You are on page 1of 44

2016

UAVSTATEOF
PLAYFOR
DEVELOPMENT
Innovations in Pr ogr am and Hum anitar ian Contexts

, BRIGHTFRONTGROUP

2016 International Bank for Reconstruction


and Development
Development!/ The World Bank
1818 H
H Street
Street NW
Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
Internet: www.worldbank.org
This document is produced by BrightFront
BrightFront
Group. Report
Report authors are Patrick
Patrick Meier,
Meier. Faine
Greenwood,
Greenwood. Rose Shuman and F.
F. Mita Paramita.
The findings, interpretations and conclusions
expressed in this report do not
not necessarily
reflect the views of
of the Executive Directors of
of
the World Bank or
or the governments they
represent. The World Bank does not
not guarantee
the accuracy of
of the data included in this work.

Right
m issions
Rightss and Per
Permissions

The material in this work is subject to copyright.


Because The World Bank encourages
dissemination of
of its knowledge,
knowledge. this work may
be reproduced, in whole or in part, for
noncommercial purposes as long as full
attribution to this work is given.
Any queries on rights and licenses, including
subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the
Office of
of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H
H
Street
Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax:
202-522-2422;

pubrights@worldbank.org.
Email: pubrights@worldbank.org.

ii

Table of Contents
Overview 1
Solution Brief Structure 2
Section One: Introduction and Uses of UAVs in Development 3

UAYs and Development Sectors


UAYs and Disasters
UAYs and Yldeo Communications
Section Two: UAVs " Development Flash Case Examples 9
Section Three: UAVs, Data and Technology 19

How do UAYs Compare to Satellites?


Advantages of UAYs
How do UAYs Capture Images?
Big Data, Development + UAYs
UAYs and Data Privacy
UAY Deployment Technology
Unmanned Aerial System Core Components
Sensors & Cameras
Software. Computing. Hosting & Analysis
Practical Considerations in the Field
Conclusion 33

Glossary
Resources
Who to Contact

Th e WOrld
Wor l d .Ban
Gl obal FaciliI:J
Faci l i t y fGI'
f or DisMter
Di sast er Ilied1lClioll
Redu ct i on ud.
an d RecIlftl'J
Recover y (GFDD)
(GFDRR) bM
h as
TJu:
. .k.?.s GIoIIII
..........
OpnStrMtJllap,
_ _ fIDod.
been u si n g Open
St r eet M ap, DAYs,
UAVs, mil
an d MtIIHh
sat el l i t e fmaprJ
i m ager y lID
t o assess
f l ood rriaJr.
i sk ill
i n tIuI
the
M\mdeII1
Op. ...........
M u n den i An.ud.
Ar u an d AttIIIlapI_
At t an agal u Oya
Ri ver Basi n s. r..
I n puaaenhI,
par t n er sh i p wIdt
w i t h dae
t h e Sri
Sr i l.-bn
Lan k an
Gover n m en t m.uter
Di sast er .....
M an '"
agem eat
en t Cen
t er , as
w el l u
as dae
t h e SIIr'ft7'
Su r vey Depar
t m en t oflri
of Sr i
GaiCii_OIlIlt
CaItn',
_ well
DeputIIICid:
Lan k a, dw
t h e WlIdd.
Wor l d Bukk
Ban k i s wazIdq:
w or k i n g fa
t o bnpaDW
i m pr ove Open
St r eet M ap dat
a i n or
der t o MtIft
bet t er
LaIIra,
0pn5trMtIIbp
data"
um.1ID
_1IaIDdII
assess f i n an ci al Uldlllll'lWllwtm
an d h u m an i t ar i an rIG.
r i sk f r om ncuztq
r ecu r r i n g DuodI.
f l oods.

rro..

Cr edit World
Wor ld lIuIlr.
Bank, M
apBox, OpmStr
OpenStr ..
eetM
ap, mcttalGlohl
DigitalGlobe
Cndit
~BID,
tMap,

Overview
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also called drones, are aerial robots that can
be flown below cloud level over different types of terrain to collect image and
sensor data. In the near future, they are also likely to be used to transport
dedicated cargo. Some UAV models resemble small multi-armed helicopters,
while others resemble remote-controlled airplanes.
Development and humanitarian professionals are turning to these small,
civilian scale UAVs for a host of reasons, mostly related to data collection and to
program operations. Most UAVs carry a camera or some other kind of sensor,
often stabilized with a mechanical gimbal to ensure clear, stable pictures and
video.
UAVs that are equipped with an autopilot and GPS functionality are capable of
following pre-programmed flight paths and returning to a "home"location, with
minimal input from an operator. UAVs can even be used to transport small
physical objects from place to place, such as blood samples, vaccinations, and
other lightweight but essential supplies. Modern UAVs are increasingly easy to
use and inexpensive to operate - making it possible for anyone to collect useful
aerial data.
The potential of UAVs in development work and in humanitarian aid has only
just begun to be realized. This report is intended as a brief overview of how
UAVs work and some of the ways in which they can be put to work to further
humanitarian goals.

World Bank UAV Deployments


The World Bank has been exploring how UAVs can be used to further its
development and humanitarian aims. Here are some recent World Bank UAV
projects:

In Kosovo, a team from the World Bank's Innovation Labs worked with
the National Mapping Authority of Kosovo to test how UAVs can be
used in support of cadastral mapping, which is being conducted to
improve local land rights systems.
In Albania, the World Bank and collaborators demonstrated how UAV
imagery can be used to inexpensively monitor infrastructure assets,
establish land-parcel boundaries with community participation, and
support water infrastructure planning.
In Tanzania, UAVs were used by a World Bank team to create
high-quality maps and hydrological models of flood-impacted city
areas. UAV imagery was also used in a community mapping exercise.
In Sri Lanka, the World Bank in partnership with the Sri Lankan
Government Disaster Management Center, as well as the Sri Lankan
Survey Department, used UAVs to assess flood risk in river basins.
In Vanuatu, the World Bank's Post Disaster Needs Assessment team
used UAV imagery to identify disaster damage to buildings, following
the impact of Cyclone Pam.

These and other World Bank supported UAV deployments demonstrate that
UAVs can serve as valuable tools within existing programmatic priorities, while
increasing capacity across the institution to leverage these new approaches.
UAV systems are becoming more affordable and more people are developing
expertise in their use, meaning that the technology is becoming even more
accessible to development and humanitarian programs - a trend that is likely to
continue in the near future. Organizations around the world are finding
innovative and valuable uses for UAVs: to better prepare and plan; to
implement, monitor, and survey, as well as to bring communications videos
and photographs to life in a new way.

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

Solu
t ion Br
ief St
r u ct u r e
Solution
Brief
Structure
towards development and disaster assistance
This Solution Brief
Brief is directed towards
program practitioners who are interested in learning what UAVs
UAYs are, how they
work, and how UAVs
work.
UAYs might support their program priorities.
The Solution Brief
Brief is divided into three sections. Section One provides an
introduction, detailing when, where, and for what purposes UAVs
UAYs are
supporting development and disaster assistance programs. It explains how
UAVs
UAYs compare to satellites for image and data collection, providing a
side-by-side comparison of each platform's abilities. It then goes into more
depth regarding how UAVs
UAYs capture images, and how these images are
processed into useful data outputs.

then provides a
Briefthen
With this essential baseline established, the Solution Brief
survey overview of
of how UAVs
UAYs can be used to improve program outcomes in
major development sectors, as well as in pre- and post-disaster situations.
UAY uses are grouped by sector, allowing development and
These known UAV
humanitarian aid practitioners to quickly establish whether UAV
UAY technology is
relevant to their work.
UAY
Section Two features a broad review of micro case studies, each detailing a UAV
implementation in the field,
field, and listing relevant development sectors, SDGs,
and lead partners for each deployment. By the end of Section Two,
Two,
practitioners should be able to accurately assess
assess whether UAVs
UAYs might benefit
their own development or disaster response program.

Section Three provides a technical survey for those interested in knowing more
about how UAVs
UAYs work - for instance, if
if one is contemplating acquiring or flying
UAVs
UAYs directly, or is interested in understanding UAV
UAY functionality on a deeper
level.
Data aspects of UAV
UAY practices,
Topics covered in this section include the Big Data
underlining how computer vision and machine learning are speeding the
analysis of imagery for development and disaster response purposes.
Following is a detailed overview of
the core components in a UAV
ofthe
UAY system,
system,
including core hardware, sensors and cameras, and the accompanying
software, computing and analysis work that is required to turn aerial imagery
into insightful, actionable information for a program.
The Solution Brief
Brief closes with a Glossary of common UAV
UAY terms, as well as
further Resources for those interested in the dynamics of
of a UAV
UAY deployment.

Section One: Introduction and Uses


of UAVs in Development
UAVs and Development Sectors
UAVs have applications across many different development sectors. Generally,
practitioners turn to UAVs to provide actionable information during each stage
of a project's development: from project planning to operations,
communications, and monitoring. Development programs often decide to use
UAVs when they offer particular advantages over more traditional remote
sensing platforms - perhaps the UAV is less expensive than hiring a manned
aircraft, or the area of interest is too often obscured by heavy cloud cover.
These platform-focused considerations will be described in more detail later in
this report. Common program functions of UAVs include:

AGRICULTURE

Tracking physical condition variation over time and geography


Counting physical resources (plants, animals, buildings, etc.)
Assessments over large geographic expanses
Aerial spraying of herbicide, pesticide, and other chemicals
Small payload transport
Videography and still photography
Mapping
Precision agriculture
Creation of 3D models
Infrastructure inspection
Large volume calculation (e.g. volume of a large mound)
Distance calculation
Project monitoring and evaluation

Most Common Uses

Accurately evaluating crop health


Distinguishing different crop varieties from one another
Making "big picture" assessments of land areas that are too large to
quickly survey on the ground
Tracking and collecting livestock scattered across large geographic
areas
Enabling crop spraying without the expense of hiring a manned aircraft
or the danger of handling dangerous chemicals

Future Trends

EDUCATION

Enabling agronomists to make more accurate crop growth projections


Identifying crop pests and areas of infestation
Dropping seeds from UAV platforms

Most Common Uses

Fostering interest in science and technology in universities and in some


lower-level programs
Helping students learn transferable skills by building "Do it Yourself"
UAVs, both in class and in extracurricular and research projects
Students who know how to build and fly UAVs can then use these skills
to secure good jobs in technology, and to create their own businesses.

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

Fut
ur e Trends
Tr ends
Future
-
-

ENERGY
EXTRACTION
E
NERGY&E
XTRACTION

DIY UAVs in the classroom, as a


Increase in the use of inexpensive DIY
means of teaching engineering and electronics
electronics skills.
Schools with access to a UAV (or two) can use the data collected to do
projects in geography, cartography, journalism, and other areas that
are not explicitly rooted in engineering and in STEM
Developing UAV industry means students with these specialized skills
will be at an advantage in the job market

Most
m on Uses
Most Com
Common
-
-
-
-

Conducting power line, pipeline, flare stack and wind turbine


inspections at a greatly diminished expense and risk to technicians
Surveying existing mines in 2D and 3D; quick volume calculations
Mine planning
Efficient offshore oil and gas rig inspection

Fut
ur e Trends
Tr ends
Future
-
-
-
-
-

E
NVIRONMENT&N
ATURAL
ENVIRONMENT
NATURAL
R
ESOURCES
RESOURCES

Seeking new mining and oil field sites over large, inhospitable areas
(and identifying existing artisanal and small-scale sites)
Improved gas emissions monitoring
Earlier oil spill detection, over large areas
areas
Soil sample collection and delivery, and other delivery functions
focused on smaller and lighter objects
Site security management and support

Most
m on Uses
Most Com
Common
-
-
-
-
-
-

Wildlife monitoring and surveys, both by reserve rangers


rangers and by
scientific researchers
Detecting illegal deforestation in protected areas
Mapping different forest types, and monitoring logging efforts
Monitoring world impact of global warming, such as changes in sea ice
Collecting data about volcanic emissions
Ongoing monitoring of
fires
of forest fires

Fut
ur e Trends
Tr ends
Future
-
-
-
-

GOVERNANCE
G
OVERNANCE

Spotting and deterring wildlife poachers over large protected areas


Multi-year use of UAV imagery may aid in spotting macrotrends in
climate change
Monitoring fisheries
fisheries and protected marine areas
Collecting water, soil, and other biological samples for research
trends and changes
Tracking trends
changes in urban air pollution

Most
m on Uses
Most Com
Common
-
-
-

Cadastral surveying in areas with outdated or non-existent records


Crop loss and property damage assessments for insurance payouts
Data to hasten financing for roads and other construction projects

Future
Fut
ur e Trends
Tr ends

-
-

Increased adoption by insurance agencies across different sectors


Regular cadastral surveys, at a lower cost than required by manned
aircraft or satellites

Section One: UAVs in Development

HEALTH, NUTRITION &POPUlATION

Most Common Uses

Agricultural monitoring for food security purposes


Searching for mosquito breeding areas, as part of efforts to quash
mosquito-borne illness
Some early warning systems for stressed crops, allowing farmers to
respond quickly before crop failure takes place
Quick aerial settlement and population counts and evaluations, without
expense of satellite imagery or manned aircraft
Early experiments with release of sterile or otherwise treated insects to
combat pests

Future Trends

MACROECONOMICS &FISCAL

Future Trends

POVEm &EQUITY

Increased use of UAV technology for epidemiological research and


mapping
Delivery of lightweight medical supplies, and quick transfer of blood
samples and medical tests from remote locations to testing centers
Transport of organs from one location to another
Use of sophisticated multispectral imagery for evaluating plant
nutrition

Delivery of financial documents and other physical documents in areas


without access to roads
Monitoring migrant movement across favored ocean crossings
Reliable crop and agricultural forecasts, improving economic forecasts
Inexpensive inspections for faster property and infrastructure repairs

Most Common Uses

Inexpensively detecting illegal use of land claimed by indigenous


people, minorities, and other disempowered groups.
Enabling creation of updated cadastral surveys.
Speeding creation of updated maps of swiftly-growing urban areas,
helping city services expand to more residents

Future Trends

SOCIAL PROTECTION &LABOR

Increased use of UAV imagery for mapping temporary settlements, IDP


camps, and expanding urban areas.
Improved documentation of land rights for populations subject to
"land-grabbing" risk
Inexpensive source of aerial data and information, accessible to groups
unable to afford or access relevant data
Speeding creation of updated maps of swiftly-growing urban areas,
helping city services expand to more residents
Creation of accessible technology jobs with lower barrier to entry.

