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Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform the
activities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants can meet these
requirements, training is not important. When this not the case, it is necessary to raise the
skills levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees.
It is being increasing common for individual to change careers several times during their
working lives. The probability of any young person learning a job today and having those
skills go basically unchanged during the forty or so years if his career is extremely unlikely,
may be even impossible. In a rapid changing society employees training is not only an
activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is to maintain a viable and
knowledgeable work force.
The entire project talks about the training and development in theoretical as well as new
concepts, which are in trend now. Here we have discussed what would be the input of training
if we ever go for and how can it be good to any organization in reaping the benefits from the
money invested in terms like (ROI )i.e. return on investment. What are the ways we can
identify the training need of any employees and how to know what kind of training he can go
Training being in different aspect likes integrating it with organizational culture. The best and
latest available trends in training method, the benefits which we can derive out of it. How the
evaluation should be done and how effective is the training all together. Some of the
companies practicing training in unique manner a lesson for other to follow as to how train
and retain the best resource in the world to reap the best out of it.
Development is integral part of training if somebody is trained properly and efficiently the
developments of that individual and the company for whom he is working. Here we discussed
about development of employees, how much to identify the needs, and after developing how
to develop executive skill to sharpen their knowledge. Learning should be continues process
and one should not hesitate to learn any stage.


Devi Dass Gopal Krishan

Devi Dass Gopal Krishan, a unit of Puri Oil Mills Limited, is the flagship manufacturing unit
of the Puri Group and has been in existence since 1933. Located at Moga, an important
agricultural hub in Punjab, the unit is responsible for the introduction and reinforcement of P
Mark Mustard Oil for over 80 years, catering to the highly discerning mustard oil consumers
in the states of Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab (including Chandigarh). Even during the harsh
winter months, every effort is made to ensure that supplies reach remote, far-flung areas of
Jammu & Kashmir.
Across more than seven and a half decades, the unit has built a strong reputation for quality
and is also acknowledged as a major employment generator in the area. P Mark Oilcake
manufactured at this facility, commands a significant premium in the market; the company is
also a leading supplier of Compound Cattle-feed to Nestle, a global food products
Puri Oil Mills Limited
Puri Oil Mills Limited is a frontrunner in the mustard oil segment, manufacturing and
marketing the ever popular brand: P Mark Mustard Oil. The brand along with many other
innovative variants is marketed across Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttar
Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Delhi & the National Capital Region, Bihar and Orissa. Over
the years, Puri Oil Mills Limited has leveraged a well-balanced blend of indigenous
manufacturing methods and contemporary marketing practices to gain a distinctive edge in
the marketplace and a leading position in the mustard oil segment.
Closely aligned with the growing demand for natural products and the back-to-grassroot
aspirations characterizing the buying patterns of consumers from all walks of life, Puri Oil
Mills Limited manufactures its products using totally natural extraction and production
methods that do not entail the use or addition of any chemicals or any artificial flavours and

The company has three manufacturing facilities located at Moga (Punjab), Damtal (Himachal
Pradesh) and Bahadurgarh (Haryana) respectively. These facilities manufacture and market P

Mark mustard oil, P Mark mustard oil cake and P Mark cattle-feed respectively. These
products are marketed all across Northern & Eastern India. It is important to mention here
that the manufacturing unit at Moga has been a leading supplier of compound cattle-feed to
Nestle, a global food corporation for the last 25 years.
Puri Oil Mills Limited is guided by a vision to be acknowledged as the last word in
mustard. To actualise this aspiration, the company embarked upon an ambitious in-house
R&D initiative aimed at expanding its product portfolio in line with the needs and
expectations of its customers. An array of innovative, value added products has emerged from
the initiative. These include P Sparkle Light Mustard Oil, P Sanjeevani Organic Mustard Oil
and P Mild Mustard Oil (a variant offering less pungency).
Over the years, the companys unwavering commitment to quality has been lauded through
several prestigious national and international awards. These include the National Quality
Award conferred by the Government of India and the International Star for Quality Award
from BID, Spain.

Bahadurgarh Plant

The company has three manufacturing facilities located at Moga (Punjab), Damtal (Himachal
Pradesh) and Bahadurgarh (Haryana) respectively. These facilities manufacture and market P
Mark mustard oil, P Mark mustard oil cake and P Mark cattle-feed respectively. These
products are marketed all across Northern & Eastern India. It is important to mention here
that the manufacturing unit at Moga has been a leading supplier of compound cattle-feed to
Nestle, a global food corporation for the last 25 years.
Moga Plant

Puri Oil Mills Limited is guided by a vision to be acknowledged as the last word in
mustard. To actualise this aspiration, the company embarked upon an ambitious in-house
R&D initiative aimed at expanding its product portfolio in line with the needs and
expectations of its customers. An array of innovative, value added products has emerged from
the initiative. These include P Sparkle Light Mustard Oil, P Sanjeevani Organic Mustard Oil
and P Mild Mustard Oil (a variant offering less pungency).
Damtal Plant

Over the years, the companys unwavering commitment to quality has been lauded through
several prestigious national and international awards. These include the National Quality
Award conferred by the Government of India and the International Star for Quality Award
from BID, Spain.
Vision & Mission
To be Acknowledged as 'The Last Word in Mustard'
Across eight decades of market leadership, the Company has firmly established its credentials
as a Mustard Specialist. Its Vision focuses on becoming one of the most respected enterprises
in India, earning this respect from its customers, business associates and all key
stakeholders a Vision that culminates in being acknowledged as The Last Word in

The Vision encompasses a manifold growth in the Companys popularity and visibility ;its
emergence as a household name; adulation and admiration for its product portfolio; faith and
its creditworthiness, transparency and professionalism; and its ability to attract and retain a
pool of the most talented, productive and accomplished human assets, all contributing to the
service of the customer, and vitally the Nation.
Unwavering commitment to quality, value enhancement, human resources development and
customer satisfaction through the optimal use of available resources aimed at achieving
growth and excellence.
Quality Policy
The company believes in the philosophy of Total Quality Management. Quality control
principles are adhered to at the grassroot level. High growth and commitment to good
manufacturing practices are the broad objectives of the company. All company personnel are
competent and qualified, and possess commendable organizational and co-ordination skills.
Equipped with sophisticated laboratory equipment, the company conforms to the highest
standards in quality.
We at Lumax in the new millennium, with focus on customer satisfaction and market
leadership, are committed to achieve excellence in quality of our products and services.
Lumax has the most modern Manufacturing and Testing facilities in India.
Lumax became an ISO 9002 certified company in 1995, attained its QS 9000
certification in the year 1998 and achieved the ISO/TS 16949 : 2002 and ISO 14001 in
2003. Being Quality as our backbone, we are continuously thriving towards 'Customer
Delight' and our products see the light of most developed OEM's and after markets of the


