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NUCLEAR

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A318 (1992) 730-735 INSTRUMENTS
North-Holland & METHODS
IN PHYSICS
RESEARCH
Section A

0
40 A FED. designs for the PEP S+Ll0râge ring

Alan S. Fisher and Juan C. Gallardo


Brookhaven National Laboratory *, Building 510D, Upton, NY 1197.3, USA

Heinz-Dieter Nuhn, Roman Tatchyn and Herman Winick


Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory * *, SLAG Bin 69, P.O. Box 4349, Stanford, CA 94309-0210, USA

Claudio Pellegrini
Department ofPhysics, Unirersity of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1547, USA

We explore the use of the 2.2 km PEP storage ring at SLAC to drive a 40 A free-electron laser in the self-amplified
spontaneous emission configuration . Various combinations of electron-beam and undulator parameters, as well as special
undulator designs, are discussed . Saturation and high peak, in-band, coherent power (460 MW) are possible with a 67 m, hybrid
permanent-magnet undulator in a ring bypass. A 100 m, cusp-field undulator can achieve high average, in-band. coherent power
(0.25 W) in the main ring. The existing, 25.6 m Paladin undulator at LLNL, with the addition of optical-klystron dispersive sections,
is considered for both peak and average power.

1. Introduction 2. Characteristics of PEP

The constraint [1] on the transverse emittance Ex of PEP, a 16 GeV electron-positron storage ring at
the electron beam in a free-electron laser of wave- the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is sketched in
length A, fig . 1 . The six long straight sections (117 m each) in
E,< < A/2zr, (1) PEP's 2.2 km circumference, the high energy, low
emittance, large I?F voltage (up to 40 MV, allowing a
becomes severe at X-ray wavelengths. For 40 A, Ex large radiated power), and low bending-magnet field
must be below 0.64 nm rad . However, emittances close (0.07 T at 3.5 GeV, resulting in a low emittance) offer
to this value have already been produced in large-cir- great potential as a synchrotron radiation source [2] or
cumference, high-energy, electron-positron colliders an FEL driver.
such as PEP. We shall show that it is also possible to Instead of the 14.5 GeV typically used in collider
satisfy the other FEL requirements . To avoid the need experiments, energies as low as E = 3 GeV offer ad-
for X-ray, optical-cavity mirrors, we shall consider vantages for the FEL, since E,, a E2 in a storage ring.
self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), in which Successful beam storage has been achieved at 4.5 GeV
an electron bunch with low emittance and high peak [3], but lower-energy operation has not yet been tried.
current radiates coherently in a single pass through a Low-emittance optics [2] have been tested, giving Ex =
long undulator . 5.3 nm rad [4] at 7.1 GeV (compared to 30 nm rad with
colliding-beam optics). Scaling this value down to 3
GeV gives an emittance only a factor of 1.5 above the
FEL requirement . Because the measured vertical emit-
Research supported by U.S. Department of Energy con- tance E y, was 4% of the horizontal, E., could be cut in
tract DE-AC02-76-CH00016. half by coupling the two dimensions .
Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, The fractional rms energy spread o,E in a storage
Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material ring, determined by synchrotron-radiation losses in the
Sciences. bending magnets, is proportional to beam energy and

0168-9002/92/$05 .00 O 1992 - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved
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A.S. Fisher et al. / 40 A FEL designs for the PEP storage ring 731

