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place through crack-tip blunting caused by

localized shear yielding induced by the presence of rubber particles.

Dynamic mechanical, electrical and magnetic

properties of ferrite-filled styrene-isoprenestyrene
Saini, D.R., Nadkarmi, V.M.. Grover, P.D. and
Nigam, K.D.P. Journal of Materials Science Vol
21 (1986) pp 3710-3716
The dynamic mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties of styrene-isoprene-styrene
(SIS) block copolymer filled with barium ferrite
(volume fractions of 75-88 wt %) have been
reported. The storage modulus of the composite
was found to increase considerably while the
damping characteristics remained unaltered,
even at ferrite loadings of 85 wt %, and the
electrical insulation characteristics were also
retained. It was found that the toughness and
hardness could bc correlated to tan~ and
storage modulus respectively. The use of titanote coupling agents for surface treatment of
the ferrites improved the magnetic properties,
due possibly to improved filler dispersion.
The dynamic moduli of particulate-filled polymers as defined by the concept of interphase
Sideridis, E. Composites Science and Technology
Vo127 No 4 (1986) pp 305-332
A simplified theoretical approach is presented
for the prediction of the dynamic moduli of
particulate-filled polymers which takes into
account the interphase between filler and
matrix which possesses different physicochemical properties from those of the constituent phases. Calculated values were compared
with results of tests on a cold-setting epoxy resin
filled with iron particles.
Effect of volume fraction of dispersed rubbery
phase on the toughness of rubber-toughened
epoxy polymers
Kinloch, A.J. and Hunston, D.L. Journal of
Materials Science Letters Vol 5 No 12 (1986)
pp 1207-1209
The toughness of an epoxy may be improved by
the presence of a dispersion of second phase
rubbery particles. The initial results on the
eft'oct of microstructural features on the toughness of an epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of
bisphenol A) cured with piperidine are presented. The rubber used was a carboxylterminated, random copolymer of butadiene
and acrylonitrile. It is found that increasing the
volume fraction of the rubbery phase does
increase fracture toughness but the amount of
toughening depends on test conditions such as
the test rate and the test temperature.
Effects of material constitutions on the strength
of fiber reinforced plastic gears
Ikegami, K.. Kikushima, K. and Shiratori, E.
Composites Science and Technology Vol 27 No 1
(1986) pp 43-61
The strength of fibre-reinforced plastic gears
was analytically and experimentally investigated. Glass or carbon roving cloths were used
in the gear tooth surfaces as reinforcing fibres.
while chopped glass or carbon fibres were used
in the core region: epoxy resin was used
throughout as matrix material. A stress analysis
using a finite element method was performed
for the gears subjected to bending loads. From
the results, the most effective reinforcing
method is discussed.
Hygrothermal ageing of CSM-laminates during
water immersion--an acousto-ultrasonic study
Phani. K.K. and Bose, N.R. Journal of Materials
Science Vol 21 (1986) pp 3633-3637
Random mat E-glass/polyester composites


were fabricated and their acoustic-ultrasonic

stress wave factor (SWF) was monitored before,
and at regular intervals after, ageing in distilled
water at temperatures of 100C, 42C and 60C.
The room temperature flexural strength of aged
samples was also measured at regular intervals.
The authors conclude that the SWF is a sensitive indicator of strength reduction due to
hygrothermal ageing and that. for a given
system, SWF readings may be used to estimate
the strength from data generated under accelerated conditions.

