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INDEX

Introduction

Experimental part

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

INTRODUCTION
The nation of India extends more than 1 million square miles, most of which is under use by humans.
Sixty-one percent of India's land surface is used for agriculture, according to the Gapminder Foundation.
With such a large area under cultivation, farmers have had to adapt to a wide range of soil types and
environments. Indian agriculture takes place anywhere from flood plains to deserts and mountains.

Alluvial Soils
This type of soil is common in Northern India, particularly in the delta regions. Alluvial soils are deposited
by rivers and are rich in some nutrients (particularly potash and humus), but are lacking in nitrogen and
phosphorous. They tend to be sandier and quicker-draining than many other soils. Rice, wheat,
sugarcane, cotton and jute all grow well in these soils.

Black Soils
Black soil gets its color from various salts or from humus. It contains a large amount of clay, but is sandy
as well in hillier regions. This soil contains moderate amounts of phosphorous but is poor in nitrogen. This
type of soil is also used for rice, wheat, sugarcane and cotton. It is additionally used to grow groundnut,
millet and oilseeds.

Desert Soils

Desert soils are sandy and dry. They do contain nitrogen, but are suitable for agriculture only if there is a
sufficient water supply. Generally only drought-resistant crops such as barley and millet can grow in this
type of soil.

Laterite Soils
These soils are found in areas of India with heavy rainfall, particularly near the coasts. It is an acidic soil
and is rich in iron, which gives the soil a somewhat red appearance. It is used to grow more tropical crops
such as cashew, rubber, coconut, tea and coffee.

Mountain Soils
These soils are found in the Himalayas and contain significant amounts of organic matter. They are
somewhat acidic, but suitable for growing tea, coffee, spices and many types of tropical fruits.

Red and Yellow Soils


Red and yellow soils get their names from the very large amounts of iron oxide present in them. They are
sandy and somewhat acidic, and are also low in nitrogen and phosphorous. Despite this, red and yellow
soils are used to grow rice, wheat, sugarcane, millet, groundnut, ragi and potato.

Other Soils
There are various other types of soil in India, but none of them is suitable for growing crops. Saline and
alkaline soils are too low in nutrients and too high in salt for productive agriculture. Marsh soils are
likewise unfit, but mainly because of their high acidity.

EXPERIMENTAL PART
AIM:
To test the pH of soils of different areas.
MATERIAL S REQUIRED:
Soil sample, Distilled water, Filter paper,
Funnel, 2 Beakers, pH paper, pH chart
PROCEDURE:
3

1.
First we take the soil sample and
dissolve it in distilled water in a
beaker.
2.
We then filter out the solution in
another beaker.
3.
We then soak a pH paper into the
filtrate
4.
The color of the paper then
changes.
5.
We compare the color with the pH
chart.
6.
We write down the observations.

OBSERVATION TABLE:
SL
NO.
1
2

Approx.
pH

Colour

Location of
soil

3
4
5
6
7

Conclusion
Trees are very helpful for us in the following ways:
1. It keeps the air and surroundings clean. Did you
know that trees can actually absorb up to 90 lbs of
carbon dioxide per year?
2. It helps humans to breath clean air because it gives
off oxygen
3. From the word itself, it provides us shady place
especially in extreme weathers: the wood insulates
us from cold and the shady trees comfort and protect
us from the harmful UV rays of the sun in warmer
days.
4. It beautifies our surroundings and neighborhood.
5. It provides humans livelihood and helps boost a
country's economy. Excess trees that were lumbered
(wood as the raw material) are being utilized in
business for man's consumption. Some of it are used
for building houses, making furniture and fixtures,
etc., for our school supplies, like pencils and for those
in the rural areas, the sturdy wood from quality trees
are used for constructing bridges and for the poor, it
is used as firewood. The rubber which can be taken
out from the sap of a rubber tree are also being
traded, for our consumption.
6. It prevents erosion, mud or landslides, global
warming, thus protecting our place and people from
destruction as a result of calamities and other
fortuitous events.
7. It serves homes for and protects small animals,
vegetable plants, shrubs and vines, and other
smaller plants from wildlife damages.
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8. It also gives
diseases.

us

medicinal

cures

from

certain

9. It helps us enjoy our recreation and picnic under the


sun.

Acknowledgements
We would like to express our special
thanks of gratitude to our teacher, Dr.
Ruma Chatterjee as well as our principal
Mrs. Madhumita Singh who gave us the
golden opportunity to do this wonderful
project on the topic , which also helped us
in doing a lot of Research and we came to
know about so many new things we are
really thankful to them.

Secondly we would also like to thank our


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parents and friends who helped us a lot in


finalizing this project within the limited
time frame.