Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

7 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Experimental Structural Dynamics
- Lab 11 - Velocity of Sound in Air
- Chemistry Unit 3 Review
- davis 1995 0220
- Bucher and Ewins ROS
- 2 Couple Pndulum
- Dynamics 2005
- Understanding Waves Lesson Plan
- Waves
- 1.3 Refraction of Waves
- Radio-frequency Aspects of Electro-nuclear Accelerators
- Bauchau+Rodriguez03a
- is.1893.1.2002 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design
- Ultrasonic Study on Coconut Water and Sugar Solution Before and After Laser Exposure
- Machdyn Chapt 5
- Wave 1
- Specin_PPP_Mar2011_V1_1_RFU
- 14_Rotor Dynamic Analysis Using ANSYS
- QRD Diffusers_ Technical Overview
- ASEN5022.Lecture.18.pdf

You are on page 1of 5

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles

405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90095

P. Schoessow and W. Gai

Division of High Energy Physics, Argonne National Laboratory

9700 S. Cass Ave. Argonne, IL 60439

ABSTRACT the beam and wakes. Finally, these results are used to

illustrate the mitigating effects on multi-bunch BBU, and

Several promising schemes for high-gradient beam-loading phenomena in general, that a slab-

acceleration of charged particles in planar electromagnetic symmetric, highly asymmetric beam linear accelerator

structures have been recently proposed. In this paper we design allows.

investigate, by both computer simulation and theoretical

analysis, the longitudinal and transverse wake-fields

experienced a relativistic charged particle in a planar II. THE LIMIT OF THE INFINITELY WIDE

structure. We show that, in the limit of a large aspect BEAM IN A PLANAR STRUCTURE

ratio beam, the net deflecting wake-fields vanishes.

Practical implications of this result for short wavelength The structure considered here is a plane-symmetric

advanced accelerators are discussed. dielectric-loaded geometry, with a dielectric material of

permittivity ε > 1 ( µ = 1) in the regions a ≤ y ≤ b , a

I. INTRODUCTION

vacuum gap ( ε = 1) and conducting boundaries at y = b .

The use of planar structures for advanced accelerator This structure is chosen both for ease of calculation and

applications has been discussed recently in the context of because of the recent interest displayed in dielectric-loaded

both metallic, disk-loaded millimeter wave structures for devices[1,3-5]. In the usual fashion, the Cerenkov

linear collider applications[1] and high gradient dielectric radiation induced wake-fields are assumed to travel in the

loaded-structures excited by lasers[2]. It has been noted beam propagation direction z , with phase velocity equal

that this type of electromagnetic structure may have to the beam velocity, with both ultrarelativistic,

advantages over the usual axisymmetry, in ease of vφ = vb ≅ c . Instead of the common Green function

external power coupling, and lowered space-charge approach to calculation of the wake-field response, we

forces[2]. More importantly, it has also been speculated[1- analytically calculate the wake-fields by use of energy

2] that the transverse wake-fields associated with this class balance arguments, requiring only that we determine the

of structure are mitigated, thus diminishing the beam mode characteristics of the structure, then summing the

break-up (BBU) instability which typically limits the wake-field coupling of each mode with a further

beam current in short wavelength accelerators. This convolution integral over the beam current profile.

instability arises from off-axis beam current excitation of We begin by examining the limiting case of no x

dipole mode wake-fields which in turn steer trailing dependence of the structure, beam, or resultant mode. By

particles; a measure of the strength of this problem is the assumption, the longitudinal and temporal dependence of

amplitude of the transverse wake-fields. the n-th mode excited by the beam is of the form

In this paper we show, by both theoretical and

computational analysis, that the transverse wake-field exp[iknζ ] , where ζ ≡ z − ct , and kn = ω n c . The excited

amplitude is in fact diminished for asymmetric modes in this limit are purely transverse magnetic (TM),

( σ x >> λ 0 / 2 π > σ y ) relativistic bunched beams indeed because the existence of nonvanishing Bz implies

r r

mitigate transverse wake-fields in planar structures. through the condition ∇ ⋅ B = 0 a nonvanishing By ,

Indeed, in the limit of a structure and beam which is much giving rise to a horizontal force, which is forbidden by

larger in x than in y , the transverse wake-fields vanish, symmetry. In fact, it is straightforward to show that these

in analogy to the monopole modes of axisymmetric conditions also imply that the net vertical force associated

structures. We begin our analysis in Section II by with such a wake-field vanishes, as Bx = − Ey . We shall

considering the wake-fields of a very wide beam and verify below that this behavior is obtained in the limit of

structure in this limit. In Section III, we generalize the a very wide, yet finite sized, beam.

