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I.

INTRODUCTION
1.1. Research Background
Learning English is a compulsory subject for students, especially for
Indonesian high school students. It has been taught for three years started from the
first grade of senior high school to the third grade of senor high school. One of
language skills in learning English is speaking, besides reading, writing, and
listening. Richards (2008, p. 19) says that the mastery of speaking skill in English is
a priority for many second-language or foreign-language learners. In this case, the
learners will be perceived successful in learning English if they are successful in
speaking. Pollard (2008, p. 33) states that speaking is one of the most complicated
aspects to be mastered by students. It is lead by the students’ inability in mastering
the three basic components of speaking that is vocabulary, grammar, and
pronunciation (Lukitasari, 2008). In order to minimize the difficulties, the learners
have to master and comprehend using the expressions and the prominent elements in
speaking such as grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. This statement is also
strengthened by Burns and Claire (2004, p. 5) pointing out that clear pronunciation is
essential in spoken communication. Pronunciation should be mastered by learner
because it is very important in convey the meaning of the speaker. If the
pronounciation is wrong, the learners will get misunderstanding. Furthermore,
grammar and vocabulary will help the learner in conveying the information correctly.
The problems in speaking skill mastery are also faced by students in SMA
Negeri 5 Banda Aceh. The writer who took his internship in grade X of SMA Negeri
5 Banda Aceh found that the students’ speaking skill was poor. In addition, based on
the preliminary study conducted by the writer on November 19-20th, 2015 in SMA

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Negeri 5 Banda Aceh, it showed that many of the first grade students still unable to
speak English well. The writer found that they have some problems when they speak
English. First, the students felt hard to construct sentences orally. Second, they were
not confident to practice speaking English. The last, the teacher did not give enough
opportunity for the students to speak English. The teacher toke a dominant allocation
in speaking and explaining the materials in the classroom.
In addressing the phenomena presented above, the teacher should have a
good competence in presenting the learning material. In addition, he or she also
should use the appropriate teaching techniques to make the learning material easier
to be understood and acquired by the students. The teacher needs to use a teaching
strategy to bring the students out of that condition so that they are able to master
English speaking sill for communicating their ideas.
Richards (2006, p. 5) suggests that students are more comfortable listening to
their peers in group work or pair work tasks, rather than relying on the teacher for a
model. To overcome the problems faced by the students of SMA Negeri 5 Banda
Aceh in speaking English, the researcher proposed a technique that can be applied by
the teacher in his or her teaching, namely Student Teams Achievement Division
(hereinafter abbreviated as STAD). Trianto (2009, p.68) states that STAD is one of
types in the cooperative learning that uses small groups, consists with four or five
students and heterogeneous grouping (based on achievement, genre, culture and the
others). It is one of the techniques that can support enhancing students’ speaking
ability with a group work or team work. It is assumed that the group work is able to
make the students feel more comfortable in learning English speaking skill. Agrawal

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STAD also add an extra source of learning within the groups because some high achievers act as a role of tutor. p. there were. the subjects were asked to practice a dialogue about handling guest. pre-cycle. Kristina (2014) conducted a research on the implementation of STAD in improving speaking skill of the eleventh grade students of SMKN 1 Tampaksiring. and questionnaires. Classroom action research design was used in her study.and Nagar (2011. Rai (2007) in Khan and Inamullah (2011. The result of Cycle I showed that STAD could improve the students’ speaking skill.90). The subjects were the eleventh grade students of SMKN 1 Tampaksiring in Academic Year 2013/2014 consisting of 22 students which comprised 13 females and 9 males. 212) points out that STAD is a strategy in cooperative learning which helps promote collaboration and selfregulating learning skills. In pre-cycle. as well as increased interpersonal skills. p.45) so that the classroom action study was conducted to solve the problems of the students. which result in high achievements. test. 94) notice that STAD is designed to motivate students to encourage them facilitated each other in mastering skills presented by the teacher. cycle I. It could be seen from the increase of the mean figure of Cycle I (72. improve positive attitude towards subject. Several studies have been conducted on the implementation of STAD in different schools. Then she continued the research by conducting the Cycle I through STAD. the mean score of pre-test or IR was low (67. better self-esteem. In addition. Then she continued the 3 . The objective of her study was to find out the effect of using STAD in improving speaking skill. and cycle II. Furthermore. build good interaction among students. Three cycles were held in this study. The instruments to collect the data used were lesson plan. In the test section.

