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Impact and Problems Encountered by HRM students in their On-the-Job Training

Chapter 1
The Problem

A. Introduction
On-the-Job-Training is one way the students are given an opportunity to apply the
theories and principles that they have learned from the school. It also helps the students to
apply the knowledge and skills by performing in actual work settings.
On-the-Job-Training is one of the best training methods because it is planned
organized and conducted the employees worksite and we student, will increase are
productivity and for developing our skills. And this is the part of college curriculum that aims
to train and orient students about a work and future career. It is a type of skill development
where a worker learns how to do the work through hands-on experience. On-the-Job-Training
is one method that, we students are exposed with different work situation designed to give as
an opportunity to experience and a chance to apply the theories that we have learned from the
school. It also helps us to acquire relevant knowledge and skills by performing in actual
OJT is very important not only to teach students regarding their career but also to
show students the reality about working. We exposed to the actual work related to our course.
It also allows those with no experience to work and to learn at the same time. On-the-Job
Training helps the trainee to learn more about his/her chosen field and practice what she/he
has learned from the school. It helps in the building up of the trainees competence. Of this
training develops ones professionalism in dealing with people. After the training, the trainee
will be able to handle situation properly and yet be able to do things successfully and this
training develops ones professionalism in dealing with people. After the training, the trainee

will be able to handle situation properly and yet able to know how to socialize well with his
colleagues and also be able to work well with everyone and have a good teamwork OJT also
enhances the critical thinking abilities and discipline of the student like us.
Having a proper On-the-Job-Training helps in the preparation of future
professionalism for our future jobs. What the students learned like us in our training, even
little things, can be applied when are already working. Students will be trained not only
academically but socially as well. It also gives us the chance to immerse ourselves in our
experience and learn the skills necessary to the industry where we are interested in. Working
with experienced is very good because the way we communicate with others will not be a big
Above all, On-the-Job-Training allows the trainee to get acquainted with the real
professionals and to meet people having different positions in the company, either high or
low. The trainee will be able to know how to adjust to other peoples personalities and
The most effective method to development the competence and skills of Students is
through hand-on-training-the-on-the job training. This process exposes the students to the
different field and learning. Moreover, it allow the students become familiar and made known
with the actual operation of the business and the state-of-the art of the facilities,equipment
and technology used. Many opportunities for development can be found on the job. Trainees
are able to learn as they contribute to the goals of the firm. Morale, productivity, and
professionalism will normally be high in those individuals that employ a sound OJT program.
As required by the CHED, graduating students of different Majors of the BSHRM-CM
undergo on-the-job training with required time of one hundred hours. Perhaps this would be a
stepping stone for the practicumers to develop themselves to become professionals in their
own field of specialization and acquire new learning through gained experiences during

trainings. It is very essential component of the learning process geared toward preparing
students future career. However, practicumers along the way encountered uncertainties and
problems that would one way or another will affect their on-the-job performances. Some
would feel disappointed and dissatisfied to the on-the-job training they receive. Many factors
are to be considered that the on-the-job training was properly managed

B. Theoretical Framework
Experiential Education
The variations among the terms used to describe outside-the-classroom learning
opportunities can be condensed into one phrase: experiential education. Juliet Miller, from the
U.S. Department of Education, defines an experiential education as all programs that are
designed to expand the setting of learning experiences beyond the traditional school environment
to occupational and community settings and these programs use planned experiencesto
promote cooperation between traditional educational institutions and business, industry, labor,
government and community groups to support learning. Some examples of experiential
education include service learning internship, academic service-learning, community servicelearning, cooperative education program, applied practicum, experiential learning, and, most
commonly, internship program. All of these examples use experiential components in their
curriculum with the only difference being due to logistical and operating issues (Miller, 1982).
Now that the meaning and modes of experiential learning have been discussed, the following
section summarizes literature which directly informs the analysis conducted in the current study.

Sociological Component of Experiential Education

Research indicates that cooperative education curriculum promotes the ability of

students to achieve one of the beneficial goals of the sociological curriculum: to promote
students abilities to apply the sociological perspective to understand their lives (American
Sociological Association, 1991, Parilla & Hesser, p. 312). Using this sociological perspective
allows a student to create what C. Wright Mills (1959) coins a sociological imagination. This
way of thinking allows a student to comprehend the connection between history and biography,
and when students execute this ideological mindset, the integration of a sociological education
and career clarification happens (Miller, 1990). Internships also shed light on various topics
relating to sociology such as diversity, the extreme complexities of social organizations, and even
participant observation (Parilla & Hesser, 1998). Following the research reviewed above, the
current project aims to critically assess areas of enhancement (i.e., benefits) that an internship is
supposed to advance for the student. The areas being measured are components that maximize
learning in experiential education (Conference on Undergraduate Internships, 1976). Parilla and
Hesser (1998) concluded that when analyzing the experience, the end result that is wanted is
one that intends to build bridges between sociological tradition and research on post secondary
teaching and learning as it relates to the experience-based learning of internships (p. 311).
Integrating a practical element into higher education enables students to not only acquire
knowledge related to their chosen area of study, but also the ability to apply it outside of the
classroom (Deuster, 2009).