treatment of the wake-fields to analyze the effects of finite For the TM case we need only to consider the

horizontal beam size through a Fourier decomposition of vertical dependence of the longitudinal electric field to

determine the mode fields completely. Inside of the gap

*Work supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy grants DE- ( y < a), we have

FG03-93ER40796 and W-31-109-ENG-38, and the Alfred

Ez,n = E0 exp[iknζ ] ,

P. Sloan Foundation grant BR-3225.

(1)

∞

where E0 is an arbitrary amplitude, while in the dielectric W z = ∑ ∫ f (ζ ′ )W z,n (ζ ′ − ζ )dζ ′ . (6)

n ζ

( a < y < b ) we must have

[ ]

The predictions of Eq. 6 have been verified by use of

Ez,n = An E0 exp[iknζ ] sin s y,n ( y − b ) (2) numerical simulation of the wake-fields in a planar

structure, performed using a custom 2-D finite difference

time domain code. The beam is assumed to be a rigid

with s y,n = kn ε − 1 . Application of the boundary

current distribution, infinitesimally thin in the vertical

conditions at y = a (continuity of Ez and Dy , which is ( y ) direction and with a fixed offset from the symmetry

r r

trivially derived from Ez from the relation ∇ ⋅ D = 0 ) plane y = 0 . The beam is also taken to be ultra-

allows determination of the eigenvalue of each mode relativistic and travelling in the +z direction, with a

through the transcendental relation gaussian longitudinal of standard deviation σ z . The line

charge density of the beam in x is normalized to 2 π σ z

ε −1

(

cot kn )

ε − 1 ( b − a ) = kn a

ε

, (3) statcoul/µm, with σ z in µm. The fields are advanced

using the standard leapfrog time integration algorithm.

Figure 1 shows a false-color contour map of W z for a

and the amplitude of the longitudinal electric field within case similar to the infrared wavelength examples given in

the dielectric, Ref. 2. One can clearly see the Cerenkov nature of the

wake-field in the dielectric, which displays the expected

An = csc[ sn ( b − a )] . (4) propagation angle, as well as the feature that, even

though the beam current is asymmetric with respect to the

Once the fields have been determined, the response y = 0 plane, the excited longitudinal wake is nearly

of the structure to the passage of an ultrarelativistic, symmetric (after propagation away from the simulation

horizontally oriented line charge of constant density boundary).

( ρe = λδ ( y − y0 )δ (ζ ) ) within the vacuum gap ( y0 < a )

can be calculated by energy balance. It can be shown that

for a linear wake-field[6] the net decelerating field on a

line charge associated with a wake amplitude of E0 is

Edec = E0 2. We can equate this energy loss per unit

length with the field energy per unit length left behind as

( )

λ Edec = ∫ uem − Sz dy , where the longitudinal

Poynting flux Sz = ( 4 π ) −1 Ey H x , and the EM energy

density uem = 1

2 [ε ( E 2

z ) ]

+ Ey2 + µ H x2 , with H x = − εEy .

The longitudinal wake-field behind the charge obtained

from this expression is simply

4 πλ

W z,n = Ez,n = cos[ knζ ]Θ( −ζ ) , (5)

a + εAn2 ( b − a )

where Θ is the Heaviside function which explicitly Figure 1. False color contour map of W z for a slab-

shows the causal nature of the wake-fields. It should be symmetric structure with vacuum gap half-height a = 2.5

noted from this expression that the longitudinal wake-field µm, dielectric (of permittivity ε = 4 ) in the regions

is largest for the lowest frequency mode in general. For a < y < b between the gap and the conducting boundaries

the slab-symmetric, laser-pumped accelerator proposed in

Ref. 2, however, the examples given have the device at y = b = 5 µm, from time-domain electromagnetic field

operating on a higher frequency mode of the structure. solver. The ultra-relativistic beam distribution is infinite

This could pose a beam-loading problem, as the beam in x , with line charge density λ = dq dx = 2 π σ z ,

gains energy from a mode which it is poorly coupled to,

in comparison to the modes which it loses energy to in infinitesimal in y (at y = 1 µm) and gaussian in z with

the form of wake-fields. standard deviation σ z = 0.5 µm, centered about z = 27.5