Another study was also conducted by Setyawan. In addition. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by using independent sample t-test with the significant level of 5%. and Sudarsono (2013). The students’ achievement in speaking of Cycle II was improved significantly through STAD. 4 . The data of this research were gained from the results of the structure (passive voice) test conducted after the treatment was given. Nonequivalent-Groups Posttest-Only Design was used in this research. This research was aimed to investigate the significant effect of using STAD technique on the eleventh grade students’ structure achievement at MAN 1 Jember. The treatment for the experimental group was teaching passive voice by using STAD technique. The result of this research revealed that STAD technique had a significant effect on the eleventh grade students’ structure achievement at MAN 1 Jember in the 2012/2013 academic year.81). The population was all of the eleventh grade students of MAN 1 Jember in the 2012/2013 academic year. The samples were taken randomly by lottery. They studied on the the effect of using STAD technique in structure achievement of the eleventh grade students at MAN 1 Jember.study by conducting Cycle II to revise the problem in cycle I and the mean figure of Cycle II was increased (75. the questionnaire consisting of ten questions were distributed to the students at the end of cycle II in order to figure out the interest of student in learning speaking skill through STAD. The students’ responses in the questionnaire showed that almost students interested and got motivation in learning speaking through STAD. while the treatment for the control group was teaching passive voice by using lecturing method. Bindarti.

Then it also works to motivate the students to be more active in learning speaking skill. Furthermore. the students can improve themselves in speaking skill. the researcher formulated the research problem as follows: “Does the implementation of STAD improve the students’ speaking kill of Class X students at SMA Negeri 5 Banda Aceh?” 1. 5 . Thus. As practical contribution. that is SMAN 5 Banda Aceh especially in class X to figure out whether STAD can improve the students’ speaking skill in Class X of SMAN 5 Banda Aceh.4. The research proposed entitle: “The Implementation of Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) To Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill In Class X of SMAN 5 Banda Aceh” 1. 1. Research Problem Based on the background of study. the result of this study is awaited to be an alert for the teachers to give more attention in students’ speaking performance especially in speaking aspects such as grammar. the writer is consequently further interested to look into the implementation of STAD in another school. the writer hopes that this study can be help the students of SMA Negeri 5 Banda Aceh in mapping their difficulties and inabilities in speaking skill. Research Objective Related to the problem formulation.2.Based on the researches conducted above. pronunciation and vocabulary.3. Research Significances The result of this study is expected to give the practical and theoretical contribution. the objective of this research is to investigate if the implementation of STAD improves the speaking skill of the Class X students at SMA Negeri 5 Banda Aceh.

p. p. p. function and purpose. in which the students are asked to perform a small presentation about recount text.5. but also the ability to process information and language ‘on the spot’.For the theoretical contribution. 33) argues that speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information. Speaking Skill Richards and Renandya (2002. p. According to Nakamura & Valens (2001. They are monologue. 210) state that speaking is one of the central elements of communication. 1. It is a way to express someone’s idea. Luoma (2004) cited in Torky (2006. dialogue. Speaking is a process of communication between at least two people. the researcher focuses in monologue test. 1.1. Theoretical Orientation 1. In this study. there are three different types of speaking test.6. Besides. According to Harmer (2003. It is a two ways process between speaker and listener and involves productive and reactive skill of understanding. speaking is the ability to speak fluently not only in terms of knowledge of language features. the writer hopes this study will improve teachers’ understanding in applying STAD in their classroom.KD: 4.6.14). 6 . and multilogue that have different characteristic. Research Scope This study focuses on the application of STAD in improving students’ speaking skill in recount text (ref.44). this study is expected to enrich the teachers’ knowledge about the techniques that can be applied in teaching speaking skill in order to create the new atmosphere teaching learning process. 269).

phrasal. which sometimes includes multiple exchanges and/or multiple participants. 5. we can still do proofreading by asking our friends to correct the mistakes found in the text we produced or we can ask other people to help us get clearer and correct understanding of what we read. the production of short stretches of oral language is designed to demonstrate competence in a narrow band of grammatical. simple requests and comments. 7 .Brown (2004. Extensive This category includes speeches. Responsive This category includes interaction and test comprehension but at the limited level of very short conversations. and the like. p. stress. teaching speaking should get more intention in English teaching. Interactive In this category.141) divides the basic types of speaking into five categories as follows: 1. 3. standard greetings and small talk. However. oral presentations. Imitative In imitative category. 2. or phonological relationship (such as prosodic elementsintonation. Therefore. Speaking is different with reading and writing because speaking occurs in real life and the mistakes made are hard to be covered. and story-telling during which the opportunity for oral interaction from listener is either highly limited or ruled out altogether. rhythm. in reading and writing. juncture) in assessment contexts. the speaking performance is the ability to simply parrot back (imitate) a word or phrase or possibly a sentence. lexical. 4. the length and complexity of the interaction is higher than in responsive category. Intensive In intensive category.

