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Module Booklet

Unit 5

Aspects of Contract and Negligence for


Business (ACBN)

Unit level

Unit code

Y/601/0563

Qualification
Term Start Date

BTEC HND in Business


22/02/2016

Hand out date

29/02/2016

Submission Deadline

15/07/2016

Lecture
Revision Clinic
Module Leader
Lecturer

15Weeks
3 Weeks
Mr. Daniel Oluwatayo
Dr Larry Jones-Esan

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Table of Contents
1.

Introduction.......................................................................................................... 3

2.

Aim....................................................................................................................... 3

3.

Key Objectives..................................................................................................... 3

4.

Learning Outcomes and assessment criteria.......................................................4

5.

Knowledge and understanding............................................................................. 4

6.

Unit Content......................................................................................................... 5

7.

Teaching Plan....................................................................................................... 7

8.

Teaching Ethos................................................................................................... 15

9.

Methods of Delivery:.......................................................................................... 15

10.

Plagiarism....................................................................................................... 16

11.

Assignment brief............................................................................................. 17

12.

Contextualisation grid to achieve higher grade..............................................24

13. Glossary of academic words used in the assignments. .Error! Bookmark not
defined.

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1.Introduction
The unit introduces the law of contract, with a particular emphasis on the formation and
operation of business contracts. Learners are encouraged to explore the content of these
agreements and then develop skills relating to the practical application of business contracts,
including offer, acceptance, intention, consideration and capacity. Relevant case law examples
will be covered. Learners will consider when liability in contract arises, the nature of the
obligations on both sides of the contract, and the availability of remedies when a contract is not
fulfilled in accordance with its terms.

Additionally, the unit will enable learners to understand how the law of tort differs from the law of
contract and examine issues of liability in negligence relating to business and how to avoid it.

2.Aim
The aim of this unit is to provide learners with an understanding of aspects of the law of
contract and tort and the skill to apply them, particularly in business situations.

3.Key Objectives
1. Explain the essential elements of a valid contract in a business context
2. Apply the elements of a contract in business situations
3. Explain the principles of liability in negligence in business activities
4. Apply the principles of liability in negligence in business situations

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4.Learning Outcomes and assessment criteria


L01 Understand the essential elements of a valid contract in a business context:
1.1 explain the importance of the essential elements required for the formation of a valid
contract
1.2 discuss the impact of different types of contract
1.3 analyse terms in contracts with reference to their meaning and effect
LO2 Be able to apply the elements of a contract in business situations:
2.1 apply the elements of contract in given business scenarios
2.2 apply the law on terms in different contracts
2.3 evaluate the effect of different terms in given contracts
LO3 Understand principles of liability in negligence in business activities:
3.1 contrast liability in tort with contractual liability
3.2 explain the nature of liability in negligence
3.3 explain how a business can be vicariously liable
LO4 Be able to apply principles of liability in negligence in business situations:
4.1 apply the elements of the tort of negligence and defences in different business situations
4.2 apply the elements of vicarious liability in given business situations.

5.Knowledge and understanding


The learner needs to know and understand,

Definition of a contract

The essential elements of a valid contract

what is and not a valid offer in law

the meaning of acceptance and its consequences

the meaning of consideration, the intention to create a legal relations, the doctrine of privity

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types of contract

define the various contractual terms :condition; warranty; innominate term; express; implied;
exclusion clauses and their validity

application of relevant principles and case law on business scenarios

contents of a standard form business contract, analysis of terms, the effect of terms

the differences between tort and contract

the elements of tort

the conditions necessary for an action in negligence to succeed duty of care, breach of
duty of care, damage causation and remoteness

Liability - employers liability, the vicarious liability, health and safety issues

application of the relevant principles of negligence and regulatory and case law to business
scenarios

defences for negligence

6.Unit Content
Understand the essential elements of a valid contract in a business Context
Essential elements: offer and acceptance; intention to create legal relations; consideration;
capacity; privity of contract;
Types of contract: face to face; written; distance selling; impact
Types of terms: condition; warranty; innominate term; express; implied; exclusion clauses and
their validity