To obtain the full wake-field response from a beam µm. The color map in linear and in spectral order.

with an arbitrary current profile ( ρe = λδ ( y − y0 ) f (ζ ) ),

we must perform a longitudinal convolution over the Figure 2 shows the net vertical wake-field

point response, W y = Ey + Bx excited by the beam in this case; one can

see that W y essentially vanishes inside of the vacuum

gap. Figure 3 displays a comparison between the like, or deflecting component, which produces deflecting

simulation and analytical results for W z in this case. The forces nearly independent of y for small vertical offsets.

results are in good agreement, with some discrepancies Since the modes under consideration are not pure

due to the transient fields found in the time-domain TM, but are hybrid modes, we must find the longitudinal

simulation which are not present in the analytical magnetic field to specify all the fields. In the gap region,

treatment. this field has the form

sinh ( k x y )

Bz,n = E0 exp[iknζ ] sin ( k x x ) . (8)

cosh ( k x y )

limit, and in this case one must be very careful in finding

the transverse components of the fields in the vacuum

region. They are:

cosh ( k x y )

Ex,n = −i n 0 exp[iknζ ] sin ( k x x )

k E

2k x sinh ( k x y )

sinh ( k x y )

exp[iknζ ] cos( k x x )

kn E0

Ey,n = −i (9)

2k x cosh ( k x y )

k k sinh ( k x y )

Bx,n = iE0 n − x exp[iknζ ] cos( k x x )

Figure 2. False color contour map of W y for structure 2k x kn cosh ( k x y )

and beam described in Figure 1. The transverse wake- k k cosh ( k x y )

By,n = −iE0 n + x exp[iknζ ] sin ( k x x )

sinh ( k x y )

field essentially vanishes in the vacuum gap for an

infinitely wide (in x ) beam. The lack of full cancellation 2k x kn

of Ey + Bx is due mainly to the electric and magnetic 1

field centers in the calculation being one-half of a spatial

and time step apart. Analytical

Computational

Wz (sim. units)

0.5

The wake-fields due to a beam of finite horizontal

extent can be found by generalizing the above analysis to

beams of horizontally harmonic charge profile, e.g. 0

ρe,k x = λ ( k x ) cos( k x x )δ ( y − y0 )δ (ζ ) , where λ is now

the peak line charge density. This profile can be viewed as

a Fourier component of a finite beam, i . e . -0.5

that the waveguide now has conducting side-walls with

separation in Lx (allowed wave-numbers k x = mπ / Lx , -1

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

m = 1, 3, 5... ) and the beam distribution in x is centered

and symmetric within these walls. Partial wake-fields

z (µm )

obtained from this harmonic analysis can therefore be Figure 3. Comparison of the values of W z (as a function

summed to find the complete wake-fields. of z at y = 1 µm) given by time-domain electromagnetic

field solver and the predictions of Eqs. 5 and 6, for case of

The longitudinal electric field associated with the n- Figs. 1 and 2.

th mode of the wake-fields that the harmonic beam can

couple to has the following form in the vacuum region; It should be noted that one cannot obtain the case of

the uniform beam by taking the limit k x ⇒ 0 in Eqs. 9,

cosh ( k x y )

Ez,n = E0 exp[iknζ ] cos( k x x ) .

because these expressions were obtained by assuming that

(7)

sinh ( k x y ) k x >> kn / γ , where γ = 1 − β 2 (

is the Lorentz factor )

−1/ 2

The cosh ( k x y ) dependence indicates the monopole-like, the gratifying result that the transverse forces on a

or accelerating, component (independent of y in first order relativistic particle of charge q , due to the modes

for small vertical offsets) and the sinh ( k x y ) is the dipole- described by Eqs. 8,

cosh ( k x y )

E0 exp[iknζ ] sin ( k x x )

kx

Fx,n = i The fields in the dielectric, unlike those in the gap,

kn sinh ( k x y ) can be found by standard wave-guide analysis; for brevity

, (10)

sinh ( k x y )

their derivation is omitted. Following the same

= −i x E0 exp[iknζ ] cos( k x x )

k prescription used to obtain Eqs. 3-5, we obtain a

Fy,n

kn cosh ( k x y ) transcendental expression for the eigenvalues of the

symmetric modes,

vanish in the limit that k x ⇒ 0 , as we had found in the

uniform line charge ( k x = 0 ) beam case. This is perhaps

the primary result in this paper, simply stated; for highly

cot

( ε − 1)kn2 − k x2 ( b − a ) coth( k x a ) ( ε − 1)