In addition. Grammar Grammar as the core of language. Once the ambiguity exists.The speaking skill components that will be measured in the test will be elaborated as follows: a. p. pronunciation includes pitch. p. different voice uttered will generate different word. Beside grammar component. Hui (2011. intonation. 23) points out that pronunciation is the way of producing clearer language when someone speak. Kufaishi (1998. Grammar is an essential aspect in a language because it clearer the meaning contained in a sentence produced. Grammar is also can be defined as a set of rules which specify all the possible grammatical structure of the language (Ann and Martin. emphasizing in grammar aspect is prominent in teaching English speaking skill. 23) states vocabulary is the appropriate diction used in communication. sounds. p. c. By 8 . 34). Therefore. 42) also says that vocabulary is a vehicle for thought where people use vocabulary to express their though or opinions. b. the meaning understood by the listener will be different with the meaning or the word intended by the speaker. sounds and spelling and stress. Vocabulary Hui (2011. Pronunciation According to Harmer (2003. 28). 2005. p. Wrong grammar used in a sentence will produced wrong meaning for the reader or the listener. p. pronunciation is also one of the prominent aspects in English speaking because in English.

In order to be able to improve the students’ speaking ability. STAD is an effective technique in teaching learning process in enhancing students’ motivation and enthusiasm. 143). STAD consists of five main components. team.192) points out that STAD was expanded by Robert Slavin from John Hopkin USA university. Team 9 . Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) According to Gross (1991. Isjoni (2009. p. 56). Wena (2009. It is considered as a good technique because it can raise students’ motivation in learning by exchanging and sharing information. p. group quizzes. p. new material is introduced by the teacher through lecturing and class discussion.2.choosing incorrect vocabulary. quiz.51) argues that STAD is one type of cooperative learning that emphasize the activity and interaction of the students to reciprocate motivation and support in understanding the material to achieve the maximum achievement. the idea or thought delivered to other people will not be in line with the idea intended by the speaker. because it will help them in the group discussion. and developing their responsibility in their own group. an appropriate technique should be applied.6. they are: classroom presentation. STAD is one type of the techniques in cooperative learning. According to Slavin (2005. the students must pay attention to the material during the class presentation. p. individual progress scores. and team recognition. reinforcing each other. 1. Class presentation In the class presentation. and their individual quizzes. 2. Here. 1. giving feedback and having the responsibility for their tasks in group work.

students will work on individual quiz. 2012. comparing answer and correcting any misconception (Alijanian. the teacher needs to give individual progression score to each team. 116) states that the team in STAD consists of four or five heterogeneous students ased on intelligence. 3. Here. p. More than score 20 point above base score Equal or up to 10 point above base score 10 up to 5 point above base score 4 point under base score 30 20 10 5 . Thus. 2005. 144).1). each student is individually responsible for understanding the material and answer the question in quiz. the students will collect their individual score based on the improvement between their pre-score and their quiz score (Slavin. In this stage. a certificate or other form of appreciation and reward for 10 . 2. 146). race. p. Quiz After the teacher gives a presentation. p. p. 3. After teacher delivers the material. students are not allowed to help each other in doing individual quizzes. and ethnic. Individual progress scores After doing the quiz. 4.Team is the most important feature in STAD (Slavin. Huda (2013. 4. each team member cooperate together to discuss the material taught by the teacher. Table 1: criteria for individual development score Numbe Test Score Development Score r 1. 2005. All of the students have to work individually and their team mates are not allowed to help one another during these quizzes. Team recognition Team recognition is counted based on the average calculation of members’ score. gender. Here are the criteria for individual development score posed by Slavin (1997). 5.

p. In teaching recount text on biography. Super Team Great Team Good Team 25-30 20-24 15-19 1. The score achievement and team recognition is shown in the table below.3.6.  Events Events are the part of the story in where we can get information about what was going on in the chronological order. Sometimes it does not exist in recount text. The generic structure of recount text is orientation.their success should be given to the team when their average score surpass the criterion set out (Slavin. We can get the setting and the participants in the events in this orientation part because this part introduces who. when. Recount text is usually about events or experiences that happened in the past. recount text is taught in first grade in even semester. In curriculum 2013 for senior high school level.  Reorientation Reorientation is an optional closing of events.  Orientation Orientation is the beginning of the text. 2. 2005. including biography of a prominent figure. 3. 11 . 146). a teacher can use a picture of the figure and give some key words if needed by the students. events. and reorientation. and where the events take place. Table 2: score Achievement and Team Recognition Number Team Recognition Average Score 1. Recount Text Recount text is a kind of text which retells events or experiences in the past in a chronologically order.