Most Common Uses

Track migrant movement across Mediterranean


Dangerous jobs, such as oil rig and power line inspection.

Future Trends

Inexpensive civilian UAVs can be used to document human rights


violations, illegal actions by private companies and other actors, and
government excesses
Inspecting businesses and individuals suspected of using slave labor
Recording work-site violations by employers

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

SOCIAL
RURAL
RESILIENCE
SOCIALURBAN
URBANR
URAL&R
ESILIENCE

Most
m on Uses
Most Com
Common
-
-
-
-

Immediate post-disaster mapping, hastening damage assessments


Search and rescue sweeps in aftermath of
of disaster
Mapping in months and years after disaster, smoothing rebuilding
efforts
Collecting predictive data, such as flooding estimates, forest fire risk
factors, and risk of
of bridge collapse based on stream and river debris

Future
Fut
ur e Trends
Tr ends

-
-
-

TRADE
TRADE&COMPETITIVENESS
COMPETITIVENESS

Reliable land mine detection at less risk to human surveyors.


Creating high-quality pre-disaster baseline maps for at-risk areas.
Radiation mapping in areas near nuclear sites

Most
m on Uses
Most Com
Common
-
-

New jobs with a lower barrier to entry than traditional aerospace


Participation in global market for both UAV hardware and software.

Future
Fut
ur e Trends
Tr ends

-
-

TRANSPORT
ICTT
TRANSPORT&IC

Employment opportunities in a variety of


of industries (entertainment,
construction, hobby, energy and extractive, surveying, research)
Competitive global market fuels technological innovation

Most
m on Uses
Most Com
Common
-
-
-

Road and bridge inspections and evaluations


Railway inspections
Surveying in advance of
of new road and railway construction

Fut
ur e Trends
Tr ends
Future
-
-
-
-
-

WATER
WATER

Development of
of large unmanned aircraft capable of
of transporting
humans
Tests of
of delivering cellular data to under-served areas from airborne
UAVs
Creation of
?droneport ? to
of UAV delivery networks, moving from one "droneport"
another
Moving smaller cargo from large ships to port areas
At-sea emissions detection

Most Com
Common
Most
m on Uses

-
-
-
-

Evaluating climate-change based glacial melt and potential impact on


future water supplies
Mapping at-risk areas to aid flood prevention and mitigation efforts
Irrigation monitoring for agriculture
Monitoring water supplies and water levels during drought conditions

Fut
ur e Trends
Tr ends
Future
-
-
-

Efficient water sampling & sample delivery for water quality evaluation
Monitoring and controlling damaging algae blooms
farmers pinpoint
Accurate crop monitoring with UAV imagery can help farmers
where water is needed most, reducing their overall usage

Section One: UAVs in Development

UAVs and Disasters


In addition to supporting development programs across many sectors, UAVs
can add value during all phases of the disaster cycle - from disaster
preparedness and risk reduction, to disaster response and early recovery to
long term reconstruction. For disaster preparedness and risk reduction, UAVs
can provide high resolution basemaps to inform preparedness and risk
reduction efforts. The World Bank has used UAVs to do this in Tanzania in 2015.
These basemaps are equally valuable for sudden onset disaster response
activities to assess disaster damage, by analyzing before and after imagery.
Regarding post-disaster reconstruction and development, UAVs can inform
reconstruction strategies and monitor the progress of development projects.
Even in the absence of pre-disaster basemaps, aerial images captured via UAV
can inform Post Disaster Needs Assessments (PDNA) by identifying and
quantifying the extent of damage.
The World Bank used UAVs to support PDNAs after both Cyclone Pam in
Vanuatu (2015) and Cyclone Winston in Fiji (2016). The aerial imagery was used
to identify infrastructure damage to houses and buildings, complementing
field-based assessment surveys. In Fiji, UAV-collected imagery was added to
aerial imagery collected via manned aircraft, giving analysts multiple sources of
information.
Lastly, aerial imagery captured by UAV can be turned into 3D models, Digital
Terrain Models (DTMs) and other information products that have relevance
vis-a-vis humanitarian applications. 3D models - which show multiple sides of a
damaged structure or area - can be used to carefully analyze disaster damage,
which involves change and movement. As such analyzing disaster damage
using 2D imagery is notably more difficult. DTMs, meanwhile, can be used to
identify high flood risk areas (i.e., low-lying areas) and thus can be used to
identify communities and populations in particular danger from flooding.
High-accuracy algorithms can be used to automatically detect areas of rubble,
and to determine if oblique (at an angle) UAV images include buildings or other
particularly important objects in them. Algorithms are currently being
developed that are capable of distinguishing between different levels of
damage as shown in UAV imagery, across different types of disasters.

UAV Aerial Video of Disaster Damage

cyclone Pam - Nguna Island. Vanuatu.


Credit World Bank & Patrick Meier

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

UAVs an
d Video Com
m u n icat ion s
and
Communications
While the majority of this report focuses on data collection and payload
of civilian UAVs
transportation, by far the most popular and widespread use of
today is for aerial videography and photography.
photography, Movie studios and
videographers around the world have embraced UAV technology, using them to
capture dramatic tracking shots and impressive high-altitude images. Aerial
footage can turn a good video into a great one - making UAVs a powerful public
communication tool in the development and disaster sectors.

UAVs capable of creating high-quality video and photos are inexpensive and are
also increasingly easy to use, even by beginners. Shooting video or taking
processing. and the
photos with a UAV requires relatively little post-production processing,
outputs can be edited in any standard photo or video editing suite. UAVs have
many communications and storytelling applications, and more applications are
being developed all the time. A partial list includes:
-
-
-

-
-
-

UNI CEF in
i n Kiryandongo
Ki r yan don go
UNICEF

UNICEF
UNI CEF Uganda
Ugan da used
u sed both
bot h traditionU
t r adi t i on al
photographs
ph ot ogr aph s and
an d aerial
aer i al footage
f oot age to
t o tell
t el l a
st or y of
of successful
su ccessf u l infrastructure
i n f r ast r u ct u r e
story
development
camps.
devel
opm en t in
i n Kiryandongo
Ki r yan don go IDP
I DP cam
ps.
Cr
edit UNICEF
Credit

Visually representing a situation or a program setting that covers large


distances or can best be appreciated from a "big
?big picture?
picture" perspective
Providing a comprehensive visual overview of
of a site - detailing scale,
density, state, range of
of ongoing activities, etc.
Showing large-scale changes over time in the same place (such as crop
health, water level changes due to climate change, changes in the size
of a refugee camp, or decreasing forest cover due to illegal
of
deforestation)
Showing how areas relate or link to one another, such as roads and
footpaths in a slum area
Producing engaging, exciting footage of
of people gathered in a location,
such as children in school or participants in a political gathering.
Providing credible proof
proof of
of concept of
of program outputs, such as new
infrastructure

Section Two: UAVs & Development


Case Examples
How can UAVs Support Development Priorities?
This section provides a broad selection of UAV deployments in the field. The purpose is to provide a brief overview of
what is possible today, as well as directions in the near future.

CADASTRAL AND COMMUNITY MAPPING WITH UAYS IN ALBANIA


World Bank

December 2013

Left: Elbasan National Highway depicted by a raster elevation model draped with texture. Right: Triangulated Irregular Network
(TIN) of the Elbasan Nationaillighway in Albania. Credit World Bank
A December 2013 pilot test in Albania used UAV imagery to carry out cadastral mapping, with the dual goals of supporting land
registration efforts and improving the quality of existing geospatial data in the test area. With funding from a World Bank innovation
grant within the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region, the team flew a multi rotor mapping UAV over three different areas, producing
aerial photographs, digital orthophotos, maps and 3D models.
Flights over the Elbasan National Highway and nearby high-tension power lines demonstrated how UAV imagery can be used to
inexpensively monitor infrastructure assets, while flights in the Komuna Farke area demonstrates UAVs utility in dense, urban
environments. Imagery gathered at the Fushe Milot agricultural area - slated to host a new urban water supply project - was used to
establish land-parcel boundaries with community participation. The results also aided in Detection & Prevention ofInfrastructure
Planning Conflicts, as planned water lines pierced through previously unmapped buildings.
In total, the team flew 21 flights covering a distance of about 4000 KM. The resulting geo-referenced data replaced out-of-date
orthophotos and paper maps, supporting the Albanian National Spatial Data Infrastructure.

Link: http://www.microaerialprojects.comlv-map/project-albania/

Parcel boundaries established with participation of Fushe Milot


community using high resolution UAV-derived orthophoto.
Credit: World Bank

10

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

SYSTEMATIC
LAND
REGISTRATION
IN THE
REPUBLIC
OFFK
KOSOVO
SYSTEMATICL
ANDR
EGISTRATIONIN
THER
EPUBLICO
OSOVO
World
Bank
Group
Global
and
Geospatial
Bank
Wor l d Ban
k Gr
ou p Gl
obal Land
Lan d an
d Geospat
i al Unit;
Un i t ; Innovation
I n n ovat i on Labs in
i n World
Wor l d Ban
k
(LLI);
Cadastre
Vice
Vi ce Presidency
Pr esi den cy for
f or Leadership,
Leader sh i p, Learning,
Lear n i n g, and
an d Innovation
I n n ovat i on (LLI
); Real Estate
Est at e Cadast
re
and
Registration
an
d Regi
st r at i on Project
Pr oj ect (RECAP) in
i n Kosovo

ofthe
highway
and
archaeological
3D model
m odel of
the h
i gh w ay construction
con st r u ct i on an
d an ar
ch aeol ogi cal
site
produced
Credit
si
t e pr
odu ced with
w i t h 24 hour
h ou r turn-around.
t u r n -ar ou n d. Cr
edit World
Wor ld Bank

Decem
ber 2015
December

operates
After
Af t er 3 days training
t r ai n i n g the
t h e team
t eam oper
at es as a mobile
m obi l e unit
unit
producing
maps
communities.
Credit
Erik
pr
odu ci n g m
aps with
w i t h com
m u n i t i es. Cr
edit Er
ik Sundheim

's people lack access to formal land rights


Almost 70 percent of
of the planet
planet's
rights system, and the problem is even worse for women.
Women in the Krusha
Krusha e Madhe village in Kosovo are attempting to rebuild after the end of
of the Balkan conflicts. The World Bank has
rights issues, and has begun to experiment with
launched a $12 million Real Estate and Cadaster Project in Kosovo to address land rights
using UAV imagery to create high-definition maps of
of areas that have yet to be added to the national cadaster system.
A team from the World Bank's Innovation Labs traveled to Kosovo with a Sensefly eBee drone in December 2015 to carry out a
cadastral mapping activity, in concert with the National Mapping Authority of
flights
of Kosovo. The group ultimately carried out 25 flights
across 1,581ha,
was able to create an orthophoto
1,581 ha, collecting 11,315 photographs with a resolution of
of up to 3 CMs per pixel. The team was
depicting a 300 hectare area in just 24 hours, a considerable time improvement over ground-based surveying methods. The World
Bank hopes that Kosovo cadastral mapping authorities will continue to integrate UAV imagery into their work,
work, as the Real Estate and
rights systems.
Cadastre Project continues to help more Kosovars get access to functioning land rights
http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/featu re12016/01/07/d rones-offer-i n novative-sol ution-for-Ioca I-rna ppi ng
Link: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2016/01/07/drones-offer-innovative-solution-for-local-mapping

CYCLONE
POST
DISASTER
NEEDS
IN V
VANUATU
C
YCLONEP
OSTD
ISASTERN
EEDSASSESSMENT
ASSESSMENTIN
ANUATU
Wor l d Ban
k GFDRR; Gover
n m en t of
of Vanuatu
Van u at u Nat
i on al Di
sast er Risk
Ri sk M
an agem en t Of
f i ce;
World
Bank
Government
National
Disaster
Management
Office;
Humanitarian
OpenStreetMap;
UAViators;
UAVi at or s; MapBox;
M apBox ; Hu
m an i t ar i an Open
St r eet M ap; MicroMappers
M i cr oM apper s

M
ar ch 2015
March
Damage to build ings mapped
Irom Xcralt footage. Source
Micromappers.