( )kn 2

kx −1 =

asymmetric ( σ x >> σ y , with associated k x ~ σ x−1 the 2

( ε − 1) kn

Gaussian beams typical of a linear collider) beams in slab- + 1. (11)

symmetric structures, transverse wake-fields are strongly 2ε kx

suppressed. In fact, since all wake-fields are proportional

The eigenvalues of the antisymmetric modes are simply

to λ , the transverse wake-fields scale as σ x−2 . This result

obtained by substitution of tanh ( k x a ) for coth ( k x a ) in

mitigates one of the major objections to use of high

frequency accelerating structures, that the transverse wake- Eq. 11. The longitudinal wake-fields associated with the

fields scale prohibitively with frequency. This objection symmetric modes are

holds for cylindrically symmetric structures, but can be

greatly eased by use of slab structures. W z,n ( k x ) = (12)

4 πλ cosh(k x y0 ) cosh(k x y) cos( k x x ) cos(knζ )Θ(−ζ )

0.3

2k x [( kx

kn )

2

+1 + ] [ ε cosh 2 ( k x a )

sin 2 [ sn ( b−a )]

+

sinh 2 ( k x a )

cos2 [ sn ( b−a )] ][( kx

sn )

2

+2 ]( b−a

2 )+K

Wz (sim. units)

4sn

[

sinh 2 ( k x a )

cos2 [ sn ( b−a )]

−

ε cosh 2 ( k x a )

sin 2 [ sn ( b−a )] ]( kx

sn )

2

+ 4 εk x sn cosh ( k x a ) sinh ( k x a )

kn2 ( ε −1) sin[ sn ( b−a )] cos[ sn ( b−a )]

0

those of the antisymmetric modes are obtained by

substitution of sinh ( k x ỹ ) for cosh ( k x ỹ ) and vice versa,

-0.1

Analytical A discrete sum and convolution integral similar to

-0.3 Computational Eq. 6 which sums over both symmetric and

antisymmetric modes, as well as the beam charge

-0.4 distribution, must be performed to obtain the full wake-

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

fields for a beam of finite extent in configuration space.

z (µm) The resultant expressions have also been compared to

0.2 simulations of this periodic (in x) system, with W y and

0.15 (b) W z obtained by both methods shown in Figure 4. The

W (sim. units)

is based on discretizing the Maxwell equations after

0.05 Fourier transforming with respect to x . The discrepancies

in the two approaches due to transient effects are slightly

0

more pronounced in this case, but again the agreement is

-0.05 quite good. Parametric studies with computer simulations

have also verified the suppression of transverse wake-

y

-0.1

Computational fields for wide beams.

Analytical

-0.15

IV. CONCLUSIONS

-0.2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

In conclusion, we have theoretically and

z (µm ) computationally analyzed the transverse wake-fields in a

Figure 4. Comparison of the values of (a) W z and slab-symmetric dielectric-loaded structure. We have found

a suppression of the transverse wake-fields for wide beams

(b) W y ≡ Fy / q (as a function of z at y = 1 µm) given by

(with small horizontal spatial frequencies) in these

time-domain electromagnetic field solver and the structures. This result allows the more serious

predictions of Eqs. 6 and 12, for the identical structure and consideration of short wavelength advanced accelerator

beam of Figs. 1-3, but with beam charge distribution schemes, which have potential application to linear

modulated with k x = 0. 4 µm -1. colliders as well as radiation producing accelerators (FELs,

Compton scattering sources), as it mitigates the Extensions of this theoretical work on wake-fields in

scaling[7] of the transverse wakes which limit the current slab-symmetric structures is presently underway, both by

in cylindrically symmetric devices, from these authors and A. Chao[11]. These efforts include the