8. group work is the main principal in implementing this technique. Research Hypothesis Based on research problem. Speaking skill is the language skill related to oral communication. STAD In STAD. In learning English. The key word of this type is the achievement of students. 1. when.8.7. recount text has its own language features that differentiate this kind of text from the other texts. speaking skill is learnt in order to be able to create a communication. what.  The use of past tense to retell past events. and how. the writer formulates his research hypothesis (Ha) and null hypothesis (H0) as follows : Ho : There is no improvement in the speaking skill of first grade students at SMA Negeri 5 Banda Aceh after the implementation of STAD. Speaking Skill Speaking skill is one of the skill taught in English. The language features of recount text include:  Proper nouns to identify those who involved in the text. So the definition of STAD is the type of cooperative learning that is implemented by using group work and the way to divide every group work based on the achievement of students which is 12 .2. 1.  Descriptive words to give detail information about who. 1.8.1. Operational Definition 1. That is the description of recount text. and transfer the information directly in English.Furthermore. where.  Words that show the order of events. Ha : There is an improvement in the speaking skill of first grade students at SMA Negeri 5 Banda Aceh after the implementation of STAD.

Its generic structure is orientation. 8) suggested that in quantitative research. Hatch (1982. they are high group scores. The text is about events or experiences in the past in a chronologically order. This statement is in line with Mujis (2004. Research Method In this research. II. the writer will use a descriptive quantitative method. events.1) state that quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using mathematical based methods (in particular statistics). Recount Text Recount text is a text taught in senior high school in class X. It means that mathematically calculation is used in this study in order to examine whether the hypothesis can be proven or not. Pretest and posttest is carried out and the results of both tests are compared in order to know the students’ achievement in speaking skill before and after giving the treatment. p. middle group scores and low group scores. In this study. P. Aliaga and Gunderson (2002.divided into three types. 20) suggests one group pretest-posttest design as follows: Group Experiment Pretest Treatment T1 X Posttest T2 13 . the writer uses pre-experimental research namely one group pretest-posttest design that is conducted upon one single studied group without a comparative group or control group. p. and reorientation. RESEARCH DESIGN 2.3.1. 1.8. the researchers will design studies that allows testing the hypothesis.

There are two variables in this study. 2. The population in this research is the first grade students of SMA Negeri 5 Banda Aceh. Population and Sample 2. and the research population is 248 students. the independent variable will be symbolized as X and the dependent variable will be symbolized as Y. 2. In this design. while the dependent variable is students’ speaking skill.2. p. T2 is given after treatment. Population Arikunto (2010. 10). There are five classes for the first grade students. T1 is given before treatment.T1 symbolizes the pretest. independent variable is a causal variable or a variable that changes or influences another variable.2. In this research. The independent variable in this study is the implementation of STAD technique in teaching recount text. According to Siregar (2013. the treatment is conducted in three meetings for the first grade students of SMA Negeri 5 Banda Aceh as an experimental class to know the students’ improvement in speaking skill.2 Sample 14 . However. The procedure of teaching is applied based on the lesson plan.1. The writer choose the first grade students as the population because he was experienced teaching in the first grade of SMA Negeri 5 Banda Aceh when he carried out his internship. namely independent variable and dependent variable. and X is used to symbolize the treatment.2. 174) points out that population is the whole object that will be given treatment. named as dependent variable. p. T2 symbolizes the post-test. Furthermore.

