Loading on High rise building differs from loading on low rise building.
The different major loads considered for design as compared to low rise buildings
are:

Gravity Loads;
The accumulation of gravity loads in high rise building columns and walls
can be very much greater.
The effect of creep and shrinkage is considerable
Wind Loads :
Wind loads are insignificant for low rise buildings
On a tall building, wind load acts on a large building surface area and also
with greater intensity at greater heights, and with a larger moment arm
about the base than on a low rise building
Earthquake Forces :
Tall buildings respond to seismic motion somewhat differently than low
rise buildings
The magnitude of the horizontal inertia forces induced by earthquakes
depends on the building mass, ground acceleration, and the nature of the
structure.
Sequential Loading:
The Load effects which arise due to the sequence of construction are termed
Sequential Loads. Loads that are applied after the construction of the building like
Live load, wind loads and earthquake are independent of the construction sequence.
However, the effect of dead loads depends on the sequence of construction.
In construction of high rise RCC buildings, the practice is to shore the freshly placed
floor on previously cast floors.
The construction loads in the supporting floors due to the weight of the wet
concrete and formwork may appreciably exceed the loads under service conditions.
Such loads depends on the sequence and rate of construction.
Because of the cumulative effects over the height of the building, the effects are
greater in the highest levels of the building.
The deformations of a particular floor will be caused by the loads that are applied
subsequent to its construction. Such sequential effects must be considered if an
accurate assessment of the structural actions due to dead loads is to be achieved.
Gravity Loading :

Dead Loads ;
Calculated from the designed member sizes and assumed densities.
Effect of sequential loading shall be considered.
Live Loads:
In the form of uniformly distributed floor loads and in certain cases,
specified concentrated loads
Magnitude of live loads are as specified by the codes (which are based on
experience and field surveys)
Application of Live loads on adjacent and alternate spans shall be
considered for obtaining maximum design forces.
Live load reductions shall be allowed.
Live Loads (Floor loads) specified by various codes:
Building
United
State
(ANSI)
Office Building
Offices
2.4
Corridors
3.8
Lobbies
4.8
Residential
Apartment
s
Hotel
Corridors
Great
Britain
Japan
U.S.S.R.
India(I.S.
875)
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.9
2.9
2.0
2.9
2.9
2.5
4.0
4.0
Building
1.9
1.5
1.8
1.5
2.0
1.9
3.8
2.0
2.0
1.8
1.8
2
2.9
2.0
3.0
1. Percentage reduction in live load per floor is specified with a lower limit.
Ex. 5% reduction for each floor down to a minimum of 50%
2. The supporting members are designed to a load obtained by multiplying the
basic live load with a factor 0.3 + 10/A, where A is the total floor area.
3. The maximum reduction in load is specified in terms of dead to live load ratio.
Ex. {100 *(D + L)}/4.33L.
Example: Calculate the design loads on column after allowing for live load reduction
as per IS:875.
WIND LOADS
Wind is a major factor in the design of Tall structures. On a tall building, wind load
acts on a large building surface area and also with greater intensity at greater
heights, and with a larger moment arm about the base than on a low rise building.
For example, under wind load the overturning moment at the base of a building
varies in proportion to the square of the height of the building (M H2), and lateral
deflection varies as the fourth power of the height of the building, other things
being equal ( H4).
wind response.
Wind acting on a tall building induces oscillatory movement in the upper floors of
the building which may result in the following effects:

Gust : Rapid bursts in the velocity of wind are called gust. The gust speed is
obtained by multiplying the mean speed by a gust factor.
CODAL PROVISIONS FOR WIND LOAD
Most codes prescribe both Static approach and Dynamic method for wind load
analysis.
In the static approach of analysis, the building is assumed as a fixed rigid body
subjected to wind forces.
The salient features of each code as related to wind loads are discussed in the
following sections:
Uniform Building Code Method(UBC) : Issued by International Conference of
Building officials
The method is a static, giving the design wind pressure, taking into account height,
gust factor and exposure condition, as given by the formula:
p = CeCqqsI
Where, p = design wind pressure
Ce= Coeff to account for combined effects of height, exposure and gusting
Cq = Coeff. That allows local high pressures for wall and roof elements.
qs = basic wind pressure for a minimum 50 year wind speed at a height of 30 ft.
above ground.
I = Importance factor (1.00 1.15)
The Basic Building Code Method (BOCA): Issued by the building officials and
Code Administrators International.
BOCA gives a table of effective velocity pressures at different heights based
on 50 year wind speeds. The speeds are for different exposure conditions
(viz. : Suburban, wooded terrain etc.)
In addition the effective velocity pressures shall be multiplied by coefficients to
obtain wind pressure on windward and leeward walls.
P=0.0025 V 2
H
30
2 /7
( )
Simple approach:
Applicable for low to medium rise buildings. Approach is similar as in other
codes.
Wind pressure is given by,
P = qCeCgCp
Ce= Coeff to account for combined effects of height, exposure and gusting
Cg = Coeff. For gust factor
Cp = Coeff. For external pressure (0.8 for wind ward, 0.5 for leeward)
qs = reference wind pressure (q = cv2)

Experimental procedure:
By using the results of wind tunnel or other experimental procedures.
Detailed procedure:
Involves series of calculation for more accurate determination of the
coefficients Ce,Cg,and Cp that are used above to calculate wind forces,
by taking into account the dynamics of the structure by incorporating
building dimensions, natural frequency of vibration and damping.
ANSI Standard (American National Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings
and other Structures):
Maps are generated for United States. The maps indicate design wind speed for a
50 year recurrence for different terrains.
Indian Standard (IS: 875, Part 3) :
The code specifies basic wind speed applicable for different regions of the country
have been presented in a wind map. The basic wind speed is based on a 50 year
return period.
Wind Force on Buildings,
P=
Cp
Cp
A pd
Risk Coefficient (k1 Factor) : This factor is based on class of structure and design life
of the structure, as given in table.1
Terrain, Height and Structure size Factor (k2) : The Indian subcontinent terrain is
classified into four categories. And the structures are placed in three different
classes based on their size. The corresponding factor k 2 for various heights is
obtained from table 2.
Topography coeff. (k3 Factor): This factor accounts for topographical features like
Hills, cliffs etc. For upwind slope upto 3 o, K3 is taken as 1.00. And for slopes above
3o, k3 ranges between 1.00 to 1.36.
In general depending upon the dynamic behavior, two model types are used; (i)
Rigid model and (ii) Flexible or Aeroelastic model.
Rigid model studies:
The basic purpose of rigid model study is to obtain the local pressure fluctuations.
The results can also be used the design pressure on the overall structural system for
buildings whose motion is negligible.
In the rigid model study, the model represents essentially the moment of inertia of
the building about its base. The distribution of mass is not considered.
The material used for making the models are Plexiglas, Lucite and Perspex. Large
number of Pressure taps (500 to 700) are attached to the model. The wind tunnel
test is run for a duration of 60 s, which is equivalent to 1hr realtime. From the
readings obtained, mean pressure and rootmeansquare value of the pressure and
peak pressures are obtained. The rigid model studies are performed for design of
cladding and curtain wall.
Aeroelastic study:
Aeroelastic model study is one the most reliable approaches in predicting the
response of a building to wind load and provides an accurate assessment of the
loads for structural design. Aeroelastic model studies are important for slender,
flexible and dynamically sensitive structures where aeroelastic or bodymotioninduced motions are significant. Aeroelastic model study basically examines the
windinduced sway response of a tall building, and requires modelling of dynamic
properties such as inertial stiffness and damping characteristics.
The models used in aeroelastic studies are of the following type:
Rigid aeroelastic models: Rigid models with pivot point introduced at appropriate
location is used. An electromagnet or dashpot is used for the necessary damping.
Flexible models: This model is made by using a rigid diaphragm and flexible
columns. In this model the masses are concentrated in the diaphragm representing
the floor system and are connected by flexible columns.
The wind pressure, shear force, moment and acceleration that occur on the full
scale building are related to the model quantities using nondimensional ratios and
frequency scales.