Lumax has been following TQM practices from end 1998. The first phase of TQM journey

was done under guidance of Prof. T. Suda till end 2002. Next phase of TQM journey is
undergoing till date with world renowned TQM guru Dr. H. Osada. During this ongoing
journey our main emphasis has been on
Total Employee Involvement
Use of :- Poka Yoka First Time Thru 5 'S' 3K Kanban Lean Manufacturing
Focus on Internal Customer Concept
Customer Satisfaction through manufacturing excellence.
The ongoing TQM journey has been very learning and
fruitful exercise for the whole organization and has given








We are unendingly striving towards Improvement of our Quality Management Systems with
our objective of doing the things right, the first time and every time. Our growing markets
and Customer base is an indicator of our continuous efforts towards the achievement of our
goal of Customer Delight.
Our "Quality Centered" team approach of manufacturing
ensures Products of the finest Quality, giving drive to some
of the most advanced Vehicles manufactured globally.
We aim at achieving all this through:
Continual improvement of manufacturing processes with emphasis on consistent quality and
cost effectiveness.
Advancement of process ownership concept throughout the organization thereby improving
and innovating the business process.
Doing right, the first time and every time.
Improving quality by enhancing competence of all personnel.

Edible Oils

P Mark Kachi Ghani Mustard Oil

The journey of P Mark pure mustard oil from 1933 till date has been
highly eventful and enriching. Over the years P Mark has earned the
trust as confidence of millions of discerning housewives and has
emerged as the leading Mustard Oil brand in the country. Besides
perfecting the art of making delicious and nutritious KACCHI GHANI
Mustard Oil, P Mark is a proven symbol of purity & quality.

P Mark Sanjeevani Organic Mustard Oil

P Sanjeevani, India's first AGMARK Grade, SGS Certified Organic
Mustard Oil has been created to enable discerning consumers to
experience the natural goodness of mustard oil, the way it was
thousands of years ago... with high quality seeds sourced from certified
organic farms hat do not use either chemical fertilizers or chemical

P Mark Sparkle Light Mustard Oil

P Sparkle, India's first cold pressed light mustard oil, is an innovative
product that is manufactured using a specially engineered, completely
natural proprietary process. P Sparkle has been created to enable today's

busy, always on-the-run generation to finish their cooking faster - but

without compromising on health, nutrition and taste.

Allied Products
P Brand Mustard Oil-Cake & Cattle Feed
Our Oil-Cake commands a premium in the market because of its enriched nutritional value
and is ideal as animal feed and fodder. The total saturated oil content that is residual in the
oil-cake is approximately 7%.
P Mark Cattle Feed, an allied product, is very popular in the dairy belt of Haryana and
Punjab. The feed conforms to ISI (Indian Standards Institute) specifications of quality. The
group has a 12 year long association with Nestle India Ltd. During the association, the
company has established a reputation of a firm commitment to quality an dairy farmers
collaborating with Nestle swear by the milk yield enhancing properties of the feed. The
marketing team of the group is constantly devising strategies to capture the vast network of
dairies in Northern India.
MUSTARDZ Organic Mustard Seed
The company's vision is to be acknowledged as "the last word in Mustard". In accordance
with this endeavour, a line of value-added products are being launched under the brand name
of Mustardz. One of the offerings under the Mustardz umbrella is packaged organic and nonorganic mustard seeds dairy products sector.

SHAKTI (Non-Stick Massage Oil)

Since ancient times, mustard oil has also been used for external applications, in particular for
skincare and hair care. Shakti Massage Oil was developed through in-house R&D as a nonstick pleasantly perfumed massage oil for today's customers who know about the benefits of
massage and the healthy properties of mustard oil but are unwilling to use traditional mustard
oil because of its aroma and stickiness.
GREENEX ( Hard Surface Cleaner)
A safe, natural and versatile hard surface cleaner engineered to deliver a unique dirt removal
action across a wide range of surfaces. Greenex is a value-added product developed through
intense R&D which is an ongoing initiative at Puri Oil Mills Limited.

Cholesterol Free

Low in saturated fats (SFA)

High in monounsaturated fats (MUFA)

Rich in alpha linolenic acid

Hydro Power
Puri Oil Mills Limited has also ventured into small hydropower projects. The foray
commenced with the allotment of three independent sites in the picturesque surroundings of
the upper Kullu Valley and the Mandi district where the water supply is almost perennial. The
Chaksi Plant is fully functional and is generating 2.4 MW. Uhl (14 MW) and Killi Behl (7.5
MW) located in the state of Himachal pradesh will soon be executed. Of the four sites in the
state of Haryana, two are located in the villages of Khukni (District: Yamunanagar) and
Mussapur (District: Karnal). The sites which have a potential for generating 2.8 MW are
located just 10 kilometres away from Ladwa, an important timber centre. Mussapur was
commissioned on 17th June 2011 while Khukni was commissioned a few months later on
31st August 2011. The other two sites located in the state of Haryana are Khajuri and
Mainmatti they have a generating potential of 2.7 MW and 2.3 MW respectively. Puri Oil
Mills Limited also proposes to explore the possibility of evacuating and transferring power to

its own mustard oil manufacturing facilities in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana a
move that will constitute a pioneering backward integration initiative on the part of the




National Quality Award

The Ministry of Small Scale Industries, Govt. of India conferred upon Mrs. Indu Puri Chair Person of the Group, the prestigious National Award for Quality for P Mark
Mustard Oil. This award, is infact a recognition of the extremely high standards of quality
for P Mark Mustard Oil. The group has painstakingly maintained and upgraded these
standards over a span of more than 70 years.
The coveted award was given away by Shri Jaswant Singh, Hon'ble Minister of Finance,
Govt. of India at a glittering ceremony held at Ashok Hotel, New Delhi on 28th August,
2002. Mrs. Vasundhara Raje Scindia, Hon'ble Minister of State for Small Scale Industries
also graced the occasion.

