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Is a word, phrase or clause that names person, place, thing, idea.
It’s connected to the shape and number of noun, plural or singular form (Book,
Fish, Police, Jury, Furniture) – countable or uncountable (Sugar, Time, Ice, etc.)
Be careful of a prepositional phrase in determining singular or plural ( one of,
either of, much of, etc.)-singular (both of, several of)-plural. (some of, all of, most
of, a lot of, ) – depend on noun form. * A lot of work was too easy
* A lot of the people were angry
Is a word, phrase or clause that expresses an action or occupation performed by
Verb forms are connected to the times of action (tenses) which revealed root,
Past, Past participle and Present participle. Be careful of regular and irregular
verb form in English!
• Rudi is in his room completing his assignment.

I am surprised of his coming
An adjective is a word which describes a noun or pronoun either by pointing out
one of its qualities or by limiting its reference.
Two main types :
Descriptive adjectives
An expensive commodity (what kind of commodity? Expensive
A silly argument (what kind of argument? Silly argument)
Limiting adjectives (also known as determiners)
This person (which person? This person)
Two handles (how many handles? Two handles)
The first argument (which argument? The first argument)
Be careful of verbs that need adj. for their complement:
• He considered that all effort done as useless (considered as)

The invention of rockets has made moon-landing possible (make
An adverb is a word that may be used to give more information about: a verb
( e.g. runs quickly), an adjective (e.g. very interesting), another adverb (e.g.
very beautifully), a conjunction (e.g. only because), a preposition (e.g. only
after), an entire sentence (e.g. Surprisingly, she recovered.)
Most adverb are formed from adjectives + ly e.g. badly, slowly, truly, happily,
Sentence has a subject and a verb
(A sentence in English must have at least one subject and one verb)
Therefore, we should be able to do following:
1. Be sure the sentence has a subject and a verb
2. Be careful of objects of preposition and appositives
3. Be careful of present and past participles when you’re looking for the
 : ……….was backed up for miles on the freeway
(Yesterday; In the morning; Traffic; Cars)
 Engineers………..for work on the new space programs

going to the movies with a friend (he is. * The family has purchased a television (verb) * The television purchased yesterday was expensive (Adj.(necessary. is. finally) Be Careful of Appositives – it is not the subject generally set off from the noun with commas.The poem was written by Paul (Verb) The poem written by Paul appeared in the magazine (adj.mailed at the post office will arrive today (have. it) Present Participles (-ing form) – it can be either a part of the verb or an adjective . is relaxing. he always was. (An object of a preposition is a noun or pronoun that comes after a preposition. and so on.found the movie theater (has. George. * ………. it is not the subject. (Right now. on. by. at. later. the door.) . when) * The interviews by radio broadcasters………live by the station (carrying. got an A on the exam. them. ……… was kept locked at all times. My friend) * The only entrance to the building. next month)  The boy………. is attending the lecture. such as in. to. the best student in the class. of.) The packages……. happily. (at last. hopefully. orderly. Because of the time. to form a prepositional phrase) (After his exams) Doni will take a trip (by boat) * With his friend……. The underlined word can be recognized as an appositives because of the noun student and commas. (the underlined is adjective) Past Participles (verb that appears with have or be-third form) – it can be either a part of the verb or an adjective . will be) Be Careful of objects of Preposition – If a word is an object of a preposition. behind. Can be mistaken for the subject of a sentence because it has the same meaning Mirnawati. is. (now. 1. are needed.. As an Adjective when it is not accompanied by “be” (The boy standing in the corner was naughty) * The child ………playing in the yard is my son. were carried. Part of the verb when it is accompanied by “be” (The boy is standing in the corner) 2.. was) * The companies offering the lowest price will have the most customers.. he. were. he. just) .

