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Muhammad Ibrahim

Associate Professor of Statistics

Govt. MAO College Lahore

0300-4668681

Ibrahim.ap12@gmail.com

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Understand basic concepts of biostatistics

and computer software SPSS.

2. Select appropriate statistical tests for

particular types of data.

3. Recognize and interpret the output from

statistical analyses.

4. Report statistical output in a concise and

appropriate manner.

BASIC TERMINOLOGY

Statistics, Biostatistics, Variable, Measurement

Scale, Data, Medical Data, type of data, Data

Analysis

Variable is a characteristics which varies and

scale is a device on which observations are

taken. Data is set of observations/measurements

taken from experiment/survey or external source

of a specific variable using some appropriate

measurement scale

Statistics is generally understood as the subject dealing

with number and data, more broadly it involves

activities such as collection of data from survey or

experiment, summarization or management of data,

presentation of results in a convincing format, analysis

of data or drawing valid inferences from findings.

Whereas Bio-Statistics is science which helps us in

managing medical data with application of statistical

methods/techniques/tools or a collection of statistical

procedures particularly well-suited to the analysis of

healthcare-related data

The data which is related to patient care or numerical

information regarding patients clinical characteristics,

mortality rate survival rate, disease distribution,

prevalence of disease, efficacy of treatment, and

other such information is called medical data.

NATURE OF DATA

Data is the value you get from observing

(measuring, counting, assessing etc.) from

experiment or survey. Data is either categorical or

metric. Categorical data is further divided into

Nominal and ordinal, whereas metric into discrete

and continuous (quantitative) data.

Nominal data

The data is divided into classes or categories. Blood type, sex, causes of

disease, urban/rural, alive/ dead, infected/not infected, hair color, smoking

status. No meaningful order of classes.

Ordinal data

The data is also divided into classes or categories but be put in meaningful

order.

For example satisfaction level:-Very satisfied, satisfied, neutral, unsatisfied,

very unsatisfied. Pain as mild, moderate, sever. Socioeconomic status: poor,

middle, rich, grade of breast cancer, better, same, worst.

Discrete data

When data is taken from some counting process, for example number of

patients in different wards, number of nurses, number of hospitals in different

cities.

Continuous or quantitative data

When data is taken from some measuring process, for example, height, weight,

Temperature, uric acid, blood glucose and serum level.

Scale

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio

Basic

Characteristics

Numbers identify

& classify objects

Common

Examples

Social Security

nos., numbering

of football players

Nos. indicate the Quality rankings,

relative positions rankings of teams

of objects but not in a tournament

the magnitude of

differences

between them

Differences

Temperature

between objects (Fahrenheit)

Zero point is fixed, Length, weight

ratios of scale

values can be

compared

Marketing

Permissible

Examples

Descriptive

Brand nos., store Percentages,

types

mode

Statistics

Inferential

Chi-square,

binomial test

Preference

Percentile,

rankings, market median

position, social

class

Rank-order

correlation,

Friedman

ANOVA

Attitudes,

opinions, index

Age, sales,

income, costs

Productmoment

Coefficient of

variation

Range, mean,

standard

Geometric

mean, harmonic

mean

Nominal Scale

The numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying

objects.

When used for identification, there is a strict one-to-one correspondence

between the numbers and the objects.

The numbers do not reflect the amount of the characteristic possessed by the

objects.

The only permissible operation on the numbers in a nominal scale is counting.

Social security number, hockey players number. Imn marketing research

respondents, brands, attributes, stores and other objects

ORDINAL SCALE

A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to

indicate the relative extent to which the objects possess

some characteristic. Can determine whether an object has

more or less of a characteristic than some other object, but

not how much more or less. any series of numbers can be

assigned that preserves the ordered relationships between

the objects. So relative position of objects not the

magnitude of difference between the objects. In addition

to the counting operation allowable for nominal scale data,

ordinal scales permit the use of statistics based on

percentile, quartile, median. Possess description and order,

not distance or origin

INTERVAL SCALE

Numerically equal distances on the scale represent

equal values in the characteristic being measured.

