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EmergencyIncidentManagement
Itisunwisetoadopta"canthappenhere"attituderegardingseriousaccidentsoremergencies.Somecompanies
failtoanticipatehazards,andsoareunpreparedwhenanaccidentoremergencyhappens.Dependingonthe
severityoftheloss,itisconceivablethatacompanycouldbefinanciallyruinedafterthelossoccurs.
Emergencyincidentmanagementdependsondevelopingandregularlytestinganemergencyplan.Thisplan
should
addressvariousrealisticemergencyscenariosanddetailsspecificresponseutiesandresponsibilities
detailwhattodowhenanemergencysituationoccurs,orwhenitisanticipatedthatagivensituation
couldescalateintoanemergency
recognizethepeoplebestsuitedtocontroltheemergency
specificallyidentifythepersonincharge.
Regulartestingoftheplanidentifiesitsstrengthsandweaknessesandallowsforcorrectionandrevision.Above
all,theemergencyplanandanyassociatedresponserequirementsmustleadtoanorganizedresponsetoany
anticipatedemergencysituation.

PrinciplesofEmergencyPlanDevelopment
Anemergencyplanisacomprehensiveproceduredesignedtoensurethehealthandsafetyofallpersonnelatthe
affectedlocationandthegeneralpublicinthevicinity.Protectionoftheenvironmentisalsoakeyfunctionofthe
emergencyplan.Tofacilitatethis,theplanmustidentifyallpotentialemergencysituationsanddescribespecific
preparationsfordealingwiththem,ensuringthat
emergencyresourcesareadequatelyplannedanddocumented
personnelareawareoftheemergencyresources
personnelaretrainedandarecapableofrespondingtotheemergency
contractorpersonnelareawareofemergencyalarmsandprocedures
Emergencyplansmustbesitespecific,sincehazardsandothercompoundingfactors(forexample,access,
egress,hydrocarboninventoryandquantity,individualplantlayout,etc.)areuniquetoeachsite.Theplansmust
beveryspecificinregardtosettingoutalltheactionstobetaken,andassigningtheresponsibilitiesfortaking
theseactionsshouldanemergencyoccur.

IncidentCommandCenter
Theincidentcommandcenterusuallyfunctionsfromamaincontrolfacilityorheadquartersthatisestablishedto
coordinateanemergencyresponse.Thisfacilitymaybeportablesoitcanbetransportedclosetotheemergency
location(e.g.,wellorprocessingfacility),oritcouldbelocatedinthecompanyofficesoradministrationbuilding.
Thecontrolroomorheadquartersmustcontain,attheminimum,thefollowingmaterials:
Copiesoftheemergencyproceduresmanuals
Sitespecificdrawingsofstructuresandequipment
Pipingandinstrumentationdiagrams
Detailedareamaps
Acurrentlistofallemergencyresponsepersonnelandtheircontactnumbers
Alistofdesignatedalternatesandtheircontactnumbers
Acompletelistofgovernment,regulatoryandotherthirdpartyresponseagencies
Shouldtheaffectedfacilitybelocatedinanareawherelocalresidencescouldbeinadvertently
involved,acompleteandcurrentlistofarearesidentsandtheircontactnumbersmustalsobeonhand.
Theymustbenotifiedandarrangementsmadeforevacuationandtemporaryaccommodationif
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necessary.
Theincidentcommandsystemdealswithmattersinvolvinglocalauthorities,themediaandthepublic.
Managementandemergencyresponsepersonnelusetheemergencyplantoensurethesafetyofallpersonnel
andthepublic,determineevacuationrequirements,arrangeforadditionalequipmentandspecialistassistance,
andcoordinateallotheractivitiestobringaquickendtotheemergencysituation.