W ⊥′ ≡ ∂ y W y ∝ k⊥3 ∝ k03 ( k⊥ is the transverse wavenumber treatment of Gaussian beams, which produce diffractive

of the mode, analogous to our present k x ) in the wakes which have useful analogies to Gaussian

electromagnetic modes in lasers. We have also undertaken

cylindrical case, to W ⊥′ ∝ k x3 ∝ σ x−3 in the slab case. In an analysis of the flute instability[12] found in this type

short wavelength accelerators, the limitations on injector of system which is driven preferentially by the transverse

pulse length implies that a macroscopic pulse is to be wake-fields with k x ∝ a −1 . This instability, which

captured and accelerated in the structure as a multiple

causes the beam to break up into filaments (as opposed to

micro-pulse train. For this reason, the limit on accelerated

the multibunch BBU discussed above, in the entire bunch

charge comes from multi-bunch beam breakup. Following

train undergoes a dipole instability) can be stabilized by

the treatment by Ruth and Thompson[8], we have derived

Landau damping. This implies a minimum horizontal

a limit on the stable propagation distance before onset of

temperature (minimum emittance, maximum beta-

multibunch BBU instability in a channel with only

function) to achieve stability.

ponderomotive electromagnetic focusing[2] to be

zBBU ≅ σ x3 k⊥ a Nre [9], where N is the number of

electrons per microbunch and we consider only the effect V. REFERENCES

of the lowest frequency asymmetric mode. The equivalent

expression for a cylindrical structure is [1] D. Yu, et al., in Advanced Accelerator Concepts,

zBBU ≅ a 4 Nre k⊥ , which displays the disadvantage

2 800 (AIP Conf. Proc. 335, Ed. P. Schoessow, New

York, 1995) .

relative to the slab case in scaling the structure to high [2] J. Rosenzweig, et al., Phys. Rev. Letters 74, 2467

frequency. (1995).

[3] W. Gai, et al., Phys. Rev. Letters 61, 2756 (1988).

T ABLE I. Comparison beam breakup of cylindrical and

[4] K.Y. Ng, Phys. Rev. D 42, 1819 (1990)

slab symmetric resonant standing wave accelerator with an

average accelerating gradient of 1 GV/m, fundamental [5] E. Chojnacki, et al,. Proc. 1993 Particle Accelerator

wavelength λ 0 = 2 π k0 = 10.6 µ m , a = 2.5 µ m , quality Conf. 2, 815 (Ed. S.T. Corneliussen, IEEE, New

York, 1993).

factor Q = 500 , and beam loading voltage of ten percent;

[6] R. Ruth, et al., Particle Accelerators 17, 171

only lowest frequency dipole-like mode is considered.

(1985).

[7] R. Palmer, Annual Rev. of Nucl. and Particle Sci.

SLAB CASE CYLINDRICAL 40, 529 (1990).

( σ x = 100 µ m ) CASE

[8] K.A. Thompson and R.D. Ruth, Phys. Rev. D 41,

Average current 630 mA 16 mA 964 (1990)

eNc / λ 0 [9] The BBU model used here, based on the approach Ref.

Transverse wake 30 V / mm 2 / fC 10 5 V / mm 2 / fC 8, gives a stability distance which scales as W ⊥′ −1/ 2 ,

W ⊥′ / eN a dependence which is partially due to our choice of

Stability length 6.2 cm 0.52 mm the natural ponderomotive focusing found in standing

zBBU wave accelerators (see Ref. 2).

[10] P. Schoessow, et al,. to be published in Proc. 1995

Particle Accelerator Conf.

To illustrate this comparison, we give a list of

[11] A.Chao, these proceedings.

parameters describing two equivalent designs with slab

[12] For a discussion of the analogous instability found in

and cylindrical geometry, respectively, in Table 1. In both

the beam-plasma interaction, see D. Whittum, Phys.

designs, we consider a resonant standing wave (to provide

ponderomotive focusing) accelerator with an average accel- Rev. A 46, 6684 (1992).

erating gradient of 1 GV/m, wavelength

λ 0 = 2 π k0 = 10.6 µm , a = 2.5 µ m , quality factor

Q = 500 , and beam loading voltage of ten percent. It can

be seen that in the slab case, with a beam width of

σ x = 100 µm , much higher average current can be

accelerated at this beam loading level, and it can be

propagated stably longer. These advantages, we believe,

present significant motivation for further work in this

field; plans have been made to test these results using

asymmetric, high charge beams, producing cm

wavelength wake-fields, in the near future at the Argonne

Wake-field Accelerator facility[10].