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Be able to apply the elements of a contract in business situations


Elements: application of relevant principles and case law to business scenarios
Specific terms: contents of standard form business contracts; analysis of express terms, implied
terms and exclusion clauses in a given contract
Effect of terms: breach of condition, warranty and innominate terms; legality of exemption
clauses; outline of remedies; damages
Understand principles of liability in negligence in business activities
Negligence: differences to contract; duty of care; breach of duty; damage causation and
remoteness of damage; personal injuries; damage to property; economic loss; occupier liability
Liability: employers liability; vicarious liability; health and safety issues
Be able to apply principles of liability in negligence in business situations
Negligence: application of the legal principles of negligence and relevant statutory and case law
to business scenarios including: personal injuries, damage to property, economic loss, occupier
liability; defences; contributory negligence; remedies

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7.Teaching Plan
Unit 5: Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business
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1

Lecture Schedule

Outcome of session

Activity/seminar and

Introduction to Aspects of

Introduction to the module, awareness of awarding body, mode of

formative assessment
Ice breaking, getting to

Contract and Negligence

assessment, and assessment criteria, referencing

know each other

for Business
2

Listen and ask

Essential elements of

After completing this session the learner will be able to explain the

questions,
Reading, review of

contract Offer and

essential elements of a contract and what is and not an offer

questions, group

acceptance
3

Resources
Handbook
Lecture power points
White board
Lecture power points
White board

discussion, presentation.
After completing this session the learner will be able to explain the

Case study, homework.


Listening, reading,

Lecture power points

meaning of acceptance, how is acceptance distinguished from

review of questions,

White board

other things , consequence of acceptance and how acceptance

Case study, group

Consideration

must be communicated to create an agreement


After completing this session the learner will be able to explain the

discussion, presentation
Listen, reading, review of

Lecture power points

Intention to create legal

meaning of consideration, and distinguish the presumption

questions,

White board, case

relations

relating to the intention to create legal relations,

Offer and acceptance

studies, module booklet

After completing this session the learner will be able to


Privity

understandthe doctrine of privity and the main exceptions, the

Capacity

legal capacities of people and identify those people with limited


power to enter into contracts

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Question and answer

Types of contracts and

Review task LO1.1


After completing this session the learner will be able to identify

Listen and ask

Lecture power points

their impact

various forms of contracts and their impact

questions, group

White board, case

discussion, case study

studies, module booklet

Face to face, written,


distance selling
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Type of terms

Review of task LO1.2


After completing this session the learner will be able to distinguish

Express terms, Implied

terms and mere presentations, explain various contractual terms,

terms, Conditions,

and exclusion clauses and their validity

Question and answer

warranty and innominate


terms, Exclusion clauses ,

Review of task LO1.3

legality of exemption
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clauses
Application of Elements of

After completing this session the learner will be able to apply the

Listen and ask

Power points

a valid contract

elements of the relevant principles and case law to business

questions, group

White board,

scenarios given in class.

discussion, case study

Case studies,

Review of task LO2.1


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Question and answer

Internet

Analysis of express terms,

After completing this session the learner will be able to review the

Listen and ask

Lecture power points

implied terms, and

contents of a standard form business contract, apply the law on

questions, group

White board

exclusion clauses

various terms in the contract and explain the effect of various

discussion, case study

contractual terms.
Question and answer

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Module booklet

Discharge of contract

Review of task LO2.2


After completing this session the learner will be able to

Question and answer,

Power points

Breach of condition,

understand different ways to discharge a contract, how a contract

group discussion, case

White board

warranty and innominate

can be breached, and the effect of breach of condition, warranty

study

Internet, Videos

terms,

and innominate terms, remedies for breach of contract andthe

Remedies, damages

rules relating to the award of damages.