For this application to occur, one first needs to comprehend the

connection between learning and personal efficacy. Markus, Howard, and King (1993) found that
by combining applied experiences and knowledge from the classroom student participation in
community service can have a significant effect upon their personal values and orientations
toward their community (p. 416).

For example, by utilizing one of the elements of an

experiential education, reflective observation, one can then reflect on what they learned in the
classroom and how that enables them to achieve a higher level of self efficacy (Kolb, 1984). This
reflection allows a person to recognize their personal weakness and then in turn they can
abandon these downfalls so that they can focus on positive personal development. Krug (1991)
concluded that only curriculums that endorse more reflection opportunities for their applied
placements demonstrate positive civic responsibility. To where as civic responsibility is
representative of ones sense of personal empowerment, interpersonal (social) empowerment is
representative of experiential learning through its active learning traits that includes working
with other people. This encapsulation of two mechanisms of empowerment promotes the idea
that the two are undoubtedly linked. Munter (2002) states The individual moves from being a
passive consumer of information to becoming an active, aware, responsible citizen, focused not
only on his/her own personal development, but also on becoming an agent of changethey are
assuming meaningful roles and responding to real issues in ways that have long-lasting impacts
on their own lives, as well as the lives of those whom they are serving . This leads to the
inquiry of how does empowerment promote positivistic values? Wilson et al. (2001) suggests
changing relationships, roles, and responsibilities are key to practicing conditions of democracy
and forming critical judgments about public education. This change is the most difficult and
challenging part of reform because it requires a change of hearts as well as minds. This suggests
that empowerment is not easily achieved because a person has to be motivated in order to
become self empowered. Waterman (1997) found that when a person can be self-motivated to
promote positivistic values, it is correlated with community service. Inversely, motivators for
civic responsibility can be from the community itself. Stelljes (2008) found that applied learning
experiences enticed students to reflect on their personal situation within society and that a

combination of real world learning and classroom learning were major factors that caused
experiential experiences to have a very thorough influence students ability to commit to future
civic involvement. He also concluded that students who experienced a sense of self-efficacy are a
primary mediating factor between experiential education and social engagement (Stelljes, 2008).
With research suggesting personal and interpersonal (social) empowerment having some sort of
mediating effect on applied learning, it leads to one being curious about the affected areas.
Before discussing the effects, the outcome areas of an experiential education must be defined.
An internship is a unique educational program that aims to integrate study with planned
and performance related experience. It is usually designed for the benefits of young unemployed
graduates and post graduates all over the world who have completed fourteen to sixteen years of
education. The major purpose of the Internship program is to develop and strengthen students
skills and to prepare them for the profession. Many Internship Programs aims to provide
financial support to fresh candidates and also to keep them engaged and interested in acquiring
further knowledge related to the profession they want to join in future. The Internship program is
beneficial for both fresh candidates and government organizations. It provides an opportunity to
the fresh candidates to experience working conditions and requirement of todays professional
business environment. Hence, it can be said that it provides the student with a greater
understanding of professional demands and qualification. It permits them to understand the
connection between theory and practice, thus it enhance the students knowledge of his potential
to reach the goals set for various professions. Therefore, the internship program is of great
significance because it ensures the professional preparation of students in various ways such as
understanding of the target profession and future prospects of working conditions in that
profession. A carefully planned internship program may serve the following functions.

Understanding of the target profession and future prospects of working conditions. Can
provide valuable exposure on the job Develop professional skills and attitudes Establish
useful contacts with people working in the same profession.
C. Statement of the Problem
This study aims to find out the problems encountered by On-the-Job trainees of the HRM
students of Northwestern University. Specifically it will answer the following research questions:
Statement of the Problem

What is the demographic profile of the students of Hotel and Restaurant Management in term

Venue of OJT
What are the skills and competencies relevant to the OJT?
Work knowledge
Quality of work


Attitude towards work and company

What are the problems encountered in your OJT?

What can you suggest to improve the OJT program?