the lamps went out. object of a preposition (I am concerned about when he will arrive) 3. When connector comes at the beginning of the sentence.etc. or Paul will do it  Tom is tired. though. to study b. I will sign the check. you study Remember ! A connector must be followed by a subject and a verb. Contrast ( although. I missed the appointment. an object of a verb (I know when he will arrive) 2. Since he These are the other adverb time connectors: After. a. and she loves him We must check: 1. so d. once. Manner ( as. Some clauses can stand alone as a sentence (independent clause). Various clauses in the sentence are correctly joined. Ex:  Tom is singing and Paul is dancing  Tom is tall.  Tom must write the letter. studying c. you must connect the clauses correctly by using : and. as long as. whereas) 2. later b. • Even though Bob felt sick. for. 2. a comma (‘) is required in the middle of the sentence. USE OTHER ADVERB CONECTORS CORRECTLY Adverb clauses can also express a number of other ideas such as : 1. whether) 3. provided/providing. USE NOUN CLAUSE CONECTORS CORRECTLY A noun clause is a clause that functions as a noun. even though. a comma (. yet he is not going to sleep 1. a. then c. the subject of the sentence. USE COORDINATE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY When you have two clauses in a sentence. until.. as soon as. wherever) Ex: You will get a good grade on the exam provided………. but Paul is short. Before you leave. yet. (the underlined is adjective) SENTENCES WITH MULTIPLE CLAUSES A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb. while. or. Place (where. Many sentences in English have more than one clause. he went to school. I will sign the check before you leave. nor. • It is impossible to enter that program if you lack experience as a teacher. while . It is used as: 1. *Tom loves Erica. because . unless. 2. when. A power failure occurred. so. • Bob went to school even though he felt sick. a. whenever.. Ex:……….* The car listed in the advertisement had already stalled. The Train b. Condition (If.). (When he will arrive is not important) . next ADVERB “TIME” CONNECTORS 1. I c. in that) 4.was late. Because d. Every subject has a verb and every verb has a subject. but. in case. by the time. ……. * The mother is going to be quite upset with her son as long as he misbehaves so much. since. as. study d.

was d. My friend should be on the train which is arriving at the station now. on the table has four sections.was late caused many problems. The story d. What b. USE NOUN CLAUSE CONECTOR/SUBJECTS CORRECTLY A noun clause connector can also be the subject of the clause at the same time. a. In the notebook Remember ! (is and has are verbs) – “table” is object of preposition  She needs a secretary who types fast. There b. a. since b. It c. (as object of a verb) • What you did was wrong. The woman is filling the glass that she put on the table. clause connector/subject and the be-verb. whoever. The glass that she put on the table contains milk Ex:The gift ……. whichever. a.. The glass that she put on the table contains milk ……. The woman is filling the glass that she put on the table. The word “whoever” serves two functions (subject “is” and the connector that joins the two clauses) Ex: …….selected for the bride was rather expensive. because c.Ex: …….. USE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CONECTOR/SUBJECTS CORRECTLY An Adj. creamy texture. (Reduced adjective clause) Although it was not really difficult. omit the Adj. The notebook which d. the exam took a lot of time (Reduced adverb clause) REDUCED ADJECTIVE CLAUSES  To reduce an Adjective clause. Whoever is coming to the party must bring a gift. which we Forms of Adjective clause connectors: *whom (for people) *which (for things) *that (for people or things) I liked the book which you recommended The book which you recommended was interesting. USE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CONECTORS CORRECTLY An ADJCTIVE CLAUSE is a clause that describes a noun. what. That he c.  The ice cream that is served in the restaurant has a smooth.. connector can also be the subject of the clause at the same time..(as subject of the sentence) • When the season starts is determined by the weather.  A secretary who types fast is invaluable. The notebook c. . • I know what you did.was on TV made me angry. which. Because the notebook b. When Remember ! (was and made) can be as verbs. Because Remember ! (was and caused) can be as verbs. SENTENCES WITH REDUCED CLAUSES It is possible in English for a clause to appear in a reduced form. The other words of the connector: Who. The driver d. whatever.

The woman who is waving to us is the tour guide The letter which was written last week arrived today  If there is no be-verb. which is located in Washington.  The White House. clause if the connector/subject is directly followed by the verb.  Although he is rather unwell.does reduce)  When you are finished with the report.  If There is no be-verb in the adverb clause. is the home of the president. you are free to leave. you will graduate. is the home of the president. I don’t understand the article which appears in today’s paper I don’t understand the article appearing in today’s paper  Only reduce an Adj.  The White House. the lecturer will take part in the meeting. (passive . In other words. omit the connector / subject and change the main verb into the -ing form. USE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSES CORRECTLY Adverb Clause can also appear in a reduced form. you should speak loudly UNREDUCED ADVERB CLAUSES It should be noted that not all Adverb Clause can appear in a reduced form. but subject and be-verb are omitted. the reduced clause can be moved to the front of the sentence. A number of The adverb clauses can only be reduced if the verb is in passive form. the subject is omitted and the main verb is changed into the -ing form. The adverb connector remains.  Although he feels/feeling rather sick.(does not reduce)  If an adjective clause is set off with commas. the lecturer will take part in the meeting. you can begin your speech. if the connector is also a subject.  When you are ready.  Once you submit your thesis. your thesis will be reviewed.  When you give/giving your speech. . The White House is the home of the president. located in Washington. The woman that I just met is the tour guide (does not reduce) The letter which you sent me arrived yesterday.  Located in Washington. (active-does not reduce)  Once it is submitted.