Tort

Review of task LO2.3


After completing this session the learner will be able to define tort

Reading and open

Power points

Negligence

and show how it is different from a contract, explain the three

Case study, question and

White board,

How tort differs from a

elements of tort, define negligence and explain the three

answer

Module booklet

contract

conditions necessary for an action in negligence to succeed. Be

Module booklet

able to explain the meaning of duty of care, recent developments


Duty of care

in the duty of care, and the limitations to the duty of care.

Listen and ask

After completing this session the learner will be able to explain the

questions
Reading listen and ask

Power points

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Breach of duty of care

circumstances in which breach of duty of care may occur

questions, homework

White board, flipchart

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Damage

After completing this session the learner will be able to distinguish

Reading listen and ask

Module booklet
Power points

Causation and Remoteness

between causation in fact and remoteness of damage

questions, homework

White board, mo

of Damage, Personal injuries


Damage to property,
Economic loss
Occupier liability
Review of task 3

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Review of task LO3.1, 3.2 and 3.3

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13

14

15

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Liability

After completing this session the learner will be able to

Reading, listening and

Power points

Employers liability

understand how a business can be vicariously liable. Explain the

asking questions, case

White board, flipchart

Vicarious liability

liability arising from failure to comply with health and safety at

study

Health and safety issues


Negligence

work
After completing this session the learner will be able to apply the

Case study, Group

Module booklet
Power points

Application of the legal

relevant principles of negligence and relevant statutory and case

discussion group

White board,

principles

law to business scenarios given in class and the defenses to an

presentations, home

Module booklet

Vicarious liability

action of negligence
After completing this session the learner will be able to apply the

work
Case study, Group

Power point

Assessment

elements of vicarious liability in given business scenarios.

discussion group

White board

presentations, home

Use of internet

Review of task LO4.1, and 4.2


After completing this session the learner will be able to Work on

work
Group discussion

Power points

assignment addressing LO1, LO2, LO3 and LO4

Question and answer

White board,

Learners will be able to get assignment support and guidance

Practical group

Module booklet
White board, Internet

discussion, questions

Module booklet

Review of task 4
Revision

Assignment support and


guidance

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Assignment support and

Learners will be able to get assignment support and guidance

and answer
Practical group

guidance

discussion, questions

Assignment support and

and answer
Discussion, questions

Learners will be able to get assignment support and guidance

guidance
Recommended text and links
Learners should use the latest edition if available.
Textbooks

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and answer

Adams A , (2010), Law For Business Students, 6th edition, Pearson Education Ltd, ISBN9781408278802
Elliot C and Quinn F (2009), Tort Law, Longman, ISBN: 9781405899338
Horsey K and Rackley E (2009),Tort Law, OUP Oxford, ISBN: 9780199216376
Maclntyre E, (2011), Essentials of business law, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Ltd ISBN 9781408278765
McKendrick, E,(2008),Contract Law: Text, Cases, & Materials: Text, Cases, andMaterials (OUP Oxford, ISBN: 9780199208012
Peel E and Treitel G H (2007),Treitel on the Law of Contract, Sweet and MaxwellISBN: 9780421948402
Riches S and Allen V (2011), Keenan and Riches Business Law, 10th Edition, Pearson Education Ltd, ISBN 9781408278839
Journals
Law Society Gazette (The Law Society)
New Law Journal (LexisNexis Butterworths)
Websites
http://www.e-lawresources.co.uk/
www.bailii.org/

Providing resources for studying law


British and Irish Legal InformationInstitute

Access to freely availableBritish and Irish public legal information


http://www.oft.gov.uk/
http://iclr.co.uk/

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The Office of Fair Trading


The Incorporated Council of LawReporting for England and Wales

http://www.tradingstandards.gov.uk/
http://www.bis.gov.uk/policies/consumer-issues

Main site for trading standards andits business advice


Department for Business Innovationand Skills - Links and data on
consumer protection

http://www.bis.gov.uk/policies/consumer-issues/buying-and-selling Department for Business Innovationand Skills - Links and data on


consumer protection

www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts2001.htm

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Session Update

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Public Acts of the UK Parliament

Date

Signature

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Lecturer:
Campus:
Contact details:
Assessment:
The module will be assessed meeting all the LO as specified by the awarding body, Ed
Excel.
Please read the instructions carefully while addressing the tasks specified.
Contribution: of the module
Outline Details: Details enclosed in the assignment brief.
Teaching and Learning Activities
The module tutor(s) will aim to combine lectures with tutorial activities. This environment will
provide opportunities for the student to understand the course material through case study and
text and to apply it in a practical way. The intent is to facilitate interactive class activities, and
discussion about the significant role of research in a global and local business environment.