D. Scope and Delimitation

This study will focus on the impact of the internship program of HRM students
and the different problems they encountered while having their internship. Moreover, the

respondents of this study will be the students who undertook their internship last 2 nd
Semester SY 2015-2016.
E. Significance of the Study
This study will benefit the HRM students of Northwestern University because this
study will be a venue for them to air out the different problems they encountered while
having their internship program and moreover, this study will also show the impact and
benefits they derived from their internship program.
Also, this study will benefit the administrators of College of Business Education
because this will identify the problems encountered and the impact of the OJT program
therefore will help them improve on the OJT program of the course.
Lastly, this study will benefit the students and teachers that coordinates the
internship programs of the different schools because they will be able to determine the
problems encountered by the OJT students.
F. Definition of Terms
Internship (On-the Job Training) Program. It is a unique educational program that
aims to integrate study with planned and performance related experience. For the Hotel
and Restaurant Management course, it is the 400 hour hotel immersion of the graduating
Impact. In this study, it is the effect of the internship program on different aspects such
as personal, social, academic, civic and employment aspects of the students.
G. Conceptual Framework

Impact of the
Internship Program
- Personal
- Social
Problems Encountered
- Civic
HRM Students
- the
in- their

Effectiveness of the Onthe-Job Training of the

HRM students of NWU

The conceptual framework of the study shows the relationship of the independent
variables and the dependent variable. The independent variables are the impact of the on-the-job
training of HRM students and the problems encountered by the HRM students in their OJT. This
will have an effect to the effectiveness of the On-the-job Training of the HRM Students.
Chapter II
Review of Related Studies

A. Related Literature
Applied Learning Outcomes and Benefits

Research suggests that an experiential education programs learning outcomes are

categorized by these five areas: personal, interpersonal, academic, employment, and civic (Baird,
1998; onway, Amel, & Gerwein, 2002; Knapp, Fisher, & Levesque-Bristol, 2010; Raman &
Pashupati, 2010). Personal outcomes are focused on an individuals thoughts, skills, and values.
A pre and post test survey was conducted by Conway, Amel, and Gerwein (2002) and they
concluded that personal outcomes can change as of the result of service learning. They found that
students who participated in applied learning programs had greater volunteer motivation and
moral development than students who did not participate in an applied program (Conway, Amel,
& Gerwein, 2002). Similarly, a meta-analysis on existing literature in the field of experiential
education was conducted by Gysbers (1988) and suggested that societal conditions can
contribute to the growth of human knowledge and development. With this in mind, applied
experiences in society can contribute to our personal and intellectual development. Interpersonal

outcomes focus on relationships with others and also our own personal beliefs and thoughts
about individuals with whom we have relationships with. Research has shown that there is
support that social outcomes are increased by service learning (Conway, Amel, & Gerwein,
2002), specifically that students who participate in service learning demonstrate greater positive
beliefs, knowledge and attitudes toward those served in relation to those that do not participate.
Academic outcomes focus on the educational achievement and knowledge gained from the
applied learning experience. Markus, Howard, and King (1993) found that students who
participated in an applied learning program received higher grades than students who only
received classroom instruction. Mpofu (2007) concluded that superior learning outcomes for
service-learning as compared to classroom instruction for tasks requiring critical thinking and
application of skills, while not detracting from fact acquisition learning (p. 51). Employment
outcomes focus on the job skills attained by students and also the career clarification it provides.
Carla Howery (1983) defines the rimary objective of internships is "to provide students with an
opportunity to test abilities and attitudes toward particular material or career possibilities for the
future" (p. 336). Internships and cooperative education programs provide students with the
opportunity to apply learned ideological frameworks to potential career settings in the real world.
Students who choose to participate in experiential learning can broaden their future career
opportunities through networking and establishing positive working relationships with their
employers. These relationships cannot be created solely from taking college courses, but they can
be constructed by combining the knowledge gained from these courses with practical
applications in a real life setting. Civic outcomes of an experiential education program focus on
community engagement, civic awareness, social responsibility, and ones sense of citizenship.
Myers Lipton (1998) reported that students who participated in applied learning programs

