy (1.5 kV) and this is
absorbed in air.

.
.
ii}. -

Curry, Thomas. Christensen? Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.

a#.E';iP

Williams 8: Wilkins (Europe) l.td.

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B. true

C. false

.\ -1 1

D. false

E. true

.2! :-

Z of air is 7-.62 and that ofthe vvallis 6. However,- as the central


electrode has a Z of about 13,- the Z of the combined ionisation
chamber (lC) approximates to that of air.
In an exposure meter a capacitor is used in parallel to the
voltmeter and the central electrode of the chamber is connected
to the capacitor.
Above a certain wall thickness, the response of the
chamber decreases due to attenuation of the beam by
the wall itself.
The efficiency of detection increases from about 15% when
using a lead cylinder cathode.

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Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
'

[E13
i

A. false

B. true

C. false

D. true

E. true

The supercoat is usually made of gelatin.


The image would be destroyed -if the film was exposed to light

prior to fixing.

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins Ltd.
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A. false

B. false C. false

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E. false

Whilst the use of the oil does provide a degree of filtration and
allows the transfer of heat by radiation from the anode, the
principal reason that the X-ray tube assembly is immersed in oil is
for the electrical insulation it provides.)
Curry, Thomas. Christensenis Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

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15.

A. false B. true

C. false

D. true

E. false

..

The gamma of a film refers to the maximum slope of the

straight-line portion of the characteristic curve. The steeper


--.

the straight-line portion, the higher the gamma and vice


versa. _ _
.
Low gamma film has a wide exposure latitude.
The characteristic cun/e is formed by plotting the optical density
against the log of the exposure given to_ the film.

._i
_r_ _
T2

n-

.. \

;_" X 2 5
'3 9'13.

Arm'strong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press_

Ltd., 1990. '

[i]1s.

A. false

'

B. true C. false

'

'

D. true _E. true

y J

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.>..l"!'z1

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Immediately following the developer, the film goes straight into


the fixer tank after which it is washed withgvvaterto remove the
silver bromide in solution and fixer chemicals. Fixei has an acid
pH of 4-5.
_
.
Glutaraldehyde is a hardening agent.
~

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.->37;

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Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn?Clinical Press


Ltd., 1990.

17A.

true

B. false C. false

1'. .<.=
D. false

E. true

Electrons at the periphery of the intensification field are less


accurately focused than those at the centre of the magnification
field.
This has the following consequences: the centre of the image

intensifier screen has a brighter image, better resolution and less

WWVQWiE ~?H'

Ff:

geometric distortion. These features are worse with large field


intensifiers.

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., 1990.

E] 18.

A. true B. true C. false

D. false

E. true

At lower energies, the photoelectric effect is predominant. Hence


the interactions are approximately inversely proportional to the
cube of the energy.

QBase ME5s_?;;E_.a..R .1 E . - ......-_.


93

There is no bias toward forward scattering. Scattering can occur


in any direction, but in general the larger the angle of
deflection of a scattered photon the greater the energy lost by
that photon.

. \. ._

Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


.;.;;,._A.:'*_'-if)
_ an.-;.r.
_;,.u-;..-.

Williams is Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

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=.i
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2 =".i~.. >'='::. 2'?-I


K?

Dental X-r_ayVtube's usually use stationary anodes.


Fine and coarse focus are selected by energising two different
filaments.
The greater the angle of swing of an X-ray tube, the thinner the
tomographic cut.
In multiple simultaneous tomography the film screen
combinationyare of increasing sensitivity. ._
The insulating oil in a rotating anode tube plays an important
role in the heat pathway of the rotating anode tubes.

xu

Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

[E20

A. true

B. true

C. true

D. false

E. false

Leukaemia is a stochastic effect.


Muscular dystrophy is a genetically inherited condition.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

[E21

A. false

B. false

C. true

D. false

E.Atrue

The drapes should have atileast 0.5 mm of lead equivalence.


Body aprons used in diagnostic radiology are essentially
ineffective against the higher photon energies encountered in
nuclear medicine.
_
120 mm of concrete is approximately equal to 1 mm lead
equivalence.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

'4

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22.A. true B. false C. true D. false E. true


The focal spot to skin distance should never be less than 30cm,

and preferably not less than 45 cm when stationary equipment is


used. For radiography of the chest the distance should not be less
than 60cm.
,
L
_
.

During fluoroscopy, palpation with the hand should be reduced


to the minimum. lt should only be undertaken on theimage

, 11- i
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receptor side of the patient andtherefore should not be carried


out at all with an overcouch tube.
~
.

Regulation 12 and Regulation 6: IRR 88.

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[E_|'23. A. true

B. true

Breast: Wt 0.05.
Lung: Wt 0.12.

C. false

D. false

..,;.>\_-I

E. true

.. ..,<!.
._ .31
A

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Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn./V. B. Saunders Co.

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.>.

A. true B. true C. false

D. true

E. false

a
'

With film badges, it is possible to identify the type and energy of


an exposure due to the presence of the double-coated emulsion
and the various filters in the badge itself.
TLDs are affective over a very wide range of doses
(0.12,000 mSv).
"
J

Farr, Aliisy~Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

.l@25. A. true B. true

4;:

gm
.
1:
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C. true

D. false .E. false

The housing and supporting plates of an X-ray image intensifier


should provide shielding equivalent to at least 2 mm lead for
100 kV. From 100-1250 l<V an additional lead equivalent of
0.01 mm/kV is required. The lead equivalence should be clearly
stated on the equipment.
In mammography the total permanent filtration should never be
less than 0.03 mm molybdenum (equivalent to 0.5 mm
aluminium).
AC1/185, AC2l7, ACH784, AC2/12. IRR 88.

QBase ivTcb_s'F5F'EF?7??'''_'__'_m_W_

0'

95

-Y _-lo;-_

?'-'~r:'ZZ:1.\.?-'-=:#' *5?

-i

:*=="r'-=e ~;_$l"1<.*
-.-:s"~">{r ~;.c_=3~5l
,f ,"f ~2.:
*~=rl*-~ .. if?
-;._.:=_A ...as ..

IMAGE QUALITY

'~

lg] 1. - Scatter radiation

Reducing the field area reduces scatter production


I.-:_B;_Applyin'g compression reduces scatter production
C. Use of a grid increases the amount of scatter reaching the
~". film screen combination
D. Use of an air-gap technique decreases the amount of scatter
c
reaching the film due to absorption of photons within the air
QEP
._
E. Use of a lower kV produces more forward scatter
FILMS AND SCREENS
@2.

Regarding intensifying screens

TA. Film screen combinations are more sensitive to X-ray


exposure than film alone g
~

The use of screens reduces patient dose

data
2

The use of screens reduces exposure times and consequently


decreases movement unsharpness
The use of screens reduces tube loading
The use of screens increases film gamma

MAMMOGRAPHY
El 3._

Mammography

A. In mammography, a molybdenum filter is used primarily to


remove the characteristic radiation produced at a
molybdenum anode
v
B." A single {rare earth front screen is usually used
V
<TC. For macro-radiography, a focal spot size of 0.1 mmis used
D. Compression of the breast only serves to cause discomfort to
the patient
/(/E. Films with a gamma of about 3 are used

5- Jqgagg. MCQs for_tlTe~P-art_l_FRCR

W --

5:1

-15.,, 1. 4i.

'
, _

QiuvisAND SCREENS
'~."'."?*?
.:;_v

4.

..

lntensifying screens

Increase lm speed

Tl
"
-V

1":
-I _"
,1-,4.

P? lmprove resolution when compared to film exposed directly


to X-rays
_

C. Have an increased modulation transfer function when used


with magnification
D_._ Increase film Contrast
_
'
_

' -E. When using green-emitting phosphors, theyare as_s'oc'iated

with argreater cross-over of light compared with th.e use of '


blue-emitting phosphors

X-RAY INTERACTIONS
l [.3 5.

Regarding the photoelectric affect

i-A. The entire energy of the incident photon is transferred to an


orbital electron
.
' YB. Following the ejection of an electron, the vacancy is filled by
an outer shell electron
'
It is the predominant X-ray interaction in iodinated contrast
media
__
A
_ e
It is the predominant X-ray interaction in intensifying screens
____E. It is the predominant mechanism by which an aluminium
ll
filter removes low-energy photons
__,_

-_;
""5
_
- =2

":5 '

HE ATOM
6.

Electromagnetic radiation

A. Includes infra-red light


_f
-"

B.
C.
F-D.
E.

wat

Includes radio waves '


Can behave both as a wave and as a particle
includes alpha emission
'
Has energy that is proportional to its wavelength

it-nAv runes
7.
=_ ~

Tube rating

"

A. ls the maximum value of mA that can be achieved


for any given value of k\/, exposure time and focal
spot size

7 Q3359 l\)lE:f'c>rt'he_l_a:rtu1l=;(?l;_vH-_M_~H '_"__

i i

97

.--V-9:1;

B. ltis the iimit of power that can be put into the system
C. ls restricted by the amount of heat that builds up in the system
P D. Decreases as the focal spot size increases
_FE. Is equal to 0.7 X kV X mA X seconds for a three-phase
generator

i._ _.,- .

T.

:-

IMAGE QUALITY
i_,_-3 mX 5;;
'.1-:::.-=:=

I =21 i '4.,,-

:-:>": ~ i

11-E=_sai,i
9:1:%? =2?-

it-!:iE
-.~ I11.L-

l5;1.i.>-:3.

. 5-it:
;e;n.<=;<:
s

I
i==;g>_~L

-i

=?us*.="

@8.

Image quality

Under goodviewing conditions an optical density difference


" ' " ~ of Oi.-04 can be seenion an X-ray film
B. True fog occurs when the silver halide grains in a film
emulsion are developed following an exposure
C. True fog is more likely to occur with the use of slow films
D. Increase in the thickness of a part being irradiated results in ,
an increase in the amount of scatter radiation produced
E. it is acceptable for the beam size to be greater than the film
size used
FLUOROSCOPY
lg 9.
-

Regarding interlocks used in fluoroscopy

A. The-fluoroscopy interlock prevents screening if the filament is


too hot
B. The preparation interlock prevents a relay from being
energised if the exposure factors selected could cause tube
overload
C. The exposure interlock prevents the exposure relay from being
energised without prior initiation of the preparation circuits
F D. The guard timer is set to operate if the exposure time
exceeds the set time by more than 10%
E. Fluoroscopy is inhibited if the screening time exceeds '
10 minutes
_a _
'

FILMS AND SCREENS


|] 1 0. Regarding subtraction techniques
"?A. In photographic subtraction, the mask image is produced by
using a single emulsion film with a gamma of -2
B. In photographic subtraction the initial mask is known as
positive mask
\-

QBase MCQs for the Part 1 Face

W"

5- '1'?!

C. ln digital subtraction the image used as a mask is


electronically subtracted from a subsequent image
D. In digital subtraction it is essential to achieve almost perfect

2,.

-.2;
.

_
_

registration between initial and post-contrast images

2.

'1
P En

___+.__~

In a digital system, the electronic signals are fed into a digital


to analogue converter from where they can then be
manipulated
as 11;;

.T-if-.~'-

C1

are

3;

1 1. The following window levels and window widths would


be appropriate for the associated investigation
\/A. Abdomen zwindow level (WL) 60, window width (WW) 400
TB. Lung: WL -600, WW 1,600
_
-

~ Q
__i

-1"c. Bone: WL soo, vvw 2,000 _


"\_D- Posterior Fossa' : WL 35, WW 150

<2. Brain ; wt as. vvvv as

~.

:~ ~_ ;
;7f~.--.=-.
';z 2-Fr

I-}X-RAY INTERACTIONS

KC"m. .~

L 1 2. Regarding the attenuation of monochromatic radiation


.5
I

. \:;'

1 -1an

Belg<

?A. Decreases the mean energy of the beam


B . ls the fractional reduction in intensity as it traverses an
absorber
r
C. ls exponential
~
D. ls contributed to by photon absorption
E. ls contributed to by photon scatter

'

-RAY runes
13. The following are true
.

