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ATOMS, ISOTOPES

AND

ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT

Compiled by : Kadek Windy Hapsari

WATCH THE VIDEO, THEN


ANSWER THE QUESTION
Describe the differences between protons,
neutrons and electrons.
Describe the relative mass of the three sub
atomic particles
Why an atom of nitrogen is electrically neutral?

PROPERTIES OF THREE SUB


ATOMIC PARTICLES
Sub atomic
particles

Symbol

Relative
mass

Relative
charge

Proton

+1

Neutron

No charge

Electron

0.00054

-1

Atoms are neutral because the number of


positive protons equals to the number of
negative electrons

PROTON NUMBER OR ATOMIC


NUMBER
Atoms of different elements have different number of
proton of electron
The number of protons in the nucleus is called proton
number or atomic number. The symbol is Z
At the centre of an atom is a tiny nucleus which are
made up of protons and neutrons.
The number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus is
called the nucleon or mass number. The symbol is A

WRITING THE SYMBOL OF


ATOM

A given atom may be represented by showing its element


symbol (E) with mass number (A) as a left superscript and
atomic number (Z) as a left subscript.

Mass
number
A
E
Z

Atomic
number

Element Symbol

TAKE A LOOK AT THE PICTURE


BELOW

WHAT IS ISOTOPES?

Atoms of the same element with


different number of neutrons

TAKE

A LOOK AT THE DIAGRAM

Two isotopes of helium are 32He and 42He. Which


two diagrams show the arrangement of particles
in these two isotopes?

ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT
Electrons exist in circular orbits around the nucleus
which are known as shells or energy levels.
The 1st shell is nearest to the nucleus and can hold a
maximum of 2 electrons.
The next shell can hold a maximum of 8 electrons
according to the equation 2.n2 where n is the number of
shells.

ELEMENT POSITION IN PERIODIC TABLE


BASED ON ITS ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT
The horizontal row in the periodic table are called
periods. It will be indicated by the number of shells an
atom has.
A vertical column in periodic table is called group. It
will be indicated by the number of electrons in outer
shell of an atom (valence electrons)
Example : sodium electron arrangement is 2.8.1
Since it has 3 shells, so it will be put in 3rd period
Since it has 1 valence electron, so it will be put in group
I in periodic table.

TRY TO ANSWER THE QUESTION


BELOW

a.

b.
c.

d.

Which one of these statements about an atom


of 146C is correct?
It has 14 electrons and 6 protons
It has 8 protons and 6 neutrons
It has 6 electrons and 8 neutrons
It has 6 protons and 14 neutrons

TRY TO ANSWER THE QUESTION


BELOW
Element Y is in the second Period of the Periodic
Table. An atom of element Z has 6 more protons
than an atom of element Y. which statement must
be correct?

TRY TO ANSWER THE QUESTION


BELOW

a.

b.
c.
d.

The electronic structure of the atoms of five


elements, A, B, C, D and E are shown below:
A 2,8,2
B 2,8,6
C 2,1
D 2,8
D 2,6
Which one of these elements is in Group II of the
periodic table? Give a reason for your answer
Which two of these elements are in the same group
of periodic table?
Which one of these elements has the highest proton
number?
Element E is oxygen. An isotope of oxygen has 8
neutrons. State nucleon number of isotope of
oxygen.