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Compiled by Ayesha Younas

Repeated Questions of International Law


INTERNATIONAL LAW
Explain in detail the object, purpose and basis of international law. 2001
Define International Law. Do you agree with John Austins concept International Law is not a
true law, but a positive international morality? Elaborate your answer with appropriate
arguments.2005
What are the sources of International Law? Discuss any two of them in detail.2005
International Law is a Law regulating the rights and duties of states and creating no rights
and imposing no duties on individuals. Do u agree with this statement? Why or why not?
Argue.2006
John Austin says International Law is not a real Law, but a positive International Morality.
Do you agree with him? Give arguments in support of your answer.2008
Give such a definition of International Law which could cover all the modern trends in it?
2010
"International Law is primarily concerned with the rights, duties and interests of states."
Examine this statement with reference to the place of individuals and non-state entities is
International Law. 2011
International law is a product of centuries - eleaborate the statement in view of the scientific
development and codification of the law.2013
As a law based on common consent of states, international law should have more binding
authority and less moral considerations . Discuss. Re-Exam 2013
"When all has been said it will be found that consent remains firmly the basis of international
law, and there are as many, and only as many, sources of international law as there are
ways whereby the consent of states can be expressed"? Discuss 2014
SUBJECT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
What does Subjects of international law mean? Discuss individuals as subjects of
International Law. Elaborate your answer with the appropriate examples.2005
Briefly and precisely define SUBJECTS International Law. Do you agree that INDIVIDUALS can
be considered as subjects of International Law? Give appropriate examples in this
regard.2008
What is meant by 'Subjects of International Law'? Justify Individuals as the subject of
International Law by giving appropriate examples. 2010
States continue to be the principal subjects of international legal relations but non-state
entities too exert a great deal of influence on the legal system. Examine the statement with
reference to rights and duties of international organizations under law.2013
NATIONALITY
Short Notes: Nationality 2000
Define nationality. What are neutral and neutralized states? 2001
Explain the various modes of acquiring and losing nationality. What is double Nationality and
Statelessness? 2002
Short Notes: Double nationality 2003, 2012
Explain the various modes of acquiring and losing NATIONALITY. What is DOUBLE
NATIONALITY and STATELESSNESS? 2007
RECOGNITION OF STATES

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What do you understand by 'Recognition of States' and 'Recognition of Governments?
Explain fully the distinction between Recognition Dejure and Recognition Defacto. 2000
Short Notes: De facto recognition 2003
Describe the legal nature of recognition of states, with particular reference to difference
between defacto and Dejure recognition. 2003
What is the duty of other states in case of internal revolt in an independent state? Can they
help the rebels? Under what circumstances recognition may be accorded to the rebels? 2006
"What is meant by RECOGNITION of STATES as a mamber of FAMILY of NATIONS? State the
different modes of such recognition. 2007
Discuss Recognition. Differentiate between de-jure and de-facto recognition. What are the
disabilities of an unrecognized state? 2008
Define Recognition. Differentiate between Defacto and Dejure Recognition. 2010
"The Subject of Recognition is one of the most difficult branches of international law, not
merely from the points of view of exposition of principles, but also intrinsically by reason of
many difficulties which arise in practice." Discuss 2011
Non-recognition of a government can be amounted to denying the recognition of the state
itself as it is the governments that do international business on behalf of the states. Argue
in affirmative this statement with particular reference to Constitutive Theory of Recognition.
2012
Define Recognition and explain its kinds. Also point out the difference between recognition
of states and governments.2013
INTERNATIONAL RIVERS
Write a comprehensive note on international rivers and international canal. 2001
Describe international rivers. State the principles of law, regulating the use of water and
navigation in international rivers. 2003
HIGH SEAS
Short Notes: High Seas 2000
Discuss the extent to which a state can claim jurisdiction over the high seas in war and
peace. Is an appropriation by a state of the underwater soil allowed in International Law?
2006
Define High Seas. Explain the concept of Freedom of High Seas along-with restrictions over
it.2008
INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
Write a detailed note on the International-court of Justice with particular reference to its
powers to exercise jurisdiction over disputant states. 2000
The jurisdiction of international court of justice depends on the consent of the parties
concerned. Discuss. 2001
How far has the United Nation succeeded in developing a comprehensive system of Human
Rights protection? Can emphasis on social justice and Human rights lead to a stable
International Order? 2009
Explain the structure and powers of the International Court of Justice and assess the
importance of the principles laid down in judicial decisions of leading cases as precedents for
states.2013
UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION

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Critically examine the powers and the voting procedure of the U.N. Security Council . 2000
How far has the United Nation succeeded in developing a comprehensive system of Human
Rights protection? Can emphasis on social justice and Human rights lead to a stable
International Order?2009
keeping in view the objectives of the charter seeking to establish a mechanism of peace and
security how far has United Nations succeeded in confronting changes in Global society?
2009
"The Practice of United Nations Organization Show that while the principle of SelfDetermination is agreed upon, neither the scope of its application nor the method of
decolonization has been settled." Discuss 2011
"All the major issues on voting in the Secretary Council are now satisfactorily resolved. The
real problem today is about the composition of the Security Council." Discuss 2011, 2014
Elucidate and justify: "The United Nations inspite of its imperfections, is the only
organizations that can save humanity from disaster and complete annihilation." 2011
Does the customary international law grant the right to use force to a state in response to a
terrorist attack on it? Substantiate your answer by arguing from Article 51 and Paragraph 4
of the Article 2 of the UN Charter and other recent examples in this regard. 2012
Keeping in view the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). What can be a reform
agenda in your opinion for making the UN more effective ?2013
Keeping in view the powers of the security council what suggestions can you give for
improving its structure as a dominant body within UN.Re-Exam 2013
NEUTRALIZATION
Short Notes: Neutrality 2003
Differentiate between Neutralized and Neutral States. Discuss the rights and duties of a
neutral state.2005
Discuss the concept of Neutralization. How is it done? Explain the Rights, Duties and
Guarantees given to a Neutralized state.2010
Define the term NEUTRALITY and explain the rights and duties of a neutral state.Re-Exam
2013
INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES
Discuss Kashmir dispute in the light of
Right of self determination 2001
UN Security Council resolution 2001
Non interference in internal affairs 2001
legal status of election in Kashmir 2001
Simla agreement 2001
What are amicable means of settlement of international disputes? 2002
Describe various methods of peaceful and amicable settlement of international disputes.
2004
Discuss amicable means for the settlement of international disputes.2005,2008,2010
DIPLOMACY
State the various kinds and classes of diplomatic agents and mention their privileges and
immunities.2003
A Pakistani citizen working in the embassy of a foreign country in Islamabad, has committed
an offence against another Pakistani citizen. The Pakistani police want to arrest such person.

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However, the ambassador is refusing to handover the accused to the police with the plea
that the accused has a diplomatic immunity. Do you agree with the pleas of the
ambassador? Why or why not?2006
Describe Importance of diplomacy in interstate relations and discuss the concept of
diplomacy and immunity?2009
Define Diplomatic Envoy. Give a short account of the functions, privileges and immunities of
the diplomatic envoys accredited to other states. 2011
"The office of the Secretary General of the United Nations is certainly the most important
and visible post in intentional multilateral diplomacy but it has been called the most
impossible job in the world because the faces complex and contradictory pressures in the
performance of his duties" Discuss 2014
IMMUNITY
State immunity has become a mere fiction which the law can do with out. The principle is
gradually withering away, a process already under way and constantly gaining momentum.
Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer.2002
Describe Importance of diplomacy in interstate relations and discuss the concept of
diplomacy and immunity?2009
COURTS AND CASES
Short Notes: Corfu Channel Case, U.K.V. Albania(1948), I.C.J. Rep. 1949. 2000
Short Notes: Chorzow Factory case, Germany V. Poland (1928) , P.C.I.J. Rep. Ser. A, No.17
2000
Explain the rules which govern the application of International Law by Municipal Courts. Give
your answer in the light of the court practice with special reference to the British and
American Courts. 2000
Short Notes: Prize courts 2002, 2012
Enamurate the principles of International Law involved in the decision of Corfu Channel
Case. Assess the impact that decision on the growth and development of International
Law.2004
Short Notes: Scotia Case 2005
Describe the functions of a Prize Court. What law does it administer?2006
TREATY
Define a Treaty. State how are they concluded and terminated? Explain it in the light of
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969. 2000
Coercion against a state renders a treaty invalid. Discuss main features of the principle. Also
elaborate two other methods of rendering invalid the consent of a state to be bound by a
treaty.2002
State and discuss in brief the various steps mentioned by starke in the creation of legal
obligation by a treaty. 2003
How far do you think that International Law is based on common consent of States? Evaluate
importance of customary law and treaty law as binding in this regard 2009
What are the various kinds of treaties in international law? Explain the laws about formation,
interpretation and termination of treaties. 2012
What is STATE SUCCESSION ? What is the scope of treaty continuity or treaty obligations in
case of extinction of a state?Re-Exam 2013

