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Chapter 4: Input/Output Modules and

Installation

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Input/Output Modules
Learning objectives

Understand

Wiring of typical sensors and actuators to PLC I/O modules

Surge protection for certain types of devices

Typical control cabinet layout

Typical installation wiring

Computer Aided Manufacturing TECH 4/53350

Input/Output Modules
Overview

Input/Output (I/O) Modules provide Physical Interface


between

PLC Processor and


Field Devices:

Switches, Lamps Valves etc

Common Characteristics of I/O Modules

Removable Terminal Blocks (Retractable)

Wiring is connected to the terminal block


T
Terminal
i l block
bl k is
i plugged
l
d into
i t the
th module
d l

Isolation

Isolates field wiring from the PLC internal circuitry

PLC power supply provides low-voltage power unlike a typical field wiring

Diagnostic Indicators

Discrete Input modules display an indicator for each input channel that is on
Discrete Output modules display an indicator for each output channel that is
on
o

Computer Aided Manufacturing TECH 4/53350

Input/Output Modules
Isolation between I/O and PLC
Isolation Barrier
L1 (Line)

L1 (Line)
(Li )

Fuse

PLC
Processor

Neutral

L1

Neutral

Power
S l
Supply

Input
Module

Output
Device

Output
Module
Neutral

I/O modules provide isolation between field wiring and PLC internal circuitry:

Ground loops
Noisy electrical signals
Fault on I/O wiring

Isolation prevents events from interfering with the PLC and causing a module failure

Computer Aided Manufacturing TECH 4/53350

Input/Output Modules
Sinking & Sourcing

What is Sinking
g and Sourcing?
g

The flow of current (power) when the I/O device is active

An Output Device is designated as Sourcing if current


flows OUT when the output device is active

An Output Device is designated as Sinking if current


flows IN when the output device is active

Computer Aided Manufacturing TECH 4/53350

Input/Output Modules
Sinking & Sourcing

What is Sinking
g and Sourcing?
g

The flow of current (power) when the I/O device is active

An Input Device is designated as Sourcing if current


flows OUT when the output device is active

An Input Device is designated as Sinking if current flows


IN when the output device is active

Computer Aided Manufacturing TECH 4/53350

Input/Output Modules
Sinking & Sourcing
A Sourcing field Sensor is usually
connected
t d to
t a PLC input
i
t why?
h ?

Sourcing
Field
Sensor

Current

Sinking
PLC
Input

Sinking
Field
Sensor

Current

Sourcing
PLC
Input

Sourcing
PLC
Output

Current

Sinking
Field
Device

Sinking
PLC
Output

Current

Sourcing
Field
D i
Device

Arrows indicate the direction of the current flow


Computer Aided Manufacturing TECH 4/53350

Input/Output Modules
Focus
Primarily concern with sinking PLC inputs and sourcing
PLC outputs
t t since
i
th
thatt is
i th
the majority
j it off ttypes off
connections.

Note that most discrete sensors can be purchased in


either a sinking or sourcing configuration. Make sure you
specify
if th
the correctt one!!
!!

Computer Aided Manufacturing TECH 4/53350

Discrete Input Modules


A Discrete Input module senses status of
devices with only two states
on/off,
on/off open/closed,
open/closed running/stopped

Types of discrete inputs

Switches - many kinds

Pushbutton

Li it
Limit

Level
Proximity
R l contacts
Relay
t t

Computer Aided Manufacturing TECH 4/53350

Discrete Input Modules


Standard Discrete Input Voltages
120 v AC/DC (can
(
handle
h dl either)
ith )
220 v AC/DC
10 - 30 v DC
10 - 30 v AC
20 - 60 v DC

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Discrete Input Modules


Discrete Input
p Module Block Diagram
g

Powered from the field

Powered from PLC

Threshold detector

Senses when input device is on


When input device voltage > minimum-on-state voltage devised is sensed to be on
When device voltage < maximum-off state voltage devised is sensed to be off

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Discrete Input Modules


Discrete Input Module Block Diagram

Powered from the field

Powered from PLC

Optical Isolator

Provides electrical isolation between field wiring and the PLC internal circuitry