*ir= w"-ricvsm

it
>
T
)
I

A. ln an X-ray tube, most of the energy of the filament electrons


goes to produce X-rays
B. A ph_otoelectron.h_as the same energy as an incident X-ray
photon
Characteristic K radiation is produced by electrons with
energy greater than that of the K absorption elge
The output of an X-ray tube is proportional to the mAs on
the control panel
E. The output of an X-ray tube is independent of whether the
rectification is half-wave or full-wave
"

""""""""'i""""""'

' -'

' " ' '

"

_ ' "

in

, '.""I.1: f

IMAGE QUALITY

lg 14. Secondary radiation grids


A. Grid ratio equals the ratio of [height of the lead strips] :
[width of the lead strips in the grid] l

B. A typical grid ratio used in most diagnostic radiology is 20 : 1

High-ratio grids are preferable at high kV and with very large

field
' areas

39."-_g._

- /\D. Contrast improvement factor is defined as the ratio of - [contrast obtained with a grid] : [contrast obtained without a

113:5?

grid]

r
h

'

E. Bucky factor is dened as the ratio of - [exposure necessary


with a grid] : [exposure necessary without a grid]

<-~:-,~_:jt'
.g .-...

.r.

=7 -"I1".

>_ .\-.7

iv '9,
..
I!

:'\=.-2

r
l

I
E
1

FILMS AND SCREENS


[Q 15. The following statements regarding image quality are
true
'~(A. Contrast between adjacent areas ofa film is due to the
difference in their optical densities
B. Radiographic contrast is dened as the ratio of [film gamma]
[subject contrast] y
_
C. Screen unsharpness is greatest when using thinner screens
D. Screen unsharpness can be reduced by using coarser
crystals
.
E. A high denition screen may typically have an intensication
factor of 100
l

.
\

:
!l
-.
.
i

FLUOROSCOPY
El 16. Regarding the image intensifier

"

A. Zinc cadmium sulphide (ZnCdS) is usually used as the input


' phosphor
- 'B. Caesium iodide (Csl) is usually used as the output phosphor
C. The input phosphor absorbs about 20% of the X-ray energy
_
converting it into light
D. Phot'oe|ectr0r3s produced in the image intensier are
accelerated by a potential difference of 25-35 V betweeh the
input and output screens
45. Csl crystals have a higher packing density than ZnCdS crystals
resuiting in increased screen efficiency

100

QBase MCQsforthePart1FRCR

"-

W"

\ -.
'_,_ . :

F...-2,

11.. .-

_.uvrsAND scaeeus

17. Rare earth screens


r
.;'

Ia

":i.

P99?

Allow a lower tube loading


Allow the use of smaller focal spots
Produce less movement blur
Produce less geometric distortion
- quantum rnottle
Reduce

if
ix-RAY lNTERACTl0_l\lS_ '
'

Bl

, 951

"::_j.~!_:._
$1.

\ [ii] 18. Regarding the photoelectric effect

I 5:1

3:

A. Both free and bound electrons are involved


B. ls greater in aluminium than in lead for a given photon
energy
'
"((2. Results in the emission of characteristic radiation
_ __
D. A positron may be emitted
'"
E. Produces signicant scatter radiation in thediagnostic energy
range

)1

? ._
'_'r '
z
L
, <

- 1~11. ..
;_u-ca

1A5

'=itD"-if

2 -RAY ruees

A"

_F

1 19. Regarding the X-ray tube and X-ray production

A. The focusing cup of the cathode is designed so as to


concentrate the electrons on the focal spot
B. A tungsten rhenium target is tougher and less likely to crack

due to heating than a target made of tungsten alone


4

,_,,_
.~ 1;
3%
-1-

$3.

C. A dual focus tube has two laments of differing sizes

which enables the production of two different sizes of focal


spot
The tube current is measured in volts
E. A rotating anode tube has a significantly higher rating than a
tube which has a stationary anode

in.

$95-

DIATION PROTECTION
20. Regarding stochastic effects

:~. IE1

"Ail.

The severity of the effect increases with dose


They may be induced by very small doses of radiation
They are typically cancers
MCQ57for

Prt_T;RCR -_-m

_~

_"-H-T

101

'

4~r!f',?,'

They are of less concern with children

.c

They have a threshold dose

I
i

>_

RADIATIDN PROTECTION

21 Regardin_gTLDs

_=r_

,
. *~ :=a-;1.:51.2 ;_:Is;:.

A_';.='..
-'_'.:"=.-5 -. :.

A. They can only be used once


Haveawide doserange .
Arecheap
_
.

Lithium iodide is a suitabiematerial

'

5"?-P Are relatively bulky

';1flZr_;,};
:_: .1-9',

'--la~*_<<*i;
.i.u=J'_I:* '~ r:.:~..- =;
_ 5-_:.i_=3
.;.{;,,=_
+;i~:?.

hi

RADIATION PROTECTION
@22. According to the lonising Radiation Regulations 1999
A. Only classified workers are allowed in controlled areas
B
. .
.
I
A classified worker is one who is likely to receive more than
3% of any annual dose limit
C. lt is the employer's responsibility to ensure that protective
equipment is used by their radiation workers
_< D. [Employers are responsible for ensuring that their workers are
adequately trained
Female radiation workers are not obliged to inform their
employer if they become pregnant

_,<E.

RADIATION PROTECTION
23. Regarding dose limits
The equivalent dose for the abdomen of a woman of
reproductive capacity is 13 mSv in any year
<8. if a worker is exposed to an effective dose greater
than 20 mSv in a year the executive needs to be
notified
For a trainee under 18 years, the equivalent eye dose limit is
50 mSv in a year
The annual equivalent dose limit to the ankle of an employee
older than 18 years is 150 mSv
E. The annual effective dose limit for a visitor can never exceed
1 mSv
*~

("C.

ioY_ .QB_ase MCQs rs. the Part1FRCR

"Hi

l=

gs-.; -

DIATION PROTECTION
* 24. Regarding tissue damage from ionising radiation

if"

'

A. The greater the energy of an X-ray, the less the interaction


with tissue
B. The majority of tissue damage is by direct interaction of the
ionising radiation
C. Indirect damage is via the formation of free radicals
QB. Alpha and beta radiation do not cause tissue damage
E. Tissue recovery does not occur .

._
4
'

RADIATION PROTECTION
@125. The following decrease patient dose

,
Q:

I"w
.>

Using an air gap


Decreasing the focus-skin distance
Coning
i
Using compression
lncreasing the frame rate during fluoroscopy

i'l%>".<>

-:1: :2 .

';i":7.~'~-

Iii
\!'

cw

5
1-Li.
'5.
9.

ii
4.

,.is

fr QBase- M<.Q.i'a;;r.;a;~ rrierfcn "W" ""' "'__"T"""""i"i'5

.. -1::.:.*>=.-.>1r-.;-1i-'a=:',-,'=-
:;;v.'1"i:'fis:'za-e=,&AsKgl=;=;F,;Pg=s'<2e%..

=5-2:-as-T
'e':~:i-.-'- ..._~=;/.=:=_._-;;1>-#..-"_-:w:i_.-aw
,.
'-c-xv <.?''\.-*?
-1*:-.' .~~.= :~:.;.e.=.: -.7

1-"i*.\=;T'".f-ci,;#"=_=.**
~ -:. ..s
Ale - G "3-'i::I;'."

_ ii~

.
.-ic

. $3 '\s ._;i._ '=

\. ,.'.'S5

1.A. true B. true C. false D. false E. false

Theuse of a grid decreases the amount of scatter _reaching_the film_


The air-gap technique achieves its effect by virtue of scattered
photons simply missing the film. l '
'
' I '
I A
At lower kV there tends to be more side scatter production and
less scatter in a forward direction.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co. ~
Ltd.

Ell

A. true

B. true

C. true

D. true

E. true

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

EI3.

A. false

B. false

C. true

D. false E. true

A filter is relatively transparent to its own characteristic radiation.


The filter serves to remove most of the continuous spectrum.
A single rear screen is used.
t
_
Compression is vital in order to immobilise the breast, and also to
decrease the object to film distance thus decreasing geometric

unsharpness.
'

|:!il4.

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

A. true B. false

C. true

D. true

E. true

The image is affected by screen unsharpness and consequently


has a lower resolution compared to lm exposed directly.
Film contrast is increased because screens diminish the effect of
scatter when compared to film exposed alone.
Curry, Thomas. Chri'stensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd. ~

104

QBase MCQs for the Partl FRCR

-*

~ -.-

A. true B. true
,

C. true

D. true

E. true

Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

3'

-,5

6.

A. true B. true

C. true D.-false "E. false

Alpha emission is particulate emission from radioactive decay.


The energy of electromagnetic radiation is inversely
proportional to its wavelength and derived frorn the equation
E=hc/lambda 1
t
s
1' "
-

"-

-'= 9) '~1';

*{f*,:-F1:

=_.=;;;;,1_:
"311"
._._:;_,
3

Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams 8: Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

T lii]7.

A. true

K.
~ _~
I

B. true C._ true D. false

-t, _ ._.
.. ~.\
<

E. false

;-1.-in

The tube rating tends to increase with .increase iniocal spot size.
Three-phase generators are about 35% more efficient than
single-phase generators. Thus the tube rating for a three-phase
unit is equal to 1.35 >< kv X mA X seconds. '

l T
Q:

e
Z.

.>.3*:>'.\
.,;.;;~. r

.1.- >

F: I11:-1-"I

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physicsof Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

.'
Q.

3}
,A

a.

1/

A. true

B. false C. false

D. true

E. false

An optical density of 0.04 equates to a difference in light


transmission of 10%.
True fog occurs when the silver halide grains in an emulsion are
developed in the absence of exposure to light or X-rays".
True fog is more likely to be seen with the use of highspeed
films due to their highly sensitised grains.

\-

It is good radiological practice for the beam size to be less than

La...

the film size used, and as such evidence of collimation should be


seen on every exposed film.
i

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of radiology, lst Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., 1990.

9.

A. true

B. true

C. true

D. false E. true

The guard timer terminates an exposure if the exposure time


exceeds "me set time by 1%.

Q5359 _|\7|c_EY?6FE''F5F{'i"FRE'

'" U

'

-105

;t~"TT-'

By UK law fluoroscopy is inhibited if screening time exceeds 10


minutes. In practice there is a 5 minutes reminder.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology. 1St Edn. Clinical Pre5;
r

Ltd., 1990.

=<.'.-m. r
-.1-:.'r.'."

El 1~

.gis...:- : ::,-,...,
17!.
_,..

:7?!

I57. 3:535.P 5!;-,_.'I=


:1 ...--I

'.1;.Z-rI~".=' 11'.

-'J"f;':1~'ZI"~
1-2;::;e-,-._
.-..-.
;;=i!'1i"'i
7..-i;il=.J3=?,
. g .- _
1;? ;-we-.
1;-L! '7: '

*1-?+?=.

A. false

B. true

C. trues D. true

E. false

The single emulsion used for the mask image has a gamma
of l. '

q
It is known as apositive mask because if it is superimposed on
the original radiograph all theinformation is masked out. '
The electronic signals are fed into an analogue to digital
"converter to produce digital signals which are then
manipulated.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd.,1990._

.,

..