so favors low energy for the FEL . With low-emittance which cause transverse and longitudinal instabilities
optics in PEP (but without wigglers) [5], [7,8] . By avoiding multiple-bunch instabilities, single-
o,E = 6.6 x 10-5 x Er eV], bunch operation gives a higher peak current, limited by
(2)
the longitudinal microwave instability. Above the insta-
giving an energy spread of 2 x 10-4 at 3 GeV. bility threshold, adding charge results in lengthening of
Synchrotron radiation from a wiggler increases the the bunch, with no increase in Î [7]. Transversely,
beam's energy spread and changes its emittance [6] . there is a similar fast blow-up, but the threshold for
Damping wigglers, which are placed in low or zero the longitudinal instability in PEP will be reached long
dispersion locations, reduce emittance : before the transverse. The instability growth rates are
1 short compared with the period of synchrotron oscilla-
~Ew F2NwRoKw/Awy ;
+ y
tion. To estimate this limit, we use the ZAP code [9],
0'.,o 1 + rrNwR(,Kw/Awy- which incorporates an extrapolation of bunch-length
E .r w measurements made on the SPEAR ring and scaled to
fit PEP [10,111. For PEP's low-emittance mode and an
E X() 1 + 7rNwRO,Kw/Awy`
energy of 3 GeV, the maximum peak current is 17.6 A,
Here K, is the dimensionless wiggler parameter; Nw much too low for A an FEL.
= Lw/Aw is the number of periods of length Aw in a To increase 1, we considered compressing the circu-
wiggler of length L,,,; y = Elm,,c 2; and R, the beam's lating bunch over a half turn [5] only when the beam is
radius of curvature in the ring's dipoles, is 165 .5 m for to pass into a bypass containing an FEL, thereby
PEP. If several damping wigglers are distributed around avoiding bunch lengthening. However, the phase-space
the ring, then the effect is cumulative over their total rotation that compresses the bunch longitudinally and
length . However, an FEL wiggler in a bypass, with the so increases the peak current, is accompanied by a
beam switched in intermittently, will not contribute to proportionate increase in energy spread, which may
the beam's equilibrium energy spread and emittance . reduce the FEL gain (see below). Any margin for extra
For sufficiently long damping wigglers, the change in energy spread would be put to better use by arranging
energy spread saturates but the emittance will continue an equilibrium state with a higher energy spread, since
to decrease with N, (until the effect saturates due to a the peak-current limit scales with Q~. Reasonable
small dispersive term neglected in eq. (4)). A damping-wiggler parameters (B,,, = 1.26 T, A,,, =12 cm
FEL gain requires a high peak current 1. The and Kw = 14.1; with Lw = 9 m at 3 GeV, and Lw =18
current in a storage ring is limited by wake fields, m at 3.5 and 4 GeV) can increase QE by a factor of

SSRL FACILITIES
(SPEAR, PEP)

PEP
6-16 6ev

IN 7-15-9

Fig . 1 . The PEP storage ring, showing the six 117 m straight sections and the electron and positron injection beamlines from the
SLAG linac. The SPEAR ring and its new 3 GeV injector (upgradable to 5 GeV) are also shown. The dashed line indicates a
possible 5 GeV injection beamline for PEP .

IX. UNCONVENTIONAL SCHEMES


7,32 A .S. Fisher et al. / 404 FEL designs for the PEP storage ring

three, increasing I by nine (instead of a factor of three Table 1


using bunch compression). Furthermore, the increased Parameters for possible FELs on PEP. Column 1 describes a
hybrid permanent-magnet undulator, located in a bypass and
w

I is available for an FEL in a bypass or in the main


ring. used for high peak power once every 3r.,. The cusp-field
undulator in column 2 is helical; the effective K is shown. In
The radiation damping time and the beam lifetime
the main ring, this device could provide high average power
are of concern at the very low energy necessary for the using a 100% duty cycle. The Paladin undulator is in column
FEL. Lifetimes of over 30 hours have observed in PEP 3. Values in parentheses are for an optical-klystron configura-
at 8 GeV and low current with low-emittance optics tion . For comparison, the in-band, spontaneous, coherent
[12]. Assuming that the beam lifetime is determined by power is listed for a spectral bandwidth of A  /(2L) and a
Coulomû scattering, which scales with y -= , we expect photon opening angle of ; A /L  , assuming a 100% duty
lifetimes of more than 5.7 and 4.2 hours for 3.5 and 3 cycle and compete suppression of SASE . Single-bunch opera-
GeV, respectively . These lifetimes are sufficient for tion of PEP is assumed for all examples
FEL operation. The radiation damping times for PEP Hybrid Cusp Paladin
at 3 GeV, without damping wigglers and in the low-
emittance mode, are E [GeV] 3.5 4.0 3.0
2Ts = 1.02 s. The damp-
7.2 7.4 6.3
ing wigglers described above reduce this time to T r = ~E (10')