International Star for Quality Award


Puri Oil Mills Limited, makers of P Mark, one of northern Indias leading mustard oil


Once an employees is selected and trained for a job then management would like to see how
he performs his work. It helps in evaluating the performance of empoloyees and in assesing
the hiring and training methods followed in the organisation. The employees are
recruitedwith some objectives in mind, whether these have been achieved or not has to be
regularly evaluated. Merit rating is process of evaluating an employeee's performance of a
job in terms of requirement. The rating of a man by another man is as old as mankind, but
formal merit rating system are of relatively recent origin. Merit rating is also termed as
performance appraisel or employee appraisel.
Moreover, people differ in their abilities and aptitudes. Even if the same basic education and
training is given to them, these differences cannot be eliminated. There will always be
difference in the quantity and quality of work done by different employees even on the same
job. Thus, it is but imperative for the management to know these differences so that the
employees having better abilities may be rewarded and the wrong placement of emoloyees
may be rectified through transfer. The individual employees may also like to know their level

of performance in comparison to others, so that they can improve upon it. All this emphasizes
the need to have a suitable performance appraisel system to measure relative merit of each
Managing employee performance is an integral part of the work that all managers rating
officials perform throughout the year. It is an important as managing financial resources and
program outcomes because employees performance or the lack thereof,has a profound effect
on both the financial and program components of any organization. The Department of the
Interior's performance management policy is designed to document the expectation of
individual and organizational performance, provide a meaningful process by which employee
can be rewarded for note worthy contribution to the organization, and provide a machanism
to improve individual/ organizatioal performance is necessary.
1. Poorly Trained Managers
Effective performance appraisel doesn't just happen and organization shouldn't assume that
managers khow how to conduct them effectively, even if they have many years of experience
as managers. In fact , sinse the process can differ from organization to organization, it is
important that training is provided to introduce managers to the philosophy of performance
appraisel at the organization ,including a review of the forms, the rating system and how the
dat gathered is used. Training should take place regularly as a refreshner both for new and
veteran managers.

2.Lack of Outcome-Based Measures

Performance appraisel that ask managers to rate employess on subjective criteria such as
''customer service skills'' or leadership ability''lack of specific outcomes that can be tried to
measurable results. The best performance appraisel provide the ability for both managers and
employees to judge performace based on measurable outcomes that are objectives; level of
sales, safety records and evaluations from customers are all measurable ways of providing
insight into an employees's performance.
3.Not Used For Performance Improvement
The purpose of performance appraisel is not only to provide input to employees about how
they're doing, but also to provide the organisation with an indication of areas of employee
strength and oppertunity for improvement. Unfortunately, few companies actually aggregate
and use the result of performance improvement efforts. By analyzing results and taking
advantage of both best practices in areas where employees are performing well and
opppertunities for improvement in areas where they 're not. Organizational can recieve
maximum value from their performance appraisel efforts.
2.2 Meaning Of Performance Apraisel

Performance appraisel is the process of measuring quantitively and quantitively an

employee's past or present performance ,the background of this work environment ,and about
this future potential for an organisation. Evaluation of the performace and personallity of
each employees is done by his immediate superior or some other person trained in the
techniques of merit rating. Various rating techniques are employed for comparing individual
employees in a group in terms of personnel qualities and deficiencies and the requirement of
their respectivel jobs.
Performance appraisel is broader term than merit rating , even though these two terms are
used symonymously. In merit rating , the focus is on judge the caliber of an employees so as
to decide salary increment , where as performance appraisel focuses on the performance and
future potential of employee. Merit rating measuring what the person is and perform appraisel
measures what the person does.
Defination of Performance appraisel
According to Dale S.Beach,''performance appraisel is the systematic evaluation of the
individual with respect to his performance on the job and hus potential for development''.
According to Edward Flippo '' performance appraisel is the systematic , periodic and an
impertial rating of an employees 's excellence in matters pertaining to his present jobs and his
potential for a better job ''.

2.3 Features Of Performance Appraisel

The main features of performance appraisel are as follows:
1. performance appraisel is systematis process consisting of a number of steps to be followed
for evaluation an employee's strength and weakness.
2. it is systematic and objective discription of an employee's strength and weakness in term of
3. the appraisel is an ongoing and continues process where the evaluations are arranged
periodically according to the definate plan. it is not necessryfor making objective and correct
decisions an employees.
4. the peformance appraisel may be formal and informal. The formal system is more fair and
objective since it is carried out in a systematic manner using printed appraisel forms.
2.4 Banefits Of Performance Appraisel
Performance appraisel systematically evaluates an employee's current and past performance
as well as future potentials.It helps to identifies employee's job related behaviour and
outcomes. Organizations usually undertake appraisel for administrarive and development

purposes . Main users are follow:

Performance appraisel can have a profound effect on level of employee motivation and
satisfaction - for better as well as for worse. Performance appraisel provides employee with
recognition for thier work efforts. The power of social recognition as an incentives has been
long noted. In fact, there is evidence that human beings will even prefer negetive recognition
in prefrence to no recognition at all. If nothing else, the existance of an appraisel program
indicates to an employee that the organisation is geniunely intrested in thier individual
performance and development. This alone can have a positive influence on the individual 's
sense of worth , commitment and belonging. The strength and prevalence of this natural
human desire for individual recognition should not be overlooked. Absentism and turnover
rates in some organisation might be greatly reduced if more attention were paid to it. Regular
performance appraisel at least ,is a good start.
Performance appraisel offers an excellent oppertunity - perhaps the best that will ever occur for a supervisor and subordinate to recognize and agree upon individual training and
development needs. During the discusssion of an employees's work performance,the presence
and absence of work skills can become very obvious - even to those who habitually reject the
idea of training for them.
Performance appraisel can make the need for training more pressing and relevent by linking it
clearly to performance outcomes and future career aspiration. From the point of view of the
organizational as a whole , consolidated appraisel data can from a picture of the overall
demand for training. In this respect, performance appraisel can provide a regular and efficient
training needs audit for the entite organization.
Appraisel data can be used to monitor the success of the organization's recruitment and
induction practices. For examples, how well are the employees performing who were hired in
the past two years ?Appraisel data can be used to monitor data can also be used to monitir the
effectiveness of changes in recruitment stratgies. By following the yearly data related to new
hires (and given sufficient numbers on which to base the analysis) It is possible to assess
whether the general quality of the workforce is improving , staying steady ,or declininig.
Performance appraisel serves as a basis for promotion of employees by communicating
required skills , efficiency and potentials of the employees. It is common intrest of employees
to get promoted into such position where they can utilize their abilities effectively .It is
mismanagement to promote the employees into such position where they cannot perform
effectively. Hence ,performance appraisal provides relevant information on promotion