It permits comparison of the differences between

objects. The difference between 1 & 2 is same as

between 2 & 3 The location of the zero point is not

fixed. Both the zero point and the units of

measurement are arbitrary. Everyday

temperature scale. Attitudinal data obtained on

rating scales. Do not possess origin characteristics

(zero and exact measurement)

RATIO SCALE

The highest scale that allows to identify objects, rank

order of objects, and compare intervals or differences.

It is also meaningful to compute ratios of scale values

interval scales. It has an absolute zero point.

Height, weight, age, money. Sales, costs, market share

and number of customers are variables measured on a

ratio scale

All statistical techniques can be applied to ratio data.

Data Analysis

After collecting the accurate and reliable data

successfully by using the appropriate method

from the source, the next step is how to extract

the pertinent and useful information buried in the

data for further manipulation and interpretation.

The process of performing certain calculations

and evaluation in order to extract relevant

information from data is called data analysis.

Cont

The data analysis may take several steps to

reach certain conclusions. Simple data can be

organized very easily, while the complex data

requires proper processing. The word

processing means the recasting and dealing

with data making ready for analysis.

Questionnaire checking/Data preparation

Coding

Cleaning data

Applying most appropriate tools for

analysis

QUESTIONNAIRE CHECKING

A questionnaire returned from the field may be

unacceptable for several reasons.

Parts of the questionnaire may be incomplete.

The pattern of responses may indicate that the respondent did not

understand or follow the instructions.

The responses show little variance.

One or more pages are missing.

The questionnaire is received after the pre-established cutoff date.

participation.

DATA PREPARATION

Preparation of data file

It is important to convert raw data into a usable data for

analysis (coding where it needed), simply transform

information from questionnaire to computer database

The analysis and results will surely depend on the quality

of data

There are possibilities of errors in handling instruments,

raw data, transcribing, data entry, assigning codes, values,

value labels

Data need to be cleaned to fulfill the analysis conditions

CODING

Coding means assigning a code, usually a

number, to each possible response to each

question.

Data cleaning

One of the first steps in analyzing data is to

clean it of any obvious data entry errors:

Example: Age = 110 (really 10 or 11?)

Value entered that doesnt exist for variable?

Example: 2 entered where 1=male, 0=female

Missing values?

Did the person not give an answer? Was answer

accidentally not entered into the database?

Cont

May be able to set defined limits when entering data

values

quality of the data

SPSS

SPSS is a statistical Packages for data analysis, it is a

very popular software because of its friendly usage

in Social & Medical sciences

Launching SPSS

Before starting this session, you should know how to run a program in windows operating system. Click and hold on

button at lower left of your screen, and among the program listed select SPSS 16.0, click and release the mouse button

to lauanch the program

On clicking of SPSS this window will open then click on cancel button if you like to enter data in a new file or

click on OK for opening an existing file. A window will open known as data editor with variable view.

SPSS WINDOWS

There are a number of different types of windows in SPSS. The window in which you are currently working is called

the active window. Some of the frequently used windows are:

Data Editor Window: It displays the contents of the data file. This is the window that opens

automatically when you start an SPSS session. In this window, you can create new data files or modify existing ones.

When you open more than one data file, each data file has a separate Data Editor Window. The Data Editor Window

provides two view of the data:

Data View: It displays the data values. Each variable is a column. Each row is a case.

Variable View: It displays a table consisting of variable names and their attributes. You can modify the properties of

each variable or add new variables or delete existing variables in the Variable View Window.

Viewer Window: It displays statistical results, tables, and charts. This window opens automatically the first time you

run a procedure that generates output

MORE ABOUT

WINDOWS

PULL-DOWN MENUS

Many tasks in SPSS are performed by selecting appropriate "pull-down" menus. Each window in SPSS has its own

menu bar with appropriate menu selections and toolbars. The Analyze and Graphs menus are available in all

windows. Here are some Data Editor Window menus and their uses:

File Menu: From the file menu you can open several different existing files or a database file such as

an excel file or read in a text file. You can also save any changes to the current file.

Edit Menu: from the Edit menu, you can cut, copy, paste, insert variables, insert cases, or use find in

the Data Editor window.

Data Menu: The data menu allows you to define variable properties, sort cases, merge files, split files,

select cases and use a variable to weight cases.

Transform Menu: The transform menu is where you will find the options to do some computations on

variables, to create new variables from existing ones or recode old variables.