.-;~~I to-..
.=;.'~=':,

A. true

ti;

at

_\

B. true

C. true

D. true

E. true

These values are used in a CT unit in my department. They are


essentially appropriate for the investigations described but the
values in your department may differ slightly.
-

Elm A. false B. true *C. true D. true E. true


Attenuation of a monochromatic beam by an absorber does not
change the quality of the beam but reduces the number of
photons in the beam i.e. there is a decrease in quantity of
photons.
Curry, Thomas. Christensen? Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn. '
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

13
A. false B. false C. true. D. true E. false
Only 1% of the energy of electrons goes to produce X-rays. The
rest is liberated as heat.
A photoelectron hasless energy than the incident photon.
Tube loading is 35% more efficient with full-wave rectification.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, lst Edn. Clinical
Press Ltd.

T6

-QBa$e' i MCQs for the Part 1l5;l{CR

"\

'7" __" 7 i

__ if my

1
l

14.

A. false B. false C. true

D. true

E. false

Grid ratio is a ratio of the height of the lead strips to the distance
between them;
A typical grid ratio is 8:1.
High-ratio grids a_re preferable at high kV andwith very large
field areas because more scatter is produced in this setting.
The ratio of exposure necessary with a grid to that without a grid
describes grid factor. Bucky factor = incident radiation:
transmitted radiation.

t
'\

is

'

"-

, 1
>1'.:<.7r5
_-.,:_.-,7.

, l'l1,'.}
..
.1 2'7:
..>~....

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


.=1*1.-.*.'%

Co. Ltd.

1 [El 15.

.~t.;-:l'.

A. true

B. false

C. false

D. false

E. false

Radiographic contrast = film gamma X subject contrast.


Screen unsharpness is greatest for thicker screens.
Screen unsharpness is reduced with screens composed of fine
crystals.
A high definition screen or detail screen typically has an
I
intensification factor of 35.

P1

Isl

g.__u
4: _

.. AV
-.,_.,

|~

41>
D

1:.

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders y

-.'
_<

C0. Ltd.

1 6.

'

A. false

B. false

'

C. false

D. false

5332':. .

"u Z-2

I-Y-_w=,=

-?\..v:.~:~

E. true

Csi is usually used as the input phosphor.


ZnCdS is usually used as the output phosphor.
The input phosphor absorbs about 60% of the X-ray energy.
A potential difference of 25-35 kV is applied between the input
and output phosphors.
Csl has needle-like crystals which can be aligned and packed

r<

tightly together.

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

17
A.
F
0

true

'

B. true C. true

D. true

E. false

As lower exposures are required with fast-film screen systems,


the use of rarer screens can lead to problems with noise.
Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

Q3355 McE;;_rZ}'{i<i5.r}'1_'i5iiciz"' '

" mm

"'"'' ' '

107

18.
A. false B. false

C. true

D. false

,+--78-aw

E. false

_ ~_

The photoelectric effect involves an interaction with a bound


electron.
.

~
_

A positron is emitted in pair production.


Most scatter in diagnostic radiology is produced by the Compton

__-. ,

process. However, when contrast agents such as barium and


iodine are used, secondary radiation via the photoelectric effect
may reach the film.
Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th. Edn.
Williams &_Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
'
"
"

|:g19. A. true

B. true

C. true D. false

E. true

The tube current is measured in mAs.


_i

2'.

j T
Y '

Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
~'

[lEl20. A. false
ff . Y

B. true

C. true D. false

E. false

The probability of a stochastic effect occurring increases with


dose, not the severity of the effect, and thus these effects may be
induced by very small doses of radiation. _ I

Children are believed to be more radiosensitive than adults and have a longer life in which to express any cancer.
Deterministic effects have threshold doses.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

E121. A. false

B. true

C. false

D. false

E. false

_TLDs (thermoluminescent dosimeters) are relatively expensive,


small, can be re-used and react to a wide range of dose
(0.l2,000 mSv):
'~
Lithium fluoride is a common material for TLDs.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.

Ltd.
[E21 A. false

..

B. false

'
C. false D. true

ll
E. true

A classified worker is one who is likely to receive more than 30%


of any annual dose limit.

'1_5_"QBaseI MCC>sfoTthe_Part1FRCR__

J1"m_

~..

i,1
Radiation workers are themselves responsible and obliged to use
available protective equipment.
c\

lonising -Radia tion Regulations 1999.

:1
< ,-

$23.

A. false

2
.4

The equivalent dose for the abdomen of a woman of


reproductive capacity is 13 mSv in consecutive period of THREE
months.
'
H
n
The limit on equivalent dose for the hands, forearms, feet and
ankles shall be 500 mSv in a calendar yearfor an employee 18

B. true C. true

D. false E. false

years and.older.

B. true

C. true

D. false

E. false

;3?=.
5'19; '5 I

-,1 -

17

w.

.575;
= i; g
~11-F
Eljii.1~. _1 : -.-=
1:,
7-"

ls-ye

A. true

LIE-Z

1.1,, _. Q

lonising Radiation Regulations 1999.

g 24.

:-'::,~ -;
7 $

If a person is exposed to ionising radiation resulting from the


medical exposure of another, the limit on effective dose for any
such person shall be S mSv in any period of 5 consecutive
calendar years, which may be greater than lmSv per year.
3:1-

x.:;

Alpha, beta and gamma radiation, X-rays and electrons are all
examples of ionising radiation.
Tissue can recover from damage by ionising radiation, although
this depends on dose and frequency of exposure.

-K \'D,:~"

Ig:\1?_ .

'~-Y.

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

25. A. false

E.

B. false C. true

D. true

E. false

An air gap increases patient dose, along with contrast.


lncreasing the focus skin distance decreases patient dose.
Decreasing the fluoroscopy frame decreases patient dose.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.
'

E
Q8359

MCQs for the Part 1 FRCR

109

~<;:'.'.5z.. '

>q.;--._,,- ._-_ =,.-. -. .,_E -=.~:-,r~.-~.'- - -r..-.z-

av F5

{'@ '53 :<.:cl

1'" 'i~=~*- i'=.1i


"~'~'~:

" .==" '~si*.t~ -= : ~

3= s

RADIOACTIVITY
[E] 1.

The following are true of alpha particles

A. They_a_re i_den'tical,to'hieliumnuclei
1 ,FB. They travel relatively quicklythrough matter
FC. They produce a relatively small amount of ionisation per unit
r .
length of track
D. They tend to travel only short distances in solid material
E They serve no useful purpose in diagnostic radiography

"WAGE QUALITY

@ 2.

Regarding grids and grid cut-off


A
B
C

-.-\/D.

E.

Lateral decentring produces a radiograph that is light on one


side and dark on the other side T. - '
Focus grid distance decentringproduces a uniformly light
radiograph
.
Combined lateral and focus grid distance decentring
produces a radiograph that is light at the periphery
Combined lateral and focus grid distance decentring is the
commonest type of grid of cut-off encountered in every day
practice

Moving grids incur an increased patient radiation dose


compared to static grids

TOMOGRAPHY
El 3.

Regarding tomography
Wide-angle tomography is also known as zonography
The use of wide-angle tomography would be effective for
imaging the inner ear
T
C. Narrow-angle tomography is useful for imaging tissues with
a lot of natural contrast .

F?

T QBase

if/lCQs for the Part?-E_C'l?_~r V

' -iii

Kw-'7

if

Phantom images tend to be produced more frequently in


narrow-angle tomography
E. Narrow-angle tomography achieves its effects by utilising
maximal blurring of obscuring shadows

Hf
55$

.-YAMMA_ IMAGING
a

,~~--

.;-:1
.~ 7-L
.,...

Concerning the isotopes of iodine

'7,
:-|-|1,

YA. l-123 has a half-life of 13 days

AI,

B. l-131 has a half-life of 8 days


YC. * I-125 is a beta emitter
A

'
D. A low-energy general~purpose collimator is used with I-123
E. A high-energy general-purpose collimator is used with I-131

:1
C
I

FILMS AND scneems

IE1] 5.

~.,

_-

Inherent lm contrast

"-1%?
f:':'-.2-'. --

. Film fog
Scatter radiation

. Subject contrast
Conditions under which the film is developed

#3???

'...Ql~

Radiographic contrast depends upon

if
,3.

-.

_,_

>C
(D
$1

rt-

.- -RAY INTERACTIONS
.\:

6.

Regarding the linear attenuation coefficient (LAC)


A. Of tissue, is dependent on the density of the tissue
B. For monochromatic radiation the LAC is inversely
proportional to the half-value layer of the tissue
YQC. Of an absorber, is greater for a high-energy beam than it is
for a low-energy beam
Of fat, is greater than the LAC of muscle within the
diagnostic energy range
E. Has units per metre

_
1

,:
71

E.
H

-RAY TUBES
7.
a

Regarding the production of X-rays


Tungsten may be used as the material in either the cathode
or the anode
PB. Tungsten is used as the target material primarily due to its
high thermal conductivity

@ Qgae

a'l','t
"'__'" ""'_""'_""'

-111

._.A.,.._,

/TC. The mA is controlled by varying the filament


temperature
Q0. The quality of an X-ray beam depends upon the square of

the kVp, mAs, atomic number and waveform

Q1 E- X-ray production is 99% efficient

':1_-:- 2?-_':

aw=1i

FILMS AND SCREENS

i~'-i+".'

.;;x.l?
'5 ll} - *
.,

@8.

The following statements are true

_ j

;-.

A. Total unsharpness = square root of [geometric unsharpnes


squared + movement unsharpness squared + screen
'
unsharpness squared]
'
B. Minimum total unsharpness occurs when the individual
"
blurrings are nearly equal
VC. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) is reduced when a large number of
_
X-ray photons are absorbed by a screen
{L
The use of screens decreases noise
~.
[T10 Using a higher kv reduces SNR

3;

>1

311': 42?

r
J!

ZC *T.~_

~:.,'.'!3; .-7.

yn5;f:%
1if-Q!
1.1-1 -..~:l.
i . Ar.
iaiii

.'1.c!1:~'
:';'r:ag&';-L

.;{t;3Q
1?.-"-.'';

A3 .'_-.'":*.-

=--a.-.-.1 st

1% -I:
vi,

.1

"Fla.

CT

[] 9.

Computed Tomography (CT)

T-"=ii"-_!

tee >J:<

(PA. - Back projection ismore effective than filtered back


projection at reducing the blurring at edges of an image
? B. Partial volume effects are reduced by using both a large slice
thickness and large pixel size
{Q Soft tissues, excluding fat, only cover a range of about 80 Cl"
numbers
< D. The effect of beam hardening is the progressive reduction in
the Cl" number of an individual tissue as it is traversedrby the
X-ray beam
{E _ Bow tie filters are used to compensate for the diminishing
patient thickness towards the edges of the fan beam

GAMMA IMAGING

1*"

[E] 10. The following statements are true - _


0
T A. In gamma imaging,.spatial resolution (SR) can be calculated
from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a line source
T B. The intrinsic resolution of a gamma camera is 1-2 mm

112

;QBa5e7 MCQsforthe Pam FRCR

'- Z

3;. ;.-

TC. Linearity of a gamma camera can be assessed by imaging a


flood field source
FD. Energy resolution of a gamma camera is typically 25% of the
/_
peak energy
\ E. The better the energy resolution of a gamma camera, the
"
better its spatial resolution
,
A

'

"FILMS AND scneeus


E] 11. The effects of quantum rnottle are reduced by the
following
j
-

'

'

When image contrast is high


When imaging larger objects
By increasing the window width of a digital image
By the use of frame averaging in digital subtraction
techniques
VE. By increasing the kVp when using a film screen
combination
.

. -_.

h
~< -; .