Transfer decision is concerned with the transformation of employees from one work unit to
another. It is conducted when the employees are not performing will in the organisation.
Performance appraisal provides reliable and relevant information for transfer decisions.
Performance appraisal can be carried out with various objectives in mind and these objectives
can be classified under the following four heads
1. Work related objectives
a. To assess the work of employees in relation to job requirements
b. To improve efficency
c. To help management in fixing employees according to their capacity, interest, aptitude and
d. To carry out job evaluation
2. career development objectives
a. to assess the strong and weak points in the working of the employees and finding remedies
for weak points through training
b. to determine career potential
c. to plan promotions, trnsfers, layoffs etc of the employees
d. to plan career goals
3. Communication
a. to provide feedback to employees so that they come to know where they stand can improve
their job performance
b. to clearly establish goals.
c. to provide coaching, counseling, career planning and motivation to employees.
d. to develop positive seperior- subordinate relations and therby reduce grivance
4. Organisation objectives
A. to serve as a basis for promotions and demotion
b. to serve as a basis for wages and salary administration and considering pay increases and
c. to serve as a basis for planning suitable training and developments programmes


In oder to make a performance appraisal system effective and successful, an organisation
comes across various challenges and problems. The main challenges involved in the
performance appraisal process are:
Identification of the appraisal criteria is one of the biggest problems faced by the top
management. The performance data is to be considered for evaluation should be carefully
selected. For the purpose of evaluation, the criteria should be in quantifiable or measurable
The purpose of the Performance apraisal process is to judge the performance of the
employees rather than the employees. The focus of yhe system should be on the development
of the employees of the organisation.
Top management should choose the raters or the evaluators carefully. They should have the
required expertise and the knowledge to decide the criteria accurately. They should have the
experience and the necessary training to carry out the appraisal process objectively.


Many errors based on the personal bias like stereotyping, halo effect (i.e. one trait
influencing the evaluator's rating for all others traits) etc. May creep in the appraisal process.
Therefore the rater should exercise objectively and fairness in evaluating and rating the
performance of the employees.
The appraisal process may face resistance from the employees and the trade union for the
fear of negative ratings. Therefore, the employees should be communicated and clearly
explained the purpose as well as the process of appraisal. The standards should be clearly
communicated and every emlpoyees should be made awre that what exactly is expected from
him/ her.
The first step in the process of performance appraisal is the setting up of the standards which
will be used to as the base to compare the actual employees. This step requires setting the
criteriato judge of the employees as successful or unsuccessful and the degrees of their

contribution to the organisation goals and objectives. The standard set should be clearly,
easily understandable and in measurable terms. In case the performance of the employees
cannnot be measured, great should be taken describe the standards.
Once set, it is the responsibility of the management to communicate the standards to all the
employees of the organization. The employees should be informed and the standard should be
clearly explain to the. This will help them to understandard their roles to know that clearly
what excatly is expected to them. This standards should also be communicated the appraisal
or the evaluators and if required, the standard, and also be notified at stage itself according to
relevant feedback from the employees or the evaluators.
The most difficult part of the performance appraisal process is measuring the actual
performance of the employees that is work done by employees during the specific period of
time. It is continious process which is involves monitoring the performance throughout of the
year. This stage requires the carefully selection of the appropriate techniques the
measurement, tahking care that personal bias does not effect the outcome the process and
providing assistance rather than interfering in an employees work.
The actual performance is compared with the desire or the standard performance. The
comparision tells the deviations in the performance of the employees from the standard set.
The result can show the actual performance being more than the desired performance or, the
actual being less than the desired performance depicting a negative deviations in the
organisational performance. It includes recalling, evaluating and analysis of data related to
the employees' performance.
The result of the appraisal is communicated and discussed with employees on one-to-one
basis. The focus of this disscussion is on communication and listening. The results, the
problems and the possible solutions are discussed with the aim of the problems solving and
reaching consensus. The feedback should be given with a positive attitude as this can have an
effect on the employees's future performance. The purpose of the meeting should be to solve
the problems faced and motivate the employees to performance better.
The last step of the process is to take decission which can be taken either to improve the
performance of the employees, take the required corrective actions, or the related HR
decisions like rewards, promotions, demotion, transfer etc.




This traditional form of appraisal, also known as "Free Form method" involves a description
of the performance of an employee by his superior. The description is an evaluation of the
performance of any individual based on the facts and often includes examples and evidences
to support the information. A major drawback of the methods is the inseparability of the bias
of the evaluator.


This is one of the oldest and simplest techniques of performance appraisal. In this method,
the appraiser ranks the employees from the best of the poorest on the basis of their overall
performance. It is quite useful for a comparative evaluation.

A better technique of comparison than the straight ranking method, this method compares
each employee with all others in the group, one at a time. After all the comparisons on the
basis of the overall comparsons, the employee are given the final rankings.


In this methods of performance appraisal, the evaluator rates the employee on the basis of
critical events and how the employee behaved during those incidents. It includes both
negative and postive points. The drawback of this methods is that the supervisor has to
notedown the critical incidents and the employee behaviour as and when they occur.


In this method, a senior member of the HR department or a training officer discusses nad
interviews the supervisors to evaluate and rate their respective subordinates. A major
drawback of this method is that it is a very time consuming method. But this method helps to
reduce the superiors' personal bias.