Legend

O _Fu llyde stroyed


O _Partiallydamaged

O _littleornodamage

Dam
age tto
o bu
i l di n gs mapped.
m apped. Cr
edit M
icr om apper s
Damage
buildings
Credit
Micromappers

Credit
Patrick
Meier
Left:
Lef
t : Damaged
Dam aged vegetation
veget at i on in
i n Vanuatu.
Van u at u . Cr
edit Patr
ick M
eier
Over 150 UAV flights were carried out during the World Bank?
Bank'ss Post Disaster Needs Assessments following Cyclone Pam in Vanuatu in
2015. The World Bank faced a "Big
?Big Data?
Data" challenge as they were already overwhelmed with other datasets. To this end, the Bank
activated the Digital Humanitarian Network (DHN), leading to rapid analysis of
of both nadir and oblique imagery to identify disaster
damage to buildings. Volunteers from the DHN analyzed over 4,000 aerial images in a matter of days. Months after these efforts, the
annotated imagery was used to create automated feature-detection algorithms by drawing on computer vision and deep machine
learning techniques. At present, these algorithms can automatically determine with 95% accuracy whether oblique images include
buildings in them. The algorithms can thus filter out unnecessary images, thus saving imagery analysts time.
Link: https://www.gfdrr.org/sites/default/files/publication/PDNA_Cyclone_Pam_Vanuatu_Report.pdf
https://www.gfdrr.orglsites/defaultlfiles/publication/PDNA_Cyclone_Pam_Vanuatu_Report.pdf
Video: https://youtu.be/bYWGF7Am6TA

Section Two: Case Examples

DELIVERING STERILE TSETSE FLIES TO ADDRESS DISEASE IN ETHIOPIA


International Atomic Energy Agency; FAO (UN); Ethiopian Ministry of Livestock; Embention

UAV approaching zone to release sterilised male tsetse flies.


Video still, credit Embention.

Ongoing

UAV depositing payload of tsetse flies. Video still, credit Embention

Tsetse flies can cause debilitating disease in both humans and livestock, impacting health and food security. Spanish UAV-maker
Embention has partnered with the International Atomic Energy Agency to create an umanned system capable of releasing large
numbers of irridated, sterilized male tsetse flies into the wild, reducing the total population. As of April 2016, the fixed-wing
Embention UAV was undergoing testing in Ethiopia. Ethiopian authorities have been releasing sterilized flies from manned aircraft for
years to combat the parasite that causes trypanosomiasis (popularly known as "sleeping sickness.")
Why use a drone to deliver the flies? Precision and price: the insects can be delivered in more specific areas, and operating the UAV is
less expensive than hiring the services of an airplane and a human pilot. The "Drones Against Tsetse" project ultimately hopes to use
the technology to rid a 200,000 square KM area in Ethiopia of tsetse flies, making it usable again for human habitation and
agriculture. The UAV project is also supported by Ethiopian Ministry of Livestock and the United Nations Food and Agricultural
Organisation (FAO).

Link: http://www.embention.com/en/projecUdrones-against-tsetse.htm

MONITORING CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON GLACIAL WATER SUPPLIES WITH CUSTOMBUlLT UAVS IN PERU
Ohio State University

Ongoing

A wetland in the Cordillera Blanca mountain range in Peru.


Right: A lake formed by glacial melt in the Cordillera Blanca
mountain range in Peru. Credit Oliver Wigmore, courtesy of The
Ohio State University.
Glaciers are an important water source for communities in Peru's Cordillera Blanca mountain range - but warming climates could
spell trouble for local water security. Ohio State researchers have begun using maps made by custom-built drones to study the
impact of climate change on glaciers and wetlands, information that communities can use to plan ahead as the planet warms. With
the UAV, scientists are able to inexpensively collect 10-cm resolution imagery in cloudy conditions that would obscure satellite views.
Thermal cameras allow the researchers to identify which parts of the glacier are melting fastest, and an aerial perspective afford
them a more "big picture" perspective than can be provided by mre traditional ground surveys. Not all the news is bad: the ongoing
Ohio State study has found that the Cordillera Blanca groundwater system is in fact storing some glacial melt water, potentially
buffering the water-supply decrease caused by the glacier meltdown.
More worrisomely, UAV imagery indicates the Llaca glacier is thinning by 0.7 meters on average each year. Drone-data collected by
ongoing glacier observation will, it is hoped, help water managers make better climate-change driven decisions in other glacial areas.

Link: https:/Inews.osu.edu/news/2015/12/15/thermodronel

12

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

M
APPINGARTISANAL
ARTISANALD
IAMONDM
INESIN
UINEA
MAPPING
DIAMOND
MINES
IN G
GUINEA
USAID,
Geological
USAI D, United
Un i t ed States
St at es Geol
ogi cal Survey
Su r vey

Ju n e 2014
June
The
Th e team
t eam flew
f l ew a
DJI
Ph an t om 1, a
DJI Phantom
multi-rotor
m u l t i -r ot or UAV to
to
col
l ect dat
collect
dataa at
artisanal
seven ar
t i san al
diamond
di
am on d mining
m ining
sites
si
t es in
i n the
the
For
ecar i ah
Forecariah
Pr
ef ect u r e of
Prefecture
of
w est er n Gu
i n ea.
western
Guinea.
Si t e m
ap of
Site
map
of
artisanal
diamond
ar
t i san al di
am on d
m i n i n g sites
si t es in
in
mining
Western
Guinea.
West er n Gu
i n ea.
Cr
edit USGS
USGS
Credit

Stemming the flow of conflict diamonds requires accurate production tracking - a serious challenge in remote areas in developing
countries, like Forecariah Prefecture in western Guinea. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Agency for International
Development (USAID) experimented with the use of a small UAV for mapping and monitoring artisanal diamond mining sites in June
June
2014, as part of
towards formalizing the diamond industry under the Kimberley Process.
of the world's path towards
DJII Phantom 2 drone for their pilot project, collecting both video and still images with 2
The USGS/USAID team used an inexpensive DJ
different digital camera models, while flying at an average altitude of
of 100 meters above the ground. The team found the imagery to
of the area, and noted that the ease of
of collecting the data with the drones could
be higher-resolution than available satellite imagery of
make artisanal and small-scale mining surveys more easy to regularly repeat.
With the images, the team produced 10 cm resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of mining areas, as well as high-resolution
ortho-image mosaics of
the areas of
ofthe
of interest. These products will be used to locate and better understand area diamond deposits,
and to conduct participatory mapping exercises to decrease conflict over desirable mining land.

Link: http://irevolutions.org/2015/08/11/uavs-map-diamond-mines/
http://irevolutions.orgl2015/08/11/uavs-map-diamond-mines/

VECTOR
CONTROL
AND
OFFAEDES
MOSQUITOES
REDUCE
DENGUE
RISK
IN G
GUATEMALA
VECTORC
ONTROLA
NDSURVEILLANCE
SURVEILLANCEO
AEDESM
OSQUITOESTO
TOR
EDUCEllKA
ZIKAAND
ANDD
ENGUEVIRUS
VIRUSR
ISKIN
UATEMALA
RTI
n t er n at i on al
RTI IInternational

M
ar ch & April
Apr i l 2016
March

Aer i al image
i m age over
r u r al Gu
at em al a.
Aerial
over rural
Guatemala.

Credit
International
Cr
edit RTI Inter
national
of spreading the Zika
Zika and dengue viruses. RTI is researching integration of
of
Bites from the Aedes
Aedes mosquito are the primary sources of
UAV technology into Aedes mosquito surveillance and vector control efforts at five test sites in Guatemala.
Zika and dengue. Using UAVs, RTI collected aerial
Vector control attempts to limit or eradicate insects that transmit diseases such as Zika
images that were analyzed to identify and map breeding sites?
such as cisterns,
sites-such
cisterns, pots and buckets, old tires, flower pots, and unused
fountains-that
fountains? that could potentially support Aedes
Aedes mosquito populations near rural villages. These images were aggregated into
accurate maps to support targeted application of larvicides at these potential breeding sites. The maps can also be used in
communication materials to demonstrate the specific risk conditions for a given village.

Link: http://www.rti.org/impact/using-drones-vector-control-and-surveillance-aedes-mosquitoes-guatemala
http://www.rti.orglimpacttusing-drones-vector-control-and-surveillance-aedes-mosquitoes-guatemala

Section Two: Case Examples

USING UAV IMAGERY TO MAP EXPANDING AREAS IN THE CITY OF ULAAN BAATAR, MONGOLIA
Asia Foundation; Ulaan Baatar City Municipality

June 2015

The Mongolian capital of Ulaan Baatar has an an ever-expanding


"suburban" area made up largely of gers, the traditional residences
of Mongol nomads. In 2015, with support from Australian Aid, the
Asia Foundation partnered with Ulaan Baatar City Municipality
officials and local land surveyors to carry out a UAV mapping project
ofthese new neighborhoods, to help local authorities add these
new ger areas to the map and expand residents access to basic city
services, such as water and waste collection.
A Trimble UX5 fixed wing mapping UAV was used to collect over 100
square KM of elevation data and aerial imagery of ger districts, at a
detailed 9.6 CM resolution. These raw images were used to create a
variety of useful GIS data outputs, from contour maps to road maps
to accurate maps of newly-formed neighborhoods. During a
weekend "Map-a-Thon," Mongolian citizens were invited to use the
raw UAV imagery - posted on the OpenStreetMap platform - to
create their own maps, recording features and details invisible to
professional surveyors. City officials will use the UAV imagery to
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=teSTYUXB3Wg
inform their city planning efforts.
Link: http://asiafoundation.org/in-asiaI2015/06124/an-aerial-sensing-map-a-thon-in-mongolial

COUNTING ANIMALS AT THE KUZIKUS WILDLIFE RESERVE IN NAMIBIA


Drone Adventures; MicroMappers; Kuzikus Wildlife Reserve; Polytechnic of Namibia;
I'Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)

Sept 2014

Left: Aerial view of a giraffe. Credit DroneAdventures

A combined team used UAV imagery and crowd-sourcing technology to conduct wildlife counts at the Kuzikus Wildlife Reserve in
Namibia, testing the effectiveness of aerial imagery for both wildlife census work and crowd-sourced solutions. To support the
wildlife count crowdsourcing effort, the MicroMappers organization adapted its "Aerial Clicker" platform, which was originally
developed to crowdsource the tagging of aerial imagery of humanitarian crises. The MicroMapper team realized that wildlife counts
were an ideal non-disaster method oftesting the technology.
Working with UAV-focused Swiss NGO Drone Adventures, Polytechnic of Namibia, and l'Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
(EPFL), the team shot over 25,000 aerial photos of conserved land at Kuzikus, using Sensefly's eBee fixed wing mapping drone. Over
the course of a weekend, 500 volunteers analyzed the imagery using the MicroMappers platform, successfully identifying many
animal species in the images and helping rangers get a more accurate sense of wildlife numbers in the reserve. It is hoped this
crowdsourcing technology will be similarily useful when it is deployed to quickly analyze post-disaster imagery - shot by drones or
satellites.

Link: http://blog.droneadventures.orglpostl97044905740/piloting-micromappers-crowdsourcing-the-analysis

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

14

U
SINGD
RONESTO
TOM
APAREAS
AREASAFFECTED
AFFECTEDB
ALARIAIN
ORNEO
USING
DRONES
MAP
BYYM
MALARIA
IN B
BORNEO
Lon don School
Sch ool of
Hygi en e an
d Tropical
Tr opi cal Medicine
M edi ci n e
London
of Hygiene
and

On
goi n g
Ongoing
The
captured
combines
drone
Th e map
m ap from
f r om UAV capt
u r ed imagery
i m ager y com
bi n es dr
on e images
i m ages with
with
yellow
determined
yel l ow dots
dot s that
t h at ttrack
r ack tthe
h e movement
m ovem en t of
of macaques
m acaqu es as det
er m i n ed by
GPS col
collar.
dot indicates
human
of m
malaria,
a GPS
l ar . The
Th e rred
ed dot
i n di cat es a h
u m an case of
al ar i a, which
w h i ch
can spr
spread
Courtesy
of Trends
can
ead from
f r om macaques
m acaqu es via
v i a mosquitoes.
m osqu i t oes. Cour
tesy of
Tr ends in
Parasitology,
Fomace
Par
asitology, For
nace et al
In Borneo, a type of malaria parasite (Plasmodium knowlesi)
common in macaque monkeys has begun to infect humans, even
children, families, and others who rarely spend time in the forest.
Researchers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical
Medicine in the UK are using UAVs to map malaria affected
communities and surrounding areas, in an effort to understand
how and why this
this cross-species
cross-species jump is taking place.

~ Meters

01530

60

90

120

X
o

Knowlesi cases
Houses
Macaque movements

The fixed wing Sensefly eBee UAV used can photograph relatively
large areas. Researchers used the images to generate
photographic maps and 3D digital surface models of
of impacted
areas, overlayed with the movement patterns of
of human beings
GPS receivers and macaque monkeys fitted with GPS
GPS
carrying GPS
collars.

