NUCLEAR
INSTRUMENTS
a METHODS
IN PHYSICS
RESEARCH
Secton A
EI.SE&IER
Abstract
We examine here the oscillation of electronbeam density perturbations (longitudinal plasma oscillations) produced at
the exit of a highgain freeelectron laser (FEL) by the action of the FEL instability. These oscillations, which are
analyzed in the case of both a freespace drift and a dispersive section, can degrade the bunching of the beam in the drift
between undulator sections in multistage FELs. The impact of these oscillations on the gain of an FEL in an undulator
following such a drift, as well as the case of an optical klystron is studied.
1. Longitudinal spacecharge short wavelength limit, the electric field associated with
a pure harmonic density perturbation n, = n,,  nbD =
In spacecharge dominated beams derived from RF 6nb cos(k,[) of wavelength 1, = 2n/k,, with nbOthe unper
photoinjectors, such as typically moderate energy driven turbed beam density, and < = z  vbot (distance meas
(few tens of MeV) freeelectron lasers (FELs), the collec ured in the Galillean frame moving with the beam) is
tive transverse motion is characterized by singlecom
ponent plasma behavior. The free expansion due to the 47ce6nb
repulsive selfforces is controlled by the externally im E,,r  ~ sm(k,i).
posed focusing lattice, producing beam envelope, or sur k,
face plasma oscillations. In contrast, for many beams, the
longitudinal space charge forces do not produce signifi For a finite, constant density bunch distribution with
cant debunching, and small efforts (running slightly off of a hard edge at radius a, the longitudinal electric field
RF crest) are necessary to compensate the energy slew inside of the beam is given by
introduced by the spacecharge forces. This suppression
of longitudinal forces is due to the fact that, in the beam
rest frame, the bunch length is much larger than the
radius y60,>>~,., and the longitudinal surface plasma
oscillation frequency 01, ,,is much smaller than the trans
verse frequency O,~. In the limit that the beam radius is large compared to the
For shortwavelength longitudinal density perturba oscillation wavelength in the beam rest frame (k,a>>y,),
tions (microbunching) such as are introduced by the FEL the correction factor to Eq. (1) found in Eq. (2) ap
process, however, the field is no longer transverse, as the proaches unity. In the case of the FEL the radiation
longitudinal density gradients may have a rest frame wavenumber has a strong dependence on the normalized
scale length shorter than the beam width. In the ultra energy, k, cc Yg, and so this situation, where the longitu
dinal spacecharge force attains its onedimensional limi
ting strength, is to be expected for any beam of moderate
energy or above (i.e. for the UCLA IR FEL k,cr, z yo,
while for the TTFFEL k,o,>>y,). We shall therefore
* Corresponding author. be concerned for the remainder of this work with one
’ Permanent address: INFNMilano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 dimensional plasma oscillations in FELmicrobunched
Milan, Italy beams.
01689002/97/$17.00 Copyright 0 1997 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved
PII SO1689002(97)00516O
J. Rosenzweig et al. /Mud. Instr. and Meth. in Phy. Res. A 393 (1997) 376374 377
2. Longitudinal plasma oscillations sional theory of the SASE FEL process [2],
or P 3’ (4)
Tim,, ?JO%&
It should be noted that Eq. (4) does not contain deriva The expression given in Eq. (10) shows that the bunch
tives with respect to the spatial variable [ = z  v,et, and ing is enhanced for propagation distances less than one
so a small amplitude disturbance in the beam density is quarter of a plasma wavelength. The maximum in
stationary in the rest frame position  each beam “slice” the beam density occurs within this distance
is an independent oscillator. This is always the case (%X = tan‘(k,p,,,/k,,~~)), and is given by
for electrostatic plasma oscillations in a cold, uniform
plasma.
The general solution for a density oscillation described (11)
by Eq. (4) is
V. PREBUNCHINGISUPERRADIANCE
378 J. Rosenzweig et al. /Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Rex A 393 (1997) 376379
onedimensional laminar flow holds), at maximizes again we average the dispersion over the chicane section,
after an additional onequarter plasma period. We plan we can assign an average value to it in Eq. (13)
to investigate these phenomena at the UCLA IR FEL (  q,/R) 2 af,,/2yi z 8’12, where ach>>l is the equi
using the coherent transition radiationbased micro valent undulator parameter, and Q is the maximum bend
bunching diagnostic we have developed, with the angle in the chicane section. Taking this average value of
transition radiator placed at a number of positions the dispersion, we can again integrate the oscillation
downstream of the undulator [4]. The experimental equations to obtain the equivalent of Eq. (lo),
setup for this measurement is discussed in Ref. [S].
For the TTFFEL in its initial stage [6], we take for
%(z, i) = hub0 Wd) cos(kp,,bz)
the sake of example the energy as 500 MeV, the rms
bunch length beam cZ = 50 urn, and the RMS beam size
rr, = 50 urn. In this case, we have lipi = 300 cm, which is
a relatively short length considering
beam. The additional
the energy of the
bunching factor for these TTF
I k, db/kX.
k p.ch

24
sln(kp,chz)
1 (14)
FEL parameters is k,/k, pFEL/yi = 4.5 (twice that of the where kp,ch = cop,c&+,O. The maximum enhancement of
UCLA case, as pFEL is four times smaller), and the bunch the bunching is now approximately larger by a factor of
ing factor increases in a interundulator module drift by a,,/& from the case of a pure drift, the same factor by
approximately this factor if the drift length is chosen to which the plasma frequency is raised.
be approximately z = 3n/7k, = 400 cm. One is likely to Because the plasma oscillation wavelength 2n/k,,,, is
have shorter drifts in practice, which produce smaller shortened, in the case of the UCLA IR FEL it may be
density enhancements. One possible way to circumvent difficult to attempt chicane bunching after the initial
this is to use an optical klystron configuration, in which 60 cm undulator section. For the TTFFEL example,
a short dispersive section allows enhanced pulse com however, there may be much to be gained by employing
pression in a shorter propagation distance. a chicane section in the socalled optical klystron mode
[7]. Assuming a chicane section 66 cm long, which with
a, = 10 corresponds to onequarter of a plasma oscilla
tion length, the bunching enhancement is then raised to
4. Spacecharge oscillations in dispersive sections: the approximately 31 at the exit of the chicane.
optical klystron
It should also be pointed out that the study of the [3] G. Travish, M. Hogan, C. Pellegrini. J. Rosenzweig, Nucl.
general subject of spacecharge oscillations in relativistic Instr. and Meth. A 358 (1995) 75.
beams in both drifts and chicanes occurs outside the [4] J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Tremaine. Nucl. Instr. and
context of FELs. An example of current interest is the Meth. A 365 (1995) 255.
socalled plasma klystron [9], which has been proposed [S] J. Rosenzweig. A. Tremaine, G. Travish. Presented at 18th
FEL Conf., Rome, Italy, 1996.
as an injector for ultrashort wavelength acceleration
163 J. Rossbach et al., Conceptual design report of the TESLA
schemes such as the plasma beatwave accelerator.
FEL, in preparation.
[7] J.C. Gallardo. C. Pellegrini, Optical klystron configuration
References for a high gain Xray freeelectron laser, Opt. Commun. 77
(1990) 45.
[l] J. Rosenzweig et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A, submitted. [8] J.B. Rosenzweig, Phys. Rev. A 38 (1989) 3634.
[2] R. Bonifacio. C. Peliegrini, L. Narducci. opt. Commun. 50 [9] T. Katsouleas et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 24
(1984) 313. (1996).
V. PREBUNCHINGSUPERRADIANCE