demonstrated higher scores on the Civic Responsibility Scale (measured items include personal
motivation for community engagement, voting, personal responsibility for others, and ones
sense of communal enhancement)than students who did not experience an active learning
program. Seon-Young, Olszewski-Kubilius, and Weimholt (2007) found that students who
participated in applied learning had a greater awareness of local community issues and in society
in general. Another study found that when students volunteer during an applied learning
experience, they combine to enhance student civic engagement after they leave college (Misa,
Anderson, & Yamamura, 2005). Since personal and interpersonal are outcome categories
from previous research, how do researchers link personal and interpersonal empowerment with
these categories? It would seem that these categories may in fact have some influence on the
other outcome categories. But do they exert a dual impact? Knapp, Fisher, and Levesque Bristol
(2010) found that service learning provides students with opportunities to work with others to
improve community development, and that it is this sense of social empowerment that
strengthens their commitment to future civic engagement that self efficacy and social
empowerment are related, but distinct, constructs (p. 7). This suggests that students who
participate in experiential learning not only benefit from empowerment, but also the effect that
these characteristics have on the other outcomes of an applied program. Another indicator for
measuring the effectiveness of an internship program comes from the amount of community
service one is involved in, as it is a primary benefit of an internship program (Conference on
Undergraduate Internships, 1976). Wilson et al. (2006) conducted a survey at the University of
Maryland and concluded that respondents indicated that they were interested in opportunities that
involved personal growth and life-long learning, participation in a purposeful social network that
was working toward a clearly-defined goal, and service in a well-designed, meaningful role. This

study suggests that, when students have the motivation and drive to undertake community
service, personal growth can be greatly increased. Research has also identified other benefits that
students receive from participating in an applied learning program. According to The Conference
on Undergraduate Internships (1976), there are four primary benefits of applied experiences:
vocational development, intellectual development, personal growth, and community service.
These benefits are also similar to the benefits of career development and life-long learning.
According to Lynne Bezanson of the Canadian Career Development Foundation, The aims of
lifelong learning are promoting active citizenship and employability and that a comprehensive
strategy is needed for implementing lifelong learning at both the individual and institutional
levels...and lifelong learning is much more than up-skilling and schooling; it is about purpose in
peoples learning and its goals are both social and economiccitizenship and employability (p.
3). Thus, it seems plausible to suggest that an applied experience is a life-spanning phenomenon
with career development firmly and identifiably embedded within it, involving both social and
economic processes.
Effective Design of Program
Designing an effective internship program involves many different factors. When a program
coordinator is developing a potential model, he or she must first develop the program goals.
Program goals should be developed from an academic- and community based ideological
framework. According to Robert Kelly (1986), In order to achieve goals set forth in an
internship program design, the internship program must adapt to its environment by maximizing
its assets and limiting its liabilities in competitive and cooperative relationships with other
departments and organizations (p. 236). He suggests that the most effective way of employing
this concept is by building internships around existing faculty strengths, because it then becomes

possible to assure interns and their employers that support services would be available.
Keeping in mind all of the functions and potential benefits of internships, everyone involved in
an internship program should have specified roles and responsibilities. The parties involved in an
internship program and process include students, employers/supervisors, program coordinators,
and the sponsoring university. In order to assess the effectiveness of an internship program, we
must acknowledge existing guidelines and evaluate how well these guidelines are adhered to by
the parties involved.
The expectations of an internship vary among students, departments, employers, and
universities. A student expects an internship to be intellectually stimulating and beneficial for
building the skills needed for future employment. The participating department intends for the
internship to be an opportunity for the student to employ classroom knowledge in a real-world
setting. The employer expects the program partnership to be a way to identify, hire, and retain
talented students seeking full-time employment after graduation. The university expects an
internship to create a community partnership with a potential new employer, or to maintain an
existing partnership through productive and effective work by its student interns (Santariano &
Rogers, 1979). Students need to realize and understand the potential value of applied learning
before they actually experience it firsthand. To learn how to respond to these conditions,
guidance is often recommended. Some internship programs do provide a mandatory seminar that
students take before they start their placement. This course is normally an overview of the
internship program and its associated processes. Students can experience the relevance of
classroom learning through the situations that confront them during their placement. The preplacement seminar provides the training and skills that students need to learn in order to
correctly respond to situations they could potentially encounter during their placement. The way

they respond to these situations can have a major impact on their employment prospects after
graduation (Santariano & Rogers, 1979).