This superimposition allows researchers


researchers to identify places where humans and monkeys are most likely to come into direct or indirect
areas and not to others. Current theories derived from
contact - and to gather more clues as
as to why both species are drawn to some areas
the UAV imagery include changes in land use that have made human habitations more attractive to monkeys, and small-scale
deforestation that impacts monkey habitat, forcing them to live closer to people. Mapping human-monkey contact isn't their only
of identifying where GPS-fitted monkeys prefer to congregate,
congregate, and can even be used to monitor
use: the UAVs are also capable of
watery areas that are likely breeding grounds for malaria-carrying mosquitoes.

Link: http://www.livescience.com/48396-drones-track-infectious-disease.html?
http://www.livescience.com/48396-drones-track-infectious-disease.html?

UAY
MAPPING
REDUCE
DISASTER
RISK
IN THE
PHILIPPINES
U
AVM
APPINGTO
TOR
EDUCED
ISASTERR
ISKTO
TOAGRICULTURE
AGRICULTUREIN
THEP
HILIPPINES
Philippine
Department
of Agriculture;
and
Organization
Ph
i l i ppi n e Depar
t m en t of
Agr i cu l t u r e; Food an
d Agriculture
Agr i cu l t u r e Or
gan i zat i on (FAO)

Ongoing
On
goi n g

Food
d Agriculture
Agr i cu l t u r e Or
gan i zat i on in
i n tthe
h e Philippines
Ph i l i ppi n es and
an d
Food an
and
Organization
Department
of Agriculture-Field
Operations
Depar
t m en t of
Agr i cu l t u r e-Fi el d Oper
at i on s Service
Ser v i ce launch
l au n ch a UAV,
par t of
pr ogr am that
t h at supports
su ppor t s di
sast er risk
r i sk rreduction
edu ct i on ef
f or t s in
in
part
of a program
disaster
efforts
tthe
h e agr
i cu l t u r e sect
or . Cr
edit BusinessWor
ld
agriculture
sector.
Credit
BusinessWorld

Climate change will make natural disasters more common, and farmers
farmers and fishermen are at particular risk of having their
livelihoods impacted - at a considerable cost to national and international food security. The Philippine's Department of Agriculture
has partnered with the FAO to experiment with the use of drones for conducting damage and risk assessments of agricultural land,
hoping that the high-definition imagery will help authorities
authorities predict which areas are at most risk of damage from natural disaster.
The aerial vehicles
vehicles will allow them to survey more land than is possible on foot,
foot, at a lower cost than more conventional aerial
policymakers with crafting more effective plans
plans for disaster response,
response, as well as
photography methods. The imagery will assist policymakers
creating early-warning systems
systems geared to the particular needs of famers
famers and fishermen.
fishermen. "With
?With the use of a drone, a team of technical
specialists can assess up to 600 hectares in one day, significantly accelerating the process of projecting the extent of damage that an
disaster," said Director Christopher Morales
incoming hazard may cause in agricultural areas, and quantifying actual damage after a disaster,?
of the DA Field Operations
Operations Service, in a FAO press release.
release.
of
The pilot, which began in March of 2016, will also collect information that can be used to enhance agricultural infrastructure and to
conduct environmental monitoring, in addition to its primary assessment purpose.
http://www.fao.org/asiapacific/news/detail-events/en/c/39 6329/
Link: http://www.fao.org/asiapacific/news/detail-events/en/c/396329/

Section Two: Case Examples

TRACKING LANDMINE MOVEMENT AFTER FLOODING IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA


TIRAMISU and ICARUS consortia; Belgian Royal Military Academy (RMA); Bosnia and
Herzegovina Mine Action Centre (BHMAC); University of Sarajevo

May 2014

Piloting the UAV.

Historic flooding and landslides in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the spring of 2014 shifted mines and explosive remnants of the Balkans
war out of their original positions and into inhabited areas. As part of post-flooding demining and mapping efforts, the Belgian Royal
Military Academy team and the Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Centre experimented with the use of multirotor UAVs to
conduct aerial surveys offlooded, mine-affected areas, which were too small to be effectively mapped with a manned helicopter.
The team used two MD4-1 000 Multicopter Microdrones for their survey work, both of which were equipped with a standard digital
camera and near-infrared sensor. The multicopters carried out a total of 20 flights in 13 flood-affected areas, flying at an altitude of
up to 150 meters, in line with national airspace regulations. The drone-collected imagery was processed in Agisoft Photoscan
software, producing orthomosiac images and 3D models.
These data products were analyzed by University of Sarajevo researchers, who used statistical models to identify areas where mines
and ERWs were most likely to have shifted. The UAVs were also used to carry out initial surveys of areas deemed to be too high-risk to
enter on foot - a safer way for deminers to narrow down their search area.

Li n k: http://www.fp7-tiramisu.eu/news/tiramisu-a nd-ica rus-release-video-j oi nt-bosn ia-herzegovi na-2014-floods-m issio n

Aerial Flood Damage. Video stills Credit: SpaceTec Partners &


Icarus FP7 project

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

16

M
APPINGH
URRICANESANDY
SANDYD
AMAGEIN
OST-EARTHQUAKEH
AITI
MAPPING
HURRICANE
DAMAGE
IN P
POSTEARTHQUAKE
HAITI
10M;
OpenStreetMap
Community
of Haiti
(COSMHA);
I OM ; Open
St r eet M ap Com
m u n i t y of
Hai t i (COSM
HA); Drone
Dr on e Adventures
Adven t u r es
"<
-....
I"

--

"....:, I
I

.....

"'-41:4:('

"'0..,.

...,..,

\\
\

",,'"

..........

Oct
ober 2012
October
Far left:
of the
Grey
River
Far
l ef t : IImagery
m ager y of
t h e Gr
ey Ri
ver
i n Port
Por t au Pr
i n ce over
l ai d on a
in
Prince
overlaid
street
Credit
st r eet map.
m ap. Cr
edit MapBox;
M apBox;
OpenStreetMap
OpenStr
eetM ap
The
Grey
Th e Gr
ey River
Ri ver around
ar ou n d IDP
I DP camp
cam p
St-Etienne.
St -t i en n e. The
Th e blue
bl u e line
l i n e is
i s the
t h e camp
cam p
bou n dar y, orange
or an ge is
i s the
t h e riverbank
r i ver ban k
boundary,
before
bef or e Sandy,
San dy, in
i n red
r ed the
t h e riverbank
r i ver ban k
immediately
black
i m m edi at el y after
af t er Sandy,
San dy, in
i n bl
ack
tthe
h e projected
pr oj ect ed wall
w al l to
t o be built
bu i l t by 10M
I OM
camp
tto
o protect
pr ot ect the
t h e cam
p from
f r om future
futur e
floods.
Credit
f l oods. Cr
edit 10M
IOM

Heavy rains
rains associated with Hurricane Sandy struck Haiti in October 2010, causing 54 deaths, considerable property damage, and
complicating rebuilding efforts after the devastating 2010 earthquake. International Organization for Migration (10M)
(IOM) and the
OpenStreetMap Community of
IOM drone
of Haiti (COSMHA) - already in place as part of
of th earthquake rebuilding efforts - deployed an 10M
to carry out a damage assessment four days after the rainfall disaster began.
of an area
area along the flooded Grey River,
River, which
The fixed-wing Sensefly Swinglet drone was used to acquire high definition imagery of
was then processed into an orthomosiac image. This orthomosiac of
of aerial images was compared with baseline satellite imagery and
existing census
census data, allowing analysts to do a "before and after
after"" damage assesment.
of people and
The UAV imagery was used to carry out damage assessments, allowing aid workers to precisely determine the number of
homes impacted and quickly put together a compensation plan. The imagery also was used for future resilience planning: the drone
of the Grey River, allowing 10M
imagery was shot at the maximum flood extent of
IOM to create a more accurate construction plan for a new
flood boundary wall in the imaged area.
http://drones.fsd.ch/wp-contentiuploads/2016/03/Case-Study-Haiti-Sandy-Final.pdf
Link: http://drones.fsd.ch/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Case-Study-Haiti-Sandy-Final.pdf

ASSESSING
FLOOD
RISK
IN SRI
LANKA
A
SSESSINGF
LOODR
ISKIN
SRIL
ANKA
World
Global
Facility
Disaster
and
Recovery
Wor l d Bank
Ban k Gl
obal Faci
l i t y for
f or Di
sast er Reduction
Redu ct i on an
d Recover
y (GFDRR); Sri
Sr i Lankan
Lan k an
Government
Disaster
Management
Center;
of Sri
Lanka;
Mapbox
Gover
n m en t Di
sast er M
an agem en t Cen
t er ; Survey
Su r vey Department
Depar t m en t of
Sr i Lan
k a; M
apbox

April
Apr i l 2016

Left:
acquired
Department
of Sri
captured
and
even
Lef t : UAV imagery
i m ager y acqu
i r ed by the
t h e Survey
Su r vey Depar
t m en t of
Sr i Lanka
Lan k a capt
u r ed extreme
ex t r em e detail
det ai l for
f or tracing
t r aci n g homes,
h om es, roads,
r oads, an
d even
power
Credit:
MapBox;
OpenStreetMap;
Ground
control
Credit
MapBox
pow
er lines.
l i n es. Cr
edit: M
apBox; OpenStr
eetM ap; Digital Globe. Right:
Ri gh t : Gr
ou n d con
t r ol points
poi n t s for
f or UAVs. Cr
edit M
apBox
The World Bank in partnership with the Sri Lankan Government Disaster Management Center, as well as the Survey Department,
assessed flood risk in the Mundeni Aru and Attanagalu Oya River Basins. The World Bank is using a combination of
of satellite and UAV
imagery to improve OpenStreetMap data in order better assess financial and humanitarian risk from recurring floods.
The UAV imagery composited on top of satellite imagery provides extremely detailed imagery and terrain models for vulnerable
areas. The portability of
of UAVs, matched with the high spatial resolution of imagery they provide make them an excellent tool to aid in
mapping where aerial or walking surveys are out of
of date, nonexistent, cost prohibitive or otherwise hard to obtain.

Link: https://www.mapbox.com/blog/sri-lanka-drone-imagery/
https://www.mapbox.com/blog/sri-Ianka-drone-imagery/

Section Two: Case Examples

ASSESSING RESETTLEMENT OF lOPS IN UGANDA


Ugandan Office of the Prime Minister; UNICEF

May 2016

New latrines and infrastructure in Kiryandongo. Credit UNICEF Uganda


UAVs are effective tools for program monitoring and demonstrating results via video footage. In 2010, at least 100 Ugandans were
killed by landslides in 8ududa District after heavy rains. After an assessment by the Office of the Prime Minister, 601 at risk
households were relocated to Kiryandongo District. The Office ofthe Prime Minister (OPM) has been working to move these
households from temporary shelters to more permanent houses, provide them with 2.5 acres land for agriculture, and ensure
services - such as education and health - are available. Additionally, OPM is making efforts to ensure that the resettled populations
are integrated into the host community. The UAV footage took captures both the initial housing structures, as well as subsequent
efforts by government to improve services.
Video: https:llyoutu.beIYIRlyVCONGk

FAB DAR AERIAL MAPPING IN TANZANIA


World Bank Transport and ICT Global Practice

March 2014 - April 2015

TOp: Aerial image over Dar es Salaam. Credit World Bank


Left: Tandale Market. Credit Mark Iliffe
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is one of Africa's fastest growing cities with a population of over 5.5 million. This creates many challenges,
amongst them how to plan, build and provide services in such a rapidly growing and changing urban environment. Access to accurate
up to date data is critical. The Fab Dar project, funded by SIDA Trust Fund, has provided high resolution imagery and elevation data.
The data has been used in the creation offlood inundation models to assess flood risk, high resolution orthophotos which have lead
to the Ministry of Lands requesting to use such imagery in their Tanzanian Land Tenure Program's for issuing Certificates of
Customary Right of Occupancy.
Fab Dar has used two types of drones: a fixed wing Sensefly e8ee and a multiple rotor DJI Phantom. The e8ee provides very high
resolution (2.5cm) aerial imagery and (Scm) 3D models, these outputs can either be digitised to create data products on roads or
rivers and processed to create flood inundation and impact scenarios. The Phantom allows for videos to be taken providing a quick
assessment of the impact of flooding. Each of these UAVs can be operated quickly from the field, providing very timely imagery.
Now these streams of data are available, progress is being made in supporting the data infrastructure of Tanzania, convening
discussion around open data licensing, drone regulation and the creation of flood inundation models - tools that can inform flood
resilience, resettlement, land tenure and cadastral mapping.