p. The test will be done twice. The test is given to X-a students at SMA Negeri 5 Banda Aceh. 1. 201).As the population is the whole object will be given treatment. To help ensure that the sample is representative. Accordingly. pretest and posttest. To ensure that the test is usable.3. a test is a set of stimuli presented to individual in order to elicit responses on the basis of which a numerical score can be assigned. p. Both of the tests are oral test. test is used as a main method. (2006. the writer also conducts validity and reliability. 174). X-c. he pulls one of the labels out of the box. and the label chosen become the sample of the study. X-b. the researcher applies two kinds of instruments: speaking pre-test and post-test. etc) into a box and then he shuffle the labels such as in lottery game. the pretest and posttest used in this test should be valid and reliable. Test According to Ary et al. the writer put in the label of the five class (X-a. After that. 2. Validity and Reliability 15 . sample is the part of population (Arikunto. Data extracted with these two instruments is assessed using a scoring rubric as suggested by Harris (1969). The class has 34 students consisted of 15 male and 19 female students. 2010. 2. The label chosen is X-a that is the sample of this research. the writer uses simple random sampling technique in determining the sample class. In this research. Therefore. Research Instrument In collecting the data.

The writer also considers that the validity and reliability of the test.4.In this research. Validity Bungin (2013. Technique of Data Collection 16 . the writer gives the pretest and posttest. b. Reliability Bungin (2013. p.14. 107) states that validity is the accuracy of the instrument towards the measured data. Arikunto (2002. 144) points out that validity is the measurement which shows an important key to effective research. 4. 239) as follows: r11= ( ∑ σ 2b k ) (1 ) (k −1) a2t r11=Reliability of instrument k =¿ The number of question items ∑ σ b2 =¿ The number of Varian items σ 2 t = The total of Varian. p. 106) states that reliability is the appropriateness of the instruments used with the data measured. To measure the reliability of data. p. The validity of the instrument used in this research is good because the writer teaches the speaking skill on recount text to students based on the concept of teaching speaking in STAD technique and uses the recount text materials suggested on the syllabus KD. p. 2. thus the instruments can be perceived as reliable and certifiable. the writer uses Alpha formula as suggested by Arikunto (2010. a.

After conducting pretest. 17 .In collecting data. Then the students’ performance will be recorded by using mobile phone hereinafter will be assessed by the writer and the English teachers using consent rubric. 2. Three meetings are conducted for this experiment. the writer will teach speaking skill in recount text by using STAD for the first grade students at SMA Negeri 5 Banda Aceh. Then he calculates the average scores (mean) of the students that is derived from the different gained scores between posttest and pretest by using the following formula. the writer uses the following formula. N = number of students. Technique of Data Analysis The writer uses quantative analysis to analyze the data of pretest and posttest scores.5. the writer will give the posttest as he does in the pretest. Each student was randomly given different pictures and asked to perform in front of the class. Fisrt. Each student is given 2 minutes to carry out their performance. After both score of pretest and posttest is collected. For the first meeting. the researcher will teach speaking skill in recount text by using STAD as the treatment. Then the students’ posttest also will be assessed by the writer and the English teachers using consent rubric. In the last meeting. but the different pictures will be utilized in the posttest. To find ∑ x 2 d . the data will be compared to find out if the treatment can improve the speaking skill in order to prove hypothesis and get the research result. ∑d Md= N In which: Md= mean of the difference between pretest and posttest (posttest – pretest) ∑d = total score of posttest-total score of pretest. the writer tabulate the data to see the frequency of the scores. the writer will distribute pretest using pictures.

Arikunto. Its goal also was to see the improvement of the students in posttest result after giving the treatments. 86). M. S.(∑ d 2 ) N Then. Md t= √ ∑ x2 d N (N−1) In which: Md= mean of the difference between pretest and posttest (posttest – pretest) Xd= deviation of each subject (d – Md) ∑ x 2 d = Total number of quadrate deviation N= number of students The purpose of this formula was to analyze significantly both the result of score’s pretest and posttest of the students. H. Prosedur Penelitian:Suatu Pendekatan Praktik (Fifth Edition). to find out whether the difference post-test and pre-test are significant. (2002). Arikunto. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. (2005). Co-operative Learning. (2006a). The t-table is determined by looking at t distribution table based on the d. B. ∑ x 2 d=∑d 2− the writer usest-test formula as suggested by Arikunto (2006. H. R. (2002).5) says that students’ improvement in speaking is significant if t-value is bigger than ttable (t-count < t-table).b. Ann. & Gunderson. & Nagar. REFERENCES Agrawal. Interactive Statistics. Grammar a Context an Advanced Resource Book. & Martin. Oxon: Routledge. p. (2011). 18 . Wicaksani (2013. (N – 1) and α = 5%. Aliaga. Thausand Oaks: Sage. N. S. p. Prosedur Penelitian :Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. New Delhi: Kapaz Publication.

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