8.Teaching Ethos
The colleges approach towards teaching and learning is simple and effective. The main aim of
UKCBC is to assist learners in maximising their potential by ensuring that they are taught clearly
and effectively. This will enable students to engage in the learning environment and promote
success in both their academic studies and subsequent career.

9.Methods of Delivery:
LECTURES:
These will be developed around the key concepts as mentioned in the indicative course content
and will use a range of live examples and cases from business practice to demonstrate the
application of theoretical concepts. This method is primarily used to identify and explain key
aspects of the subject so that learners can utilise their private study time more effectively.
SEMINARS:
These are in addition to the lectures. The seminars are designed to give learners the
opportunity to test their understanding of the material covered in the lectures and private study
with the help of reference books. This methodology usually carries a set of questions identified
in advance. Seminars are interactive sessions led by the learners. This method of study gives

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the learner an excellent opportunity to clarify any points of difficulty with the tutor and
simultaneously develop their oral communication skills.
CASE STUDIES: An important learning methodology is the extensive use of case studies. They
enable learners to apply the concepts that they learn in their subjects. The learners have to
study the case, analyse the facts presented and arrive at conclusions and recommendations.
This assists in the assessment of the learners ability to apply to the real world the tools and
techniques of analysis which they have learnt. The case study serves as a supplement to the
theoretical knowledge imparted through the course work.

10.

Plagiarism

Any act of plagiarism will be seriously dealt with according to the colleges and awarding bodies
regulations. In this context the definition and scope of plagiarism are presented below:
Plagiarism is presenting someones work as your won. It includes copying information directly
from the web or books without referencing the material; submitting joint coursework as an
individual effort; copying another students coursework; stealing coursework form another
student and submitting it as your own work. Suspected plagiarism will be investigated and if
found to have occurred will be dealt with according to the college procedure. (For further details
please refer to the plagiarism policy and the student code of conduct.)

Assessment:
The module will be assessed meeting all the LO as specified by the awarding body,
Pearson Ed Excel.
Please read the instructions carefully while addressing the tasks specified.
Contribution: 100% of the module
Outline Details: report approx 4000 words. Details enclosed in the assignment brief

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11.

Assignment brief

Unit 5

Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business

Unit code

Y/601/0563

Qualification

HND in Business

Term Start date

22/02/2016

Assignment/hand-out
date

29/02/2016

Deadline/hand-in date

15/07/2016

Assignment title

The case of Peter Abraham and others

Purpose of this assignment


The purpose of this assignment is to test understanding of aspects of the law of
contract and tort and the skill to apply them, particularly in business situations.
TASK 1 Scenario
In this task you will be required to demonstrate knowledge and understanding
about essential elements of a valid contract, discuss different types of contract
and be able to analyse the impact and effect of various terms used in contracts.
Peter Abraham is looking to set up as a self-employed building contractor. He is
aware that he could be sued for damages for breach of contract but has very little
knowledge and unsure about formation of contracts or the effect of terms used in
contracts. As a friend he has approached you to get further clarity as he knows
you are studying Aspects of Contract.