Link: http://ramanihuria.orgl

18

World
Bank
of Play for Development
Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of

22

P
OSTE
MERGENCYD
AMAGEAND
ANDR
ISKASSESSMENT
ASSESSMENTIN
GANDA
POST
EMERGENCY
DAMAGE
RISK
IN U
UGANDA
UNICEF,
supporting
Office
of the
Prime
and
Cross
UNI
CEF, su
ppor t i n g tthe
h e Of
f i ce of
t h e Pr
i m e Minister
M i n i st er an
d Ugandan
Ugan dan Red Cr
oss

M
ay 2016
May

Lef
t : Surveying
Su r veyi n g dam
age in
i n Bundibugyo.
Bu n di bu gyo. Right:
Ri gh t : Using
Usi n g footage
f oot age taken
t ak en from
f r om a UAV to
t o sh
ow tthe
h e st
or y in
i n a video.
v i deo. Cr
edit UNICEF Uganda
Left:
damage
show
story
Credit

In May 2016, there were major rains in the Bundibugyo District of


of Uganda which caused flooding of
of a trading centre and multiple
landslides, killing 13 - mostly women and children - and injuring over 50. Working with the Red Cross, UNICEF
UNICEF recorded video footage
with a UAV to conduct damage and risk assessments within the affected trading centre, along the river banks, and in the mountains
at the three landslide locations where fatalities
fatalities occurred.
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=11KSgO7p7wg
https:/Iwww.youtube.com/watch?v=11 KSg07p7wg

D
ELIVERINGB
LOODS
AMPLESIN
WANDA
DELIVERING
BLOOD
SAMPLES
IN R
RWANDA
Zipline
Zi
pl i n e

Ongoing
On
goi n g

Lef
t : Fl
i gh t path
pat h di
agr am over
an da. Right:
Ri gh t : Zi
pl i n e UAV depl
oyi n g payload
payl oad via
v i a parachute.
par ach u t e. Cr
edit Zipline
Left:
Flight
diagram
over Rw
Rwanda.
ZipIine
deploying
Credit

roads often find it difficult to move fresh blood and other essential medical supplies from
Health workers in remote areas with poor roads
place to place. California start-up company Zipline intends to pilot its cargo drone delivery service in Rwanda
July of
Rwanda starting in July
of 2016,
in an effort to demonstate that inexpensive unmanned craft can help improve health outcomes and speed up courier services.
The initial drone delivery pilot will use 15 fixed-wing aircraft capable of lifting 3.5 pounds and making flights
flights of up to 75 miles
roundtrip. Equipped with a GPS, the drones are able to navigate from place to place with the help of Rwanda's
Rwanda's large cellular data
of the network receiving a request for supplies. The UAVs make their
network, enabling them to make deliveries within an hour of
deliveries by dropping small parachute-equipped packages, and don't require a runway to land when they return to their home
bases.
21 transfusing facilities when it is
Zipline hopes the drone network will be able to make up to 150 daily blood deliveries to Rwanda's 21
half of
ofthe
country's land area, and serving as a more reliable alternative to motorcycle delivery services.
launched, covering roughly half
the country's
vaccines, tuberculosis medications, AIDs
AIDs medications, and other important supplies. The
The system may also be used to transport vaccines,
ofthe
drones will operate with the explicit agreement of
the Rwandan government and Civil Aviation Authority.

Link: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/05/technology/drones-marshaled-to-drop-lifesaving-supplies-over-rwandan-terrain.html

Section Three: UAVs, Data and


Technology
How do UAVs Compare to Satellites?

REMOTE SENSING

UAVs and satellites are both remote sensing platforms, used to take
photographs of the earth from far above the ground. While they serve the same
broad purpose, they differ in many ways. The first and most obvious is the
altitude at which they operate: while most countries currently cap legal civilian
UAV altitude at roughly 400 feet to 500 feet above the ground, satellites orbit
the planet at altitudes ranging from 100 miles to 22,300 miles above the earth.
This high altitude means a satellite is capable of capturing lower resolution
images that cover extremely large areas, while a UAVs much lower operating
altitude allows it to capture images that cover less ground at a considerably
higher resolution. This also means that satellite imagery can be safely collected
and used by analysts thousands of miles away - but the operator of a
consumer-level UAV usually must be within a few miles of the area to be
imaged, creating safety and logistical challenges.

A comparison of a satellite image taken from Google


Earth of a neighborhood in Dar es Salaam with an aerial
image at apprOIimately the same spatial resolution.
Credit: World Bank/Drone Adventures

TEMPORAL RESOLUTION

UAVs have high temporal resolution; they can be deployed quickly and repeat
their flights within minutes, provided adequate batteries and flying conditions.
As satellites operate in orbit, they can revisit a given location no more than
once every 24 hours. While UAVs are able to operate beneath the cloud level in
otherwise calm weather conditions, satellite imagery can be blocked by cloud
cover, increasing the time to obtain a useful image. Conversely, it is difficult to
operate UAVs in rainy and windy conditions, whereas satellites are not affected
by atmospheric-level weather.

EXPENSE

As local capacity goes up and the UAV market matures, costs will even out. Cost
of deployment varies, depending on whether there is local capacity to manage
deployments, or whether teams and equipment must be flown into a location.
At its least expensive, consumer-level UAVs useful for surveying purposes can
cost as little as $1000, along with several sets of batteries, a robust laptop and
access to electricity. This presumes personnel are nearby or volunteers. Costs
go up when considering travel to the site, deployment team, cost to purchase
or rent the UAV, computing power, post-production processing, and adherence
to insurance and regulatory requirements. Furthermore, cost considerations
vary between one-time deployments, and ongoing monitoring projects.

20

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

19

I m age post-processing
post -pr ocessi n g
Image
can
i n cr ease legibility
l egi bi l i t y tto
o
can increase
dramatic
effect.
dr
am at i c ef
f ect .
Cr
edit: Faine Gr
eenw ood
Credit:
Greenwood

Section Three: UAVs, Data and Technology

Looking to satellites. civilians seeking high-resolution imagery of specific areas


must usually buy images from government agencies or private companies.
Prices for satellite imagery are rather variable but are largely dependent on
image quality. the type of imagery needed. and its newness. For example. at
landinfo.com newly-tasked panchromatic satellite imagery at SOcm resolution
currently starts at USD$23 per square km. with a minimum order of 100 square
km. and with a minimum order width of Skm.

REGULATIONS

BEST USES OF UAYS

One generally can commission imagery from a satellite provider without


concern for local aviation regulations. That is because the satellites fly outside
of controlled airspace. With UAVs. one must work with a given country's
regulatory environment. Rules are changing frequently. and it is important to
secure appropriate permissions before importing or flying UAVs in most
countries. or else risk confiscation of the UAV. Partnering with local. capable
providers has advantages when they are available. as they can navigate the
national regulatory environment. If importing one's own team. add in lead time
to secure permits and exceptions for the mission. Detailed country-by-country
regulations are available in the Resources section.

UAVs generally have the advantage for:

High resolution maps of relatively small areas


Video and still aerial photography
Investigations whose course and geography changes based on
real-time findings
Payload delivery
Monitoring of a given area or route (e.g. along a river)

UAVs and satellites should not be considered "competing" remote sensing


technologies. They are simply tools. each suited for some use cases better than
they are for others. Satellite imagery and UAV imagery can be used together
with great success. and it is likely that these overlapping use cases will become
even more common in the near future.

Comparison between UAVs and Satellites


UAVs

Satellites

Highest Spatial Resolution

Sub lcm

31 em (panchromatic) for civilian

Highest Temporal Resolution

Best case: within 1 hour

Best case: within 24 hours

Geographical coverage

Best case: 500km2 per day

500.000km2 per day

Licensing

Typically more open

Typically strict

Regulations

Restrictive (at present time)

Permissive

Cargo capable

Yes

No

Weather Restrictions

Can gather imagery beneath

View can be blocked by clouds.

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

22

Advan t ages of
Advantages
of UAVs

ACCESSIBLEO
WNERSHIP
ACCESSIBLE
OWNERSHIP

E
ASEO
SE
EASE
OFFU
USE

PRECISION
P
RECISION

The prices of
of UAVs continue to drop dramatically, making them more
accessible. UAVs can also be built relatively inexpensively by technology
enthusiasts, using low-cost electronic components. Consumer-level
quadcopters like the DJ
DJII Phantom 3 can now be purchased new for as low as
$500, given the increased competition in the consumer UAV market. When the
Phantom 3 was first released in 2015, it was priced at $1,200 and up.
Commercial fixed-wing platforms are still more expensive than multirotor
models, but their prices will necessarily drop given that market competition is
Fly eBee currently costs USD$15,000
USD$15,OOO - $20,000, while
rapidly increasing. A sense
senseFly
USD$20,OOO.
Little Smart Things'
Things?Cumulus One UAV is priced around USD$20,000.

UAVs are easier to use than traditional remote controlled aircraft because they
require less manual control,
thus less training. Most modern consumer
control, and thus
UAVs have multiple fail-safe mechanisms, and these safety-focused features
have matured over several iterations. Technology that provides UAVs with
?sense and avoid?
I?s new
"sense
avoid" capabilities is improving quickly: UAV-maker DJ
DJI's
me" mode
Phantom 4 ships with collision-avoidance sensors, and has a "follow
?follow me?
?s movements. These
that allows the UAV to automatically follow the pilot
pilot's
technologies are still under development and remain imperfect, but they are a
technologies
sign of what is to come in the consumer UAV industry.

resolutions (e.g., sub-centimeter)


UAVs can capture imagery at far higher spatial resolutions
and temporal resolutions (minutes and hours) than commercial satellites can the best available resolution from a satellite at the time of writing is
approximately 30 centimeters, once every 24 to 72 hours. Temporal resolution
refers to the frequency at which an area can be imaged.
The higher an image?
image'ss spatial resolution,
resolution, the more one can see and detect in
the imagery. A recent study focused on disaster damage assessments showed
that an analyst could detect 8 times more damaged buildings at a UAV-enabled
of 15 cm, than they could in a satellite-enabled image with a 41
resolution of
41 cm
resolution.

RAPID
DEPLOYMENT
&R
RESULTS
R
APIDD
EPLOYMENT&
ESULTS

CLOUDS
C
LOUDS

CARGO
C
ARGO

When trained UAV pilots are available, UAVs can be deployed in a matter of
minutes or hours, and the resulting imagery processed into useful data
data outputs
within hours. In contrast, it can still take several days simply to task and acquire
satellite imagery, or to find an aerial photographer in a manned aircraft on
short notice.

UAVs can fly under the cloud canopy, whereas most satellites cannot see
through clouds. Cloud cover is a particular problem in areas that are more
humid, making UAVs the most practical way to collect images.

UAVs can transport essential medicines, vaccines, blood and blood samples.
Field testing is currently underway in Malawi and Rwanda, with related efforts
in Papua New Guinea, Peru, Tanzania and the Philippines slated for late 2016
and 2017. These field tests are primarily focused on the transportation of
of
medical-related payloads.

Section Three: UAVs, Data and Technology

Complete 3D model of a site on a precipice in Albania.


Credit Walter Volkmann

How do UAVs Capture Images?


Nadir images are taken by pointing the camera on a UAV
straight down, while oblique images are taken by pointing
the camera at an angle. The UAV flies over the area to be
imaged in a specific "lawn mower" pattern while taking
images every few seconds.
The pattern ensures that each image adequately overlaps
with other images in the set, which is essential if they are
to be processed into merged orthophotographs.
UAV images can be used on their own for analysis and
communication purposes. For mapping purposes, UAV
images can be processed and "stitched" together to create
high-resolution orthorectified mosaics, 3D models and
Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), among other useful data
outputs.
Mosaics (or orthomosaics) refer to nadir images that are
combined or stitched together and then geo-referenced,
creating a flat, geographically accurate photograph that
can be used in the same way as a traditional, drawn map.
3D models are 3D reconstructions of a surveyed area that
can be manipulated and "flown" through, while DTMs are
topographic models of the bare earth - otherwise known
as the terrain relief.
Aerial image of the site.
Credit Walter Volkmann

24

World
Bank
of Play for Development
Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of

Big Dat
a, Developm
en t + UAVs
Data,
Development
From a data collection perspective, UAV-generated aerial imagery differs from
satellite images. UAV images come in a greater variety given different altitudes,
angles and weather conditions, providing new program applications for image
analysis.
UAVs can generate large volumes of
of imagery by capturing and transmitting
high-resolution images and videos in real-time. Big Data is typically defined as
the high volume, velocity and variety of information generated by sensors such
as mobile phones, social media, orbiting satellites and UAV cameras. Recent
research at Texas A&M has shown that a professional imagery analyst typically
takes at least one minute to analyze a high-resolution aerial image. A single
20-minute flight can capture about 800 individual high-resolution photographs.
The use of
of computer vision and machine learning techniques will become
increasingly essential to manage and make sense of the Big Data generated by
UAVs. The field of
of computer vision includes methods for processing, analyzing
and understanding images in order to support decision-making.
decisionmaking. Machine
of study dedicated to giving computers the ability to learn
Learning is a field of
without being explicitly programmed. Techniques from computer vision and
machine learning are used to train computer algorithms to automatically
recognize features of
of interest in aerial imagery. These feature recognition
capabilities can be used for a variety of
of applications, including discrimination
between different types of
of crops, automatically evaluating disaster damage,
identifying different animal species on game reserves, and many more. The
more training data is available (I.e.,
(i.e., the more examples there are to teach the
algorithms), the more accurate the algorithm will be in automatically detecting
of interest. Increasingly, machine learning experts are turning to
features of
?Deep Learning?
"Deep
Learning" techniques, which require less training data to create accurate
algorithms.
The current trends point to a growing market around real-time analytical
services for aerial imagery - services powered by advanced computer vision
and machine learning techniques. Orthorectified mosaics, 3D models and
Digital Terrain Models can already be generated automatically in the cloud. In
due time, experts expect that robust feature detection algorithms will also be
available for cloud-based analysis. Such algorithms exist for crop monitoring
and precision agriculture, for example. In other words, while specialists are still
required for imagery analysis, this inevitably will change as more sophisticated
and automated solutions become available.