The rater s given a checklist of the description of the behaviour of the employee on job. The
checklist contains a list of statements on the basis of which the rater describes the on the job
performance of the employee.


In yhis method, an employee's quality and quality of work is assessed in a graphic scale
indicating different degrees of a particular trait. The factors taken into consideration include
both the personal characteristics and characteristics related to the on- the-job performance of
the employees.
This technique may not yield the depth of an essay appraisal, but it is more consistent and
reliable. Typically, a graphic scale assesses a person on the quality of this work and on a
variety of other factors that vary with the job but usually include personal traits.

To eliminate the element of bias from the rater's ratings, the evaluator is asked to distribute
the employees in some fixed categories of ratings like on a normal distribution curve. The
rater chooses the appropriate fit for the categories on his own discretion.



An assessment center typically involves the use of methods lke social/ informal events, tests
and exercises, assignments being given to a group of employees to assess their competencies
to take higher responsibilities in the future. Generally, employees are given an assignments
similar to the job they would be expected to perfor if promoted. The trained evaluators
observe and evaluators employees as they perform the assigned jobs and are evaluated on job
related characteristics. The major competencies that are judged in assessment centers are
interpersonal skill, intellectual capability, planning and organizing capabilities, motivation,
career orientation etc. assessment center are also an effective way to determine the training
and development needs of the targeted employees.


Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) is a relatively new technique which combines
the graphic rating scale and critical incidents method. It consists of predetermined critical
areas of job performance or sets of behavioral statements describing important job
performance qualities as good or bad. The statement are developed from critical incidents. In
this methods, an employee's actual job behaviour is judged against the desired behaviour by
recording and comparing the behaviour with BARS. Developing and practicing BARS
requires expert knowledge.


Human resources are valuable asserts for every organization. Human resource accounting
method tries to find the relative worth of these assets in the terms of money. In this method
the Performance appraisal of the employees is judged in terms of cost and contribution of the


employees. The cost of employees include all the expenses incurred on them like their
compensation, recruitment and selection costs, induction and training costs etc whereas their
contribution includes the total value added (in monetary terms). The difference between the
cost and the contribution will be the performance of the employee. Ideally, the contribution of
the employees should be greater than the cost incurred on them.


a) Reporting Manager
* Provide feedback to the review/ HOD on the employees'

behavioral traits indicated

in the PMS Policy Manual

*Ensures that employees is aware of the normalization/ performance appraisal process
* Address employee concerns/ queries on performance rating, in consulation with the

b) Reviewer (Reporting Manager's Reporting Manager)

* Discuss with the reporting managers on the behavioral traits of all the employees for
whom he/she is the reviewer
* Where required, independently assess employees for the said behavioral traits; such
assessments might require collecting data directly from other relevant employees

c) HOD (In some cases, a reviewer may not be a HOD)

* Presents the proposed performance Rating for every employee of his/ her function to
the Normalization committee.
* HOD also plays the role of a normalization committe member

* Owns the performance rating of every employee in the department

d) HR Head
*Secretary to the normalization committee
* Assists HOD's / Reporting Managers in communcating the performance rating of all
the employees

e) Normalization Committee
* Decides on the final bell curve for each function in the respective Business Unit /
* Reviews the performance ratings proposed by the HOD's specifically on the
upward / downward shift in ratings, to ensure an unbased relative ranking of employees on
overall performance, and thus finalize the performance rating of each employee

2.10 Suggestions to improve performance appraisal

1. Training Appraisers: Training appraisers are essential for achieving better result with
performance appraisal. The training should be designed to improve appraiser's capabilities to
observe, conduct constructive feedback, listen, support, counsel, set objectives and ask
appropriate questions. Some benefits that can be achieved by using appraiser training are as:
. Improve understanding of the system, the forms and terminology to be applied
. Increase accuracy and reduce common judgment errors.
. Enhance appraiser's self confidence about his rating skills and improve the skill level
through pratice and feedback.


2.Developing a positive culture: Changing culture requires leaders to understand the

learning process dynamics and how the learning and unlearning of assumptions and beliefs
can be manipulated to modify behavior. Cultural aspects could be one of the areas of training.
An organization's leadership has the responsibility to develop a positive culture to facilitate
the acceptance of performance appraisal among managers and their employees.

3. Providing performance feedback: Employee naturally like to know how they are
performance relative to what is expected from them. Performance feedback let employees
know how well they have performed in comparison with the performance standards. Having
day-to-day employee-manager interaction, through which the appraise is provided with
constructive feedback.

4. Avoiding unequal performance standards: Effective performance appraisal

requires equal standards against which employees are assessed. In the absence of equal
standards, employees are assessed with subjectivity, which may destroy the process of
appraisal and leave it as a body without soul.
Therefore, the problem of unequal standards can be minimized by ensuring that the appraisal
criteria are job-oriented, communicating performance expectations to the employees before
the appraisal review.

5. Avoiding muti-purpose programme: One performance appraisal programme

should not be designed to serve a myriad of purpose, administrative and developmental, as it
can be vague and is difficult & result into failure. The solution is to separate assessment from
development in appraising employees.

2.11 Advantages of Performance Appraisal:

1. Performance improvement:

Appraisal system always aim at improving the performance of employees. It helps tp analyse
and evaluate oppartunity factors such as technology and social process.

2. Development of employees:
Appraisal system determine which employee needs more training and becomes primary
source of information regarding the strengths and potentialities of the employees.

3.Corrective actions:
Any deficiency of employees can be detected and corrective steps can be taken through
appraisal system.

4. Career planning:
Performance appraisal serves as a valuable tool in the case of career planning to the
employee, since it help in preparing SWOT analysis of every employee.

5. Promotions:
Performance appraisal also help the management in deciding about

6. Motivation:
It is a tool for motivating employees toward higher performance

7. Other benefits:
a. Performance appraisal plans help the management provide systematic judgments to back
up salary increases, transfers, promotions, and demotions regarding the employees.

b. Superiors can guide the subordinates by making them aware of 'where they stand'.
c. Performance appraisal becomes the bare for coaching and counseling of individual
employees by the superiors.