Analyze Menu: The analyze menu is where all statistical analysis takes place. From descriptive statistics to

regression analysis to nonparametric tests

Graphs Menu: The graph menu is where you can create high resolution plots and graphs to be edited in

the chart editor window or you can create interactive graphs.

Utilities Menu: The utilities menu is used to display information on the contents of SPSS data files or to

run scripts.

Add-Ons Menu: From the add-ons menu you can run other packages like conjoint, classification trees, or

Neural Networks. Also there are programmability extensions that allow you to integrate programs like R

and Python into SPSS. But you should keep in mind that if you want to run any of the add-ons listed here

you will have to purchase them separately.

Window: From the window menu you can change the active window. The window with a check mark is the

active one. In this case it is the data editor window.

Help: The help menu allows you to get help on topics in SPSS or to ask the statistics coach some basic

questions.

TOOLBARS

Each window in SPSS has its own toolbars that provides access to common tasks. Some windows have

more than one. When you put the mouse pointer on a tool, there is a brief description of what the tool

does. You can show, move or hide a toolbar.

STATUS BARS

The status bar is at the bottom of each SPSS window and provides the following information:

Command Status: gives information about a procedure that is running.

Filter Status: Filter On shows when a subset of cases in the data is used for analysis.

Weight Status: Weight On indicates that a weight variable is being used in the analysis.

Split File Status: Split File On indicates that the file has been split into separate groups for analysis.

DIALOG BOXES

Many menu selections will open dialog boxes. In these dialog boxes, you select variables and options for analysis. The main

dialog box in any statistical procedure has the following parts:

Source variable list: A list of variable types (allowed by the procedure) from the working data file.

Target variable lists: One or more lists of variables needed for the analysis.

Command push buttons: Buttons that can be used to run the procedure by opening a subdialog box to make

additional specifications. Some of the push buttons are:

OK : Click this button to run the procedure.

Paste: Click this button to generate command syntax from your selections. The command syntax is pasted into a syntax window,

where it can be modified for future analysis. This creates the code regularly known as SPSS programs.

Reset: Deselects any selections, and resets all specifications in the dialog box and any subdialog boxes to the default status.

Cancel: Cancels any change in the dialog box settings since the last time it was opened. This will close the dialog box.

Name

The name of each SPSS variable in a given file must be unique; it must start with

a letter; it may have up to 8 characters (including letters, numbers, and the

underscore _ (note that certain key words are reversed and may not be used as

variable names, e.g., "compute", "sum", and so forth). To change an existing

name, click in the cell containing the name, highlight the part you want to

change, and type in the replacement. To create a new variable name, click in the

first empty row under the name column and type a new (unique) variable name.

Notice that we can use "cat_dog" but not "cat-dog" and not "cat dog". The hyphen

gets interpreted as subtraction (cat minus dog) by S PSS, and the space confuses

SPSS as to how many variables are being named.

TYPE

THE TWO BASIC TYPES OF VARIABLES THAT YOU WILL USE

ARE NUMERIC AND STRING. NUMERIC VARIABLES MAY ONLY

HAVE NUMBERS ASSIGNED. STRING VARIABLES MAY

CONTAIN LETTERS OR NUMBERS, BUT EVEN IF A STRING

VARIABLE HAPPENS TO CONTAIN ONLY NUMBERS, NUMERIC

OPERATIONS ON THAT VARIABLE WILL NOT BE ALLOWED

(E.G., FINDING THE MEAN, VARIANCE, STANDARD

DEVIATION, ETC...). TO CHANGE A VARIABLE TYPE, CLICK IN

THAT CELL ON THE GREY BOX WITH ...

Decimals

The decimal of a variable is the number of decimal places that SPSS will display. If more decimals have

been entered (or computed by SPSS), the additional information will be retained internally but not

displayed on screen. For whole numbers, you would reduce the number of decimals to zero. You can

change the number of decimal places by clicking in the decimals cell for the desired variable and

typing a new number or you can use the arrow keys at the edge of the cell

Label

The label of a variable is a string of text to indentify in more detail what a variable represents.