UAV Regulat
ions
Regulations
Before commissioning UAV project work, it is
important to know the local laws on UAV
deployment. National UAV regulations vary
country to country, and are constantly being
updated.
Regularly updated regulation resources
resources include
New America's
America?s World of
of Drones database and
UAViators regulations Wiki. Regulations vary
widely from country to country - from banning
UAVs entirely,
entirely. to placing some restrictions
restrictions on
their use, to imposing no regulations on them at
all. Additionally, mission planners can request
exemptions from national authorities, for
example to organize deployments that send
UAVs beyond the line of sight.

Section Three: UAVs. Data and Technology

UAV Deployment Technology


In general, UAYs come in three different types: fixed-wing, multi rotor, and
hybrid. Fixed-wings look like small remote-controlled planes, while multi rotors
resemble helicopters with multiple rotors.
Unlike fixed-wing UAYs, multi-rotor UAYs can take-off and land vertically, even
in rather tight areas. They can also hover in a fixed location, using an on-board
GPS to stabilize themselves. Fixed-wing UAYs can travel further than multi-rotor
UAYs, usually have a longer battery life, and are more resistant to strong winds.
Hybrid UAYs, meanwhile, are newer and are less often seen in real-world
implementations at this time. Hybrid UAYs are fixed-wing UAYs that can also
takeoff and land vertically - also sometimes known as YTOl or "vertical take-off
and landing". Context determines the best UAY for the job.
Fixed-wing UAYs are typically used to cover larger areas and distances because
they have longer flight times than multi-rotor UAYs. For projects that require
data collection over large areas or the transportation of payloads over long
distances, fixed-wing UAYs are often preferred. They are more difficult to fly
manually than multi-rotor UAYs, and most high-end fixed-wing UAYs are flown
autonomously, following pre-designed missions. Examples of fixed-wing UAYs
for data collection include the e8ee by sense Fly, Cumulus One by Little Smart
Things and the DT-26 by DelAir Tech. The e8ee weighs some 700 grams and has
a flight time of 40 minutes. The Cumulus weighs 1.5kg and offers a 2.5 hour
flight time, while the DT-26 weigh 8kg and has a flight time of 3 hours.
Multi-rotor UAYs are used to map and collect imagery of smaller areas and
distances; and also in dense areas where flying fixed-wings may be more
difficult due to a lack of clear takeoff and landing space.

UAVs and Data Privacy


Adapted from the Humanitarian UAV Network
Guidelines on Data Sensitivity

1. Collect and analyse data in a manner


that is impartial to avoid discrimination.
Informed consent should be secured
insofar as the situation allows. As far as
possible, data collection and analysis
should highlight the needs and aspirations
of vulnerable and marginalized groups.
2. Carefully determine need(s) before
identifying an appropriate data collection
platform. Then ensure that the data you
collect is necessary and proportionate
given the need you are intending to meet.
When possible, data from UAVs should be
used in conjunction with other data
sources and not relied on exclusively.
3. Where appropriate and feasible, take
reasonable measures to establish
informed consent for data collection by
UAVs. When consent could not be
obtained, take extra care vis-a-vis sharing
this data with respect to data privacy and
protection.
4. Before deploying. establish a plan for
managing the data you will collect,
including who will own the data, the
standards used and whether it is

interoperable with other systems and


existing platforms. The overarching
priority should be to mitigate risk for the
individual.
5. Establish a plan for responsibly storing.
sharing and discarding the data you will
collect, including ensuring the security of
storage and transmission of data.
6. Consider solutions for privacy and
ethical sensitivities (blurring, virtual
machines to query the data, down
sampling).
7. Before deploying. conduct a risk
assessment taking into account the context
within which you will be operating,
covering the data that will be collected and
the tools that will be used.
8. Before collecting. sharing or storing data
that is particularly sensitive, an assessment
should be conducted to mitigate the risk
and benefit. This can include religious and
military sites and other information that
may be considered military intelligence,
and may also include other information
according to the local context and the type
of response, such as religious and critical
infrastructure, communication records or
personal data.

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

26

Multirotor UAVs require more battery power to operate than fixed wing UAVs,
and as a result,
reSUlt, have shorter flight times. The most widely used multi-rotor
UAVs have four propellers, which is why they're
they?re often called quadcopters.
Examples of
of quadcopters for data collection include the DJ
DJ!I Phantom 4, which
3DR Solo at 1.5 kg and
weighs 1.4kg and offers a flight time of 28 minutes; the 3DR
25 minutes flight time; and the eXom by senseFly, which weighs 1.8kg and has a
22 minute flight time. The Matternet One multi-rotor UAV is specifically used
for payload delivery. This UAV can transport up to 1kg
1kg over 20 kilometers.
Hybrid UAVs are relatively newer and tend to focus
focus on the transportation of
of
payloads, such as medicines and vaccines. Their ability to takeoff
takeoff and land like
multi-rotor UAVs means they need less space for takeoff
takeoff and landing. Their
ability to fly like a fixed-wing UAV means that they can cover longer distances,
which is key for transportation purposes. Examples of
of companies focused on
building hybrid UAVs include Vayu and Quantum Systems. Vayu's
Vayu?s platforms
seek to transport about 1kg
1kg over 60 kilometers, while Quantum?
Quantum'ss UAV seeks to
transport up to 10kg
1Okg over 100 kilometers.
Below are comparisons of
of current leading UAV solutions for data collection and
payload delivery appropriate for the development and humanitarian sectors. A
comprehensive and up-to-date list of
of all major UAV models available on the
market for all purposes is available at UAViators.

Com
m er ci al UAVs Specialized
Speci al i zed for
f or Data
Dat a Col
l ect i on
Commercial
Collection
UAV
M odel
UAVModel

Type

Weigh t
Weight

Fligh
t im e
Flightt time

M
an u f act u r er
Manufacturer

Cost
Cost

eBee

Fixed-wing

700
gms
700gms

40 mins

senseFly
sense Fly

$15,000- $20,000

Cumulus

Fixed-wing

1.5 kg

2.5 hours

Little Smart
Things

$20,000

DT-18

Fixed-wing

TBD

2 hours

DelAir Tech

$33,000

DJ
DJII Phantom 4

Quadcopter

1.4 kg

28 mins

DJ
DJII

$1,400

DJ
DJII Phantom 3

Quadcopter

1.28 kg

23 mins

DJ
DJII

$499

3DRSoio
3DR
Solo

Quadcopter

1.5 kg

25 mins

3DR

$1,000

Exom

Quadcopter

1.8 kg

22 mins

senseFly
sense Fly

Section Three: UAVs, Data and Technology

Unmanned Aerial System - Core Components


An Unmanned Aerial System - UAS - consists of three main components,
namely: UAV Platform, Ground Station and Datallnk.
The UAV platform - or just UAV - features different, specialized components,
which are briefly reviewed below. A UAV Platform can be fixed-wing,
multi-rotor, or hybrid type.
Vertical gyroscopes: measure the rotation in pitch and roll with respect to the
vertical plane and are used for stabilizing the UAV.
Rate gyroscopes: measures turns on all three axes and provides the UAV
control system with the data needed to stabilize the flight.
MEMS gyroscopes: small micro-electromechanical systems integrated into
single microchip that measures twists in all three axes using Coriolis effect.
Accelerometer: a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) that measure the
linear acceleration in one or more axis. By measuring the "static acceleration"
you can determine the platform's angle relative to the ground. By measuring
the dynamic acceleration, you can determine the device's direction.
IMU (Internal Measurement Unit): Combines MEMS gyro and MEMS
accelerometer (and sometimes also a magnetometer) in a microchip that gives
the speed and direction ofthe UAV platform.
Magnetometer: an electronic compass used to measure UAV's direction using
surrounding magnetiC field. The direction is determined without the use of
GPS, which is especially important when the UAV is hovering in place and does
not move.
GPS (Global Positioning System): satellite-based navigation system that
provides the UAV's Position, Altitude, Speed, Heading and Distance.
Pressure Sensors: Various sensors can determine the UAV's speed through the
air, its altitude and its vertical speed. This is done by means of dynamic and
static pressure.
Motor(s): UAVs most frequently use brushless motors.
Motor Control Units: Each UAV motor has its own control (ESC - Electronic
Speed Control). This is typically installed out of the rotor arm which provides
more or less voltage and current to a given motor.

Commercial UAVs Specialized for Cargo Delivery


UAVModel

Type

Weight

Flight time

Manufacturer

Cost

Cargo
Capable

Matternet
One (Not yet

Quadcopter

Skg

MatterNet

Rental: USD
$1,000+ per

Payload 1 kg
over 20 km

Vayu

Hybrid

17kg

1 hour

Vayu

USD $10,000 $20,000

1 kg over
60-70km

TRON

Hybrid

6kg

Hours
variable

Quantum
Systems

USD 80,000

2kg over
1S0km

Zipline

Fixed

10kg

-1 hour

Zipline

1.5kg over
120km

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

28

Pr
opeller (s): These come in many different forms
forms depending on size, number
Propeller(s):
of
of blades, pitch, material and rotation.
Flight
r oller : The flight controller receives signals from the various gyros,
Flight Cont
Controller:
accelerometers, etc, and sends them on to motor control units. It can be
?brain.?
thought of as the UAV?
UAV'ss "brain."
Power
ce: Most UAVs are now battery-powered, typically by LiPo
Power Sour
Source:
liPo batteries.
Solar-powered UAV systems and gas-powered UAV systems are in development.
Payload: Commercial UAVs carry equipment such as cameras, video recorders,
recorders,
types of
of thermographic cameras or other measuring instruments.
various types
These will typically be suspended on a 3-axis gimbal, which ensures the camera
always hangs stabilized at the angle regardless
of the UAV?
regardless of
UAV'ss pitch.

GROUNDCONTROLSTATION

DATALINK

The GSC
GSC is used to control the UAV and can be as simple as a standard remote
control unit,
unit. or more advanced like a tablet or a computer-based remote
control. Ground Control Stations can also be used to program UAVs and to
select a variety of
of safety features. Some also use a mobile phone or a small
camera, allowing
television screen to display a live video feed from the UAV camera,
pilots to keep tabs on mission progress and more effectively line up shots.

The datalink is the connection that is established between the UAV and the
GSC.
GSc. In most UAVs, the link works at 2.4 GHz or 5.8 GHz.

Sen
sor s &
& Cam
er as
Sensors
Cameras
UAVs can?
?Sensor ? is a very general term for any device or object
can'tt collect data on their own: they need to carry a sensor. "Sensor"
this information to produce a corresponding output. The camera
that senses or detects environmental input, then uses this
in your mobile phone is a type of sensor, as is the human eye. A wide range of lightweight sensors are compatible with
UAVs, and some of these devices are described below. This list is meant as a primer and not as a comprehensive
overview, as new sensors designed for use with UAVs are being developed constantly. A comprehensive and up-to-date
of leading camera models suitable for UAV use is available at UAViators.
list of

High-Resolution
Cameras
Hi gh -Resol u t i on Cam
er as
Def
init ion
Definition

A traditional camera is a sensor, producing visible wavelength images. Cameras mounted on UAVs
include action cameras, DSLR
cameras, and just
DSLR cameras, mobile phone cameras, point-and-shoot cameras,
about any other camera model that a UAV is capable of lifting. Many UAV models live-stream
camera to a receiver on the ground (such as a mobile phone),
video footage from an onboard camera
enabling the pilot to monitor the flight.

Dat
oduct s
Dataa Pr
Products

Produces visible wavelength images and videos,


videos, with a wide range of quality options and data
outputs.

Exam
ple Uses
Example

Map-making, aerial photography, cadastral surveying.


surveying, video production, photogrammetry,
surveying

M
u l t i spect r al an
d Hyper
spect r al Cam
er as
Multispectral
and
Hyperspectral
Cameras
Def
init ion
Definition

Multispectral and hyperspectral cameras are sensors that can record radiation from both invisible
and visible portions of
of the electromagnetic spectrum. Multispectral cameras are usually capable
of
of acquiring 3 to 10 wide "bands" (or regions) of
of the electromagnetic spectrum, while
hyperspectral cameras can typically record many hundreds or thousands of narrower bands.

Exam
ple Uses
Example

Crop health evaluations, vegetation classification, asbestos detection, oil and gas exploration,
oceanography, conservation, atmospheric science

Section Three: UAVs, Data and Technology

Thermographic Cameras
Definition

Thermographic cameras form images using infrared radiation, instead of visible light, in order to
"see" heat. They are also commonly known as infrared and thermal cameras. A number of
different thermographic camera models are available, each targeting different ranges of the
electromagnetic spectrum. Some models are specifically designed to be used with UAYs, and
some UAY manufacturers ship ready-to-fly models with these sensors onboard.

Data Prod ucts

RadiometricJPEGs, video, CSY files

Example Uses

Archaeological imaging, night vision, search and rescue, infrastructure inspection, wildlife
monitoring. geological research

LiDAR
Definition

liDAR (light + Radar) scanners use pulsed lasers to precisely measure variable distances from air
to earth. These light pulses can be used to create very accurate 3D models of the earth, and can
collect information about the surface of the earth beneath foliage. They can be used during the
day or at night, and in most weather conditions.

Data Prod ucts

3D models, digital elevation models (DEM), contour maps, intensity images, point clouds,
land-cover classification

Example Uses

Creation of base maps, floodplain mapping. urban planning. natural resource management,
archaeological and geological research, creation of point clouds for 3D modeling

Air QUality "Sniffers"


Definition

A wide variety of inexpensive and lightweight air quality sensors are now available. Most air
quality sensors focus on five common atmospheric elements: ozone, particulate matter, carbon
monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrous oxide.