2.12 Disadvantages of performance Appraisal:

1. The Halo effect:
Halo effect is defined as the 'influence of a rater's general impression on ratings of specific
rate qualities'. It tends to occur when an evaluation rates an employee high on all jobs criteria,
even if he has performed well only in one area.

2. Contrast error:
The rating is always based on performance standards. The contrast error occurs when
employee is rated without taking into account the performance standard. This can also occur
if a rater compared an employee's present performance with their past performance.

3. Rater bias:
The rater's prejudices and biasness can also influence rating. For example, a supervisor can
under rate an employee based on race, sex, religion, appearance and favoritism.

4. Central tendency error:

When the supervisor rates all the employee within a narrow range, thinking all employee are
of average level, this type of error occurs.

5. Leniency or severity:
Performance appraisal demands that the rater should objectively draw a conclusion about

employee's performance.

6. Sampling error:
If the rater uses a very small sample of the employee's work, it may be subject to the
sampling error.

7. Primary and regency errors:

Behaviour of an employee at the initial stage of rating and at the end of appraisal can affect
the rating. For example, a salesman's performance may be very low for some part of the year.



Pizer, I.H.and Cain, A.M.,1991 objective test of libarary performance special

liabrary,59.740-711,1968. This article discuss a test of design to evaluate a librarys capability
for providing service and interlibrary long service. A random sample of 300 items from a
large pool consisting of document frequently cited by researcher was made. In scoring the test
each of 18 possible out comes of research is translated in into an estimate of how long it
would take for user to obtain disturb(the delivery time) performance appraisal and its
Drott, M.C.,1992 random sampling; tool for library research college and research libraries,
30:119-125, March 1969. Random sampling study can be used to survey the accuracy of
library record, the condition of books in the collection, or the behaviour the attitude of library
patrons, similar questions issue in the measuring library quality. Used of this technique does
not require any special mathematical ability and statistical background from the person

conducting the study. It also includes

three examples to illustrate the application of

techniques to library problems.

Durham university,1998. Project for evaluting the benefit from university library final
report. Durham, England; the university 1969. Various paging. This project was aimes
develop a method for measuring benefits, and to provide function for quantitative planning in
university library. This method can be applied processing or intangible benefits in any
situation for which planning model can be built lacking a extensive survey of library using an
Robbert and Angelo(2001) The success of failure of public sector business organization
depends on the ability to attract, develop, retain, impower and reward a diverse appropriately
skilled people and is key to improving performance appraisal. The explanation their for this
that human resource manager in the public sector business concerns should in war on periodic
performance management review of their employees in order to their position organization
thought owned by government for better performance and improve competitiveness.
Williams(2002) identifies globalization, increase compition and the increase individual rather
than collective employees relation as some of the major drivers contributing to the increased
is ability of performance management system, faced with fast moving uncompetitive
environment searching for unique ways in which to differentiate their compittion and increase
looking to their human resource.
Cronin, Marry j,2003. Performance measurement for public service in academic and
research library. Washington, D.C,; office and management study of association of research
library,1985. This paper examine some of the realities involved in using performance,
measurement to evaluate library service. Its analysis performance ,measurement for three
prospective: one, form to practice; two, application of a model; and three future trends in

measurement. It also contains selected bibliography books and articles on the subjects,
including useful methodologies or approaches.
Jonathan A. Linsdsey,2005. Phoenix: Oryx press,1986 222 p. This is a basic handbook and
evaluation that provides a comprehensive literature on this subject aimed to provide a
stronger sense of balance of important area of library administration. It includes Schlesingers
Ten commandments for performance appraisal writing easier, faster and towels: A
practical model for a development appraisal program for school library media specialist ,
and Allen and Reynoldss performance problems a model for analysis resolution.
Lancaster, F.W.,2007, To evaluate your library. Landon; library association,1993. This
updates and expands the 1988 edition to include new material, such as a chapter on the
evaluation of bibliographic instruction and several new material, such as chapter on the
feasibility of continuous quality control as applied to library services. It discuss methods that
can be use to evaluate various steps of library service dealing first with those area relate to
document delivery(including the collection of the library and its catalogues), to be folloed
by those area relating to reference services to other topics cover relate to cost effectiveness
and cost benefit aspects.
Abbott,Christine,2010. Performance measurement in Library and information service.
London; as lib, the association for information management,1994. This is a guide look
indented for library professionals who would like to evaluate their libraries and are uncertain
and how to make the transition from theory to practice this guide demonstrate. How
performance indicators can be integrated into the process of evaluation contents include
prerequisites to performance measurement, the types of indicators, how to develop indicators,
and data collection and analysis.





Research methodology isway to systematically solve the problem. It may be understood has a
science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various step that all
generally a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logc behind them. The
scope of research methodology wider thn that of research method.

Research is defined as "a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a
specific topic." Researach is an atr of scientific investigation. Research is a systemized effort
to gain new knowledge. It is a carefull inquiry especially through search for new facts in any
branch of knowledge. The search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of
finding solution to a problem is a research.

Research Design

A research is the arrangement of the conditions for the collection and analysis of the data in a
manner that aims to combine relevance to the relevance to the research purpose wth economy
in procedure. In facts, the research design is the conceptual structure within which research is
conducted; it constitutes the blue print of the collection, measurement and analysis of the
as search the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the
hypothesis and its operational implication to the finial analysis of data.
The design is such studies must be rigid and not flexible and most focus attention on the

The present study is exploratory in nature, as it seeks to dscover ideas and insight to bring out
new relationship. Research design is flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering
different aspects of problem under study. It help in bringing in to focus some inherent
weakness in enterprise regarding which in depth study can be conducted by management.

For any study there must be data for analysis purpose. Without data there is no meaning of
study. Data collection plays an important role of study. It can be collected from various
sources. I have collected the data from two sources which are given below.

Primary Data:
The primary data was collected from the respondents by administrating a structured
questionnaire and also through observation, interview and discussion with management.


Secondary Data:
Apart from the primary data collection, the data collected through text books, the record of
P Mark Private Limited, journal from library, academic report and internet is used for
the study.

Sampling sample Population:

There are totally 100 employee working in the organization.

Sample Size:
Out of the total population, the sample taken amongst workers .i.e.,50 respondents.