PersonnelEquipmentandCommunications
Acriticalrequirementofanyemergencyplanistheassignmentofspecificresponsibilitiestospecificpersonnel.
Thisensuresthattheresponseissmooth,timelyanduninterrupted.Trainingandregularexercisesfortypical
emergencysituationsarealsoimportant.Personnelmustbefullyawareofwhattheirresponsibilitiesare,andhow
tocarrythemoutbeforethereisanactualemergency.
Responsemanagersmustkeepcompletechronologicallogsofalltheiractivitiesandtheexacttimesthat
messageswerereceivedandactionsinitiated.Itisimportanttopostkeyemergencytelephonenumbersand
identifykeypersonnelwiththedutiesoftheirpositions.
Forsituationsinvolvingoutsideresponseagenciessuchasfiredepartments,airmonitoringagencies,ormedical
services,exercisesandtrainingsessionsshouldbesetuptoincludetheirpersonnel.Theymustbefamiliarwith
theemergencyresponseprocedures,thesitelayout,andthepersonnelwithwhomtheywillbeworking.
Equipmentrequirementswillobviouslyvarydependingonthetypeandmagnitudeoftheemergency.Anoverview
ofgeneralequipmentconsiderations,designedtoaddressanumberoflikelyemergencysituations,wouldinclude
communicationequipmentsuchastelephones,facsimilemachines,fieldradios,etc.
safetyequipmentsuchasbreathingairsystems,personalprotectiveequipment,electricalgenerators,
lightingplantsandairmonitoringinstruments
vehicletrafficcontrolequipment,suchasbarricades,flashinglights,fluorescentones
firefightingequipment,suchasfiretrucks,foamgeneratingapparatus,portablepumps,watercarriers,
andadditionalhosesandnozzles
Anypotentiallynecessaryequipmentmustbelisted,andatwentyfourhourcontactnumbergivenintheeventthat
theequipmenthastobemobilizedandtransportedtothesiteoftheemergency.Fulldetailedproceduresforthese
acquisitionsmustbedevelopedandtestedsothepeopleresponsibleforacquiringtheequipmentormaterialare
confidentwiththeprocess.
Accurate,timelycommunicationsareanimportantaspectofanyemergencyplan.Communicationneedsmustbe
addressedfromthetimetheactualemergencyoccursandcontinueuntil,insomecases,longafterthecleanuphas
beencompleted.
Thekeytoeffectivecommunicationisunderstanding,andthekeytounderstandingisknowledge.Allpersonnel
mustbemadeaware,upontheirarrivalatthesite,ofemergencyproceduresandcontactorreporting
requirements.Emergencytelephonenumbersandbasicproceduresforreportingvariousemergenciesmustbe
prominentlypostedaroundthesite.
Thisinitialcommunicationmustresultinactivationoftheemergencyresponseteams,who,inturn,informother
localorgovernmentagencies.
Communicationequipmentthatshouldbeavailableincludes
telephonesonaseparatelinefromtheswitchboardsothattheywillremainfreeatalltimesparticularly
foroutgoingcalls
afacsimilemachineforsendingorreceivingpertinentdataandinformation
fieldradioswithUHF(ultrahighfrequency)orVHF(veryhighfrequency)capabilitytoenable
communicationwithcrewsandmobileequipment,vehicles,vesselsand/oraircraftwhichmaybe
respondingtotheemergency
Thecommunicationlinksforreportingemergenciesandmobilizingtheemergencyresponseteamsmaybebest
showninchartform.ExamplesofemergencyresponseprocedurechartsaregiveninFigure1andFigure2.

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FIGU R E2

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FIGU R E1
Atypicalemergencyreportingprocedureshouldcontain,inboldorfullcolorprint,theemergencytelephone
numberanddescriptionoftheinformationneededfromthepartyreportingtheemergency,including
nameandlocationofthereporter
locationoftheemergency
descriptionoftheemergency(forexample,gasreleasefire,vehicleaccident,oil/chemicalspill,
explosion,personnelinjury,etc.)
currentweatherconditions,ifapplicable
otherpartiescontacted
timeanddateofthereport
Itisalsobeneficialtoprovidepersonnelreceivingemergencycallswithaformthatwouldpromptandassistthem
inaskingforthecorrectinformationandrecordingallthepertinentdetails.
Theplanshouldthenoutlinethecalloutrequirementsfortheemergencyresponseteam(Figure3)andlistthe
detailsoftheassignedresponsibilitiesforeachmemberoftheemergencyresponseteam.