0.55 s. At 3.5 and 4 GeV, with damping wigglers, Î [A] 219 327 144
Te = 0.23 and 0.10 s, respectively. In the high peak- rad] 2.0 2.7 2.0
power, saturated, FEL design presented below, the F', [m] 5.5 15 .0 9.1
QS [mm] 4 .2 5.1 3.3
beam is switched into a ring bypass containing the FEL
_, [ms] 230 100 550
once energy three horizontal damping times. These
relatively long times reduce the average power. A [A] 37.9 37 .9 40.7
A  [cm] 4 27 8
g [cm] 1 n/a 3
3. FEI. designs for PEP B. [T] 1.06 0.034 0.30
Ku 3.97 1.2 2.24
The considerations above, and the formulas [13,141 ZR [m] 3.7 13 .5 6.2
for the exponential gain parameter p, the power e-fold- ,q (10-4) 9.1 11 .8 8.7
ing length Lc, and the undulator's saturation length ~:
P ff (10-4) 6.0 9.0 6.1
L,,., = 4wJL G in an SASE FEL, lead (without at- Lo [m] 3.1 13.9 6.0
tempting full optimizations) to the examples in table 1. Ls;, [m] 67 300 131
In all cases, the gain parameter includes a correction L  [m] 67(56) 100 25 .6
for energy spread [15], P~,n [kW] 460000 43 0.88 (1000)
Pcoh) [mW] 28 250 3.30.4)
Peff exp[ -0 .136(o--, /P )2I P" .. [W] 940 140 69
P 1 + 0.64(QE/P) 2 , ( Pspo  ) 1 WW] 4500 830 260
Nco h ~ 5.1x10 14 1.3x10' ° 1 .6x10 K
in the calculation of LG = Au/(4ZrvF3 peff ) . We use the
`' The number of coherent photons per pulse N,,,n is in units
damping wigglers described above and assume full of photons pulse -1 (0.1% bandwidth) - ' .
coupling between horizontal and vertical emittance.
The low beta values (with ßx = /3 },) require periodic
refocusing along the undulator. The wavelength has iron, hybrid undulator, with a period A = 4 cm, an
been held near 40 A, in the "water window" between undulator gap g = 1 cm, and B[T] = 3.44 exp[ - (g/
the oxygen and carbon K edges (23 and 44 Â), to A  )(5.08 - 1 .54g/A )] then gives a saturation length of
permit the study of organic compounds in solution, 67 m.
although tuning is possible about this wavelength by The peak, in-band, coherent X-ray power, Pooh, is
adjusting the beam energy or the undulator field. 460 MW. The perturbation of the beam parameters by
the saturated FEL [16], as well as the reduction in the
3.1. A hybrid, permanent-magnet undulator beam lifetime by the narrow undulator gap, require
placing the FEL in a bypass to the main ring . The
The first example seeks to obtain high peak power average coherent power, ( Pcoh ) = 28 mW, is calculated
by minimizing L s,, in order to reach saturation in a assuming that the bunch is switched into the bypass
distance less than the 117 m length of a PEP straight once every third transverse damping time T., . These
section . This objective, and the scaling of f and o-E powers correspond to peak and average spectral bril-
with y, lead to a high-field, short-period undulator liances of 7 x 1029 and 4 x 10' y photons s - ' mm -2
with a low beam energy . A conventional, neodymium- mrad - ' (0.1% bandwidth) - ', respectively .
0
A . S. Fisher et al. / 40 A FEL designsfor the PEP storage ring 733