Unlike the name, the label is limited to 255 characters and may contain spaces and

punctuation. For instance, if there is a variable for each question on a questionnaire, you would

type the question as the variable label. To change or edit a variable label, simply click anywhere

within the cell

Values

Although the variable label goes a long way to explaining what the variable represents, for categorical

data (discrete data of both nominal and ordinal levels of measurement), we often need to know which

numbers represent which categories. To indicate how these numbers are assigned, one can add labels to

specific values by clicking on the ... box in the values cell

To value 1.0 to cats and 2.0 to dogs, write 1.0 in value box and write cats in value label then click Add button,

the following box will appear.

If you select a numeric variable, you can then click in the width box or

the decimal box to change the default values of 8 characters reserved

to displaying numbers with 2 decimal places. For whole numbers, you

can drop the decimals down to 0.

If you select a string variable, you can tell SPSS how much "room" to

leave in memory for each value, indicating the number of characters

to be allowed for data entry in this string variable.

When you are satisfied with the definitions of each value, click on the OK button

The real beauty of value labels can be seen in the Data View by clicking on the "toe

tag" icon in the tool bar

, which switches between the numeric values

and their labels

Missing

When you click missing button the SPSS will display this

We sometimes want to signal to SPSS that data should be treated as missing, even though there is some

other numerical code recorded instead of the data actually being missing (in which case SPSS displays a

single period -- this is also called SYSTEM MISSING data). In this example, after clicking on the ... button in

the Missing cell, I declared "9", "99", and "999" all to be treated by SPSS as missing (i.e., these values will be

ignored)

Columns

The columns property tells SPSS how wide the column should be for each variable. Don't confuse this one

with width, which indicates how many digits of the number will be displayed. The column size indicates how

much space is allocated rather than the degree to which it is filled.

Align

The alignment property indicates whether the information in the Data View should be left-justified, rightjustified, or centered

Measure

The Measure property indicates the level of measurement. Since SPSS does not differentiate between

interval and ratio levels of measurement, both of these quantitative variable types are lumped together

as "scale". Nominal and ordinal levels of measurement, however, are differentiated

ENTERING

DATA SET

Into SPSS

Example

Let we have data set with different variables

and we need to enter in SPSS, below is set of

variables and data set, this file is named as

bp in dataset

Data Set:

Professor Christopher conducted a study on subjects; the variable description is as with data

Variable

Sjcode

Sex

Age

Height

Weight

Race

Med

Smoke

SBPCP

DBPCP

HRCP

SBPMA

DBPMA

HRMA

SBPREST

DBPREST

PH

MEDPH

Description

ubject Code

Subject sex (0 = female, 1= male)

Subject age

Height in inches

weight, in pound

Subject Race (1=Amer, 2= Asian, 3= black, 4=

Hispanic, 5= white, 9= none of above)

Taking prescription medication (0= No, 1= Yes)

Does subject smoke? (0 =Nonsmoker, 1= smoker)

Systolic blood pressure with cold presser

Diastolic blood pressure with cold presser

Heart rate with cold presser

Systolic blood pressure while doing mental

arithmetic

Diastolic blood pressure while doing mental

arithmetic

Heart rate with while doing mental arithmetic

Systolic blood pressure at rest

Diastolic blood pressure at rest

Parental hypertension (0= No, 1= yes)

Parent(s) on EH meds (0= No, 1=yes)

