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Wastewater Collection

Sewer Basics

Collection and transport of wastewater from each


home/building to the point where treatment occurs

The network of sewers used to collect Wastewater from a


community is known as a collection system

Wastewater Characterization
Solids
Liquids

Types of Collection System

1.
2.
3.

There are three main types of collection


system
Sanitary
Strom Water
Combined Sewers

Sanitary

Sanitary sewers were developed to remove


domestic waste from residential areas
Flow of sanitary sewers was by gravity
Now a days both pressure and vacuum sewers
have been used

Strom Water

Which is larger than sanitary sewers


Separate stormwater sewers are constructed to
eliminate pollution problems

Combined Sewers

Domestic wastewater and stromwater


collected together in combined sewers

are

Types of Sewers

The types and size of sewers used will vary with size of the
collection system and the location of the wastewater-treatment
facilities
Building Sewers which is connect to the building plumbing and
are used to convey wastewater from the building to lateral or
branch sewers
Lateral or Branch _ collect wastewater from one or more building
sewers and convey it to a main sewers
Main-one or more lateral sewers to trunk sewers
Trunk- Main sewers to treatment or other disposal facilities
Intercepting which is larger sewers that are used to intercept a
number of main or trunk sewers and convey the ww to treatment
or other disposal facilities

Collection System
Appurtenances

Manholes

Manholes are installed in sewer lines whenever there is


an intersection, change of direction, or change the in
elevation or slope of a line

They are needed to provide access to the system for


cleaning, inspection, and clearing stoppages Although
they should be large enough for operators to enter and
work in, they can contain hazardous atmospheres that
can endanger workers

With today's modern equipment most work done on


sewer lines can be accomplished without entering the
manhole and putting workers at risk

Manholes
Located at changes in sewer size, direction, or
slope
* Or every 300-500 feet
Provides access for maintenance (cleanout, etc.)
Problematic because of Infiltration and Inflow (I&I)
Avoidance of Submerged Conditions: Manholes
should not be located in areas subject to flooding,
from floodplains, surface runoff, or ponding

Junction chambers: Man-hole constructed at the


intersection of two large sewers

Drop man-hole: When the difference in elevation of


the invert levels of the incoming and outgoing
sewers of the man-hole is more than 0.5m, the
interception is made by dropping the incoming
sewer vertically outside and then it is jointed to the
man-hole chamber

Gravity

Suited to;
Gently sloping terrain towards one side
of the township
Areas with good excavation conditions
Reasonably dense housing (i.e. not
sparsely spaced blocks)
Remote areas where system response
times are likely to be long
Areas with a high probability of
prolonged power failure

Pressure

Suited to:
Areas where excavation conditions are difficult
Areas with high ground water
Townships that are elongated such as those that
follow coastlines or rivers
Areas with sparsely located houses
Areas with significantly undulating terrain
Areas that require large lifts from individual properties
Hilly areas (vacuum lift is restricted to about 6m)
Areas where construction impact needs to be
minimized

Vaccum

Suited to:
Areas where excavation is difficult
Areas of high ground water
Townships with over 100 connections
Gently undulating sites
Townships that are elongated such as
those that follow coastlines or rivers