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Compiled by Ayesha Younas


EXTRADITION
Short Notes: Extradition 2003, 2012
Discuss the concept of extradition. Explain main principles of extradition. Discuss also the
crimes exempted from extradition.2005
Give precise definition of Extradition. Write a comprehensive essay on extradition by
covering all its aspects.2008
STATE JURISDICTION
Discuss the term State jurisdiction with reference to
Maritime belt
Port
Foreigners
Floating island 2003
Define State jurisdiction and explain how domestic jurisdiction can be limited by and
reduced by principles of International Law?2009
INTERVENTIONS
Short Notes: Intervention 2000
The frequent Interventions have challenged the validity of some of fundamental principles
of International Law. What are those principles? Discuss in the light of interventions in
Afghanistan and Iraq by the super-powers.2004
Whatever the morality of intervention, states have no right under International Law to
intervene on the territory of other states in order to prevent alleged crimes against humanity
or to uphold human rights norms. Discuss. 2006
Explain with reference to the relevant articles of the UN Charter that whether the world body
is authorized to intervene in the domestic jurisdiction of its member states. 2012
VETO
What is veto? How, when and by whom is used? 2003
What is Veto? How, when and by whom it is used? What consequences Pakistan had to face
in the past because of its use by a former superpower? 2012
SOVEREIGN STATE
Fully explain the duties of a Sovereign State with special reference to:2004
Not to interfere in the domestic affairs of another state
To refrain from use of threat of use force against another state
Discuss various modes of Acquisition of Territorial Sovereignty by the states acknowledged in
International Law. 2010
Lord Curzon once said, Frontiers are indeed the razors edge on which hang suspended the
modern issues of war or peace, of life or death to nations. Explain in this light the various
modes of acquisition of territory by a state. 2012
HIJACKING
Short Notes: High jacking 2000
Explain how the problem of Hijacking has been dealt with under the International Law?2004
TERRORISM

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TERRORISM has become an international phenomenon - how far are you satisfied with
international legal controls of such criminal conduct.Re-Exam 2013
BLOCKADE
Short Notes: Blockade 2000
Define Blockade. What are the essentials of real and binding Blockade? What does it
terminate? Refer to leading cases 2004
PRISONERS OF WAR
How are Prisoners of war to be treated under International Law? Explain with reference to
various conventions. 2004
Short Notes: Rights of Prisoners of War 2005
LAW OF SEA
Write short notes on any three of the following in the light of convention on the law of sea
1982 and our maritime zone act of 1976. You must discuss the nature of jurisdiction, right
and duties.
Internal Waters
Continental Shelf
Territorial Waters
Land-locked State
EEZ 2001
Short Notes: Territorial waters 2002
Short Notes: Continental Shelf 2005, 2012
Why is the third UN convention on the law of sea (UNCLOS-III) considered a vast diplomatic
and legal undertaking and what has made it different to the earlier efforts on the subject?
2013
MISCELLANEOUS
Enumerates with short explanation the main principles discussed in any two of the following
cases.
Lotus case 2001
Clarence Thomas and Anita hill case 2001
American diplomat case 2001
What do you understand by international institutions? Discuss their status and functions as
subject of international law. 2002
Discuss the liability of the following: 2006
The ambassador of the Republic of Brondasia in Islamabad murders a Pakistani out of
sudden provocation.
The wife of the Brondasian ambassador bought cosmetics worth Rs.1000,000 from a local
departmental store, refused to pay and went away to her embassy.
A Pakistani friend of the Brondasian ambassador has murdered a Brondasian employee of
the embassy.
What is the duty of other states in case of internal revolt in an independent state? Can they
help the rebels? Under what circumstances recognition may be accorded to the rebels?2006
Differentiate between Territorial and Extra-Territorial Asylum. Under which circumstances an
Embassy or Consulate can offer asylum to a fugitive/offender of the territorial State?2008