SJcode

sex

age

height

weight

race

meds

smoking

sbpcp

dbpcp

hrcp sbpma

dbpma

hrma

sbrest

dbrest

Ph

Medph

Female

19

65

155

White

No Med

Non smoker

126

65

88

135.667

81.333

76.667

116.25

60.75

PH+

Parent EH Yes

Female

18

63

132

White

No Med

Non smoker

125

80

96

130.667

82.667

92.667

115.75

76.375

PH+

Parent EH Yes

Female

19

66

138

White

No Med

Non smoker

149

90

91

135.333

90.333

64.333

120.5

65.375

PH+

Parent EH Yes

Female

18

66

130

White

No Med

Non smoker

113

89

88

128.333

82.333

85.667

113.625

72.125

PH-

Parents EH No

10

Female

18

66

175

White

No Med

Non smoker

112

70

82

121.667

75.333

85

110

68.75

PH-

Parents EH No

11

Female

18

62

113

White

No Med

Non smoker

125

70

73

133.333

82.333

74.333

119.75

73.5

PH-

Parents EH No

13

Male

20

73

159

White

No Med

Smoker

162

62

58

145.667

68

74

130.75

57.125

PH+

Parent EH Yes

15

Male

18

70

155

White

No Med

Non smoker

123

73

53

137.333

78.667

53.667

126.375

65.625

PH+

Parent EH Yes

16

Male

19

69.5

185

White

No Med

Non smoker

139

66

48

148.667

81.667

78.667

127.625

67.375

PH+

Parent EH Yes

19

Male

18

70

164

White

No Med

Non smoker

133

65

85

134.333

58.667

66.667

121.75

56.5

PH-

Parents EH No

20

Male

19

71

170

White

No Med

Non smoker

152

75

71

150.333

73

82.333

129.875

60

PH-

Parents EH No

21

Male

18

76

179

Hispanic

No Med

Non smoker

128

70

63

121

71.333

71

121

68.5

PH-

Parents EH No

23

Female

19

68.5

160

White

No Med

Non smoker

119

51

68

117

62.333

73.333

107.875

51.375

PH+

Parent EH Yes

24

Female

20

66

132

White

No Med

Non smoker

120

67

80

128.333

72.667

81

108

63.75

PH+

Parent EH Yes

25

Female

19

67.5

150

Black

No Med

Non smoker

129

95

70

121.333

71

77

110.25

62.875

PH-

Parents EH No

26

Female

20

62

105

White

Yes Med

Non smoker

124

90

93

124

92.333

87

104.375

76.375

PH+

Parent EH Yes

29

Female

19

62

120

White

No Med

Non smoker

130

75

103

132.667

76

88.667

117.625

67.875

PH-

Parents EH No

30

Female

18

67.5

143

White

No Med

Non smoker

130

95

93

120.667

83.667

98.333

111

77.375

PH-

Parents EH No

32

Female

18

63.5

130

White

No Med

Non smoker

109

73

71

104

61

65.667

105.125

53.875

PH-

Parents EH No

35

Male

20

66

127

White

No Med

Non smoker

129

68

107

124.333

63.667

93.333

117.75

62.75

PH-

Parents EH No

In this lesson our goal is only, how to enter, save, and edit data (the data sheet given above). The first step in

entering the data into data editor is to define all the variables. Creating a variable requires us to name it,

specify the type of data (nominal, ordinal, Scale) and assign label to the variables and data values if needed.

Move the cursor to the bottom of the data editor, named as variable view and click it, a different grid appears

as

Move the cursor into first empty cell in row 1 (under name) here type sjcode, then press enter

When the cursor moves to the Type column , a small grey button marked with three dots

will appear, click on it you see this dialog box, numeric is default variable type, click ok.

Note that the Measure column (far right column) be put on scale, because you took numeric as variable

type, In SPSS, each variable carry a descriptive label to help identify its meaning. To add label, here is

procedure:

Move the cursor into the label column and type Subject Code.

Now lets creats a varable to represent sex, move the fisrt colume of row 2, and name the variable

sex.

Because sex is categorical (qualitative ) variable and we are going to represent it numerically ( for

data analysis purpose, because SPSS only entertains quantitative variable). Sinse numeric is the

default in type column, we shall skip it and go to width taking width as per our requirement, in

decimal column reduce from 2 to 0

Label this variable as subject sex

Now we can assign text label to our coded values ( as discussed previously). In the values column

click the grey box with three dots. A box will open as below

Type 0 in value box and type Female in the value label box.

and the click OK. In similar way we will add all the variables, the variable view window will be seen as

Now Switch to data view by clicking the appropriate tab in the lower left of screen.

Move the cursor to the first cell below the sjcode, and type 3, and then press Enter.

In the next cell type 4, when you completed the subject code, move to the tope cell

under sex, type 0 for female and 1 for male and go on. When you are done all,

the data editor should look as

(named Value label) at left most you will see the screen as below

It is wise to save all your work in a disk file. To save a file, click on file menu, choose save as , then next to file name, where

type BP, then click save.

To edit any value, just to open the data file and click edit menu, and

select the case or variable which is required for editing.