'lsi-id

-it-RAY INTERACTIONS AND FILTERS

3
L
.
,....;, H

D1424

12. Regarding X-raynfilters

"
v:4.
g

-i/A. Aluminium and copper are the materials of choice in a


compound filter
B. ln a compound filter the lower atomic number filter faces the
X-ray tube
C. Characteristic radiation produced in the aluminium filter
significantly adds to patient skin dose
D. Filtration is the process of decreasing the mean energy of
polychromatic radiation by passing it through an absorber
E. The copper in a compound filter is better for dealing with
low-energy radiation
_}

9:1
~.
2-.
,-

~
:=
1;:

gr-RAY wees
13. Regarding the production of X-rays
A. Materials of higher atomic number are more efficient X-ray

producers

'

B. Higher energy characteristic radiation is produced with


higher atomic number elements
.
FC. The quality of an X-ray beam depends on the square of the
kVp
QBBSE

MCQs f0T U18 Pfi 1 FRCh i K; In

if Km---'M____MW_"m_i

'

'

- ' g

D. The quantity of X-rays produced depends on the mAs


FE. Tungsten is commonly used as the. anode target material dug
to its high vapour pressure

IMAGE QUALITY
1 >151.

lg] 14. Regarding the modulation transfer function (MTF).

._=;,.-':_~
1:?-F253. ;~

;.

=:m:;

.\=

ii

-3: *2; :.

_
.5

A. The MTF is calculated from the line spread function by


Fourier transformation
'
F8. The total MTF of a complete imaging system is obtained by."
4 H'
adding the individual MTFs of eachvcomponent _ 3
i
7
C. The frequency of line pairs per millimetre giving a 10%
response on the MTF curve defines the resolving power of an
~
imaging system
D. The maximum value of MTF is normally less than 1
E. MTF is proportionalto the ratio of information recorded to
the information available

TOMOGRAPHY
u -P-. .v

7 ::>.kl&%4
._ -

'

IE 1 5. Regarding simultaneous multi-plane tomography


A. Several layers of X-ray film are all exposed simultaneously
during a single tomographic sweep I
B. intensifying screens, of increasing speed, are used between
each successive layer of film .
FC. The reduction in patient dose by using this technique
compared to single-film tomography is approximately 90%
f D. The image quality produced is on par with that of single-lm
tomography
E. The several layers of X-ray film are placed in a special book

cassette prior to exposure


RADIOACTIVITY

-l ~_.- :_-.~-

'

@ 16. Iodine-131 has a half-life of 8 days. Its activity at Slam an


1st March was 44.4 MBq. Which of the following
statements are true regarding the activity after time n,
where n equals a number of half-lives?
.
(A: Activity can be calculated from the formula A" =.A divided
by (2"), where A" = decayed activity and A = initial activity
Its activity at 9am on 25th March will be 15.5 MBq .
T/. C. Its activity at 9a=m on 25th March will be 11.1MBq

QBa5e_ MCQs1orthePart1FRCR

"

Win?

..._,__

_/\/D. its activity at 9am on 25th March will be 5.55 MBq


9- E. Its activity at 9am on 25th March cannot be calculated from
l
the amount of information given

E.

Y_

at-RAY INTERACTIONS
.<

-:1 -fa T

17. Regarding interactions of X-rays with matter


'

A. Attenuation = absorption + scatter


B. Half-value layer (HVL) is a measure of the penetrating power
of an X-ray beam
T
10 HVl.s reduces the intensity of an X-ray beam by a factor

'

of 10

D. Linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) increases as the density


of the absorber material increases
FE. HVL increases as the density of the absorber increases

I11 ;=
;:Dr_-;__. 1;.-

ii
.f1*".-*1?
__._.. 1''.

s -

1
;;:,2r Z

:Tei='
=:
-<,;-&::-;

ff_lMAGE QUALITY

18. Secondary radiation grids

1
r

Grid cut-off is greatest with both highratio grids and short


I-2
grid focus distances
B. With a focused grid, about 50% of the primary radiation is
attenuated by the edges of the lead strips
C. Lateral grid decentring produces a uniformly dark film
Combined lateral and focus-griddistance decentring
produces a radiograph that is light on one side and dark on
the other
t
E. Grids are routinely used when X-raying children

-RAY TUBES
19. The following are true regarding an X-ray tube
_

*9

3
X

TA. At the target of an X-ray tube, the effective focal area is


smaller than the actual focal area
.
-TB. The target angle is commonly 6-20 degrees
An X-ray tube for most diagnostic imaging has 2 filaments
and 2 focal spots of differing sizes
YD. The effective focal spot may be measured with a STAR
test tool
Blooming of a focal spot occurs particularly at low kV values
and with small focal spots

QBase

__%.________ -__ -___.__.____.-_---_________.__

MCQs for the Part 1 FRCR

.135:\=,?_=1 _
=;'\-'-1:
Z'1\~ ~:
v'-.. .
...,:.;

. 0.
.~.-'~'

1-_..

-'=:'.P=;-.-

":i,'.

RADIATION PROTECTION

E] 20. According to the lR(ME)R 2000 regulations the employer


1.._,__~

Classies workers
Writes local rules
05? Ensures employees are properly trained

'

Must justify each radiation exposure


,'__. .. .1,

an

. 1 ..:.;
,_;..=_
-;t.*.
.v7?_Z-:1-7'
.<:,-.~.'-F-'"
L

., _
raw.-,.;

E. Must ensure that a medical physics expert is involved, to


some degree, in every medical exposure
-
RADIATION PROTECTION
E] 21. The following are typical effective doses
.- 4

A. Chest X-ray 1 mSv


1

' -.
,

' 1'; 1.1;;

trcw.-.
W
_- '53

'

Barium enema 9mSv

c. IVU 1 mSv "


Nuclear medicine cardiac imaging (99 "m Tc) 6mSv
E. Nuclear medicine lung ventilation (81 m Kr) lmSv
RADIATION PROTECTION
@22. Regarding radiatioifprotection

A. A 0.25 mm lead equivalent apron should stop 90% of the


direct output ofan-X-ray tube
B. Portable X-ray machines must allow the operator to stand at
least 1 m away
/(C. The simplest form of radiation protection comes from using
the inverse square law
D. 1 mm of lead is equivalent to 120 cm of concrete
E. Lead aprons should be worn when involved in nuclear
medicine
' '
RADIATION PROTECTION El 23. Regarding designated areas

erA.

A controlled area is where a person is likely-to receive an


effective dose greater than 6 mSv per year
'
B. A supervised area is where a person is likely to receive an
effective dose greater than 1 mGy per year
/YTCJ Anyone entering a controlled area must be able to
demonstrate that their close falls within the dose limits

116

,._QBa$e. 'McQs for the Part 1 FRCR

''

if

D. Records regarding radiation equipment us_ed within a


controlled area must be kept for a minimum of 5 years
E. Only a classied worker can enter a controlled area

I };

> DIATION PROTECTION


Y-EM.-ni<

IH
c ;

24.
According to lR(ME)R 2000

"

A. The referrer is responsible for justification of a medical


exposure
s
B. Only a practitioner can authorise a medical exposure
It is up to the referrer to supply enoughmedical information '
to justify a medical exposure
.
D. The practitioner can never be the referrer
(E. The must be a net benefit for a medical exposure to take
place
'

fiRADlATl0N PROTECTION

"

5mg.

it
:21:
w

lag] 25. IR(ME)R 2600 contains the following to ensure

optimisation of medical exposures

Te

e
_
.
.

A dose as low as "reasonablypracticable (ALARP)"' Direct sreen fluoroscopy <


Use of diagnostic reference levels is required
FD. Routine quality assurance is not required
E. Clinical evaluation of outcome is required

.~'=\.>

M5,?

ggjiz

A,
Zlh

WWW.

'2

v.

QBase (MCQs for the Part? FRCR

77

ii _

__m_ gilt?

~. '~=;;eq\_-=-

--<=ie2*
-.*=.~;>.;.~:*:
=~
25,, 1-t-V
__,;. -;.1..v-i_- .3?

er as-4127
- <
'
'/"HZ? .-:5.

'~@='=:='-silt"-~ .":*=.ee.-='.;-;=.,_--1. at: '

@1.

A. true

Alpha particles have a relatively large m.ass._an'd this; together V _'


with theirrdouble charge means that they travel rreliatively slowly
through matter and produce a large amount bfiionisation per
unit length of track.
'.

B. false

C. false

D. true

E. true

--

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the physics of Radiology 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., I990.

EIZ.

A. false

B. false

C. false

D. true E.=.true -

Lateral decentring produces a uniformly light radiograph.


Focus grid distance decentring produces a film which'_is light at
the periphery.
Combined lateral and focus gri.d distance decentring
produces a radiograph that is light on one side and dark on the
other.
'
There is an increased patient dose incurred with moving grids
due to the inevitable lateral decentring that occurs resulting in
primary radiation losses of up to 20%.
Armstrong, Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology 1st Edn. Clinical Press -

Ltd., 1990.
'

l3]3.

A. false

B. true

C. false

D. true

E. false

'

Narrow-angle tomography is otherwise known as zonography.


Wide-angle tomographyis most effective in studying tissues that
have a lot of natural contrast i.e. the inner ear. Conversely
narrow-angled tomography is useful for imaging tissues with low
natural contrast, i.e. the kidneys.
A phantom image may occur as a result of the superimposition
91 the blur margins of regularly recurring structures.
Alternatively, they may also be produced by the displacement
of the blur margins of dense objects which then simulate less
dense objects.
:
~~

Q_Ba5e Nico; for rhgiaa 1 FRCR Z

"

Eis

Narrow-angled tomography uses a narrow arc and aims to see the

whole of a particular structure, undistorted and sharply defined.


It is wide-angled tomography that utilises maximal blurring.

'i

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press

av
-::

Ltd., 1990.

Eija. A. false B. true C. false D. true E. true


I-123 has a half-life of I3 hours. "
r
l-12-5 is a gamma emitter; ,
l-123 emits a gamma ray with an energy of 159 keV.
I-131 emits gamma rays with energies of 80, 204 and 364 kev.

Xi

-_:l.I;=
~.
-s

E
\

ii;-'f~.?i

'-2.;

Re.: Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

A 5.

A.

C. true

- \
~.
t ..

D. true

E. true

-.

..-,.-ye~: .

Inherent film contrast is determined by the size and distribution


of the grains of silver halide produced in the manufacturing
process.
=1
Film fog, in turn, is determined by the way the film is stored and
its developing conditions.
'
Subject contrast is influenced by several factors such as kV, scatter
radiation, differences in patient thickness, differences in density
and atomic number.
The way a film is stored and the conditions under which it is
developed have an effect on film fog.

ti

-r.:/-,=\

.,,_.._

.'3>-{ .

~vE$~

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press

Ltd.

'

";

L};
"iW!i=:f[H|
if

G.

A. true

B. true

C. false

D. false

E. true

A high-energy beam is more penetrating than a low-energy


beam. Hence, an absorber is less efficient at attenuating at high
energies.
Muscle has a greater physical density than fat and consequently
has a higher linear attenuation coefficient.
Curry, Thomas. Christense-ns Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

j QBase McQ??TiFPFi'i?F<'c'' W

" H i

" "'"ii9'

_._,,.-,,, ..

{EL A. true B. false C. true D. false E. false


W is chosen as the target material because of its high Z, high
melting point and low vapour pressure.
The square of the kVp, mAs, atomic number and waveform
determine the number of X-rays produced i.e. the quantity.

X-ray production is 1% efficient. 99% of the incident energy gggs


'.-I:i[:':l.
'r-;-M

into heat production.

I H-I121.

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

< e '.;';.;;. _.
.. . :- .-'1
~' :5 ~ ;

s.A.

211':

B. true

C. false

D. false

E. true

SNR increases with an increasing number of X-ray photons


absorbed.
i
The use of screens increases noise.
However, a higher kV also incurs less dose to the patient.

;-::. #5131

true

"5 '?.f'3' 11
1-} ;I?.'_'

e .l I; _'.*-__a

.~ ~; .:..

=5" 21.15.
~:-sq-;.b_

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders

3'5

.1;
.3

., 5-3-51 22'.

3-si?-"?

Co. Ltd.

E19.