LO1 (AC1.1, AC1.2 and AC1.3)


You are required to
1.1 Explain to Peter Abraham how a contract is formed and the importance of the
various elements which has to be present to form a contract.
1.2 Discuss the impact of forming contracts (as it may apply to Peter Abraham)

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by means of
i.

face to face

ii.

written contract

iii.

distance selling (telephone, internet)

1.3 Give an analyses of the following terms in contracts with reference to their
meaning and effect (including remedies and damages) as it may apply to Peter
Abraham.
i.

condition

ii.

warranty

iii.

innominate terms

iv.

exemption clauses (including legality)

Please note the key underline words are significant and must be
addressed in your answers

TASK 2 - Case studies


In this task you will be required to able to apply the elements of a contract in
business situations

LO2 (AC2.1, AC2.2 and AC2.3)


2.1 Apply the elements of contract in the given business scenarios below;
Case 1 - Agreement
Carols student apartment was unfurnished. She perused Gumtree, an online
classified ad and saw this advertisement: Moving. For sale: a very nice brown
leather couch, almost new, 600. There was an accompanying photo and contact
information. Carol e-mailed the contact, saying she wanted to buy the couch.
Does Carol have a contract with the seller? Explain using cases and /or
statutes to support your answer
Case 2 - Consideration
Prestons son, Devi, was seeking a cyber-security position with George, Smith &

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Fogarty, Inc., a large IT firm. Devi was independent and wished no interference
by his well-known father. The firm, after several weeks deliberation, decided to
hire Devi. They made him an offer on April 12, 2015, and Devi accepted. Preston,
unaware that his son had been hired and concerned that he might not be, mailed
a letter to George on April 13 in which he promised to give the IT firm 150,000
contract if the firm would hire his son. The letter was received by George, and the
firm wishes to enforce it against Preston. Can George enforce the promise? Why?
Explain using cases and /or statutes to support your answer

2.2 Apply the law on terms in the following contracts


Case 3 Exclusion clause
A couple booked a table at a popular London restaurant. At the entrance to the
restaurant the man handed over his over coat which contained his wallet with
500 inside. The porter gave the man a receipt which has on the back an
exclusion clause that states all valuables must be removed from the jacket
pockets as the restaurant will not be held responsible for items missing or stolen.
As the man was about to make payment for the meal he realises his wallet was
left in the over coat and went to collect it. He then realised the money has been
taken from the wallet which he sought to recover from the restaurant.

The

restaurant is refusing to refund the man stating that there was a clear notice on
the back of the receipt which excludes them from any liability. Can the restaurant
rely on the exclusion clause contained on the receipt? Explain using cases
and /or statutes to support your answer
Case 4 Implied term
Aaron rented a warehouse from Zehphra which had not been occupied for a long
period and had fallen into disrepair. Aaron made significant improvement to the
warehouse. Zehphra promised Aaron that he will not increase the rent for the
next 5 years. After a year Zehphra died by then the value of the property have
increased in value partly due to the repairs carried out by Aaron. Yeti inherited
the property and immediately increased the rent. Aaron refused to accept the
increase claiming that Zehphra promised the rent will not increase for a 5 year
period. Yeti terminated the tenancy and Aaron has now submitted a bill claiming
compensation for his expenses. Yeti is refusing to pay stating there was nothing in
the tenancy agreement stating that such compensation was payable. Is Aaron

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entitled to a compensation? Explain using cases and /or statutes to support


your answer

2.3 Evaluate the effect of different terms in the given contracts


Case 5
The policyholder applied for motor insurance. The proposal form asked: "Have
you or anyone who will drive been involved in any motor accidents or made a
claim (fault or non-fault including thefts) during the last five years-"
His answer was "No."
When the policyholder's car was stolen, the insurer learnt that he had made a
theft claim under his previous motor policy within the five year period. The
insurer voided the policy from its start date and rejected the policyholder's claim.
The policyholder argued that he did not have to disclose his previous theft claim
because the insurer concerned had decided not to meet it. Is the insurance
right to void the policy?
Case 6
The policyholder applied for motor insurance, answering "no" to the following two
questions on the proposal form:
"Has the car been altered/modified from the maker's specification (including the
addition of optional fit accessories such as spoilers, skirts, alloy wheels etc.-)"
"Have YOU or ANY PERSON who will drive ... during the past five years been
involved in any accident or loss (irrespective of blame and of whether a claim
resulted)-"
When the insurer investigated a new claim, it came to light that the car had been
fitted with oversized alloy wheels, spoilers, and chrome wheel arches, and that
the policyholder's husband, a named driver on the policy, had made two
significant claims in the previous five years. The insurer refused to meet the claim
and cancelled the policy from its start date.
The policyholder stated that she had bought the car with the all the modifications
already fitted, and she assumed they were all part of the car's original
specification. She further explained that she did not realise her husband had
made one of the two earlier claims, and that his other claim had been rejected
because he had only third party cover at the time. Is the insurance right to
void the policy from the start date?