Quitting SPSS

When you have completed your work, it is important to exit the program propoerly. Go

to file menu, then click on Exit , generally you will see a message asking if you wish to

save changes. Since we saved every thing earlier, click No.

File management

Here we discuss the issues like, transform,

select, split, compute new variables,

re-coding of data, merging files, sorting,

transpose, weighted cases

Sorting data

This tool allows you to rearrange the data

Open file

data

sort cases

select variable then ok

If some values are missing in data/variables that

can be replaced by different methods, if

variable is categorical then the value is replaced

by the researcher on his/her personal

experience, but the variable is continuous, SPSS

will help using the Replace missing value

command. Open file, and investigate any missing

value using sort command,

Cont

Then go to transform tool

replace

missing value

using option

Creating Variables

Sometimes a new variable is needed on the

basis of current/existing variable or set of

variables. The producer is as

Menu

transform

compute

variable .. Insert target value and write

desired operation in target expression like

square, log ect.

Activity

Open file student , convert weight into Kg then

fiend BMI of students. 1 Kg = 2.20462 Lb and

1M = 39.3701 and find BMI= weight/(height)2

Compare this BMI with this

BMI =weight in Lb/height in inch x703

Re-coding

If the researcher is interested to re-code the

data as you want to recode 1

5 or wants to

make numerical data into groups , then we use

re-code tool. Open the data file. From the menus

choose: Transform | Recode | Into

Different Variables...

Following Recode into Different Variables

Dialog box appears.

Select the variable you want to recode. For this example select AAA, and click the

right arrow button () to move the variable into the Input Variable > Output

Variable box, following sign appears in this box:

AAA >?

In the Output Variable group, enter an output variable name (e.g. AA1) in the Name

box, and you may label it as Stillbirth Rate Category [optional] for new variable and

click change.

Up to now, the dialog box looks as under:

Click Old and New Values... tab following dialog box appears, and specify how to recode

values

In the old value group, select the 5th choice then put 24 in the lowest through box.. In the

value box under new value group input 1.

Click Add tab. Similarly, for the closed class interval like 25-29, select the 4th choice in the old

value group then put 25 (selection of 4th choice in each case) till the time when you input 5 in the

New Value through 29 and in the value under new value input 2, then click Add tab. Repeat this

process . Now for the highest open class, select the 6th choice in the Old Value group then put 45

in the through highest box. In the Value box under New Value group input 6, then click Add tab.

The final shape looks as under.

Click Continue and then OK. The XYZ-SPSS Data Editor containing two variables viz. AAA and AA1t looks as under,

one in Variable View and other in Data View.

Make the Data Editor the active window.

If the data view is displayed, double-click the variable name at the top of the column in

the data view or click the Variable View tab. Click the button in the values cell for the

variable that you want to define. For each value, enter the value and a label (the one

as seen below). Click Add to enter the value label, at last click OK.

Activity

For above activity make grouping of BMI as

Underweight < 18.5

Normal 18.5 22.9

Overweight > 22.9

Also make output of groups

Select cases

This tool is used to analysis data for sub-group

or a specific group like mean of respondent

whose weight is above 85 Kg

Open file, select data at MENU bar, select cases

, click on if and write your option for selection ,

for example select male in BP file as gender=1

Activity

Select male cases in bp file also female whose

age is more than 50 years

Merging file

Two file may be merged either by variables or

by case. Let we have 1000 respondents whose

has six variables. If two data entry operators

are completing this task. They can do this task in

two ways (1) divide the cases to complete (2)

divide the number of variables

Split file

File can be split into two or three categories, go

to menu then data then select split file and then

perform operation

Data analysis

BASIC STRATEGY

The following strategy is adopted to analyze the data

Description , counting, Proportion

Prediction, relationship, Association

Comparing , estimation (95% confidence interval)