- Experimental Structural DynamicsUploaded byDarmadi
- Lab 11 - Velocity of Sound in AirUploaded byLinges Lingeswaran
- Chemistry Unit 3 ReviewUploaded byimp3rial1
- davis 1995 0220Uploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- Bucher and Ewins ROSUploaded byC V CHANDRASHEKARA
- 2 Couple PndulumUploaded byCik Minn
- Dynamics 2005Uploaded bycrowle87
- Understanding Waves Lesson PlanUploaded byGreg Smith
- WavesUploaded byBHAAJI0001
- 1.3 Refraction of WavesUploaded byMadAm JaJa
- Radio-frequency Aspects of Electro-nuclear AcceleratorsUploaded byLeman Nurıoglu
- Bauchau+Rodriguez03aUploaded byHung Nguyen
- is.1893.1.2002 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant DesignUploaded byMilind Gupta
- Ultrasonic Study on Coconut Water and Sugar Solution Before and After Laser ExposureUploaded byIOSRjournal
- Machdyn Chapt 5Uploaded byRajiv Thambotheran
- Wave 1Uploaded byWei Chong
- Specin_PPP_Mar2011_V1_1_RFUUploaded bycastrojp
- 14_Rotor Dynamic Analysis Using ANSYSUploaded bymhsgh2003
- QRD Diffusers_ Technical OverviewUploaded bynathan_hw
- ASEN5022.Lecture.18.pdfUploaded byBendine Kouider
- 20140428170425 Ch 32 AUploaded bySakinah Ismail
- A 2D Electromagnetic Scattering Solver for MatlabUploaded byjalopezt
- A Dynamic Stiffness Element for Free Vibration Analysis of Delaminated Layered BeamsUploaded byesatec
- 1103.2179Uploaded byMohinuddin Ahmed
- Radio PropagationUploaded byKate San Vicente
- Science Grade 7 QuestionsUploaded bydgggeee
- 4.1.2b_testUploaded byApril Mae Baldoza
- Abstract MVUploaded byASIM RIAZ
- Abstract-MV.pdfUploaded byASIM RIAZ
- Estimate the Dynamic Damped Behavior of Fiber.pdfUploaded bychetan_thakur4278

- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- nullUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- nullUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- nullUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- nullUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- Travish 1989 461Uploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- UntitledUploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- travish 1998 525Uploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- travish 2000 0563Uploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- travish 2003 474Uploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- SLAC Instrumentation Talk MAY09 v2Uploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- kim 1993 0340Uploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab

- Projectile Motion in RealUploaded byMukhamad Saifudin
- 124994 Midterm Exam Fall 2009Uploaded byEn-Min Shih
- Active Control of High Rise Building Structures Using Combined Fuzzy LogicUploaded byAnkit Shrivastava
- 9.8 From Quanta to Quarks NotesUploaded byGaurav Madnani
- _PHY12 Problem Set 1Uploaded byAsa Ka
- Structural Analysis tUploaded byneeraj856
- tut16Uploaded byAndre Oliveira
- TorsionUploaded bydixn__
- An Overview of Receiver Function AnalysisUploaded byfachmy
- psperUploaded byAnonymous fjzuzI
- Unified Development of Lateral Directional Departure CriteriaUploaded byVirginTebow
- A2T-QuadraticGravityProjectUploaded byNicholas Yates
- Acts 9101 - Ac 01 - QuestionnaireUploaded bySam Dichoso
- PWkbk5EUploaded byBader Jaafar
- Fluidisation reportUploaded byBenjamin Jie
- Darcy's LawUploaded byLawrenceLopez
- FHWA Design for Soil-Nail Walls - SLD MethodUploaded byThomas Bryan
- Band Theory of SolidsUploaded byrekhajayarajan
- shm lab group 5Uploaded byapi-256870811
- 4.1 - Further MechanicsUploaded byEmperor Saladin
- Topic 3 - Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis HandoutsUploaded byjulspd
- Reddy 1997Uploaded byWellington Rhoden De Lemos
- Quantum Dots, Nanowires and NanotubesUploaded byLIAKMAN
- Stress Linearisation for Practising Engineers-01Uploaded byMiguel Castro Ramos
- Advanced strength of materials paper modelUploaded bydurgaraokamireddy
- 2.4 Uniform Circular MotionUploaded byMartin
- Fema Shear WallUploaded bySudish Amatya
- Yiouta_GeoDenverUploaded bywolvesy
- Fundamentals of the Finite Element MethodUploaded byDerrick Corea
- Friction and Its EffectsUploaded byShakeel Malek