Sample Area:
The research was conducted at P Mark Private Limited.

Sample Method:
The research was made by the survey n accordance to the randomly of the employees. So, the
employee type is random sampling.


Performance appraisal is needed in order to:
(1) Provide information about the performance ranks basing on which decision regarding
salary fixation, confirmation, promotion, transfer and demotion are taken.
(2) Provide feedback information about the level of achievement and behavior of subordinate.
This information helps to review the performance of the subordinate and to set the standards
of work, if necessary.

(3) Provide information which help the counsel the subordinate.

(4) Provide information to diagnose deficiency in employee regarding skll, knowledge,
determine training and development needs and to prescribe the means for employee growth
provides information for collection placement.
(5) To prevent grievances and in disciplinary activities.

4.2 Objectives of the study

To carry out the study of p mark, we farmed the following the objectives.
1.Identification of the technique of performance appraisal followed as in co.
2. Employee attitude towards the present appraisal system.
3. To identify the technique of Performance Appraisal followed in co.
4. To identify how to performance of the employees is improved and enhanced.


Data Analysis


Data Analysis and Interpretation
1. Are you aware about performance Appraisal?
A. Yes

B. No

Aware about performance Appraisal






Table no.1


Aware about performacne Appraisal



Interpretation: this table shows the 90% of employees aware about the performance
appraisal but only 10% employees were not aware about the performance appraisal.

2. In your Opinion performance Appraisal is ?

Table no.2
In your Opinion Evaluation

of Promotion

of Job Satisfaction Motivation




of Employees

Appraisal is
% age






In your opininion Performance Appraisal is




In your opininion
Performance Appraisal is

Interpretation: this table shows the 48% of employees opinion that the performance
appraisal is evaluation of employees, 28% of employees said the performance appraisal is
promotion of employees, 4% of employees said that the performance appraisal is Job
satisfaction of employees and only 2% of employees opinion that the performance appraisal
is motivation.

3. Which method of performance appraisal is implemented in the organization?

Table no.3

Checklist method

Graphic rating Scale HR



implemented in the




% age




Performance appraisal is implemented in the organization





Performance appraisal is
implemented in the

Interpretation: this table shows the 100% of employees said that the checklist method of
performance appraisal system is implemented in the organization.

4. Do you receive any increment in your salary after performance Appraisal.

Table no.4
Do you receive any increment in your salary after Yes
performance Appraisal.



% age








Interpretation: this table shows the 70% of employees said that receive increment in salary
after performance appraisal but 30% of employees said not.

5. Do you think that performance Appraisal help to provide an atmosphere where all are
encouraged to share one another burden.
Table no.5


Do you think that performance Appraisal help to provide an Yes


atmosphere where all are encouraged to share one another


% age



Do you think that performance appraisal help to provide an atmosphere where all are encouraged to share one another burden.




Interpretation: this table shows the 60% of employees said that performance Appraisal help
to provide an atmosphere where all are encouraged to share one another burden a 40% of
employees said that not performance Appraisal help to provide an atmosphere where all are
encouraged to share one another burden.
6. Do you think performance appraisal helps people set and achieve meaningful goals?
Table no.6


performance appraisal helps people set and achieve Yes


meaningful goals.

% age



performance appraisal helps people set and achieve meaningful goals



Interpretation: this table shows the 80% of employees said that performance appraisal helps
people set and achieve meaningful goals but only 20% of employees said that not
performance appraisal helps people set and achieve meaningful goals.

7. Do you think performance appraisal improves motivation and job satisfaction?


Table no.7
Do you think performance appraisal improves motivation and Yes


job satisfaction.
% age



Do you think performance appraisal improves motivation and job satisfactionmeaningful goals




Interpretation: this table shows the 72% of employees said that performance appraisal
improves motivation and job satisfaction but 28% of employees said that the not
performance appraisal improves motivation and job satisfaction.

8. Is the top level management partial in performance Appraisal.


Table no.8
Top Level management partial in performance Appraisal



% age



Top level management partial performance appraisal

Top level management
partial performance



Interpretation: this table shows the 68% of employees said that the top level management
partial in performance appraisal and 32% of employees said that the top level management
partial in not performance Appraisal.


9. Do you think that performance of employees improve after process of performance

Table no.9
Do you think that performance of employees improve after Yes


process of performance appraisal

% age



Do you think that performance of employees improve after process of performance appraisal

Do you think that

performance of employees
improve after process of
performance appraisal



Interpretation: this table shows the 90% of employees said that performance of employees
improve after process of performance appraisal and only 10% of employees said that not
performance of employees improve after process of performance appraisal.


10. Do you think performance appraisal helps to change behavior of Employees?

Table no. 10.
performance appraisal helps to change behavior of Employees



% age



performance appraisal helps to change behavior of Employees




Interpretation: this table shows the 52% of employees said that the performance appraisal
helps to change behavior of employees and 48% of employees said that not the performance
appraisal helps to change behavior of Employees.


11. In our opinion performance Appraisal system of your organization is related to which
of the following?
Table no.11
Performance Appraisal system of your organization Recruitment


is related to which of the following.


% age





Performance Appraisal system of your organization is related to which of the following


Performance Appraisal
system of your
organization is related to
which of the following

Interpretation: this table shows the 60% of employees said that Appraisal system is related
to recruitment system, 25% of employees said that the performance Appraisal system is
related to motivation and only 15% of employees said that the performance appraisal system
is related to organizational culture.


12. Which time of appraisal do you prefer?

Table no.12
Time of appraisal do you prefer.


Half yearly


Any time

% age





time of appraisal do you prefer



time of appraisal do you







half yearly


any time

Interpretation: this table shows the 100% of employees said that the time of performance
appraisal system prefer in annually.


13. Employees opinion as to the present appraisal system.

Table no. 13.
Employees opinion as to the present appraisal system.

Fully satisfied



% age



Employees's opinion as to the present appraisal system.

fully satisfied



Interpretation: this table shows the 68% of employees said that fully satisfied with the
present appraisal system, 26% of employees were satisfied and only 6% of employees were
dissatisfied with the present appraisal system.