DESCRIPTIVE OR INFERENTIAL

DESCRIPTIVE CONTAINS MEAN,

MEDIAN , MODE, SD,

REGRESSION, CORRELATION ,

ON THE OTHER HAND

CONFIDENCE INTERVAL, TESTING

OF HYPOTHESIS, P-VALUE,

ANOVA RELATE TO INFERENTIAL

Graphical Method

For nominal & ordinal data we use Bar or pie chart

For continuous data we use histogram

Numerical method

For nominal & ordinal data we use Frequency/proportions

For continuous data we use Mean , Standard deviation

Summary Guide

Scale

Nominal

Ordinal

Displaying data

Histogram

Box-plot

Summarizing data

Mean, Median, SD Frequency table,

Percentages,

Proportion

Frequency table,

Percentages,

Proportion

GRAPHS FOR

CATEGORICAL DATA

Open the file, then from pull-down menu click

on legacy dialogue, then click Bar/pie chart ,

select variable then click ok

DATA SUMMERY

Open the file, then from pull-down menu click on

analyze

Descriptive statistics

frequency

select variable

Click ok, output window will appear

DATA

MAKING HISTOGRAM

Open the file, then from pull-down menu click

on legacy dialogue, then click histogram, select

variable, click ok

DATA SUMMARY

Open the file, then from pull-down menu click on analyze

Descriptive statistics

Descriptive Statistics

select variable

Click ok, output window will appear

AND 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL

Open the file, then from pull-down menu click on analyze

Descriptive statistics

explore

select

variable

Click ok, output window will appear

two variable

Type of variables

Graphical display

Relationship

Categoricalcategorical

Multiple bar

Contingency table

Categorical-Scale

Box-plot

Descriptive statistics

for each group

Scale-scale

Scatter plot

Correlation

Open the file, then from pull-down menu click on legacy

dialogue, then click Bar chart , select variable to

category axis and one to cluster then click ok

CONTINGENCY TABLE

Descriptive statistics

cross-tab

select

variables, one to row and one to column, for cell proportion

Click cell and click on total, for chi-square click on statistics

ok, output window will appear

DATA

SCATTER PLOT

Open file, on pull-down menu, click on graph

legacy dialogs

scatter plot

enter variables to x-axis and y-axis then click ok

CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

Open the file, then from pull-down menu click on

analyze

correlate

select variables

ok,

output window

will appear

ONE CONTINUOUS VARIABLE

When we have one categorical and one

continuous variable , then for descriptive

analysis we will use Explore command and for

graph we use Box-plot , suppose we have

gender and weight of respondents

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Open file, go to analyze, then select descriptive

statistics

explore , a window will open then

select continuous variable and past to dependent list

and categorical to factor list , then click ok

BOX PLOT

Open file, click on Graph then click to legacy dialog,

the box plot then click simple then define now put

continuous variable to variable and categorical (sex,

SES) to category axis and click ok

REGRESSION ANALYSIS

Prediction of one variable on the basis of other variable or

set of variables (be sure all variables are continuous) for

example prediction of BP when age of a person is 55

years. The mathematical equation is as

BP(Y ) a b( Age) X

Where a and b are coefficients of equation

CONT..

Open file

analyze

Regression

Linear

the put dependent variable and independent variable in

respected box

ok

REGRESSION LINE

Y ( BP) 129.61 0.075( Age)

slide.

MEASURE OF RISK

When we have exposure and outcome (2x2) , the

Odds Ratio (OR) is measure in cross-tab

command, when we open cross tab, click on

statistic, then click on Risk and continue

Activity

Open file states, for variable bac, what percentage of states

use the 0.8 standard.

Open file Aids, determine the shape of distribution of Aids cases

reported in 1994

Open file students, make side-by-side histogram of height in

comparison for male and female. Make a cross-tab (contingency

table) of gender, and eye-color, also compare blue color in male

and female. Make a scatter plot between height and weight and

interpret the graph. Compute descriptive statistics of variable

amount paid for hair cut.

Cont

Open file college , focus on two variables instate tuition and out-state tuition , show which

varies more (calculate coefficient of variation).

Construct Box-plot for math score in public and

private school and comments on plot. On the

average, in which subjects (mathsat, verbsat)

score is larger.

Cont.

Open file GSS94 , answer the questions

Did female tends to watch more or less TV per day than male

(calculate descriptive statistics)

If the respondents are afraid to walk alone in neighborhood,

compare mean age of those who said yes or no.

Make contingency table for sex and Race.

Make a cross tab of variables marital status and marnomar and

find the probability of a person who is married

Cont..

Open file bodyfat, calculate correlation

between neck and chest circumference, also fit a

regression line chest circumference on neck

circumference.