A. false

B. false

C. true

D. true

E. true

Filtered back projection is more effective at reducing the blurring i

at edges of an image.

Both thinner slices and smaller pixels should be used to reduce Y


partial volume artefacts. Thus making it more likely that
;
high-contrast objects are contained within their own voxel, and I
do not increase the average CT number of neighbouring voxels.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

@111.

A. true

B. true C. false

D. false E. true

imaging a line source provides a line spread function from which

FWHM is calculated.

Linearity is assessed by imaging a line source.


Energy resolution is the ability to distinguish between separate
gamma rays of differing energies. it is typically 12% of the peak
energy.
\

120

1_vQBa5e MCQs for theKPart 1 FRCR

_;

"

HW

*P

lWith improved energy resolution there is better resolution of


scatter resulting in improved spatial resolution.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

.
Mi

11.
A.

true B. true

C. false

D. true

E. false

.
-'::'3%5~~:'4

_A narrow window width increases image contrast.


V "When using a higher kVp with a film screen combination,
the intensification factor of the screen is increased. As a _
consequence the number of photons required to produce
an image is reduced. This results in increased quantum
mottle.
Curry, Thomas. Christense-ns Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
_

|j"|: 12

A. true B. false

C. false

D. false

E. false

5&2-:~':.

.g.l'l1.;

i*%9'.5-:
5- Ql.='~'

'
31?.
1 .
J s.

_
:1-52325.
15 ii.-.r..;
. . =...
.. - i

s :

5:.-.~~

When using a compound filter the higher atomic number


material filter (copper) faces the X-ray tube and the__lower atomic
number material filter (aluminium) faces the patienf The
purpose of the lower atomic number material is to absorb any
characteristic radiation produced in the higher atomic number
material.
.
The characteristic radiation produced by the aluminium filter has
only a very low energy (1.5 keV) and is absorbed in the air gap
between the patient and the filter.
Filtration increases the mean energy of polychromatic radiation.
Copper is better for dealing with high-energy radiation.

'pgil1.'2-iv-i

.,
' :

5}:

1%;

2*

'

Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
_\E"

a.
s~
ii1.
ii.

A. true

B. true C. false

D. true

E. false

The nature of the target material also determines the energy of


the characteristic radiation produced. This is higher for higher
atomic number elements.
The quality of X-rays depends upon kvb and the waveform.
The quantity of X-rays produced depends on the mAs, atomic
number, square of the kVp and the waveform.

MCQ5 f0; fh Pail;-f;F.{Cl?_v--7

._~ if '~-All;;Wm--hmunfil-

\
.

..

-__j

,_ _s -;.,-.q=-_
..
-..

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press

Ltd., 1990.

|E]14. A. true
"m?.}5

. .

l ll Tungsten has a low vapour pressure in association with a high


melting point.
"

1
~

B. false

C. true

D. true

E. true

The MTF of a complete system is a product of the individual MTF;


of each component.

g V s 1 g
_ Whilst the MTF is normally less than 1, in xeroradiography values ~
' . slightly greater than 1 (e.g. 1.1) maybe obtained. This islclue to"
the special property in xeroradiography known as edge
_
enhancement.
''
g

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, lst Edn. Clinical Press

Ltd., 1990.

'.'31i'_:'_-'.=

@15. A. true

B. true

C. false

D. false

E. true

The screens of increasing speed are to allow for the attenuation


causedby the reducing intensity of X-rays as they pass through
successive layers.
The reduction in patient dose is not as great as might be
A 1 _
anticipated. Overall there is an exposure dose per film of about
50% that of single-film techniques.
This technique results in poor-quality tomograms. This is dueto the
uncontrolled scatter radiation produced which impairs film quality.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., 1990.

E|'16. A. true

B. false

C. false

D. true

E. false

Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology 4th Edn.

Williams Bi Wilkins (Europe) l_._td.

(E17. A. true

B. true

C. false

D. true E. false

10 HVLs would reduce the intensity by 2 factor 10 i.e. 1000.


As the density of the absorbing material increases the HVI; .
decreaes. HVL is inversely proportional to LAC.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1 st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

122

lQBa5e; MCQsforthePart71FRCB

7 Z

18. A. true

B. false C. false

D. true

E. false

'

\.

20% of the primary radiation is attenuated by the edges of the


lead strips.
Lateral grid decentring produces a uniformly light film.
Grids are also not used with thin body parts.
,

:;

'-la!

1..

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

19.
A. true

B..true C. true D..true E. true

l
.5.

"

Blooming also tends to occur when the tube is operated at high


mA as focusing is less precise.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

@120. A. true

B. _t_rue_ C._ true

D. false

Lia;
~.~l=;;:-.

E. true
.;=-..

.
I if
5

The practitioner must justify each radiation exposure.


3;

,.

IR(ME)R 2000.

..

:5
._.,_
:~.

21.
A. false

B. true C. false

D. true

E. false

CXR 0.1 mSv.


IVU 5 mSv.

Lung ventilation 0.1 mSv.


Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

22. A. false B. false C. true

to

"ti
ta
-

D. false

E. false

lt should stop 90% of the SCATTERED output.


The operator must be able to stand 2 m away from the tube.
Using the inverse square law and increasing the distance of
people from the tube/patient.
_
1 mm of lead is equivalent to 120mm of concrete and 12 mm of
barium plaster.
In the presence of high-energy radiation from nuclear imaging, a
lead apron acts as an X-ray source, and therefore should not
be used.

1'

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.
"

Q3359 M<Q.".;"r.r.;r.:.?rea2r"-""""""""" T '

123

.__,g

-w~~.arr.- '~

1@23. A. true

B. false

C. true

D. false E. false

Supervised area = greater than 1 mSv.


Records regarding monitoring of equipment must be kept for a
minimum of 2 years.
The lonising Radiations Regulations 799.9.

[Ej24. A. false

B. false

C. true

D. false

E. true

;im'Z';-

The practitioner is responsible forjustification of a medical


exposure. .
.
'
i
An operator can authorise a medical exposure in accordance with
guidelines laid down by a practitioner.
A practitioner can request a medical exposure and thus act as a
referrer, fulfilling the duties and obligations of both.

lRf'ME)R 2000.
;

IEZS. A. true

B. false

.
C. true

D. false

E. true

15-.

Only image intensification fluoroscopy is allowed.

Llit

lR(ME)R 2000.

.'

'\-\

124

_QBa5e Mcos for the Partl FRCR

"

..

"

' ' '--. -.-'~<:.

".;4;_.

"'Ia*.=:g
.. ev~_H__
..a'

.9 __ ~-.'..-

.- .

- ,-_

- "'* -.45

-"' '=.-.1-23""-7 --~ .

"1

.1
-A. = tr-l. . ~

_;.., :3 . =.l'~l>=-

'- - -9;. LU. a i>.-r-.-- . 1 12,-L;

INTERACTIONS
[:11] 1_.

Which of the following interactionsbetween X-rays and


matter do not result in a change in_ energy of the incident
photon
P

Pair production
Photodisintegration
Photoelectric effect
DPPP Coherent scattering
1;
' E. Compton scattering

,-

EXERORADIOGRAPHY
E2.

In xeroradiography

T; .
B.
C.
FD.
E.

V
Q

Crystalline selenium isused


V
'Pure selenium must be used
The selenium layerhas a thickness of 130 p.|Tl
Has no advantages over conventional mammography
The developing process is dry and rapid
i

ii -RAY INTERACTIONS
3.
r

The following are true


/"

YA. In Thompson scattering, photons are scattered with an


associated change in energy
j, B. Compton scattering depends only on the number of electrons
per unit mass
PC. The probability of the photoelectric effect occurring increases
5.
._
with increasing photon energy
The Compton effect is dependent upon the atomic number
if
. .
.
p
(Z) of the material irradiated
.
The mass attenuation coefficient (MAC) is dependent upon
both the linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) and the density
Y
of the material irradiated
Q

QB;-159 iMCQsforthe Part1FRCR

>

135

~11

C.j The X-ray assembly should be marked to identify the nominal


j focal spot position
_ "

D. When using intra-oral film, a minimum focal spot to skin

_
P1

distance of not less than 20cm for equipment operating


above 60 kV is required
_
E. -The exposure switch should be arranged so that the operator
can be at least 1 m away from the tube and the patient

during exposure

FILMS AND scneeus

[| 11. .Regarding geometry of the X-ray image


A.

B.
C.
D.
'5!

E}

Sharpness is the ability of an X-ray film screen system to


dene an edge
Sharpness is independent of the contrast of an image
Parallax is seen with single-emulsion films
Absorption unsharpness is greatest for round or oval objects
without sharp edges

E. Absorption unsharpness is greatest for coned-shaped objects

DOSIMETRY
' _; _

'

l]12. Regardingjscintillation counters


A. Sodium iodide may be used as a scintillation phosphor
B. Crystals of potassium iodide may be used asha scintillation

phosphor
C. Crystals of anthracene and naphthalene may be used as
scintillation phosphors
D. Scintillation counters cannot distinguish between radiations
of different energies
a
E. A scintillation counter has both a longer dead time and.a
lower detection efficiency of radiation compared to Geiger

Muller tubes
X-RAY INTERACTIONS
El 13. Regarding subject contrast

A. This refers to the difference in the intensity of transmitted


radiation betweenbne part of a subject compared to
another part
B. The photoelectric effect is the most important contributor to
subject contrast in diagnostic radiology

128

' ;QBa5Q_4. "MCQs for the Part 1 FRCR

-j

__'~...,.

C. Higher kVp X-rays produce greater subject contrast than

lower kVp X-rays


D. Low kVp exposures only permit a narrow exposure

latitude
E. Contrast media do not play a role in subject contrast

E
1

ANGIOGRAPHY

@ 14.
'

.m_

Regarding the apparatus required for digital subtraction


angiography a 1
i

_.

A. Specially designed X-ray tubes are required


B. The X-ray generator should be able to provide three-phase
voltage pulses and 12 pulses/cycle
C. A focal spot of 0.3 mm is desirableD. A high-quality image intensifier is needed
E. The X-ray tube should inco_r_p_or_ate_a high-speed rotating anode

-.2.

l..

.. .a
:4 ;:

'. _l-;j=-5-'

"gt-RAY TUBES

:i'_@_r":-'-'

15. Regarding X-ray production

I.

A.

It is the deceleration of the electrons bombarding the target


that results in the production of X-rays
X-radiation is produced by the processes of Bremsstrahlung
and characteristic radiation
fl
F The anode heel effect is more noticeable on large-size X-ray
film
D. A stationary anode tube has better cooling characteristics
than a rotating anode one
E. A lower atomic number target produces an X-ray beam of
greater intensity than a higher atomic numbered target

YNl'I(i'lV*%i1'NJ' lQe

'

545' ' '*

est?

f5'.='i-

X-RAY
wees
2.

* 16. Regarding rotating anode tubes


vam-

F
s

A. Energy efficiency is much greater than in stationary anode


.

tubes

_B. The tube-loading characteristics are greater as heat is

generated over a focal track


C. The principal heat path is via radiation across the tube

vacuum

MCQsforthePart1l=lRCR

H m' "W

"139

cw-'

D. The induction motor is situated inside the glass envelope to


ensure maximum efficiency of the tube

E. The anode has a molybdenum stem backing in order to

minimise heat conduction to the rotor mechanism


'lMAGE QUALITY
[] 17. The following are criteria for attaining a radiograph of

satisfactory quality
'
~

A. The density is controlled primarily by kV

B. Contrast is controlled primarily by mA


C. Ideally there should be minimum sharpness, whilst
maintaining the true outline of the image
D. Ideally there should be maximum sharpness, whilst
maintaining the true outline of the image_
E. Film blackness is primarily controlled by mA

"3-3*
:+~
~_*
5 _
'
.:.: =4.