Data Prod ucts

Air quality graphs and maps

Example Uses

Measuring atmospheric pollution, detecting unsafe gas levels during industrial disaster

Synthetic Aperture Radar


Definition

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is used to create images with a higher spatial resolution than can
be provided with beam-scanning radar systems, and is often used for mapping purposes. It is
capable of generating imagery at night and in bad weather conditions.

Data Prod ucts

SAR imagery

Example Uses

Sea ice mapping, large-scale terrain mapping, detecting oil spills, mapping cloudy areas

Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of
World
Bank
of Play for Development

30

Software,
Computing,
Hosting
& Analysis
Sof
t w ar e, Com
pu t in g, Host
in g &
An alysis
of the process: to be useful to development
Collecting UAV imagery is only part of
professionals, it has to be processed into a useful output. How UAV imagery is
processed depends greatly what outputs are required. Some projects may only
need a few still images, while others may require stitched-together
photographic maps (orthomosiacs), and still others will benefit from the
of 3D models. This section provides an overview of
of these different
creation of
outputs and how they are created. More detailed operational information can
be found in the Resources section.

UAV Fl
Flight
i gh t Programming,
Pr ogr am m i n g, Ulaan
Ul aan Bataar
Bat aar
Cr
edit Asia Foundation
Credit

Pl
an n i n g UAV IImagery
m ager y Capt
ur e
Planning
Capture
Capturing useful UAV imagery requires more planning than simply launching a
UAV into the air. Here are some of
of the most important considerations for UAV
pilots who are focused on data collection.

O
VERLAP
OVERLAP

G
ROUNDS
AMPLED
ISTANCE
GROUND
SAMPLE
DISTANCE

The photogrammetry software used to "stitch"


?stitch? UAV imagery works by finding
matching points between images. This means that mapping UAVs must fly in a
of both forward
"Iawnmower"
?lawnmower ? pattern, which ensures adequate amounts of
overlap and side overlap. Flight-planning software like Mission Planner and
DroneDeploy will generate these patterns for you from an app or a computer
program, based on the desired level of
of overlap. Highly overlapping missions
will take longer to complete than those with less overlap.
of the photographic resolution of
of a
Ground Sample Distance (GSD) is a measure of
UAV imagery. It can roughly be described as the distance between pixel centers
in an aerial image measured on the ground, or the length on the ground that
corresponds to the side of
of one pixel in the aerial image. In mathematical terms,
it can be described like this: GSD = (pixel size x height above ground level) /
camera lens focal length.

Smaller GSDs (such as 3 CM) indicate that more details will be resolvable in the
image, while higher GSDs mean the image will be grainier and show less fine
detail. A larger GSD (10 cm) means that fewer details will be resolvable in the
image and it will be of lower quality. GSD goes up as the UAV flies higher and
goes down as the UAV flies lower. GSD is also affected by the camera?
camera'ss focal
length, as well as its pixel size.

ALTITUDE
ALTITUDE

In simplest terms, a photograph taken at a higher altitude above ground level


will include more ground area but will show less detail on the ground then a
photograph that is taken at a lower altitude. High altitude flights will usually
take less time to cover the same area than lower resolution flights, but with a
lower level of
of recognizable detail.

Section Three: UAVs. Data and Technology

FLIGHT PLANNING

Most UAV mappers fly autonomously (or automatically) instead of piloting the
UAV themselves. This is because it is quite difficult to fly the precise patterns
needed to ensure aerial images overlap enough to be processed into a map.
The UAV's flight path is designed in advance using flight planning software:
most programs allow users to draw a polygon onto a screen that shows satellite
imagery of the area you want to map. The program then calculates a flight path
based on the chosen area.
Some flight planning applications include Mission Planner, an open-source
desktop computer program compatible with UAVs that use the Ardupilot
autopilot, DroneDeploy, an app and desktop-based flight planning and cloud
processing software, and Pix4D Capture, an app-based flight planning program.
These programs usually will allow you to modify different factors, including the
desired flight altitude, the level of photo overlap, the desired GSD, and more.

GEOREFERENCING

UAVs that are used for mapmaking carry an onboard GPS unit, which allows the
UAV to know where it is in space. The GPS allows the UAV to autonomously
follow a pre-designed mission plan. It also allows the UAV to geotag each still
photograph it takes with latitude and longitude coordinates. These coordinates
are used during processing to geographically correct the images - a process in
which distortion is electronically removed so that the images adhere to a real
world coordinate system. Onboard GPS units are usually relatively accurate, but
not to a survey-quality degree.
Projects that require survey-level map accuracy from UAV images often will use
ground control points: locations that have been accurately surveyed before the
UAV flight takes place, and that can be reliably identified in the resulting UAV
photos. These ground control points can be used by processing software to
geographically correct the images. Some UAVs also carry highly accurate RTK
GPS units, although these are very expensive.

UAV Imagery Outputs

STILL IMAGES AND VIDEO

ORTHOMOSIACS

Many consumer-level UAVs are capable of shooting high resolution images,


both in JPG and in Camera RAW formats. UAVs like the DJI Phantom 4 are also
capable of shooting high frame rate 4K video. These outputs can be easily
edited in standard image and video editing software, such as Adobe Lightroom
and Final Cut Pro X.
Orthomosiacs are a series of still photographs that have been geometrically
corrected (using computer software) to have a uniform scale. This lack of
distortion means that they can be used to measure distance in the same way as
a map. Orthomosiacs can also be overlaid upon satellite imagery, such as the
imagery provided to the public by Google Maps and Bing. Creating
orthomosiacs requires a relatively large amount of computer processing power,
and cloud-based photogrammetry services are becoming increasingly popular.
Photogrammetry is the science of creating surveys and maps with aerial
photographs.

Orthomosaics are created by


"stitching" together many still
photographs with processing
software. Credit Faine Greenwood

World
Bank
of Play for Development
Wor ld Ban
k LLI |I UAVs State of

32

3D
MODELS
3DM
ODELS
POINT
CLOUDS
P
OINTC
LOUDS

3D models are produced using photogrammetry software, which uses camera


locations to calculate a point-cloud. These 3D models resemble video game
maps, and can be used to analyze all sides of
of a given area, to conduct volume
measurements, to create interactive experiences, and more.
A point cloud is a set of data points in a coordinate system.
In a three-dimensional coordinate system, these points are usually defined by
Y, and Z coordinates, and represent the external surface of
X, V,
of an object.

DIGITAL
MODELS
D
IGITALSURFACE
SURFACEM
ODELS

Digital Surface Models (DSM) are digital model or 3D representation of a


terrain's surface, including objects on it. Digital Terrain Models (DTM) describe a
terrain's
terrain?s surface without any objects. Digital Elevation Models (DEM) can refer
to either DSMs or DTMs.

IIllustration
l l u st r at i on del
i n eat i n g DSM
d
delineating
DSMss an
and
DTMs.
Credit
Martin
Over
DTM
s. Cr
edit M
ar tin Over

Pr
ocessi n g Software
Sof t w ar e
Processing
Many software companies offer products for UAV imagery and mapping. These
packages generally require limited training.
Some photogrammetry software packages are quite expensive to buy outright:
the professional edition of Agisoft PhotoScan costs $3499, for example, while
Pix4Dmapper Pro costs $8700 for unlimited use. Some processing packages,
such as DroneDeploy and Pix4Dmapper Pro, also offer a monthly subscription
service.
There are free and open-source photogrammetry options, such as VisualSFM
and OpenDroneMap. Processed and georeferenced two-dimensional UAV
imagery can easily be used with GIS
ArcGIS and qGIS.
GIS software, such as ArcGIS

Photogrammetry software like Agisoft PhotoScan operates locally. To function


properly, it requires
requires considerable processing power. Outputting a completed
map or 3D model may take many hours, depending on the computer used.
Cloud-based services, like DroneDeploy and DroneMapper, allow users to
upload UAV images to company servers. The images are processed quickly and
then returned to the user. Cloud based services are faster and often cost less
money than purchasing locally-hosted processing software. However, they
require access to high bandwidth Internet service or mobile data. A
comprehensive and up-to-date list of
of all major open source and proprietary
UAV planning and processing software is available at UAViators.

An al ysi s
Analysis
From images and telemetry data, analysts use algorithms to produce insights
from UAV captured spatial data. Libraries of
of available algorithms are expanding
to produce increasing varieties of
of insights. Example analyses include:
-
-
-
-
-

Measuring volumes
Calculating distances and areas
Determining variations
Identifying and counting classes of
of objects
Assessing biomass quality

Section Three: UAVs. Data and Technology

Practical Considerations in the Field


Developing world UAV deployments involve practical considerations different
than developed world operations. UAV deployments require infrastructure:
power and battery recharging during the flights, as well as local or cloud
computing to plan and process the captured imagery. Access to electricity,
sufficient computing resources, or the cloud is often limited in development
and humanitarian settings, and should be assessed prior to a deployment.
Mapping Outputs
World Bank UAV mapping deployments must produce spatial data collected to
the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. Adhering to OGC standards is
general best practice, as the data can then be reused broadly.
Open source cadastre software is available, such as FAOs Open Tenure, and the
Cadasta platform. Detailed information about Spatial Data Infrastructure
worldwide is available at the Federal Geographic Data Committee website.
Own vs. Rent vs. UAVs as a Service
UAV missions have three typical paths to acquiring the UAV hardware. Teams
can buy or build a UAV. They can rent them, generally from manufacturers, or
they can hired a third party that has a UAV and handles the deployment. Which
option is best is dependent on context. Questions to consider include:

Is this a limited or onetime need?


Is understanding the technical aspects of UAV deployment and data
processing important to my mission or organization?
If ongoing deployments, is it within our priorities and mandate to
deploy UAVs directly, or is this more appropriate as a third party
procurement?
Will the rented or owned UAV be kept in-country, or be crossing
international borders regularly?

Team Deployments
For organizations interested in deploying UAVs directly, it is worthwhile to
consider: flights, customs, import export of UAV hardware, mission
administration, hotels, processing, computing infrastructure, and sources of
power. Further information is available in the Resources section.
Generally, it is useful to separate the question of whether UAV imagery could
support a project from the question of whether the project should develop UAV
technical capacity in-house, particularly in locations where local capabilities
have improved to meet international standards.

Conclusion
UAVs are becoming an increasingly common tool in development and humanitarian programs, with a gradual shift
towards more scaled operations. Like all other technologies and tools, the case must be made regarding return and
value for investment in UAV deployments. Ultimately, appropriate uses of UAV technology should deliver superior
program outputs as compared to alternative methods of data collection.
UAVs intersect with broad sets of stakeholders, whose needs and positions should be identified as part of a complete
planning process. These include local communities who are surveyed; local and national governments; and an
assessment of in-country readiness and capacity to manage UAV deployments. Generally, in-country UAV equipment
and processing capabilities are improving and becoming more common, meaning that the barriers to incorporating
UAVs in projects are decreasing over time.
UAVs have the potential to support progress across most of the SDGs, and are situated to playa role in improving lives
around the world for decades to come. At this juncture, use cases are still being tested and analyzed, making it an
exciting moment to participate in establishing the road ahead for UAVs, development, and humanitarian aid.

34

Glossar
y
Glossary
AGL - Altitude above ground level.
Aut onom y - Autonomy in the UAV context refers
?s ability to "fly
?fly itself
Autonomy
refers to an aircraft
aircraft's
itself"? to a greater or lesser degree.
of degree: fully autonomous systems may be flown entirely by onboard computers, while
Autonomy is a matter of
semi-autonomous systems include some input from a pilot on the ground.

CAA - Civil Aviation Authority. An organization that controls air travel in national air space. Most countries
countries have a CAA,
CM
which is usually the body tasked with developing regulations for the commercial and hobby use of
of UAVs.
Cadast
r e - A public register (or map) detailing the ownership, value, and extent of
of real estate in a given area. UAV
Cadastre
imagery is now being used to update and generate cadastral maps.
Com
put er Vision - The science of creating computers that can "see"
?see? and quickly incorporate visual information into its
Computer
decision making process, replicating human visual understanding.
DEM - Digital Elevation Model. Refers to either a DSM or a DTM.

DIY
DI
Y - Do It Yourself. In the UAV context, refers to a customized and usually inexpensive UAV built by a hobbyist or other
non-professional
non-professional-- a practice that has become popular due to the increasing availability of
of low-cost microprocessors,
sensors, and mechanical components.
Dr
one - A colloquial, widely used term for unmanned and remotely-piloted aircraft, describing a number of
Drone
of often very
different technological systems - from inexpensive toys to exceedingly costly military UAVs.

DSM - Digital Surface Model, digital model or 3D representation of


of a terrain's surface, including objects on it.
DTM - Digital Terrain Model, digital model or 3D representation of a terrain's
terrain?s surface without any objects.
ESC
?arm? of a multirotor UAV.
ESC - Electronic speed controller, used to speed up and slow down motors on each "arm"
FAA - Refers specifically to the United States Federal Aviation Administration.
cameras." These cameras produce distorted images
Fisheye Lens - An ultra wide-angle lens commonly found on "action
?action cameras.?
that are not ideal for use in photogrammetry.

