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SCIENCES BRANCH DEEPARTMENT

PRACTICE ON BIOLOGY PAPER 2 SECTION B


1. (a) Diagram 6.1 shows two types of mechanisms used by antibodies to destroy antigen.

Suggest how the mechanisms Type A and Type B are able to destroy antigens.
[6mark]
Agglutination. Antibody which binds with the antigen causes the pathogens to
clump together. The clumping makes it easier for the pathogens to capture
pathogens. Neutralisation. Antibody neutralizes the toxins produced by bacteria
with the method of binding to a toxin molecules that can prevent toxin molecule
from attaching to a cell.
(b) Diagram 6.2 shows the concentration of antibody in the blood of a person who
two different types of immunity.

How the immunity achieved in situation X and situation Y are different?


[8mark]
X is artificial acquired active immunity whereas Y is artificial acquired passive
immunity. In situation X, body produces own antibody but in situation Y is when
body receive antibody from outside sources. X is obtained through an injection
with a vaccine while Y is obtained through an injection with a serum. X does not
result in immediate immunity against a disease but Y will have immediate
immunity against a disease. In situation X, antibodies need to be synthesized by
the body while in situation Y, antibodies do need to be synthesized by the body.
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The induced immunity last longer in situation X whereas the immunity lasts only
for a short term in Y. The antibody is naturally produced by the body in
situation X but Y is not produced by the body. X needs time to synthesize
antibody whereas antibody in situation Y is obtained directly from the source.
(c) Milk is the primary source of nutrition for new born babies before they are able to eat
and digest other food.
Suggest how to promote mothers to feed their babies with mothers milk. What advice
can be given to them?
[6mark]
Mothers milks contain colostrum which contains a large number of antibodies
that protect babies against diseases. It acts as a naturally acquired passive
immunity. Mothers milks are also higher in protein compare to the ordinary
milk and easy to digest because it is lower in lipid. Colostrum contains high
concentration of leucocytes which protect the body from bacteria or pathogens.
2. (a) Diagram 7.1 shows the changes of glucose level in human blood during fasting.

The
changes of blood glucose level shown in Diagram 7.1 occur in a healthy human.
Name two organs that involve in the regulatory mechanism. Suggest how these organs
play their roles.
[6mark]
Pancreas and liver. When blood glucose increase, pancreas secretes insulin for
excess glucose to be converted into glycogen then is stored in the liver. More
glucose is converted into lipid. When blood glucose decrease, pancreas secretes
glucagon for the glycogen in the liver to convert into glucose. Less glucose is
converted into lipid.
(b) The transmission of information throughout human body is via the nervous system
and the endocrine system. How these two systems are different?
[8mark]
Nervous Syetem
Aspect
Endocrine system
Neurons
Means
Hormones
Body cell
Explanation
Chemical
Fast
Speed
Slow
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Electrical signal
Shorter
The effect is immediate
One way
Involves synapse
One
Specific
Neurons
Use neurons

Explanation
Lasting
Explanation
Direction
Explanation
Target cell
Explanation
Via
Explanation

Chemical signal
Longer
The effect takes longer time
Depend on target cells
No junction
Can be more than one
Send to many organs
Blood vessel
No ducts

(c) Diagram 7.2 shows the junction between two neurons, labelled as X.

Nerve impulses are transmitted along a neurone in the form of electrical impulses
with an action potential of -60mV. However the action potential cannot across gap X.
The nerve impulses are carried by chemical made by the neurone that is sending the
impulse to the next neurone. Suggest how the transmission of nerve impulses across
gap X is affected after a stimulant drug is injected into human body.
[6mark]
Synapse. The transmission of nerve impulses increases so there is more
stimulation by neurotransmitter. More impulses received by adjacent neurons.
More impulses received by target. Neurotransmitters do not disintegrate after
stimulating the next neurons. More responses that will stimulate the body
metabolism by giving more energy. Example of drugs are nicotine, caffeine and
heroin.

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