;-FILMS AND SCREENS


.;

L1 1 B. The following statements are true


'

A. Film gamma and exposu_re latitude are directly related


B. High-gamma films have a narrow exposure latitude
C. The useful density range of a film is usually 0.252.0 above
base plus fog values
'
. D. Typically wide latitude film is needed in mammography
E. The gamma of a film depends on the average size of the
crystals in the film epends on the range of crystal sizes.

FLUOROSCOPY
[E 19. The following statements regarding fluoroscopy are true
l

13in

A. Quantum mottle isirioticeable in both fluoroscopy and


radiography
'
B. Noise reduces the perceptibility of structures having high
contrast
C. For a structure to be detectable, its contrast must be at least
10 times the noise relative to the signal
D. Image quality in the less bright areas of an image is limited
by noise
E. Spatial resolution impioves with structures of higher contrast

.,QBa5e ifmcosfortheaani FRCR

'

Z if if

..___

DIATION PROTECTION
20. Regarding foetal irradiation

''

P Exposure to the pregnant employee must ensure a dose of less


than 0.1 mSv to the foetus for the remainder of the pregnancy
B. An abdominal X-ray to a pregnant employee can expose the

foetus to as much as 4 mGy


C. The ten-day rule reduces thelikelihood of foetal exposure
D. The foetus is m'os't sensitive to ionising radiation during the
third trimester
u
_
E. -Foetal exposure to ionising radiationresults in an lQ.drop by
30 pointslSv

-ii,

A5;

F,

RADIATION PROTECTION

@21. The natural background radiation equivalent exposure for


a procedure are as follows
._

an-. i

PHi|Mnwm

3
J

1"-'7-{<. :

A. A practitioner and operator must receive at least 1 week's


training before carrying out a medical exposure
B. Trainees cannot carry out medical exposures
'
C. Employers must keep an up-to-date record of all practitioners

and operators

D. A practitioner cannot be an employer


E. Medical exposure can take place where there is no net
' benefitto the patient

ZRADIATION Pitorecrioiv

@23. Regarding the measurement of dose


f=

' -C\_

ADIATION PROTECTION

[E 22. According to lR(ME)R 2000


[A1
~
~

;71i

"1 tr

Skull X-ray - 9 days


_
CT chest 4 years
Radionuclide bone scan (Tc 99 m) 2 years, 6 mo_[1ths
. IVU 14 months
A
llU
P
FlPCl head 10 months '
'

;
-

A. Absorbed dose is measured in mGy


B. Equivalent dose is measured in mGy

QBase MCQS for the Parr 1 PR6?

131
i

m-. -'2; _I"

C. Equivalent dose is absorbed dose multiplied by the tissueweighting factor

D. The type of ionising radiation does not affect the value of


the estimated absorbed dose
E. The effective dose takes into account the variable sensitivity
of different organs to ionising radiation

RADIATION PROTECTION
@124. Regarding an overexposure

A. Only the-employer needs to be informed


B. The person overexposed must be informed
"

C. The report from an immediate investigation into the

l
_;_~;-=; ;-

circumstances must be kept for at least 2 years


D. An employee who has received an overexposure is not
required to fulfil normal dose limitations
E. A dose limitation period applies, which is 10 years

RADIATION PROTECTION

l_|25. The following equipment measures reduce patient dose


Using_a rare earth screen
. Using film instead of digital radiography
. Using constant potential generators
Using 25 mm of aluminium beam filtration for general
radiography
~
E. Using direct-vision fluoroscopy techniques

'

P"?

\.

132

QQBBSQ

MCQs for theT>art 1 FRCR

"

ea 1: .
we-*'1e.1~..
.,~.:=:ia-**_e_..'.,.
*.
_,a._&i?;,_,e
?;*;1.Q;.(_ s=.',1,.4;5.,1._,

.-'.1;-l'-~

t~'- -- .-1*--.

t =_.; -. ..-\= -sz"'l:*e_.-=sT-.5- Y

A. false

B. false C. false

D. true

E. false

Coherent scattering is scattering in which radiation undergoes a


change in direction without a change in wavelength, and
therefore no change in energy.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., I990.
-

@z.

A. false B. true

C. true

D. false

E. true

Amorphous selenium is used because it has the przoperties of a


photoconductor.
.
e
At a thickness of 130 p.m, selenium shows a maximum sensitivity
to X-rays in the diagnostic energy range.
__
Edge enhancement occurs because the toner is attracted away
from the low-voltage side to the high-voltage side of any
boundary resulting in a sharp change in density.

i
-il 3.

L.

!P1'PIqlrI-

P
lr.,lrkx

Curry, Thomas. Christensenir Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th. Ed n.


Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

A. false B. false C. false

D. false

E. false

In Thompson scattering, radiation undergoes a change in


direction without a change in wavelength, and therefore no
change in energy.
Compton scattering depends on both the physical and the
electron density of the material irradiated.

The probabilityof the photoelectric effect occurring is inversely


proportional to the cube of the incident photon energy.
The probability of the Compton effect occurring is
independent of Z.
The MAC is independent of the density of an absorber.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. 8. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

Q3359 MCQs for the Pam race

:_

.-.1,-mu.

4.A. false B. false C. false D. false E. true


The CC is a graph of log relative exposure (X-axis) versus optical
_
,

density (Y-axis).
The region of correct exposure relates to the straight-line
portion.
_
Film gamma relates to the maximum slope of the straight-line

portion of the cc.


ln the solarisation region, increasing exposure results in
decreased lm density.
i A '

_;inl, '

-,5; 1,

. -

;.l-Q

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.
!-- . __f_~ =
.2.1 {LII}
{.1-ff 5_._

v .

A. true

B. true

C. true

D. true

E. true

But note that the SR decreases for an entire ll system i.e. when
usedgwith _av video camera system/photospot film.
veiling glare is due to scattering of light particularly in the
output window of the image intensifier.

Despite the gamma differences of the various cameras, the


:

gamma value of a TV monitor system can be varied, up to 2.0, so


that the contrast of the system as a whole, is increased.
_
_
,
.

vs r

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

[E|_6.

A. false

B. true

C. false

D. true E. true

High contrast objects: SR - 1 lp/mm.


Contrast needs to be 3-5 times greater than_the noise in the
image for it to be detectable.
Bone algorithms enhance SR at the expense of increased noise.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics {qr Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

EI7.

A. true B. true

C. true

D. true

E. true

lsotopes have the same atomic number but differing mass


numbers.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

134

*~

;QBage MCQs for the Part1 FRCR

" i P ii

lg a.
I

A. true

B. false C. false

D. false

The half-life of N-13 is.10 minutes.


The halflife of C-11 is 20 minutes.

E. true
4
I

The half-life of Tc-99 is 200,000 years. Tc-99 m has a half-life of

.-4.

6 hours.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts- Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

,1.

E19.

A. false

B. false C. true

D. false

lndium-111 is used to label white cells for locating infective foci.


Krypton-81 m is used for lung ventilation studies.

<
i

; ; _. ;.'.=.:.I_-9

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders

Co. Ltd.

_-

E. true

'
1
a

{E10 A. false B. true C. true D. true E. false "

, .t

.;_._ ._;
.:.'.:.;<

The total filtration of the beam should be equivalent to 1.5 mm

aluminium for X-ray tube voltages up to and including 70 kV. and


2.5 mm aluminium, of which 1.5 mm should be permanent for X-

.;:-:E":.'~
" if:

ray tube voltages above 70 kV.


ln fact every X-ray source assembly should be marked to identify
the nominal focal spot position.
V

When using intra-oral film, the equipment should be provided


with a field-defining spacer cone which will ensure a minimum
focal spot to skin distance of not less than 20 cm for equipment
operating above 60 kV and not less than 10cm for equipment

operating at lower voltages.


For dental, mobile and portable equipment, the exposure switch
should be arranged so that the operator can be at least 2 metres
away from the tube and the patient during an exposure. For
fixed equipment, the exposure switch should be located at the
control panel.

"r"~\-ul"a~=z-\m"' w>~-nQw~ ~.w-M


?

+2l'.
f?-

AC1/185, AC2/7, Regulation 32, Regulation 8: IRR 88.

I?

511.

A. true

B. false C. false 'D. true

E. false

Ill

Sharpness is dependent on the contrast of an image. An unsharp


edge can easily be seen if contrast is high, conversely a sharp
edge may be poorly seen if the contrast is low.

1 Q3559 MQ.ani1.:;z;mE""*""

'* "

Parallax only occurs with double-emulsion films.

'

Absorption unsharpness is least for cone-shaped objects.


Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

E]12. A. true

x.

C. true

D. false

E. false

Scintillation counters are able to distinguish between radiations


of different energieslunlike GM tubes).
There is less dead time and a higher detection efficiency than GM

tubes.

B. true

'

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press

Ltd., 1990.

EH3. A. true .B. true


_.,
ii 1?

3;
i- as "12;

C. false

D. true

E. false

Low kVp X-rays produce greater subject contrast as more of the


primary beam will be attenuated at the lower beam energies.
Contrast media are of relatively high atomic number, and
therefore enhance subject contrast due to the photoelectric effect.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology. 151: Edn. Clinical Press g
Ltd., 1990.

|E14. A. false

'

B. true

C. false

D. true E. true

No special tubes are required; those already in use are usually

suitable.
It is undesirable to have a very small focal spot as this reduces
tube loading. In addition the focal spot size in angiography is
not a limiting factor to resolution. A focal spot size of 0.6mm is
adequate. 0.3 mm is usually necessary for macro-angiography.
High-speed anodes are energised with three-phase mains and
rotate at about 9,0'O0 or--17,000 rpm.
i
Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

[E15 A. true

B. true

C. true

D. false E. false

'

The intensity of the X-ray beam produced that passes through


the anode is less than that towards the cathode. Hence, with
large size X-ray films the heel effect may be visible.

136

(QBase MCQsf0rthePart1FRCRi

"?\-~-

The rotating anode tube has better cooling characteristic as the


heat is spread-over a larger target area.
Higher atomic number elements are able to produce higher
intensity X-ray beams. Hence tungsten, with it atomic number of
74, is an ideal target material.
'

L
z
I

.;
l
>

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiologyj. ls: Edn. Clinical Press

Ltd., 1990.

E116. A. false. B. true C. true

D. false. E. true

af_'

The energy conyersion between both a rotating and


'
stationary anode tube is identical. 99% of the energy goes
towards heat production and only 1% towards X-ray
production.
.
The induction motor is situated outside the glass envelope within .
the-insulating oil.

Curry, Thomas. Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.

Williams s. Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

"

'
.
_;

Y~

i
us!

.-~_,,_.

E]1 7-

A. true B. false C. false

D. true

E. true

The density, and as a consequence the contrast, is primarily


controlled by kV.

r.r
Y2

>_

.-_.-v=_

x.-fisvgi
P..

1"

1.

L.l.

Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.


Williams 8: Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

E118.

A. false B. true

C. true

D. false

E. false

Film gamma and exposure latitude are inversely related.


High-gamma, narrow-latitude films are needed in
mammography.
.. _
The gamma of a film depends on the range of crystal sizes.

"1,.-,~

aQr -_=u-1.

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

[E121 A. false

B. false

C. false

D. true

E. true

Noise is not noticeable in radiography.


Noise mainly affects low-contrast structures.
Qage

MCQs for the Part 1 FRCR

T *mM"" 'w'W"-"'T7

Contrast needs to be 2-5 times the noise relative to the


signal, i.e. a l mm structure will be seen if its contrast is at

least 5%.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders
C0. Ltd.
'

1",

.-fl? .1 5:
if

"t I11
35 x _.';

Elzo.

A. false

B. true

C. true

D. false

E. true-

'The dose must be less than 1 mSv for the remainder ofrthe
pregnancy. The foetus is most sensitive to radiation exposure in
the rst 815 weeks of gestation.
' ~' T C '

z W

-.'.i.1.1~.-Y; .