1. The company is well aware of the dynamic environment of software, it is operating and
in order to keep it with the pace of the environment it believes in constant up gradation of
courses. Organization structure and design of the company is such that it supports this

2. This increases the motivation of the managers and development of wider involvement
in strategies. althrough at times the company faces high risk of dilution of priorities became
people do not know who is responsible foe what.

3. An organization is a network of authority, responsibility and relationships; different

organization structure consists of dfferent type of relationships.

4. The process did not take place in the exact time frame planned and scheduled.
5. A good improvement was seen in the inter- personal relationship between the team
leader and subordinates.

6. Many employees could not justify the ratings given by them n the Self Review Form.
7. It helped the employees in understanding their past performance and setting up of targets
and goals for future.

8. They got to understood the organizational needs and it helped in developing a sense of
belonging towards the company.


9. It helped the management in identifying the Caliber of employees and encourage the

10. The employer and employed got a platform to understood each other in a better manner.
11. The management was too much dependent on team leaders for conducting Reviews.
12. When the Peer Feedback From was given employees were too hesitant in giving ratings
to their colleagues.



1. There should be training sessions to improve team at the P MARK Ltd.
2. To improve attendance there should be rewards for those employees who attains above
95% attendance.

3. There should be proper training for appraisal to the employees.

4. More stress relieving packages should be offered to the mentally stressed staff.
5. Overtime should be taken care of at time of performance appraisal, which would
motivate the employees to perform better for long hours.

6. Performance appraisal should after at proper span of time.

7. Performance appraisal process should be well defined to the workers.
8. There should be the feelings of teamwork in the organization.
9. The performance which is been measured should verifiable and measureable afterwards

10. The company should appraise the performance of the worker by giving them some
incentives, which motivate them to work to their fullest capacity and to motivate them to
work more and show good and better results.

11. For the top management of the company it should offer them holiday package.
Appraise performance by recognizing their work in meetings etc. this will help to raise their
morel and they can work better. They do not want financial help as they earn enough to
maintain their status.


A few limitations and constraints came in a way of conducting the present study, under which
the research had to work are as follow:

1. Although all attempts were made to make this an objective study, biases on the part of
respondents might have resulted in same subjectivity.

2. Though, no effort was spared to make the study most accurate and useful, the "sample
Size" selected for the same may not be the true representative of the Company, resulting in
biased results.

3. This being the maiden experience of the research of conducting study such as this, the
possibility of better result, using deeper statistical techniques in analyzing and interpreting
data may be ruled out.

4. While making the project in P Mark Ltd. The main limitation that I faced was the
secrecy adopted by the company in providing the information.

5. Time was limitation while carrying the project. I had to complete the project one and
half months thus the project could have been better if more time was provided to me.

6. The respondents were too busy to provide me proper time that was required by me.
7. Due to heavy rainfall I faced somewhat problem during by survey.
8. Other limitation was that P Mark Ltd. Is a stock market company while my project
relates with human resource.


Working at P Mark Pvt. Ltd., MOGA gave an opportunity to apply me skills and knowledge,
which I had gained previously. It gave me an opportunity to see working an organization and
to be a part of it. Performance appraisal project gave an opportunity to be exposed to the
people who were the workers of P Mark group and to know about them.
It was an amazing experience with leering all the way, which helped me to brush up my
knowledge and skills.
People differ in their abilities and their aptitudes. There is always some difference between
the quality and quality of the same work on the same job being done by two different people.
Therefore, performance management and performance appraisal is necessary to understand
each employee's abilities, competencies and relative merit and worth for the organization.
Performance appraisal rates the employees in terms of their performance. Performance
appraisal takes into account the past performance of the employees and focuses on the
improvement of the further performance of the employees. With rewards being directly
linked to achievement of objective, goal setting and performance appraisal assumes almost
importance. The performance appraisal system has been professionally designed and it is
monitored by HRD. The implementation is the responsibility of each and every employee
along with their supervisor. There should be adequate training to the evaluator that will go a
long way n answering the quality of performance appraisal.
In conclusion, a performance appraisal is a very important tool used to influence employees.
A formal performance review is important as it gives an opportunity to get an overall view of
job performance and staff development. It encourages systematic and regular joint-stocking
and planning for the future. Good performance reviews therefore do not just summarize the
past they help determine future performance.

The strength of any organization is its people if people are attended to properly by
recognizing their talents, developing their capabilities and utilizing them appropriately,
organizing are likely to be dynamic organization is to assure that its people are capable of
doing the variety of tasks associated with their role/ position.
By this study I got an experience about how the organization works, attitude of people
working there also it got a chance to differentiate between practical and theoretical work.


The result would be varying according to be individuals as well as time. Some respondents
hesitated to give the actual situation; they feared that management would take any action
against them. The findings and conclusions are based on knowledge and experience of the
respondents sometimes may subject to bias.

1. www.P
1. Human resource management: shashi k gupta,
2. Research methodology: C.R. Kothari

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Are you aware about Performance Appraisal?



2. In Your Opinion Performance Appraisal is?

a. Evaluation of employees
b. Promotion of Employees
c. Job Satisfaction of employees
d. Motivation
3. Which method of performance appraisal is implemented in the organization?
a) Checklist method
b) Graphic rating scale method
c) HR accounting Method
4. Do you receive any increment in your salary after performance Appraisal?
a. Yes
b. No

5. Do you think that performance Appraisal help to provide an atmosphere where all
encouraged to share one another burden.
a. Yes
b. No
6. Do you think performance appraisal helps people set and achieve meaningful goals?
a. Yes
b. No
7. Do you think performance appraisal improves motivation and job Satisfaction?
a. Yes
b. No
8. Is the Top level management partial in Performance Appraisal?
a. Yes
b. No
9. Do you think that the performance of employee improve after process of performance
a. Yes
b. No
10. Do you think performance appraisal helps to change behavior of employees?
a. Yes
b. No

11. In your opinion Performance Appraisal system of your organization is related to

which of the following?
a. Retention of employees
b. Recruitment System
c. organizational Culture
d. Motivation
12. Which time of appraisal do you prefer?
a. Monthly
b. Half yearly
c. Annually
d. Any Time
13. Employees opinion as to the present appraisal system.
a. Fully satisfied
b. Satisfied
c. Dissatisfied