Light-Emitting Diode & Photoelectric transistor


S it h Cl
Switch
Closed
d Current
C
t flow
fl
th
through
h LED Generates
G
t Light
Li ht Light
Li ht T
Triggers
i
currentt fl
flow th
thru Photoelectric
Ph t l t i
transistor Sensed by PLC digital logic

Circuitry to the LHS of isolator powered from the field


Circuitry to the RHS powered from internal PLC voltage source

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Discrete Input Modules


Discrete Input Module Block Diagram

P
Powered
d from
f
the
th field
fi ld

P
Powered
d from
f
PLC

Noise and Dist


Disturbance
rbance

Capacitors and Resistors are typically used to form simple noise filter

B id Rectifier
Bridge
R tifi

Converts AC to full-wave rectified DC

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Discrete Input Modules


AC Inputs
L1
(Line)

I/O Module
Term. Strip

L2
(Load)

Black
(120 VAC)

White
(120 VAC)

Com
Some modules need this
connection for balancing

AC Inputs

Power flows into the Input Module when the field device is on

Hence the Input Module is characterized as a Sinking Module

There is a least one common per module. Some modules have a common for every 4
input channels
Why would you need more than one common?

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Discrete Output Modules

Discrete Output Modules:

Used to turn real-world output deices either on or off


Can be used to control any two state device
Available in AC and DC versions
Available in various voltage ranges and current capabilities

Examples of Discrete Devices Controlled by PLC

Indicator Lamps, Alarm Lamps


Motor Starters,, Electric Valves,, Electric Fans
Control Relays, Heater Relay

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Discrete Output Modules

Standard Discrete Output


p Voltages
g

120 v AC
220 v AC
12 - 48 v AC
120 v DC
220 v DC
12 - 48 v DC

AC Di
Discrete
t Output
O t t Modules
M d l handle
h dl only
l Ac
A Signals
Si
l
DC Discrete Output Modules handle only DC Signals
Relay output Modules handle both Ac and DC signals

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Discrete Output Modules


Block Diagram

Optical Isolator

Provides electrical isolation between PLC and internal circuitry and field wiring
Circuitry on LHS of Optical Isolator powered by internal PLC voltage
Circuitry on RHS of Optical Isolator powered from the field

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Discrete Output Modules


AC Outputs
L1
(Line)

L2
(Load)

I/O Module
Term. Strip

Common

AC Signals

Output Modules that handle Ac signals are Sourcing Modules

Power flows out of the Module when the Switch (Triac ) is ON

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Input/Output Modules
Wi i
Wiring

Best to sketch the diagram


g
on a p
piece of p
paper
p before
wiring

Easier to visualize the whole picture

S
Suppose
you h
have many iinputs
t tto wire?
i ?

Start the sketch with one input first

If you figure out the first, the rest will follow

Next simply add second input


third input etc

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Input/Output Modules
Si ki IInput M
Sinking
Module
d l Wi
Wiring
i

Suppose:
One Input
Power Supply

Wiring Terminals
Input 0
Input 1
Input 2
Input 3

Wire this simple circuit


Computer Aided Manufacturing TECH 4/53350

Common

20

Input/Output Modules
Wi i iin a Si
Wiring
Simple
l Ci
Circuit
i

Input 0
I
Input
t1
Input 2
Input 3
Common

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Input/Output Modules
Wi i Addi
Wiring
Additional
i
l Input
I
D
Device
i

Input 0
I
Input
t1
Input 2
Input 3
Common

Wiring an additional input device

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Connect 3-wire sourcing


g sensor

Sourcing Sensor output is positive

OUT
TPUT

Input/Output Modules
Wi i three-wire
Wiring
h
i Sensor
S
+

Sourcing
g
Sensor

Input 0
Input 1
Input 2
Input 3
Common

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Input/Output Modules
Th
Three-wire
i Sensor
S
Wi
Wiring
i
Complete Wired Circuit

OUT
TPUT

Sou c g
Sourcing
Sensor
Input 0
Input 1
Input 2
Input 3
Common

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