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TASK 3 Vocational scenario


In this task you will be required to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of
the principles of negligence in business activities.
You have been recently promoted in your employment as Health and Safety
Officer and has been invited to give a talk on safety in the workplace and the
consequences.

LO3 (AC3.1, AC3.2 and AC3.3)


You are required to:
3.1 Explain the similarities and differences (contrast) of liability in tort with
contractual liability using an example.
3.2 Explain using suitable example how liability for negligence can arise and the
conditions needed to be met for a claimant to successfully prove negligence.
3.3 Explain what vicarious liability means and how a business such as your
organisation can become vicariously liable giving example.
Please note the key underline words are significant and must be
addressed in your answers
TASK 4 - Case studies
In this task you will be required to apply the principles of liability of negligence to
business situations based on the business scenarios given below

LO4 (AC4.1 and AC4.2)


You are required to:
4.1 Apply the elements of the tort of negligence and defences in the given
business scenarios below;
Case 7
Mr Brown was feeling unwell and went to Goodmayes Hospital complaining of
chest pains and breathing problem. He was seen by a nurse who telephoned the
doctor on duty. The doctor asked the nurse to prescribe some over the counter
pain killers. Mr Brown died a day later from pneumonia caused from toxic mould

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in his house.
Advice the widower of Mr Brown using cases and /or statutes to support
your answer
a) When can the hospital be held responsible for negligence
b) When can the hospital not be held responsible for negligence

4.2 Apply the elements of vicarious liability in given business situations below;
Case 8
A driver working for an executive chauffeur company was sent to pick up a client
at the airport. While waiting for the flight to arrive the driver decides to have few
glasses of alcohol. On his way from the airport to the clients hotel he crashed into
a lamp post and the client suffered serious injury. The investigation concluded
that the driver was over the drink driving limit.
The client is now suing the chauffeur company. Is the chauffeur company liable
for the drivers negligence?
Explain using cases and /or statutes to support your answer
Case 9
Mr Jones, of Billericay in Essex, was works as delivery driver for a supermarket.
One morning while loading pallets into his truck he slipped on the tail gate and
the pallet fell over and injured another colleague. The injury was so severe that
the colleague was left with a torn rotator cuff which required surgery and months
of rehabilitation with a physiotherapist. The colleague is now suing the
supermarket for damages. The supermarket is arguing that, at the time of the
accident, responsibility for health and safety had been delegated to another
company.
Explain using cases and /or statutes to support your answer whether the
supermarket is or is not responsible

Criteria
Reference
1.1

To achieve the criteria the evidence must show


that the student has:
explain the importance of the essential elements

Achieved?
(tick)

required for the formation of a valid contract

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1.2

discuss the impact of different types of contract as

1.3

requested
analyse terms in contracts with reference to their

2.1

meaning and effect


apply the elements of contract in the given business

2.2
2.3

scenarios
apply the law on terms in the given contracts
evaluate the effect of different terms in the given

3.2

contracts
contrast liability in tort with contractual liability
explain the nature of liability in negligence

3.3

explain how a business can be vicariously liable

4.1

apply the elements of the tort of negligence and

3.1

defences in the given business situations


4.2

apply the elements of vicarious liability in the given


business situations

12.
Contextualisation grid to achieve higher
grade
Outcomes/criteri
a:

Indicative
characteristics

Possible Contextualised evidence

Effective judgements
have been made

To achieve M1, the learner should have


demonstrated evidence that supports their
arguments in reaching a conclusion. Possible
evidence areas could be in Tasks 2 and 4

Merit
Description:
M1. Identify and
apply strategies
to find
appropriate
solutions.