L"Y.E~,': '

' 1'! F; 7"


= 11.;.

The lonising Radia tions Regulations 1999.

E]21 A. true B. true C. false D. true E. true

,' _-

Bone scan -1.8 years.

~;7,~. 515. L}.-

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.
_

.. .
' "Wt,
--=-=-~;:<.\
432%.-=<~
,2.-_nx-a-1;

Elzz A. false B. false C. true D. false E. true


A specific amount of training is not specified, just that it is adequate.
_
Trainees can carry out medical exposures if adequately
supervised.
An employer can be a practitioner, operator or any other
person.
Medical exposure can take place for research purposes where
there is no net benefit to the patient.
lR(ME)R 2000.

[E23

A. true

B. false

C. false

D. true

E. true

Effective dose (Sv) = Sum (equivalent dose >< tissue weighting


factor).
Equivalent dose (Sv) = Absorbed dose (Gy) X radiation weighting
fector.
Farr, Allisy~Roberts. Physics for Medical imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.
*\

138

;QBase. MCQsforthePart1"l=iiCR

'-

M T

fi 24.

A. false B. false C. true

'

The employer should inform the executive and, where the


overexposure is of an employee, their appointed doctor or
employed medical advisor.
As soon as practicable, reasonable steps should be taken to
notify the suspected overexposure to the person affected.
The dose limitation period is as appropriate, a calenda_r year or
the period of consecutive calendar years.

ii

I
.

D. false

E. true 1
.1 a

213.?IR (ME)R 2000.

EIZS. A. true

B. false

V 95?

~
C. true

D. false

E. true

"';'

Digital radiography reduces patient dose.


2.5 mm of aluminium is used a beam filtration.
Digital fluoroscopy reduces dose through means of techniques
such as-framedcapture and frame-hold.
m
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 'lst Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.

Ltd .

""

i-

g
,

41,
1-T...

-_-.

":5
ag.
\\I'

,=a%sq
q..'-.i>-A

-1 . _ -, . , _ . , _ . ,

QBase MQ$ f57Er?7 Fir? 'mm"MM-M""'"'_'_"'AWMW"155

*w .-if-:~'

2111-,l:.~-7'~
'=3;:;>-'i:',',-5__'F1"-;:L;i
.~
.;-_.~_,;_g
<';.;g;i_;;j33-;12j3r73<;.-gi.;;- " ;,.!

=-2:-gs--1-Es;,2=:%;w+1;=-.::=f~nE;Q;-3
A.-:_,;
1; ,;;.7t.2 --1-.-~-1; Fa ,.-- _, 4. .

F:

ac?-ft

~<:\.2 --.'~*-'"si_l1-Y

="-.3

Q. --aw, 4.-" .{_,


.
-Q. - , - ~.. .-,_ ..,P s.

"-.--_.**s7?~.=\= ='~54:2~.=--.-.*'.ei\.".":=-" ~

FILMS AND SCREENS

[Q 1.

Regarding films and screens


A. Rare earth screens are faster than calcium tungstate (CaVV)
screens
B. CaW deliver a patient dose 2-3 times lower than rare earth
l l screens
C. Gadolinium oxysulphide screens may be used with any type ,
of X-ray film
D. Lanthanum oxybromide may be used with ordinary X-ray film
E. The sensitivity of a film may be extended by coating the silver

halide crystals with appropriate dyes

FILMS AND SCREENS


]|2.

The following statements regarding the high kV technique


are true
'
Subject contrast is high
Skin dose is increased
Dose to deeper tissues is reduced
'
50??. Grids are less effective compared to use with lower kV

techniques

E. Efficiency of X-ray production is low

FLUOROSCOPY

@ 3.

"

Regarding the image intensifier

"

A. Brightness gain -is the ratio of - [brightness of the output


phosphor] : [brightness of theinput phosphor]

B. Overall brightness gain is typically 5,00010,000


C. An image is intensified, magnified and inverted by an
electron lens
D. Conversion factor is a ratio of - [luminescence of the output

phosphor] : [input phosphor dose rate]


E. The image produced is uniformly bright and sharp

140

QBase MCQsforthePart1FRCR

_''___m_*'W-'_'

Ms.-

..__ -..,__

ifl

4.

sis
#;.1.'a.

FILMS AND SCREENS


5.

lI

Computed tomography (CT)


Second-generation scanners are of the translate-rotate type
Third-generation scanners are of the rotate-rotate type
liou-rth-generation scanners are of the rotate~rotate type
third-generation
"Ring artefacts are common with the fourthgeneration
scanner
mPnP? Slip-ring technology has allowed the advent of helical
~ scanning
,
~

ll

li

5;. 1

Regarding X-ray film


A. Silver halide is sensitive in the blue_part of'the visible spectrum
B. The spectral sensitivity of silver halide can be altered by
adding certain light~absorbing dyes to the emulsions
C. A latent image is only produced after the film_has been both
exposed and developed
D. The speed of an emulsion is predominantlydependent on the
grain size distribution
E. ln the film emulsion there is an excess of silver bsomide
compared to silver iodide V

1
-I
~

u.

;_.;'.= 1'

,.'.~.<;_.-.
= magi:

DOSIMETRY
E36.

Regarding the Geiger-Muller (GM) tube


A. Halogen gas is added to the inert gas
.B. The gas is maintained at low pressure
C. The tube requires to be operated at voltages in the plateau
region
g
D. The potential difference across the tube ranges from 200-400
' volts to 900-1500 volts
E. The GM counter is able to distinguish between different
- types of radiation

X-RA,Y fuses
|_]7.

Regarding X-ray generating BPPHFBQJS


A. The kVp meter is located in the control panel
B. The mA meter is located in the control panel

QBase

__.._.-..____.____..._..._.____...__..-. _..._.___... .

14]

L s.v'?-=;~\~-._.
.,

C. The kVp meter is incorporated into the high-voltage circuit of


the X-ray generator
D. The mA meter is incorporated into the high-voltage circuit of
the Xyray generator
E. The high voltage circuit of an X-ray generator consists of a
single transformer
- ~ _ g.

-,_._..;,_

.~: |I: .'

X-RAY INTERACTIONS

3'2

E1] 8.

-\

-.'~-3;','f?-

-. \=_
us

A. This occurs solely by absorption of photons


~
B. 'ln'the attenuation of monochromatic radiation, both the
number of photons in the beam and the energy of the
photons are reduced
C. Attenuation of monochromatic radiation is exponential
D. Attenuation of polychromatic radiation is exponential _
E. Attenuation of polychromatic radiation results in beam
hardening
_

;.O

Regarding attenuation of an X-ray beam

XERORADIOGRAPHY

4[_[9.

Regarding xeroradiography
' A. In this processthe detecting medium used is the charged
surface of an amorphous selenium photoconducting plate
.
B. The latent electrostatic image is developed in the same way
as photographic X-ray film
C. ' Following use, the selenium plates are stored in an
uncharged state prior to re-use
D. Xeroradiography can produce either 'positive or negative
- images
E. A xeroradiographic process has a very narrow exposure
latitude when compared to conventional film screen systems

1
v

IMAGE QUALITY
[Q 10. Regarding grids used in diagnostic radiography
A. A grid with a lower grid ratio is more efficient at removing
scatteqradiation compared to a high-ratio grid
l
B. A high~ratio grid has a higher bucky factor
C. Primary transmission refers to the amount of primary
radiation absorbed by the grid
.

142

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l
1
l

D. Primary transmission of a grid is inversely proportionate to


grid ratio

E. There is always some loss of the transmission in primary


t

I v

radiation caused by a grid


1

THE ATOM

'-'2.

lg} 11. Regarding the structure of an atom

v.<~.-nr:-!w-mrn -nm q gwg

we:.w1r<~\

A. The number of electrons in the M electron shell is 8


B. The binding energy of an M shell electron is greater than
- that of an L shell electron
'
C. An isotope is a substance with the same number of protons
but different number of neutrons
D. isotopes have identical physical properties but different
chemical properties
I
E. The number of neutrons in an atom, N, is equal to AZ
X-RAY INTERACTIONS

ilvwinasbrnw-am

A. The second half-value layer (HVL) of a materialis usually less


than the first HVL
B. The HVL of a typical diagnostic X-ray beam is 30 cm in tissue
C. As an X-ray beamipenetrates a material, it becomes
progressively more heterogeneous
A
.
D. The photoelectric effect results from an interaction with a'
free electron
E. Compton scattering is independent of electron density

X-RAY TUBES
l {Q
13. Tube rating

.X fitmw

57*

':
:0,"

I
;- ...

;_

_;
\

_D

lg 12. Interactions of X-rays with matter


t

-jrnt:

.;3=_
A JD.
-.u|. .
n-

=;'I5*' . ,.,. _.

ll

l:

A. increases as the effective focal spot size increases


B. Increases as the kV increases
C. ls greater for a high-speed anode assembly compared to a
routine rotating assembly
D. In continuous operation fluoroscopy, rating is partly
dependent on the focal spot size
E. ls greater for a threephase generator compared to a
single-phase generator

QBase WE"FZ>7F1'i*%i"'iFRcFi J A WWW

ia
sI

-. ., ..t.

.''3-=*~.1i?-"-1,,-,':;
..
2,-3 <E
..=-,=
E'1;g;;r- -'- ~,r.-;;.:~;-+9.-_ ;-;:-,-44.-11-.-,_,;'f.*l
*-av.-e :.=*.:.1-..;':.~':. -1; ;-.:,t-';r. 1.-.~. '1.-<~;--r-.;s*

1='
:@;i::r';;=;,--*=1wi;,-sa+=-+==< 414:.-:s.s?.=.~
tn: 1 .: 'rr:r&*Ia;">?i:;b?E.=r=:v-2-2'
. ~~ '.;Q'.~
L -i .i3g:*s\.,\r'
aw
aw
'i_=_.~;

15;-'-'i._4\>,' Yr ~>~.:;.- ~

-as

.."-vi
-. '1e . 5

ls,-Q

A. true

B. false

C. false

D. true

E. true

Increased sensitivity of the rare earth phosphors results in

increased speed compared to CaW screens.


Rare earth screens deliver a patient dose 2-3 times lower than
CaW screens.
.Gadolinium oxysulphide may only be used with orthochromatic
film (i-e. one sensitive to green light).
Lanthanum oxybromide emits a line spectrum of blue light, and
hence can be used with ordinary X-ray film which is sensitive to
ultraviolet (UV) and blue light.

,_.; _ .
{2I

- '-_-

:.-; -,
79- .

QZ-

ea;/1;!

._;e:.-fl-f2

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. 8. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

A. false

B. false

C. true

D. true

E. false

Subject contrast is low.


Skin dose is reduced.
The amount of scattered radiation is relatively high,_ thus making
grids less effective. Hence, the air gap technique is generally
preferred.
Efficiency of X-ray production is high, and hence there is
decreased heat loading which allows very short exposure times.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.

A. true

B. true

C. false

D. true E. false

The image is minified.


The edges of an image are less bright, less sharp and more
distorted, due to difficulty of the electron lens in controlling the
peripheral electrons. This is known as vignet-ting.
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders
Co. Ltd.
~.

148

Y,_QBase MCQsf0r'the Part1FRCR

'

m:_~ A A ii

..__-

j 4.

A. true B. true C. false

D. false

E. true

Second generation: a narrow fan beam falling on a small curved


array of detectors.
_
Third generation: both the beam and detectors rotate.
Fourth generat_io_n:_these are of the rotate-still type. The X-ray

tube alone rotates with a stationary ring of detectors.


Ring artefacts are most common in third-generation scanners.

>

t., ,.
C

IEXQ

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medicalimaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltdg

ma-.s..yn-w! IaFMxwd

5-

1'}?