If a training seminar is not required before

participating in an applied placement, other possible techniques for gaining insight about
internship-related experiences and values can include faculty members sharing their past
internship experiences, interviews with graduates of the same major, or even self-reflection by
reading literature on intellectual development. Each of these techniques can help a student to
assess the benefits of experiential education. Potential employers who wish to employ interns
must go through a thorough screening by the university and its program coordinator in order to
clarify intended expectations of job duties for student interns. One effective placement technique
for program coordinators is to establish a list of job requirements and duties for each
participating organization. This is easily completed by having the students university host a
seminar for all organizations wishing to establish a partnership with the department. This
seminar could include topics on supervising interns, potential benefits, and the risks and
liabilities to everyone involved. Potential student interns should also participate in a preplacement survey that identifies expectations, outcomes, and skills that they would gain from an
internship experience.
B. Related Studies
According to Lee, Lu, Jiao, and Yeh (2006), an internship outside the academic calendar
can be called co-operative training or joint training. As a result of this co-operative/joint
training, companies have access to the manpower in schools and can develop it according to their
needs. At the same time, schools help familiarize students with the business world and train them
to meet business demands. Part of the joint training is undertaken as practice lessons at school
and part as internships on the job. The objectives of an internship are to practice theoretical

knowledge in a business setting and learn new practical skills (Emir, Arslan & Klkaya, 2008).
Internship activities provide on-the-job training, help senior students mature, provide the market
with manpower, and allow an individual to gain expertise (Busby & Gibson, 2010). Busby and
Gibson (2010) and Ross and Elechi (2002) identify the benefits of internship activities as:
Learning to complete tasks, engage in proper conduct, take responsibility, and manage
Gaining experience in management and management methods
Developing maturity and self-esteem
There have been other studies on the problems encountered by student interns in different
fields (Hauck, Allen & Rondinelli, 2000; Ross & Elechi, 2002; Lee et al., 2006; Ko, 2008),
Beggs, Ross, and Goodwin (2008) studied travel and tourism internships from the perspectives
of both a trainee and a practitioner. Schambach and Dirks (2002) studied how students perceive
their internship experiences. They discovered that a majority of students in their study found
their internship program beneficial and believed it would contribute to their professional lives.
Hauck et al. (2000) studied whether there was any change in the academic performance of
students who were involved in structured internship programs versus those who were not. Their
findings indicate that there are no connections between academic performance and participation
in structured internships. Nevertheless, the students stated that an internship significantly
contributed to their professional lives and career plans.
Lee (2006) conducted comparative research to determine the perception of the students in
tourism management, a program which included school time and internships. Lees study of 681
participants from a tourism management program divided students into groups by career
development, achievement of academic functions, and development of professional and

individual skills. The study revealed that joint training programs developed students social
skills. Those trainees who participated in internships gained higher levels of self-esteem and
practical knowledge while improving their skills and increasing their job prospects. This study
also found that the students doing internships developed skills that enabled them to adapt to
change and gave them leadership and financial management skills. They also demonstrated more
realistic career plans because organizational functions were better understood.
Ko (2008) investigated the factors associated with hospitality students' satisfaction with
internship programs and the relationships between training, job satisfaction, and confidence
about future careers. This study showed that training satisfaction played a positive role as a
predictor of participants' job satisfaction and confidence about future careers. Also, this study
revealed that the effect of satisfaction with training on participants' confidence about future
careers was mediated by their satisfaction with the internship. Lee (2005) studied whether the
characteristics of students in tourism management internships, the working conditions of the
internship, and the leadership features of the administrators in the workplace affected students'
intention to work in the business. Lees research findings show that working conditions
(including wage, working hours, workplace, etc.) and the management style of the administrators
directly affected the trainees plan to work in the tourism sector. Additionally, Lee found no
connection between gender and the intention to work in tourism. However, a positive
relationship was found between department (food-beverage and rooms), part time previous
employment, and willingness to work in the tourism sector.
Yldrm (2002) carried out a study to identify hotel managers' expectations of trainees.
According to the study, one of the major complaints of hotel managers was that tourism schools
have varying periods for internships that were typically less than 90 days in length. The findings

revealed that the hotel managers saw trainees as cheap labor and as part of the business rather
than as possible future employees who were still in school. Moreover, hotel managers tended to
assign interns to busy departments instead of assigning them to sections that would better parallel
the goals of the internship. Henry, Rehwaldt and Vineyard (2001), by identifying internship
problems, attempted to explain how internship programs can be carried out efficiently and
effectively. In this study, involving both trainees and researchers, internship problems were
categorized as work place, working hours, insufficient supervision, ignorance about
importance of working, and wages. Although the study was carried out in a different field, it
was noted that similar problems occurred in tourism-related internship programs (Busby &
Gibson, 2010; Lee et al., 2006). In their study of the benefits of internship programs for applicant
nurses, Holdway, Corbeil, McPherson, Oremush, and Murray (2005) found that internships
enabled students to adapt easily to the nursing career, develop organizational skills, and gain high
self-esteem. The authors also concluded that the trainees were willing to participate in internship
programs in subsequent years, and smooth internship periods positively affected their attitude
toward the nursing profession.