An effective approach of study with good


research skills being used in finding
appropriate statutes and decided cases
across the assignment

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M2. Select/
design and apply
appropriate
methods/
techniques.

A range of sources
of information used.
Appropriate
structure and
approach has been
used.

To achieve M2 The learner should have


substantiated their answers by sourcing
relevant legislations, cases, texts, articles
correctly and appropriately to present their
answers. Possible evidence areas could be in
Tasks 1 and 3

M3. Present and


communicate
appropriate
findings.

Technical language
accurately used.

You should also show evidence of accurate


use of legal technical language particularly.
Possible evidence areas could be in Tasks 1,
2, 3 and 4

D1. Use critical


reflection to
evaluate own
work and justify
valid conclusion.

Synthesis has been


used to generate
and justify valid
conclusions

To achieve D1 you will have to show your


ideas & assertions are very well supported
by argument, research &/or references
across the assignment, arguments and
points presented logically and read very well.
Possible evidence areas could be in Tasks 1,
2, 3 and 4

D2. Take
responsibility for
managing and
organizing
activities.

Autonomy/independ
ence demonstrated

To achieve D2 you will have demonstrated


autonomy across your assignment, with
effective independent research and met the
deadlines to submit all the tasks and achieve
the unit assessment criteria and
interdependence with each learning outcome
has been demonstrated. Possible evidence
areas could be in Tasks 1, 2, 3 and 4

D3. Demonstrate
convergent,
lateral and
creative thinking

Convergent and
lateral thinking have
been applied

Your work demonstrates ability of convergent


and lateral thinking across the assignment
making it look different and creative.
Possible evidence areas could be in Tasks 1,
2, 3 and 4

Distinction
Description:

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11.

Glossary of academic words used in this and other assignments

Account for

Give reasons for: explain why something happens.

Analyse

Examine something in very close detail and from a


number of angles. Identify the important points and
chief features, and understand their relationships.

Argue

Present a case for and against a proposal or


statement and present your own opinion at the end.

Compare

Show how two or more things are similar.

Contrast

Look at two or more things and draw out differences.


State whether the differences are significant.

Critically
evaluate

Weigh arguments for and against something, assess


the strength of evidence on both sides.

Define

Give the exact meaning of.

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Describe

Give a detailed account of the main features or


characteristics ...

Discuss

Write about the most important characteristics of


something. Give arguments for and against, look at it
from a variety of perspectives.

Distinguish

Identify the differences between two items.

Evaluate

Assess the worth or usefulness of something. Use


evidence to support your opinion.

Examine

Look at something in detail. You may be expected to


'critically evaluate' it as well.

Explain

Make it clear why something happens or why it is the


way it is.

Identify

Recognise name and briefly describe something.

Illustrate

Use examples to further explain or justify something.


Could be visual or verbal.

Interpret

Explain the meaning or significance of information or


data that you are presenting.

Justify

Provide evidence that supports an argument or idea.

Outline

Give only the main points, show only the main


structure.

Prove

Present evidence in a logical structure to support an


argument for a point of view.

Relate (Two
meanings)

1. Show how ideas / theories/ events etc are linked or


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connected.
2. Tell a story. Explain something in a narrative
fashion.

Review

Survey and comment on the key aspects of something


or a range of things.

State

Give the main features clearly and simply.

Summarise

Draw out the main points, omitting detail and


examples.

To what
extent

How far is something true, or contributes to a final


outcome. Also how far is it not true? In academic
writing the answer is usually somewhere in the
middle.

Trace

Describe the development of something; follow the


order of different stages in an event or process.

Adapted from Cottrell.S.(2003) The Study Skills Handbook. Basingstoke. Palgrave.

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