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FIGU R E3
Contactnumbersforallpersonnelandoutsideagencieswhomayrespondmustbelisted,alongwiththedetails
regardingpeopleorequipmentthatmaybeneeded.
Wemustassumethatemergencieswilloccurand,therefore,thatpreplanningforthemisessential.Ourprimary
protectionfromemergenciesliesineliminatingactualandpotentialhazardsnevertheless,emergenciescan
happenintheoilandgasindustry,andwemustbepreparedtodealwiththem.

AvailableResources,PublicandPrivate
Dependingonthenatureandmagnitudeofthesituation,anumberofadditionalresourcesbeyondthoseavailable
onsitemaybeneededduringanemergency.Theseadditionalresourcesmustbeidentified,andtheirpotential
sourcesandcontactnumberslisted.Ifpossible,agreementsshouldbereachedwiththirdpartyindividuals,
agenciesorsupplierstomaketheseresourcesavailableonveryshortnotice.Examplesoftheseresource
requirementsinclude,butarenotlimitedto
firefightersandadditionalfirefightingequipment
medicalpersonnelandambulances
helicoptersorfixedwingaircraft
policepersonnel
trafficcontrolequipment
hospitalemergencytreatmentfacility
heavyequipment(bulldozers,trucks,etc.)
airmonitoringpersonnelandequipment
communicationspersonnelandequipment
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oilspillcontainmentandcleanupequipment
health,safetyandenvironmentalconsultants
chemicalcontainmentorneutralizingequipment
securitypersonnelandequipment
Emergencyresponseexercisesshouldbeconductedseveraltimesperyear,andshouldaddressavarietyof
potentialscenarios.Anythirdpartiesthatmightberequiredsuchasfire,medical,orpoliceagenciesshouldbe
invitedtoparticipateintheexerciseandthepostexercisecritique.Acritiqueisvaluable,becauseitallowsproblem
areastobeidentified,discussedandresolved.

PreparationofanEmergencyPlan
Thepurposeofanemergencyplanistoprovidetheresourcesanddescribetheprocedurestobefollowedincase
ofanemergency.Theplanmustbesitespecificandhazardspecific.Itmustcontaintheplanningandresponse
requirementsforallstagesofanemergency,frominitialreportingtofinalcleanup.Theplanshouldaddressthe
minimumdegreeofdetailrequired,andwherenecessary,leaveroomfordevelopmentofadditionaldetailsfora
supportorsupplementalplan.Theplanmustestablishtherequirementsforandassignthepartiesresponsiblefor
alltheactionstobetakenatvariousstagesofanemergency.
Theplanshouldfollowguidelinesestablishedbyindustryorgovernmentwhich,insomelargercompanies,
correspondtoanestablishedinhouseprotocol.Theplanmayalsobedevelopedbylocalsafetyandoperating
personnelorbycorporateorthirdpartyconsultants.Regardlessofwhodevelopstheplan,thereisacriticalneed
forregularinputandreviewfromthepeoplewhowillberequiredtoputtheplanintoaction.Theymustbe
comfortablewiththeplan,andconfidentthatitwillserveitspurpose.
Theemergencyplanprovidesresponsesforrealisticemergencysituationssuchasfires,explosions,injuries,oil
spillsandotherpotentialsignificantlosssituations.Thelevelofdetailcontainedintheplandependsonthefactors
thatwouldinfluencethepotentialscaleofanemergency,including
thematerialsproducedorhandled
thephysicalsizeofthefacility
thenumberofpersonnelonthesite
theproximityoflocalresidences
theproximitytopublicfacilities
Itmaybeprudenttoinviterepresentativesoflocalresidentgroupsorotherpublicgroupstoparticipateinthe
emergencyplanningmeetings.Thesegroupsandothervolunteerorganizationsmayprovidemuchneeded
assistanceandsupportshouldanemergencyoccur.
Theactualplanshouldbeformallydevelopedsochangesandupdatescanbereadilymade.Theplanshouldbe
issuedintheformofamanual,andbesubjecttoregular(atleastannual)reviews.Itshouldalsobesubjecttoa
strict,clearlystateddocumentcontrolprocedureforissuingandrecordingrevisions.Acompletedistributionlist
shouldindicatethenameofeachholderofanumberedcopyofthemanual.
Theplanshouldstartwithanoverviewofitsscopeandobjectives,andshouldreferthereadertocorporateand/or
localhealth,safetyandenvironmentalpolicies.Theplanshouldstateveryspecificallythegeographiclocationof
thesiteorsitesforwhichithasbeendeveloped,includinglegaldescriptionsanddesignatedboundaryareasor
perimeters.Itshouldincludeaninventoryofthehydrocarbonsandothermaterialsproducedorstoredonthe
location,aswellastheapproximatequantitiesandpotentialreleaseratesoftheseproducts.Itshouldalsolistthe
namesandlocations,aswellasanyotherpertinentdetails,oflocalpublicfacilitiessuchasschools,churchesor
playareas.
Theemergencyplanmaybeestablishedinstages,(Figure4)witheachstageaddressingvariouslevelsofactions.