Interface strength effects on the compressiveflexurai/shear failure mode transition of composites subjected to four point bending
Shih, G.C. and Ebert, L.J. Journal of Materials
Science Vo121 (1986) pp 3957-3965
The modes of failure of unidirectional glass/
epoxy composites (in four-point bend) with
different interface conditions have been investigated experimentally and analytically. Wang's
microbuckling model has been extended to
derive failure mode transition diagrams for
composites with different interface strengths. It
is suggested that the failure mode (flexural
compressive or shear) may serve as a rule of
thumb for estimating the interface condition for
a new system of composites.
The reinforced reaction-injection moulding revolution
English, L.K. Materials Engineering (October
1986) pp 39-43
This article, on novel reaction injection moulding (RIM) systems, also described a new system
introduced by Dow Chemicals which combines
low viscosity RIM components with pro-placed
mat reinforcements to provide long fibre composite properties.
Sliding and abrasive wear of short glass-fibre
reinforced PTFE-composites
Voss, H. and Friedrich, K. Journal of Materials
Science Letters Vol 5 No 11 (1986) pp 1111-1114
The influence of glass fibre additions on the
wear properties of PTFE has been investigated.
Four materials were used -- neat resin and
three grades containing 13, 22, and 36% by
volume of glass fibres of diameter approximately
10 p.m and length < 100 p.m. Wear tests were
carried out against smooth steel rings and two
grades of abrasive paper (abrasive particle sizes
of 7 pm and 70 btm). Sliding speed (v) was found
to be more detrimental to wear rate than
pressure (P) if the (PV) factor is kept constant.
SEM investigations were carried out to establish the wear mechanisms occurring. A rule-ofmixtures equation was used to relate wear rate
with fibre fraction,
Some aspects of shock consolidation of polymeric, PVC-metallic and PVC-silica powder
Abousree Hegazy, A. and Blasynski, T.Z.
Journal of Materials" Science Vol 21 (1986) pp
The explosive compaction technique and the
effects of shock consolidation on PVC and
mixtures of PVC with 304 stainless steel, iron
powder and silica have been investigated. The
properties discussed include morphology, fracture surfaces, the degree of densification and
compressive strength. It is concluded that shock
consolidation affords a means of producing
new composite materials having well-defined
and well-bonded structures which are of potential industrial interest.
Static fatigue and time to failure predictions of
particulate filled epoxide resin composites

Beer. H.R., Kaiser, T., Maloney. A.C. and

Kaush. H.H. Journal of Materials Science Vo121
(1986) pp 3661-3667
The applicability of lifetime prediction techniques to two types of epoxide resins with high
volume fractions (up to 60%) of particulate filler
(alumina flour and silane-treated glass beads
and silica flour) has been examined. The stress/
strain and static fatigue behaviour was studied
at various temperatures. It was found that the
composites were subject to static fatigue and
that the static fatigue strength (under constant
load) can be predicted on the basis of a fracture
mechanics crack growth model. Crack growth
measurements were determined by double
torsion tests and constant stressing-rate experiments. Both procedures lead to nearly equivalent predictions of static fatigue which
compare well with laboratory, static fatigue data
from room temperature almost up to the glass
transition temperature.

Stress corrosion cracking and its propagation in

aligned short fibre composites
Hsu, P.-L., You, S.-S. and C hou, T.-W.Journal of
Materials Science Vol 21 (1986) pp 3703-3709
The crack propagation modes and service lives
of aligned short fibre composites (glass, carbon
and E-glass-carbon hybrid reinforced composites) have been examined in both air and
1N H2SO 4 environments. Crack growth characteristics were determined using compact tension
specimens. Curves of crack growth vs loading
time to failure (K I vs tf) are used successfully to
evaluate the degradation of crack resistance due
to stress corrosion and to predict the service life
of a composite containing cracks. It was found
that pro-immersion has significant effects on
the K I vs tf curve and crack arrest of hybrid
composites. Various crack propagation models
are proposed to describe the different fracture
modes observed.
Sunhemp fibre-reinforced polyester. Part 1.
Analysis of tensile and impact properties
Sandi, A.R., Prasad, S.V. and Rohatgi. P.K.
Journal of Materials Science Vol 21 (1986)
pp 4299-4304
The properties of unidirectional. 'continuous'
sunhemp/polyester composites have been evaluated. It was found that the tensile strength
incrcascd linearly with increase in Vr (volume
fraction) according to the rule of mixtures, and
that the Izod impact strength also increased
linearly with Vf. The toughness increase is
discussed in terms of fibre pull-out and interface fracture.
Temperature dependent mechanical behaviour of
PI and PES resins used at matrices for short fibre
reinforced laminates
Schulte, K., Friedrich, K. and Horstenkemp, G.
Journal of Materials Science Vol 21 (1986)
pp 3561-3570
The mechanical behaviour of polyimide (PI)
and polyethersulphone (PES) matrices, and
their aligned, short fibre-reinforced corn posites,
has been investigated at temperatures of 21C,
100C and 180C. The PES matrix was found to
have the highest fracture strain and fracture
stress at room temperature but the poorest
wettability. A rapid decrease in fracture stress
with temperature was observed (69 MPa at 2 IC
to ~10 MPa at 18(/C). The PI matrix had the
higher modulus at 21C ( ~ 4 9 GPa): this value
was halved at 180C (but was higher than that of
PES at 180C). Aligned short fibre composites
including those made with an epoxy matrix
were tested in both the fibre direction and at AF
to it. It was generally concluded that the
properties of the PES matrix are not fully