Investigate the variables Fatperc, age ,

weight, neck about their normality using

appropriate test and graph.

Cont.

Open file sleep, using appropriate descriptive and graphical

technique, how would you establish relationship between the amount

of sleep a species require and mean weight of species. Also

interpret the results. Make a frequency distribution of variable

amount of sleep taking appropriate interval. Construct 95%

confidence interval for total sleep and life span

room and board charges and what does it mean?

TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS

Here we will discuss

one sample t-test

Two sample t-test (independent groups, dependent

groups)

One way AVOVA (F-test)

Open data file bodyfat, test the hypothesis the

population mean body fat is 23 against it is not

equal to 23.

Analyze

compare means

one sample ttest, select variable body fat and enter 23 as test

value, results are as

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

p-value is 0.000, which suggested to reject null hypothesis

and it is concluded that population mean body fat is not

23

Sometimes we focus on comparing means of variable of

interest of two different samples. For example whether

height of bys is different from girls height. Open file

students and compare height of boys and girls

Open file

analyze

compare means

independent samples , click then a window will

open select height as test variable and gender

as grouping variable. Define grouping

variable putting the value of male and female

then click ok

T value

P-value

treatment on same respondents. For example BP is

measure before and after medicine. This type of sample is

called paired sample. Open file swimmer2 and we wish

to see any difference is freestyle at two points of students

Open file

analyze

compare means

paired sample t-test , click then a window will open

select two variables 100 meter freestyle click ok

For more than two independent groups we use one-way

ANOVA. Suppose we are interested to know whether out

campus job effect the students GPA. Open file student

and test GPA with grouping variable work category. The

null hypothesis is that GPA is same for all working

category. If null hypothesis is rejected then we post hoc

test (LSD)

PROCEDURE

Open file

analyze

compare means,

One-way ANOVA, the dependent list variable is

GPA, Factor variable is workcat ,click option

under

statistics , select descriptive

then click on post hoc, a

window will open select LSD cick ok

Posthoc

test

Activity

Open file GSS94 and test the null hypothesis that the

adults in United States watch an average of three hours

of TV daily. Test the hypothesis males spent 3 hours

while watching TV (Use select command)

Is there a statistically significant difference in amount of

time men and women spend watching TV. Is there a

statistically significant difference in amount of time

married and divorced spend watching TV?

Cont.

Open file students, test the hypothesis, commuters and residents

earn significantly different mean grades? Do car owners have

significantly fewer accidents on average than non-owners? Interpret

your results using 95% confidence interval and p-value.

Open file BP, test the hypothesis: do subjects with parental history

of hypertension have significantly higher resting Systolic and

Diastolic BP than subjects with no parental history?

by respondents race? (ANOVA)

parental hypertension (ph) or some combination of these factors.

Open file group , is subjects perception of co-worker related to

gender , group size or combination of these two factors?

Open file bodyfat, consider a man whose chest measurement is

95 cm, abdomen is 85 cm, and whose weight is 158 pounds; use

regression equation to estimate this mans body fat percentage. (use

multiple regression) Also write the regression equation and interpret

the results.

percentage on the basis of following variables, Age, weight,

abdomen circumference, chest circumference, thigh circumference,

wrist circumference using matrix plot/correlation matrix/ p-value.

Open file salem, test whether variables proparri and accuser are

independent (use chi-square test)

Open file students, test smokers tend to drink more beer than

nonsmokers? (select parametric or non-parametric test , t test or

Mann-U test)

Followings are advanced tools

Logistic regression, survival analysis (KM curve)

Factor analysis, Reliability

ANOVA repeated measures

Time series analysis (forecasting)

Descriptive Analysis

Frequency (f), Percentage

(%), Proportion

Categorical Data

Inferential Analysis

Z-test

Univariate

Histogram

Descriptive Analysis

Mean S.D

Continuous Data

Z-test (n>30)

Inferential Analysis

t-test (n<30)

Medical Data

Analysis

Descriptive Analysis

Contigency Table

Categorical Data

Association 2, OR, RR

Inferential Analysis

Prediction, Logistic

Regression

Multivariate

Descriptive Analysis

Relationship, Regression,

Correlation

Continuous Data

t-test

Inferential Analysis

ANOVA, Multiple

Regression

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