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# TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO. 1

## Junction Diode Characteristics

Submitted by:
LEADER: Magsino, Mark Joseph G.

MEMBERS:

## DATE SUBMITTED: AUGUST 10, 2015

Bocar, Cyrhuz S.
Chicote, Lairene Joy F.
Lara, Daniel Marc G.
Osit, Mark Angelo M.
Silva, Brice M.
GROUP NO. 4
BSME 4D

Submitted To:
ENGR. EDWIN C. ESPINAS
I.

II.

INSTRUCTOR
RATING
OBJECTIVES:
To test a junction diode and measure the effects when it is on
forward or reverse bias condition.
DISCUSSION:
There are two operating regions and three possible biasing
conditions for the standard Junction Diode and these are:

## 1. Zero Bias No external voltage potential is applied to the PN junction

diode.
2. Reverse Bias The voltage potential is connected negative, (-ve) to the Ptype material and positive, (+ve) to the N-type material across the diode
which has the effect of Increasing the PN junction diodes width.
3. Forward Bias The voltage potential is connected positive, (+ve) to the
P-type material and negative, (-ve) to the N-type material across the diode
which has the effect of Decreasing the PN junction diodes width. The
standard symbol for a semiconductor diodes is an arrow and bar showing

the direction of current. The arrow P side and the bar is the N side. The
arrow and bar are generally marked on the diode. To determine the state of
the diode, simply think of it initially as a resistor, and find the polarity of
the voltage across it and the direction of conventional current through it. If
the voltage across it has a forward- bias polarity and the current has a
direction that matches the arrow in the symbol, the diode is conducting.
For most applications, simply the threshold voltage in the forwardbias region and an open-circuit for applied voltages can define the
characteristics of a diode less than the threshold value.
A forward-biased diode conducts current and drops a small voltage across it,
leaving most of the battery voltage dropped across the lamp. If the batterys
polarity is reversed, the diode becomes reverse-biased, and drops all of the
batterys voltage leaving none for the lamp. If we consider the diode to be a
self-actuating switch (closed in the forward-bias mode and open in the
reverse-bias
mode),
this
behavior makes sense. The most
substantial difference is that the
diode drops a lot more voltage
when conducting than the
average mechanical switch (0.7
volts versus tens of millivolts).
A reverse-biased diode
prevents current from going through it, due to the expanded depletion region.
In actuality, a very small amount of current can and does go through a reversebiased diode, called the leakage current, but it can be ignored for most
purposes. The ability of a diode to withstand reverse-bias voltages is limited,
as it is for any insulator. If the applied reverse-bias voltage becomes too great,
the diode will experience a condition known as breakdown which is usually
destructive. A diodes maximum reverse-bias voltage rating is known as
the Peak Inverse Voltage, or PIV, and may be obtained from the manufacturer.
Like forward voltage, the PIV rating of a diode varies with temperature,
except that PIV increases with increased temperature and decreases as the
diode becomes coolerexactly opposite that of forward voltage.

III.

MATERIALS:
Variable Power Supply
Digital Tester

IV.

V.

## 2 Watt, 200 resistor

1N4001 Silicone Diode

PROCEDURE:
1. Construct the circuit shown. Set the supply letting the voltage V to be
0 Volt. Increase the voltage from 0.1 Volt steps to maximum of 0.8
Volts. Measure and record the current, if any in Table 1.2. Also
compute for the forward resistance of the diode.
2. Reverse the diode. Like on forward biased circuit, measure the current
and record, if any with the power supply varying in steps from 0 to 40
Volts. Again for each conditions, compute for the reverse resistance of
the diode.
3. Remove the diode from the circuit. Measure the forward and reverse
resistance of this diode. Record the results in Table 1.3. Compute the
resistance ratio, r of this diode.

## DATA AND RESULTS:

Activity No. 1
Schematic Diagram:

VI
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8

Tabulated Data
FORWARD
VD
ID
0V
0A
0.1 V
0.208 A
0.2 V
1.527 A
0.298 V
0.01 mA
0.388 V
0.058 mA
0.456 V
0.217 mA
0.5 V
0.501 mA
0.528 V
0.861 mA
0.548 V
1.262 mA

RD
0
0.481 M
0.131 M
29.8 k
6.69 k
2.101 k
998
613
434

Table 1.2

## Computation for Forward Diode

V
R=
I

R=

0.1
0 .2
0.298
0.388
R=
R=
R=
0.208 A
1.527 A
0.01 mA
0.058mA
R = 0.481 M

R=

R = 0.131 M

R = 29.8 k

R = 6.69 k

0.456
0.5
0.528
0.548
R=
R=
R=
0.217 mA
0.501 mA
0.861 mA
1.262 mA
R = 2.101 k

R = 998
Activity No.2
Schematic Diagram:

R = 613

R = 434

Tabulated Data
REVERSE
VD
ID
0
0
5V
0
10 V
0
15 V
1.776 A
20 V
0
25 V
0
30 V
0
34.999 V
0
39.999 V
0

VI
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

Table 1.2

## Computation for Reverse Diode

V
R=
I

5
10
15
20
R= R= R=
R=
0
0
1.776 A
0
R 1=0 R 2=0 R 3=8.446 M R 4=0

R=

25
30
35
40
R= R= R=
0
0
0
0

Activity No. 3

RD
0
0
0
8.446 M
0
0
0
0
0

## Reverse Diode (Negative Supply)

Schematic Diagram:

Tabulated Data
REVERSE
VI
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0

VD
-0.817 V
-0.809 V
-0.799 V
-0.789 V
-0.776 V
-0.759 V
-0.736 V
-0.695 V
0V

ID
-0.196 A
-0.171 A
-0.146 A
-0.121 A
-0.096 A
-0.071 A
-0.046 A
-0.022 A
0A

Table 1.3

V
R=
I

R=

0.817
0.809
0.799
0.789
R=
R=
R=
0.196
0.171
0.146
0.121

R=

0.776
0.759
0.736
0.695
R=
R=
R=
0.096
0.071
0.046
0.022

RD
4.168
4.731
5.473
6.521
8.083
10.690
16
31.591
0

Diode
D1 1N4001

Activity No. 4
Tabulated Data
R(forward),
R(reverse),
1.407 M
1.94 M

R
0.725

Table 1.4

## Computation for Table 1.4

R=

I
V

R=

FORWARD
REVERSE

R=

1.407
1.940

R=0.725

VI.

GUIDE QUESTIONS:
1. Plot a graph of V versus I for both bias conditions of Table 1.2.

V
0.55
0.45
0.35
0.25
0.15
0.05

-0.05
-0.15
-0.25
-0.35
-0.45
-0.55
-0.65
-0.75
-0.85

2. Under what condition will a junction diode turn on? Refer to your
measurements in Table 1.2.
- Forward Biased. If it has a forward voltage across it that is
greater than 0.6 volts for a silicon diode. Other materials have a
similar voltage point. Germanium diodes, about 0.3-0.4 volts.
3. Explain how (a) forward-bias, (b) reverse-bias conditions may be
established. Referring to your experiment, explain also how the
resulting current is affected.
- When the positive terminal of the source is connected to the ptype material and the negative terminal of the source is
connected to the n-type material, such a connection is called
forward bias. The amount of energy required by the electrons
to cross the junction is equal to the barrier potential (0.3 V for
Ge and 0.7 V for Si). When the positive terminal of the battery
is connected to n-type material and the negative terminal of the

## battery is connected to p-type material, such a connection is

called reverse bias. There is no flow of current due to majority
carriers when the diode is reverse biased. However there is a
very little flow of current (in nano ampere range for silicon
diode) due to minority carriers that are produced in the crystal
due to thermal energy.
4. What portion, at the volt-ampere characteristic curve of the
forward-bias diode is linear?
- Below the diode's forward voltage typically 0.7V, the curve is
at (roughly) zero. At around 0.5 it begins to curve upward, and
at around 0.7V, the voltage drop is almost constant (the curve
heads straight upwards to infinity).
5. What is the effect of the DC resistance of the diode over this linear
portion?
- DC resistance of the diode over a linear portion is relatively
constant. The DC resistance creates forward voltage drops
across the diode from somewhere around 0.6 V to 1 V
depending on the material and characteristics of the diode used.

## 6. Compare the characteristics of silicon and a germanium diode and

determine which is preferred to use for practical application.
- Forward voltage for silicon diode is
about 0.6-0.7 volts. For Ge it is
about 0.3-0.4 volts. Ge diode has an
order of magnitude higher reverse
leakage current also, and a lower
max temperature.

## 7. What is the significance, if any, of the resistance ratio of a diode?

- To determine the comparison of resistance value of forward
and reverse diode. The more the resistance, the lower the
current; the lower the resistance, the higher the current. When
the connection is in reverse bias, the resistance is high and it
acts in open circuit and the reverse current is very small that
can be neglected. When forward bias, the resistance is low and

## it acts as short circuit and the forward current is increasing as

the voltage supply is higher.