Fixed Wing - A UAV that resembles a two-winged airplane, with rigid wings
wings instead of
of rotors. Fixed wing UAVs are more
lightweight with a longer battery life but less maneuverability than multirotor or "helicopter"
?helicopter ? UAV designs.

Flight Cont
Controller
of a UAV - a lightweight circuit board usually combining a microprocessor, a variety of
Flight
r oller - The "brain"
?brain? of
of
sensors (such as a gyroscope, an IMU, and GPS) and input and output pins. Come in many varieties with many different
functions and abilities. Often referred to instead as a "autopilot."
?autopilot.?
functions
FPV - First person view. Refers to a live stream from a UAV camera to a ground receiver, permitting pilots to precisely
set up shots, monitor missions, and even engage in competitive racing.

GCS - Ground control station, a system used to communicate with and monitor the progress of
GCS
of a UAV.
Georectification
of adjusting merged aerial photographs so that they adhere to a known coordinate
Geor
ect if icat ion - The process of
system, allowing them to be used as a map.
Georeferencing
of aligning geographic data, like merged UAV-shot aerial photographs, to a
Geor
ef er encing - Refers to the process of
known coordinate system.
Gim
bal - A pivoted system that allows an object (such as a camera
Gimbal
camera or another type of
of sensor) to rotate independently of
the object to which it is attached. In the context of
of UAVs, gimbals are used to keep cameras stable they are while
attached to an aerial vehicle.

GISS - Geographic information system. A wide-ranging term referring to systems that allow the user to perform a wide
GI
variety of
of analyses on geographic data. Often used in context of GIS
GIS software, which is in turn often used to manipulate
and analyze geographic data captured by a UAV.
GNSS - Global navigation satellite system. An international system of satellites that can be used to pinpoint a receiver
receiver's
GNSS
's
location anywhere in the world.
GPS - Global Positioning System, first developed by the US
US military as a satellite-based means of
GPS
GPS
of pinpointing a GPS
receiver
's location anywhere on earth. UAVs rely on GPS
receiver's
GPS to maintain position, autonomously navigate to different
waypoints, and return to "home"
?home? positions.

Ground Control Points - Precisely surveyed locations that are marked so as to be visible from aerial photographs
(often with brightly colored plastic markers). GCPs can be used to precisely georeference aerial images, which can then
be turned into usable maps.
GSD - Ground sample distance. In a digital aerial photograph, GSD refers to the distance between pixel centers
measured on the ground, and is used as one measurement of photo resolution.
Hexacopter - A six-armed multirotor UAV, often used to lift heavy objects such as DSlR cameras.
Hybrid UAV - UAVs that have the ability to take off, hover, and land like multi-rotor UAVs, combined with the ability to fly
like a fixed-wing UAV.
Hyperspectral Imaging - A photographic means of collecting information across the electromagnetic spectrum.
Hyperspectral sensors are most often used by precision agriculture practitioners and scientific researchers.
IMU - Inertial measurement unit. A device found on UAVs that can detect small changes in rotation and speed by
means of gyroscopes and accelerometers. One of the components that makes modern UAVs stable and relatively easy
to learn how to fly.
Infrared - A type of radiation between the visible and microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, primarily
produced by heat or thermal radiation. Can be detected by specialized thermal sensors, some of which are small
enough to be mounted on a UAV.
ISO - An algorithmic value of a film or digital camera sensor's sensitivity to light, set by the International Standards
Organization. High ISO images are grainier than low ISO images.
LIDAR - light detection and ranging. A remote sensing technology that uses a pulsed laser to measure distance and
generate 3D geographical information. Can "see" through heavy forest cover, unlike photographic remote sensing
methods.
Machine learning - Using artificial intelligence techniques to permit a computer-based system (such as a UAV) to
"learn" new things without being explicitly programmed to do so.
MEMS - Microelectromechanical systems. Miniature components such as gyroscopes, accelerometers, and
magnetometers, used to make UAVs stable and easy-to-use data collection platforms.
Multirotor - An aircraft with multiple rotors (or propellers), resembling a multi-armed helicopter.
Nadir - A "straight down" view in aerial photographs, directly below the perspective center of the camera lens. The view
used to generate 2D maps from aerial photographs.
NDVI - Normalized vegetation difference index. A commonly used vegetation index that describes the quantity of
photosynthetic activity in a remotely-sensed image. Speciality UAV cameras are used to generate these images.
Oblique - An aerial photograph shot at an angle that is between the horizontal angle and the perpendicular angle.
High-oblique photographs show the horizon in the image, while low-oblique photographs do not.
Octocopter - An eight-armed multi rotor UAV, often used for lifting heavy sensors and objects.
Orthomosaic - A single image made up of many different images "stitched" together and corrected for scale and
distortion.
Orthorectlflcatlon - The process of removing distortion in aerial images by using elevation data and specific camera
model information, with the end result of a combined photographic image with a consistent scale.
Payload - Refers to the weight a given UAV is capable of lifting off the ground.
Photogrammetry - The science of making very precise measurements - such as surveys and maps - from digital
photographs.
Point Cloud - A set of data points in a coordinate system. In a three-dimensional coordinate system, these points are
usually defined by X. Y, and Z coordinates, and represent the external surface of an object.
Quadcopter - An aircraft with four propellers or "arms." A very common and efficient UAV design.
Radar - A system for detecting the presence, direction, distance, and speed of objects, by sending out pulses of
high-frequency electromagnetic waves that are reflected off the object back to the source.
RC - Radio-controlled.
RPAS - Remotely piloted aircraft system.

36

GPS method that can be mounted on UAVs (for a price), creating


RTK - Real time kinematic GPS. A very precise GPS
survey-grade precision without the need for ground control points.

Sense and Avoid - Computer systems enabling a UAV to autonomously detect and avoid objects in the air and on the
remains largely experimental at the time of
of writing. Also referred to as
ground. Sense and avoid technology for UAVs remains
"obstacle
avoidance" or "obstacle
detection."
?obstacle avoidance?
?obstacle detection.?

SUAS - Small Unmanned Aircraft System


SUAS
Telemetry
of wireless and radio sources. In the context of
Telem et r y - Measuring and transmitting data by means of
of UAVs, telemetry
describes a digital two-way data stream between the pilot and the vehicle in the air.
Tot al St
at ion - A common precision surveying instrument, often used to "shoot"
?shoot ? precise ground control points for aerial
Total
Station
photographs.
UAS
UAS - Unmanned aerial system. This commonly used term may refer either to the entire system - including ground
control mechanisms - or to a single unmanned aerial vehicle.
UAV - Unmanned aerial vehicle. Often used as a synonym for "drone."
?drone.?
VLOS - Visual line of
VLOS
of sight. Some UAV regulations require that the vehicle remain within human sight range at all times
during operation.
Waypoint - An intermediate point on a given line of
Waypolnt
of travel. In autonomous UAV missions, the vehicle will navigate to a
series of
?waypoints? (resembling a connect-the-dots game).
of pre-determined "waypoints"

Resources
Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College
Interdisciplinary research institution devoted to various uses of drone technology, in both civilian and military sectors.
http://dronecenter.bard.edu

Conservation Drones
Group dedicated to the use of low-cost, custom built UAVs for various conservation and environmental projects.
https:llconservationdrones.org

DIY Drones
large, long-standing online community dedicated to building and operating "DIY" (do it yourself) drones. Useful
resource for technical and operational questions. http://dronecenter.bard.edu

Dronelife
Popular online magazine resource for UAV news and technical information. http://dronelife.com

Drones at Work
Curated resource for news and information on the commercial uses of drone technology.
http://www.dronesatwork.com

Drones for Disaster Response and Relief Operations


A report detailing how and why UAVs should be used in the wake of natural disasters and other emergencies that
threaten widespread loss of life and property.
http://dukeofdrones.com/wp-contentluploads/2015/06/drones-for-disaster-response-reliefoperationsstudy.pdf

Federal Geographic Data Committee -International Resources


A range of international Spatial Data Infrastructure (SOl) development resources. https:llwww.fgdc.gov/international

FlightRiot
website devoted to the use of UAVs for mapping. with a special emphasis on open source solutions. Many free
resources and tutorials. http://flightriot.com

Global Spatial Data Infrastructure Association


The GSOI Association promotes international cooperation and collaboration in support of local, national and
international Spatial Data Infrastructure research, education, capacity building and implementation challenges, issues
and good practice from around the globe. http://gsdiassociation.org/

ICAO Airspace Classification


International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) key concepts regarding airspace classifications.
https:llwww.vatsim.netlpilot-resourcecentreMr-specific-lessons/icao-airspace-ciassification

New America Drone Primer


Discusses the capabilities and limitations of UAVs in advancing property rights, human rights and development more
broadly. Contains both advice to UAV operators and detailed policy guidance. http://drones.newamerica.org/primer

New America UAV Regulations Database


National regulations pertaining to UAVs, which vary widely from country to country.
http://drones.newamerica.org/#regulations

New America Civilian UAV Case Study Database


Noteworthy uses of civil UAVs for: Agriculture; Archaeology; Armed Conflict Monitoring; Cargo; Community Mapping;
Current Events; Disaster Response; Environmental Surveying; Search and Rescue; Training; Wildlife Surveying, among
others. http://drones.newamerica.org/#fIights

Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD): Humanitarian UAV Resources Page
A repOSitory of detailed humanitarian UAV case studies, including Regulations; Reports; and Webinars.
http://drones.fsd.ch/resources/

38

OCHA Policy Repor


Reportt on UAVs
https:lldocs.unocha.org/sites/dms/Documents/Unmanned%20Aerial%20Vehicles%20in%20Humanitarian
https://docs.unocha.org/sites/dms/Documents/Unmanned%20Aerial%20Vehicles%20in%20Humanitarian
%20Response%200CHA%20july%202014.pdf
%20Response%20OCHA%20J
uly%202014.pdf

Geospatial
Consortium
Open Geospat
ial Consor
t ium (OGC)
The OGC
OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) is an international not for profit organization committed to making quality open
standards for the global geospatial community. These standards are made through a consensus process and are freely
available for anyone to use to improve sharing of
of the world's geospatial data. www.opengeospatial.org

Humanitarian
Network
(UAViators)
Hum
anit ar ian UAV Net
wor k (UAViat
or s)
UAViators promotes the safe, coordinated and effective use of
of UAVs for data collection, payload delivery and
of humanitarian and development settings. http://www.UAViators.org
communication services in a wide range of

UAViators
Resources:
UAViat
or s Resour
ces:
- Best
Best Pract
Practices
Humanitarian
ices in Hum
anit ar ian UAV Missions
of Conduct; Review of
of UAVs; Case Studies; UAV Organizations;
Comprehensive library including the UAViators Code of
Insurance Companies; Publications; Check-Lists;
Check-lists; Software. http://uaviators.org/docs
http://uaviators.orgldocs

ion Spreadsheet
Spr eadsheet
- UAV Evaluat
Evaluation
Detailed spreadsheet analysis and list of
of all key UAV system components available on the market. Covers: UAV models;
Cameras; Planning and Processing Software; and GPS
GPS Trackers.
https:lldocs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/16IUuU Rcqs8Qdd MsoW2MXpB6E5g81gatoH8rKyuCEMQ/ed it#gid=601232484
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/16IUuURcqs8QddMsoW2MXpB6E5g8lgatoH8rKyut_EMQ/edit#gid=601232484
- UAV Regulat
ions ffor
or Hum
anit ar ian and Developm
ent Organizat
ions
Regulations
Humanitarian
Development
Organizations
of national UAV laws, relevant government contact information, and experiences in traveling across
Documentation of
borders with UAVs. http://uaviators.org/laws
http://uaviators.orgllaws

or s: Sof
t war e for
f or Hum
anit ar ian UAVs/
Dr ones
- UAViat
UAViators:
Software
Humanitarian
UAVs/Drones
A crowdsourced, updated list of
of open-source, free to use, and proprietary software that can be used with UAVs/Drones
in humanitarian and development contexts.
F-ZFke_qXcxd hG7dfKYcjTl
Tgy3jGOXj PM/edit
PM/ed it
https:lldocs.google.com/documentld/l-0TOFNPCJ F-ZFke_qXcxdhG7dfKYcJ
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1-OTOFNPCJ
T1Tgy3jGOXJ

UAV4AG
Large community and listserv dedicated to the use of UAV technology for agriculture, with emphasis on developing
countries. https://dgroups.org/groups/uav4ag
https:/Idgroups.orglgroups/uav4ag

Who to Contact
This solutions brief is one of several knowledge products delivered through the
Innovation labs. The solution briefs are produced in close cooperation with
Global Practices across the World Bank Group. It is a follow up to Satellites
State of Play, which examines how satellites can be effectively harness for
humanitarianism and development.
The Innovations lab sits in the leadership, learning, and Innovation vice
presidency. Its big data program includes a core program team from the
Development Economics Group, the Transport and ICT Global Practice, and
Information and Technology Solutions. The purpose of the program is to
accelerate the effective use of big data analytics across the organization, and to
position the World Bank as a leader in the big data for development
community.
For additional information about this solutions brief or to find out more about
the program, please contact Adarsh Desai (adesai@worldbank.org) or Bruno
Sanchez-Andrade Nuno (brunosanchez@worldbank.org).

2016 I nt er nat ional Bank f or Reconst r uct ion and Developm ent / The Wor ld Bank
1818 H St r eet NW, Washingt on DC 20433
www.wor ldbank.org