A. true

B. true

C. false

D. false

E. true

The latent image is formed following an exposure and before


development.
The speed of an emulsion is largely dependent on the average size
of the grains rather than the grain size distribution. The greater
the average grain size, the greater the speed of theemulsion.
Film emulsion contains approximately 90% silver bromide and
10% of silver iodide.

L
=-

s
i
7=1

it

'

is :1
I 1 .
.__.

/_* -.
>-.,- :_

' ' - ?=.'

Curry, Thomas. Christensen: Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, Zfth Edn.

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.

[E]s.

A. true B. true C. true

D. true

-'--1srai~1~,

E. false

The GM counter is able to detect any ionising radiation but does


not distinguish between different types, nor can it distinguish
between energies of the same radiation.
Curry, Thomas. Christensens Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.

:
I

Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd. ,

A. true B. true

C. true

D. true

E. false

Vllhilst both the kVp meter and mA meter are located in the

li
|
1
ll

w4:-~_Va-1e_.: =-.=_

control panel, their connections are in the high-voltage circuit.


The high-voltage circuit of an X-ray generator consists of two
transformers, an autotransformer and a step-up transformer. The
kVp meter is placed in the circuit between the autotransformer
and the step-up transformer, and therefore only Pteeds a
minimum of insulation when placed in the control panel.
However, for the mA meter to provide accurate mA recordings,
the connections for the mA meter need to be in the secondary

QBase M<<s;m?a&T1=tEr'""""""'"""'"'"~'"""""" T215

'-..-.7-_-9 5-

coil of the transformer. Hence, the connections need to be


grounded.
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Pres;
"

Ltd., 1990.

A. false

B. false

C. true

D. false

E. true

;._il1'l}%i
x;

Attenuation occurs either by absorption of photons, or scattering

>: Q)?

of photons from the beam.

-.:5_._'_;

t _

-'

Attenuation of monochromatic radiation does not change the A


quality of therradiation. However, the number of the photons in

the beam is reduced.

F, .__

'

Attenuation of polychromatic radiation is not exponential, i.e.


the number of photons remaining in the beam does not decreas I'D
by the same percentage with each increment of absorber. When
the percentage of transmission is plotted on semi-log paper, it is
curved (as opposed to with monochromatic radiation which is a
straight line).

' ~
,;-5 E

flt.v\6iu1'|t@-W'!l\'J6L4l71-:

';%~"v'.s';.-.,_
La

:*

rr.-J

2'

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., 1990.

.*Z'*a.

- .*i*.-;e;=- El .9;

A4 true B. false

C. true

D. true

E. false

I
' 4

The electrostatic image is developed by exposing the surface of


the plate to a fine-charged powder called toner which is
attracted to the plate surface in proportion to the intensity of

the remaining charge. As the toner particles have both positive


and negative charges, it is possible to attract either of these

selectively to the surface of the plate to produce either a positive


or negative image.
'
The process has very broad exposure latitudes. The resolution is
less sensitive to exposure, and hence a single exposure can
produce good image resolution in both thick and thin areas of a
structure i.e. the breast.
_
Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology 1st Edn. Clinical Press
Ltd., I990.

E|10. A. false

2
I
.l

,
,*1
T5-.v"T.!\E':~'<-W?
T.

B. tr\.?e

C. true D. true

E. true

High-ratio grids are more efficient at removing scattered.


radiation.
~~
,

Ti. QBase MCQS forrheParr1FRo******

_.\.._

As the bucky factor is the ratio of incident radiation to


transmitted radiation, high-ratio grids also have a larger bucky
factor. Grid ratio refers to how efficient a grid is at removing
'
secondary (scattered) radiation.
.
Whilst it is desirable for a grid to only prevent the passage of
. ,3
>
secondary scattered radiation, there is always some absorption of
1
primary radiation. Hence, when using a grid, exposure factors
need to be increased.
.

.- -M

Armstrong; Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical


Press Ltd.

*-.1"\fEUl'$.Mv-B\lI?EW

QE11. A. false

i -
B. false

' ":7
_-vs,

C. true

D. false

an-1.
>5--

E. true
....,

The number of electrons in the M shell is 18.

1
=

K > L > M. Energy (E):K = 70, E:L = 11; E:M = 2 ke\/.

Isotopes have identical chemical properties, where A is the mass

number and Z is the atomic number.

:""'4"'

__

"_

>

.'6,;.'3.
,.. ,

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


C0. Ltd.

'

= .}>.

. 3

.A

A. false

B. false

C. false

D. false

E. false

. .U\~

=.

~rfl2.f_.-__

- 0? ; s

P
L With each HVL, the average energy of the photons increases
the beam becomes harder or more penetrating. The second HVL
is larger than the first HVL.
The HVL of a typical diagnostic beam is 30 mm.
As an X-ray beam penetrates a material, it becomes progressively
more homogenous secondary to beam hardening.
The photoelectric effect results from interactions with bound
inner shell electrons.

The probability that the Compton process will occur is '


proportional to the physical density and in particular electron
density, and is inversely proportional to the incident photon

energy. it is independent of Z.

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

[113. A. true

B. false C. true

D. false

E. true

The rating decreases as the kV is increased.


At higher speeds, heat is more evenly spread along the focal
track resulting in greater rating.
,1

QBase McQ??BFYiwY-T=3Pi"i?R_<tiT

' his]

~a,,-n=- -r

ln continuous fluoroscopy, the rating depends only on the rate Q --On cooling of the tube and not upon focal spot size or type of
'
generator used.
Tube rating is about 35% greater with three-phase generator;
compared to single-phase generators.

.4\x_|.n

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders CQ_
Ltd.

~ :' mlf

><@+
N

125-?

..rl

-
~-aT.i:.*:"
in -1 ; A

Elm.

A. true B. true

C. false

D. false .E. true

A very small focal spot decreases geometric unsharpness.


The air gap technique is usually employed.
There is increased patient dose due to the increased exposure
;.
factors required.
Quantum mottle is not increased since the same number of X-ray photons are absorbed in the screen for the same degree of film "
. obi-ackeni-ng.
"-

.~=-\.+=--

Tc-'~v._r....
:=.1'

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

,.,...,;..
;=.r~s~.~-;E

.!-'1->er"'.

$53-gs:

@115.

A. true B. true

C. false

D. false

E. false.

Screen efficiency is theproportion of light produced in a screen


that reaches the film.
4
Screen conversion efficiency is 5% for tungstate screens and 20%
for rare earth screens.
When using a thicker screen, the same number of X-ray photons
are absorbed in the screen for the sarne film density. Hence,
there is no change in noise although resolution is reduced. When
the conversion or screen efficiency is increased, a reduced
number of X-ray photons are required to be absorbed for the
same film density. Hence exposure required and patient dose are
reduced, but noise is increased. lncreasing screen efficiency
reduces resolution but increasing conversion efficiency does not
affect resolution. Thus increasing conversion efficiency increases
quantum noise but increasing screen thickness does not affect
noise; however, both increase the speed of a screen and reduce
patient dose.
'
Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.

Ltd.

152

Y
,

F
l:
I
1
;
l
i

..

._QBa_se MCQsforithePart1FRCR

'

--

"Ti '_

-__

I 16.

A. false B. true C. false

D. true

E. true

The vidicon tube uses antimony trisulphide as the


photoconducting material.
The image intensier has a lag period of about 1 ms. The
camera tube may have a lag of several hundred milliseconds.
50 frames per second is necessary to eliminate flicker altogether.

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders

co. Ltd.

r'.~a-\ mqv.-qy,

7:t.
:

I
t
1?

>3 |'|'|f,@
xi?

"_'-is
HQ;

FE

E [Q11

A. true

-.Ir'*.",-r

Nal, Csl, CdW may also be used as scintillation crystals in a Cl


detector.
_
Scintillationdetectors are more sensitive than ionisation
chambers.
ionisation chambers are more stable to voltage fluctuation
compared to scintillation detectors.
ionisation chambers are more suitable for third-generation '
scanners. Solid state detectors are more appropriate for fourthgeneration scanners.
-,.

-"Fave
E
1

ll91

we-=m1

B. true C. false

D. false

E. false

'
lrf-1
' 3"I;;-=' 'l
.-, 5?,-1.-.~_
y :'-:l=_'.
J.

1:1 -'3'

5 L
31: a

.~s -. v
. -.-'2'x.--1?-1-,
' I .:-rih
.:>'-; -;

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, lst Edn. W. B. Saunders


Co. Ltd.

@113.

A. true

B. false C. false

D. false

E. false

Pure metallic silver is deposited on the cathode.


Agitation of either the cathode or the anode brings fresh silver
ions closer to the surface of the cathode and increases the yield
of pure metallic silver.
it is not possible to recover silver using the electrolytic method;
however, silver may be recovered from the wash water using the
metailic replacement method.
The electrolytic method requires electrical power, whereas the
metallic replacement method involves the use of steel

woolsonly.

Hence, the electrolytic method is considerably more expensive to


perform.
Curry, Thomas. Christense-n's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 4th Edn.
Williams & Wilkins (Europe) Ltd.
"

QBase i\?Tc_d?3rF55Fiii"ri=?r%l '

'

'

"'""';;

jj:

EH9. A. true B. false C. true D. true E. true


Between exposures thegvoltage falls, and this drop needs to be
compensated by recharging the battery from the mains.

Armstrong. Lecture Notes on the Physics of Radiology, 1st Edn. Clinical Pres;
Ltd., 1990.
.,:..

ml1. 's:"'?I

_3 I11.

>4
R;' mi

A. true
. A

B. false

;_ rr~
l . Es
= ;:}=1: ~:;_
,

D. false

E. false

X-rays, gamma rays, and electrons: 1.

Protons: 5.
I;=_ P -!"-

C. true

"

- _

Alpha particles: 20.


Neutrons: 5-20 (Energy dependent).

-.
-1
_

4
-i

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

EQZ1. A. false
E ~

~il~F

we.

B. false

C. true

D. false

E. true

. = ':l_=E;_t
s"'-"-a.#3:
15',-

Very few operators or practitioners are classified workers.


According to lRR 99, individual dose measurement can be
inappropriate for classified workers, and therefore other suitable
measurements can be used.
Classified workers, must be aged 18 years or older.
The lonising Radiations Regulations 1999.

[E21 A. true

B. false

C. true

D. false

E. true

The radiation protection advisor must be consulted, not the RPS,


about servicing and correct use ofequipment.
H
Where concentration of activity is low enough the RPA does not
need to be consulted.
The lonising Radiations Regulations 1.999.

Q23. A. true

B. false

C. false

D. false

E. true

The annual equivalent dose limit fdr the skin of a member of the
public is 50 mSv. .
The five consecutive years dose limit of I00 mSv is only allowed
providing the annual effectivdose is never greater than 50 mSv.-

azr""rraQ.imh.p;mRR

'

r"

_~.|-4;w

<

The annual equivalent dose limit for hands of an employee is


500 mSv.

'

The lonising Radiations Regulations 1999.

24.

A. false B. true C. true D. true

E. false

~ .*:.
r-*:-

There is no clear data proving a hereditary genetic effect of


radiation exposure.
Stochastic effects may have a long latent period.

;;,

at

3
e.--4':

Q-

Farr, Allisy-Roberts. Physics for Medical Imaging, 1st Edn. W. B. Saunders Co.
Ltd.

'3?

r.~.=,
_ ,,

Elzs.

A. false

B. true

C. false

D. true

.E. true
1

Schedule 2 of lR(ME)R lists relevant subjects for training.


Patient information detailing the risks associated with ionising
radiation must be given to patients undergoing treatment or
diagnosis with radioactive medicinal products. IR(ME,lR 2000.

:
1
.. x
r
(~.

.4"
si-

/.V\5U\'7'

sl

Q3359 MC(Qms_1_<>Tthe'_Part__llillilgfivhl

'

'

'

155