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Compiled by Ayesha Younas


Define International personality and discuss various entities as International Legal
person.2009
Territory is undoubtedly the basic character of a state as well as widely accepted elaborate
with reference to exclusive rights of states on Land and Air territory.2009
Give an account of the efforts of international community to protect the civilian population
from the effects of war.2010
"As the basis of the Law of Nations is the common consent of the member states of the
Family of Nations, it is evident there must exist as many sources of international law as there
are facts through which such common consent can possibly come into existence."
(Oppenheim). Discuss 2011
While customs form the major part of Internatiomal law it is conventions that make it more
authentic and applicable. Discuss. 2013
Territory is essential part of a state - examine the statement in view of modes of acquisition
and loss of state territory.Re-Exam 2013
Considering the practice of leading states how far is it true to say that international Law and
municipal law are two distinct but coordinate legal systems.Re-Exam 2013
"The case law of the international court of justice and the practice of United Nations show
that while the principle of self-determination is agreed upon, neither the scope of its
application nor the method of decolonisation has been settled" Discuss 2014
"What ever be the generally accepted rules governing the outer limit of the territorial limit of
the territorial sea this issue, and others like it, will be settled in many cases on the basis of
the principles of acquiescence and opposability". Discuss 2014
The assumption that the "genuine link" formula, invented for dealing with people, is capable
of immediate application to ships..........smacks of a disappointing naivete 2014

SHORT NOTES
Short Notes: Human Rights 2000
Short Notes: Exclusive Economic Zone 2000
Short Notes: Calvo Clause 2000
Short Notes: Kellogg Briand Pact 1928 2002
Short Notes: The Geneva Convention 1929 2002
Short Notes: Pacta Sunt Servanda 2002
Short Notes: Protectorate 2002, 2012
Short Notes: State servitude 2002
Short Notes: Monroes doctrine 2002
Short Notes: Equality of states 2002
Short Notes: Doctrine of Postliminium 2002
Short Notes: Continuous voyage 2002
Short Notes: International boundaries 2003
Short Notes: Universal Declaration of Human Rights 2012
2015 PART-II
Q. 2. What is relationship between positive law theory, natural law theory and international
law? How these theories contributed in the evolution of International Law?
Q.3. Explain the sources of International Law in the light of Article 38 (1) of the Statue of
International Court of Justice.

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Compiled by Ayesha Younas


Q.4. What is difference between immunities and privileges of diplomats? What is its place in
International Law? How it effect the functions and responsibilities of the diplomats?
Q.5. Treaties are known by a variety of differing names, ranging from Conventions,
international Agreements, Pacts, General Acts, and Charters Through to Statues,
Declarations and conventions. Discuss it in the light of laws of its formation, interpretation
and termination.
Q.6. What is the role of state recognition in the commencement of existence of a state?
What are the rules that govern the issues that arise out of a state ceasing to exits?
Q.7. Explain the rules which govern how an insurgency movement can became a subject of
International Law.
Q.8. Write a note on any TWO of the following cases, discussing brief facts and (10 each)
important points of law.
(a) Corfu (b) The Rainbow Warrior Case
(c) The Nottebohm Case

Compiled by Ayesha Younas