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o Optics

FRANK L .. PEDROTTI, S .. J .. Marquette University Milwaukee. Wisconsin Vatican


Radio, Rome
LENO S. PEDROTD Center for Occupational Research and Development Waco, Texas Eme
ritus Professor of Physics Air Force Institute of Technology Ohio
Prentice-Hall International, Inc.
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
Speed of light Electron charge Electron rest mass Planck constant Boltzmann cons
tant Permittivity of vacuum Permeability of vacuum
c = 2.998 X 108 mls e 1.602 x 10-19 C m 9.109 x 10-31 h 6.626 X 10-34 J8 k 1.380
5 X 10-23 J/K Eo = 8.854 x /-LO = 41T X
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Preface
Optics is today perhaps the most area of both theoretical and applied physics. S
ince the 1960s the parallel emergence and of fiber optics, and a variety of semi
conductor sources and detectors have revitalized the field. The need for a varie
ty of texts with different and is therefore apparent, both for the student of op
tics and for the laborer in the field who needs an occasional review of the basi
cs. With Introduction to we propose to teach introductory modern optics at an in
termediate level. for several of the final (19, which are written at a somewhat
the text assumes as background a good course in introductory physics, at the lev
el usually given to physics and engineering majors, and at least two semesters o
f calculus. The book is written at the level of understanding appropriate to the
average sophomore major, who has the necessary physics and mathematics prerequi
sites as a freshman. the traditional areas of college optics, as wen as several
rather new ones, the text can be 11.""",,,,,11 ther a half- or a full-year cours
e. We believe that the and today warrant readjustment of curricula to provide fo
r a full year of program. For those who are familiar with the first edition, it
may be the major changes introduced in this second edition. Two new ch:aJ)ters 1
1.".11",,, with laser-beam characteristics and nonlinear have been added. The ne
w laser chapter now appears, together with the two earlier laser toward the end
of the book, where the three function as a unit. In addition, the has been
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greatly expanded and moved to a later chapter. Several new sections have been in
troduced. They are Ray and The Thick Lens (Chapter 4), Effect (Chapter 8), and E
vanescent Waves 20). Worked examples are now within the text, and 175 new proble
ms have been added to the chapter exercises. Specific features of the text, in t
erms of coverage beyond the traditional areas, include extensive use of 2 X 2 ma
trices in dealing with ray and multiple thin-film interference; three devoted to
a chapter on the eye, induding laser treatments of the eye; and individual chap
ters on holography, coherence, fiber optics, Fourier optics, nonlinear and Fresn
el equations. A final chapter a brief introduction to the optical constants of d
ielectrics and metals. We have attempted to make many of the more specialized ch
apters independent of the others so that can be omitted without detriment to the
remainder of the book. This should be helpful in shorter versions of the course
. Organization of the material in three major parts follows traditional lines. T
he first part of the book deals with geometrical as a limiting form of wave opti
cs. The middle develops wave optics in detail, and the final treats topics gener
ally referred to as modern optics. In the first I presents a brief historical re
view of the theories of light. including wave, and photon descriptions. In Chapt
er 2, we describe a variety of common sources and detectors of as well as the ra
diometric and units of measurement that are used throughout the book. In this an
d the remainder of the text, the rationalized MKS system of units is 3 reviews t
he geometrical optics covered by inphysics courses, the usual reflection and ref
raction relations for mirrors and lenses. Chapter 4 shows how one can extend par
axial optics to of amicomplexity through the use of 2 x 2 matrices. Also in this
we include an introduction to the ray-tracing that are widely applied computer
programming. Chapter 5 presents a semiquantitative treatment of third-order aber
ration theory. Chapter 6 discusses the of geometrical optics and aberration to a
pertures and to several devices: the prism, the camera, the "",>ni.""" m:u;rOlsc

ope. and the telescope. The of the eye as the final in many optical systems is i
n a separate chapter (7). This explains the functions and the defects of the eye
and discusses some of the treatments of these defects that make use of the of l
aser light. The next section of the text introduces wave or physical with two ch
apters (8 and 9) that discuss the wave and the superposition of waves. Interfere
nce nh.>nnlmp,n" are then treated in Chapters 10 and II, the second dealing with
both Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers in some detail. Although the of
coherence is handled in general terms in discussions, it receives a more and tre
atment in Chapter 12. After a brief explanation of Fourier series and the Fourie
r integral, the chapter deals with both temporal and spatial coherence and prese
nts a quantitative discussion of partial coherence. Chapter i 3 presents, as a t
ion of interference, an introduction to holography, including some current aPlpl
i(;atiions. 14 and 15 treat the of We first give a mathematical 2 x 2 matrices t
o the electric field vector (Chapter 14), before in detail the mechanisms respon
sible for the production of p0larized light (Chapter 15). Thus Chapter 14 uses m
atrices to describe the various modes of and types of without reference to the p
hysics of its u,,",,,,,,,,,nUlIU'll';U the order of these can be we feel this ch
oice is more effective. Diffraction is discussed in the following three chapters
]7, 18). Since an adequate treatment of Fraunhofer diffraction is too long for
a we have included a separate chapter (17) on the diffraction grating and
Preface
instruments following the discussion of diffraction in Chapter 16. Fresnel diffr
action is then taken up in 18. The final chapters are generally more demanding i
n mathematical sophistication. 19 2 x 2 matrices to treat reflectance of thin fi
lms. Chapter 20 derives the Fresnel equations in an examination of reflection fr
om both dielectric and metallic surfaces. The basic elements of a laser and the
basic characteristics of laser are treated in Chapter 21, followed by a rather c
hapter (22) that describes the features of laser beams. The and mode structure o
f laser beams are dealt with here in a 21 and 22 are best taken in sequence, and
together with Chapter 23, an essay on laser applications, form a suitable unit
for a minicourse on lasers. The other chapters in this final part of the book ar
e self-contained in the sense that no sequence is ,",U'''P'''''' 24 presents a s
urvey of the basic features of fibers with special attention to communication ap
plications. Thus of bandwidth, allowed and mechanisms of attenuation and distort
ion are treated here. 25 introduces the of Fourier in a discussion of optical da
ta nr"C'"",,, Chapter 26 presents a variety of effects under the umbrella of nonl
inear The final chapter (27) considers the propagation of a light wave in both d
ielectric and metallic media and shows how the optical constants arise. Each of
the 27 chapters contains a limited bibliography related to the chapter contents
and referred to at times within the text square brackets. In addition, at the en
d of the book, we have included a chronological listing of articles