The saturation length can be reduced by using an FRONT VIEW ISOMETRIC VIEW
optical klystron (OK) configuration, formed by placing
a dispersive section at one [17] or more [18] points
along the undulator, separated by one or two gain
lengths . Fig . 2 illustrates results from a 1D simulation
code, including energy spread and emittance [171. We
see that the OK gives an extra factor of 2 in power at
67 m, or the original 460 MW at 56 m. Because of the
slow increase in power near saturation, the OK gives ELECTRON BEAM AXIS
150 MW for a length of 40 m. SIDE VIEW

3.2. A cuspfield undulator ca ECTOR


~r~
-n n
~1
n n ------

The second example obtains a high time-averaged


coherent power (Pcoh) of 0.25 W by placing a weak- r

field, long-period undulator [19,201 in the main ring ELECTRON BEAM AXIS

with a 100% duty cycle. This goal favors a higher y and


a moderate K . The undulator's 100 m length (near c CTOR

the available 117 m) is below L s, = 300 m, giving an Fig . 3. A helical cusp-field undulator, consisting of two sets of
output close to Renieri's limit [161. coils displaced by 1/4 period and oriented to provide orthog-
A cusp-field undulator [211, shown in fig . 3, is an onal fields .
iron-free structure consisting of two axisymmetric ar-
rays of circular coils with parallel axes and producing a
helical field on the electron orbit, which runs parallel loss or steering due to field errors; and (5) multiple
to the coil axes. The main features of a cusp-field configurationF due to its modular structure . It is easily
device are (1) sparse copper coils, convenient for peri- configured as an optical klystron with a variable num-
odic refocusing; (2) a simply-configured helical struc- ber of dispersion sections. Preliminary calculations sug-
ture; (3) a built-in provision for orbit deflection gest that the first 50 m of the device in table 1 could be
throughout; (4) high field quality with minimal gain replaced by a 4 m dispersive section after the first L..

10 5

100

x.
5
O

54
cd

a,
10 -5

10-10-

40 60

Z [III]

Fig. 2. Power emitted as the beam passes through the permanent-magnet hybrid undulator . (a) Without OIL (b) With one 1 m
dispersion section (B =1 T for 25 cm, -1 T for 50 cm, 1 T for 25 cm) at z = 0.1 Lsat . (c) With a 1 m dispersion section at 0.1L,
.,,
and a 0.5 m dispersion section at 0.2L s,,, .

IX. UNCONVENTIONAL SCHEMES


0
734 A.S. Fisher et al. / 40 A FEL designs for the PEP storage ring

3.3. Tlte Paladin: undulator three orders of magnitude due to the optical klystron,
but is still over two orders short of saturation.
This section considers using a long, existing undula- The average power is restricted by Renieri's limit
tor, Paladin [22], which was used with the 50 MeV [16] for the case of an SASE FEL in the high-gain
ATA induction linac at the Lawrence Livermore Na- r6gime . For an approximate lower bound to this limit,
tional Laboratory. It is: a DC, iron_-c-Ore, elect_ro_m__ag- we use the time-average value of one fully saturated
netic undulator with a length of 25.6 m, made in five FEL pulse every three damping times :
5.12 m sections, and a period of 8 cm. Fields of up to
2,rr
0.32 T on axis have been attained. Here we use a 0.3 T QS