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FIGU R E4
Thismayrangefroman"alertonlyandstandby"stagetoafullinvolvementstage.Someconsiderationsforstaging
anemergencyplanareoutlinedbelow.Bearinmindthatthesearegeneralrecommendations,andthatindividual
companiesand/orsitefacilitieswillneedtodevelopplanstructuresthatbestaddresstheirspecificimmediateand
longtermneeds.

StageOne:EmergencyAlert
AStageOneEmergencyAlertisinitiatedeachtimeanysituationexiststhatcoulddevelopintoamoreserious
emergencycondition.Inthisinitialstage,keyemergencyteammembersarenotifiedandtoassumea"standby"
role.Theconditioniscloselymonitoredandallactionrequirementsplacedinareadytorespondmode.Allnon
essentialpersonnelareremovedfromtheareauntilcontroloverthepotentialemergencyconditionisachieved,
andthe"allclear"signalisgiven.Theemergencyresponseteamremainsreadytoinitiatefurtheraction,untilthe
cessationandcontrolofthepotentialemergencyisascertainedandconfirmed.

StageTwo:Emergency
WhenaStageOneEmergencyAlertescalatesintoamoreseriousanddemandingstate,theStageTwoplanis
activated.Forexample,thiscouldoccurfollowingastandbyalertduringcirculationofakickinadrillingor
workoveroperation,orfollowinglossofcontrolorcontainmentinanoilorgasproductionprocess.Thisstagecould
alsoapplytoahydrocarbon,chemicalortoxicgasrelease.
OnceaStageTwoemergencyisdeclared,emergencyresponsepersonnelpreparetoassembleadditional
supportpersonnelandequipment.Outsideagenciesareinformedofthecurrentsituationandallrequiredsupport
servicesdispatchedtothesceneortotheemergencycontrolheadquarters.Servicessuchaspolice,ambulance
andmedicalsupport,andfirefightingpersonnelaremobilizedifnecessary.Evacuationproceduresforsiteand
areapersonnelareinitiatedifneeded,andalladditionalmeasuresforcontroloftheemergencysituationare
activated.
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StageThree:ControlandCleanup
TheControlandCleanupstageisthepointatwhichtheemergencyconditionisbroughtundercontroland
stabilized.Thismayverywellbecoveredinoperatingprocedures,butuntilthespecificcontrolmethodsare
identifiedandevaluated,orattempted,thentheemergencymustbetreatedasaStageTwoactivity.Controlplans
shouldnotbeinitiateduntilaftertheprotectionoflifeandmedicalaidforinjuredpeopleareassured.Controlsmay
involvesuchmeasuresasdetailedisolationprocedures,firefightingandfireprotectionplans,andtheassembly
andoperationofoilspillcontainmentequipment.Whatevertheemergencyandmethodofcontrol,itisnecessaryto
planeachstepsotheemergencysituationisnotcompoundedbyinadequateactionsthatjeopardizepersonnelor
accelerateanalreadyundesirablesituation.

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