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state space model

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A state-space model is a structured form or representation of a set of differential equations. Statespace models are very useful in Control theory and design. The differential equations are converted

in matrices and vectors, which is the basic elements in MathScript.

Assume we have the following differential equations:

][

][

][

][

A general linear State-space model may be written on the following general form:

Function

ss

Sys_order1

Sys_order2

Description

Constructs a model in state-space form. You also can use this

function to convert transfer function models to state-space

form.

Constructs the components of a first-order system model based

on a gain, time constant, and delay that you specify. You can use

this function to create either a state-space model or a transfer

function model, depending on the output parameters you

specify.

Constructs the components of a second-order system model

Example

>A = [1 2; 3 4]

>B = [0; 1]

>C = B'

>ssmodel = ss(A, B, C)

>K = 1;

>T = 1;

>H = sys_order1(K, T)

>dr = 0.5

>wn = 20

Faculty of Technology, Postboks 203, Kjlnes ring 56, N-3901 Porsgrunn, Norway. Tel: +47 35 57 50 00 Fax: +47 35 57 54 01

step

lsim

can use this function to create either a state-space model or a

transfer function model, depending on the output parameters

you specify.

Creates a step response plot of the system model. You also can

use this function to return the step response of the model

outputs. If the model is in state-space form, you also can use this

function to return the step response of the model states. This

function assumes the initial model states are zero. If you do not

specify an output, this function creates a plot.

Creates the linear simulation plot of a system model. This

function calculates the output of a system model when a set of

inputs excite the model, using discrete simulation. If you do not

specify an output, this function creates a plot.

Example:

Given the following state-space model:

[ ]

][ ]

[

[ ]

][ ]

% Creates a state-space model

A = [1 2; 3 4];

B = [0; 1];

C = [1, 0];

D = [0];

model = ss(A, B, C, D)

Task 1.1

Given the following system:

Solutions:

State-space model:

EE4107 - Cybernetics Advanced

>[A, B, C, D] = sys_order2(wn,

dr)

>ssmodel = ss(A, B, C, D)

>num=[1,1];

>den=[1,-1,3];

>H=tf(num,den);

>t=[0:0.01:10];

>step(H,t);

>t = [0:0.1:10]

>u = sin(0.1*pi*t)'

>lsim(SysIn, u, t)

[ ]

][ ]

][ ]

[ ]

[]

Task 1.2

Given the following system:

Solution:

The state-space model becomes:

[ ]

[ ]

][ ]

[ ]

][ ]

Task 1.3

Given the following system:

Solutions:

State-space model:

[ ]

][ ]

][ ]

][

][

Given a mass-spring-damper system:

(

Where

position, speed/velocity, acceleration

- damping constant,

- mass,

- spring constant,

force

Task 2.1

Set the system on the following state-space form:

5

Assuming the control signal

Solution:

We set:

This gives:

Finally:

, i.e.:

[ ]

][ ]

[

[ ]

][ ]

i.e.:

[

[ ]

[

Task 2.2

Define the state-space model above using the ss function in MathScript.

Apply a step in u and use the step function in MathScript to simulate the result.

EE4107 - Cybernetics Advanced

6

Start with

Solution:

MathScript Code:

clear

clc

%

c

k

m

= 1;

= 1;

= 1;

%

A

B

C

D

= [0, 1; -(k/m), -(c/m)];

= [0; 1/m];

= [1, 0];

= [0];

ss_model = ss(A,B,C,D)

step(ss_model)

This gives:

Task 2.3

Convert the state-space model defined in the previous task to a transfer function ( )

MathScript code.

( )

( )

using

7

Use

Do the same using pen and paper and Laplace. Do you get the same answer?

Solution:

MathScript:

In MathScript we can simple use the tf function in order to convert the state-space model to a

transfer function.

H = tf(ss_model)

This gives:

( )

( )

( )

We have the equations:

We set

Laplace gives:

This gives:

or:

8

(

Which gives:

and

gives:

( )

( )

( )

Alternative metod:

The state-space model with

][ ]

[

[ ]

][ ]

( )

( )

( )

[ ]

where:

[

[ ]

This gives:

( )

] ([

])

[ ]

Where:

[

][

][ ]

This means:

( )

( )

( )

Given the following system:

Task 3.1

Find the state-space model from the block diagram.

Note!

and

Solution:

We get the following state-space model from the block diagram:

10

This gives:

[ ]

][ ]

[ ]

][ ]

Task 3.2

Implement the state-space model in MathScript and simulate the system using the step function in

MathScript.

Set

And

Solution:

Given the following system:

11

Task 4.1

Find the state-space model on the form (pen and paper):

Solution:

First we do:

This gives:

[ ]

][ ]

][ ]

][

][

Task 4.2

Define the state-space model in MathScript and find the step response for the system. Discuss the

results.

Solution:

MathScript code:

clear,clc

A = [0 1; -1 -3];

B = [0 0; 2 4];

C = [5 6];

D = [7 0];

ssmodel = ss(A,B,C,D)

step(ssmodel)

Step response:

12

As you see we get 2 transfer functions because this is a so-called MISO system (Multiple Input, Single

Output).

Task 4.3

Find the following transfer functions:

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

Solution:

In MathScript we can simple do as follows:

H = tf(ssmodel)

This gives the following):

Transfer Function

Input:1 Output:1

7,000s^2+33,000s+17,000

-----------------------

13

1,000s^2+3,000s+1,000

Input:2 Output:1

24,000s+20,000

--------------------1,000s^2+3,000s+1,000

As you see we get 2 transfer functions because this is a so-called MISO system (Multiple Input, Single

Output):

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

Additional Resources

http://home.hit.no/~hansha/?lab=mathscript

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