~Pcah > max = Peff1[AIE[eV] 3CT


field, giving Ku = 2.24 and an energy of 3 GeV. The .r
wavelength and gain are similar to the hybrid, but LG
For Paladin parameters, this gives 4.4 mW, slightly
has gone up to 6.0 m due to the longer Au. A length of
above the 3.3 mW time-average power calculated for
131 m would be needed for saturation, as curve (a) of
Paladin in the main ring, with a 100% duty cycle, and
fig. 4 shows. Refocusing quadrupoles in the breaks
without the OK configuration. For peak power, the
between the five sections are needed to obtain the
Paladin OK could be in a bypass. Because Paladin is
lower ß, The measured 0.15%® rms field error [23]
does not reduce FEL gain [24] but periodic steering, too short to saturate even with an OK, the beam could
circulate through the undulator for 260 consecutive
between sections or somewhat more frequently, is re-
passes before damping . Alternatively, it could be in the
quired [251. Although too short to saturate, the four
gain lengths are sufficient to demonstrate exponential main ring with the dispersive sections pulsed on every
3Tr, avoiding the need for a bypass.
growth at X-ray wavelengths . The 3 cm gap permits
placing Paladin on the main ring without limiting beam
lifetime .
Substantial improvement is possible using an optical 4. Applications
klystron, formed by placing dispersive sections in breaks
between the Paladin sections, which are approximately PEP's size and low emittance make it attractive for
one gain length apart. Fig. 4 shows the simulation new classes of insertion devices [19,26] and for various
results, and table 1 gives the values for curve (c) at the techniques to modulate the temporal [5] and spectral-
true 25.6 m length . The peak power increases by over angular structures of the electron and photon beams

10 2

100
u

L.
C1
30
a
x 10 -2
0
m
a

10 -4

Fig . 4. Power emitted as the beam passes through the Paladin undulator. The vertical line marks Paladin's true length, which has
been extended here to the saturation length . (a) Without OK. (b) With one l m dispersion section (B =1 T for 25 cm, -1 T for 50
cm, 1 T for 25 cm) in the first break between undulator sections. (c) With a 1 m dispersion section in the first break, and a 0.25 m
dispersion section in the second break.
A . S. Fisher et al. / 404 FEL designs for the PEP storage ring 735

[27]. The resulting coherent X-rays would have novel [l3] J.B. Murphy and C. Pellegrini, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B2
applications . The high levels of coherent and flexibly (1985) 259.
tunable polarized light from a cusp-field undulator (or [14] M. Cornacchia et al., Nucl. Instr . and Meth. A250 (1986)
other designs [28,29]) are important in, for example, 57.
magnetic scattering experiments, whose cross sections [15] G. Dattoli, A. Renieri, A. Torre and R. Caloi, Nuovo
Cimento 11D (1989) 393.
are typically several orders of magnitude below those
[16] A. Renieri, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26 (1979) 3827.
of electric-dipole scattering [30,31] . X-ray lithography [17] J. Gallardo and C. Pellegrini, Opt. Commun . 77 (1990)
could make significant use of coherence effects for 45.
imprinting ultra-small features [32], and for rastering [18] V.N. Litvinenko, Nucl Instr. and Meth. A304 (1991) 463.
the beam to produce exceptionally uniform radiation [19] R. Tatchyn, Workshop on PEP as a Synchrotron Radia-
fields [19,29]. The short, extremely intense pulses from tion Source, SSRL, Stanford, CA, 1987, eds. R. Coisson
the devices described in this paper could be used for and H. Winick, SSRL Report 88/06, p. 97;
single-shot ("flash") imaging of biological samples in R. Tatchyn. ibid.. p. 388;
the water window [33], providing a possible solution to R. Tatchyn and R. Coisson, ibid., p. 382 .
the damage problem [34] associated with X-ray imag- [20] R. Coisson, Rev . Sci . Instr. 60 (1989) 1426.
[21] R. Tatchyn, T. Cremer and P. Csonka, Proc. 9th USSR
ing, while the high levels of time-averaged coherent Nat . Conf. on Synchrotron Radiation Utilization,
power could generate high-quality holograms of both Moscow, 1990, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A30ß (1991) 152.
biological and inorganic samples [35]. [22] G.A. Deis, A.R. Harvey, C.D. Parkison, D. Prosnitz, J.
Rego, E.T. Scharlemann and K. Halbach, Proc. 10th Int .
Conf. on Magnet Technology, Boston, MA, 1987 IEEE
Trans . Magnetics 24 (1988) p. 1090.
References [23] E.T. Scharlemann, private communication.
[24] L.H. Yu, et al., these Proceedings (13th Int. Free-Elec-
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[6] H. Wiedemann, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A266 (1988) 24. 3102.
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IX. UNCONVENTIONAL SCHEMES