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Architecture -

Is both the process and

the product of planning, designing, and
constructing buildings and other physical
structures. Architecture has to do with
planning and designing form and the
architect should strive to fulfill each of
these three attributes as well as possible.

Architecture of the
- reflection of the history and heritage
of the country. The most prominent
historic constructions in the archipelago
are based on a mix of indigenous
Austronesian, American, and Spanish
influences. An example of this is the
pre-colonial walled city of Manila
although later after the Spanish
colonization, dismantled by the
Spaniards and rebuilt as Intramuros.
- The pre-colonial architecture of the
Philippines consisted of the Nipa hut.
- Spanish colonialization. During this
period, Intramuros, the walled city of
Manila, was built with its walls, houses,
churches and fortress. The Augustinian
friars, along with other religious orders,
built a large number of grand churches
and cathedrals all over the Philippine
- After the Philippines was ceded to the
United States of America as a
consequence of the SpanishAmerican
War in 1898, the architecture of the
Philippines was dominated by American
aesthetics. During this period the
traditional Filipino Bahay na bat
(Filipino for "stone house") style for the
large houses emerged. These were
large houses built of stone and wood
combining Filipino, Spanish and Chinese
style elements.

- In this period, the plan for the modern

City of Manila was designed, with a
large number of neoclassical
architecture and art deco buildings by
famous American and Filipino
architects. During the Liberation of
Manila by the combined American and
Filipino troops in 1945, large portions of
Intramuros and Manila were destroyed.
In the reconstruction period after the
Second World War, many of the
destroyed buildings were rebuilt.
- In the late 20th century, modern
architecture with straight lines and
functional aspects was introduced.
Structures done in the Marcos period.

Different Types of Architect

Residential Architect
- Focus on constructing beautiful
private dwellings for homeowners,
- lot of the houses we see in
neighborhoods around the world are
designed identically
- working with private clients to help
them to design the home of their

Commercial or Public Architect

- Specialize in larger ventures for
businesses or government entities,
erecting public buildings such as shopping
malls, libraries, government facilities, and
- Examples are impressive train stations,
airports, and other public facilities you
walked through.
- Elegant public buildings help to not only
beautify facilities, A well-designed
shopping mall makes it easier for buyers to
find what they are searching for
- Public building architecture also helps to

define society. Throughout history, different

types of architecture have come to
symbolize different ideas.

Industrial Architect
- Industrial projects like hydroelectric
dams, bridges, and other technical
projects. These projects encompass
advanced knowledge of science and
- Civil engineering as a major instead
- These projects encompass advanced
knowledge of science and engineering,
Without that knowledge, you cannot create
structures which are safe.

Landscape Architect
- This type of architecture focuses on
outdoor areas. If you go into this
specialized field, you might design
parklands, gardens, and lawns surrounding
college campus buildings and other public
- Might even be involved with the
development of golf courses or similar
recreational spots.
- Will be doing a lot of work directly with
trees, plants, and other living materials.

Interior Design
- not actually a type of architecture, but
closely connected to architecture. Some
building designers are also interior

Green Design
- Green architecture is building structures
friendly to the environment. Green
buildings are built with solar panels,
underground rooms and other innovative
features that reduce energy costs and
allow for sustainable living.
- More organic design which is consistent

with the natural environment.

- It is a big deal as more people are
becoming aware of the consequences of
the industrial lifestyles.
- A lot of residential clients are looking to
implement green features into their
- Corporations that want to present an ecofriendly image.

-Architectural drafters work with architects
and engineers to create the drawings used
in a building design and plan. Drafters
usually work under the supervision of an
architect and use tools such as computeraided design and drafting software to
create the drawings.

The purpose of
The purpose of Architecture is to
improve human life. Create timeless, free,
joyous spaces for all activities in life. The
infinite variety of these spaces can be as
varied as life itself and they must be as
sensible as nature in deriving from a main
idea and flowering into a beautiful entity.
The overriding essence is found in the
intangibles, lifeheartsoulspiritfreedom
enduring within the structure. The basic
needs of the human being and the subtle
variations of the individual are the source
for Real Architecture as well as, of course,
the natural environment and the natural
use of materials. Thus creating newchanging- to infinity yet timeless
The original conceit of architecture
was to lessen the risk that nature brought
upon humanity, protecting us against the
cold, the heat, storms and predators alike.

Over time, architecture became a means of

facilitation, representation and
communication of cultural identity rather
than simply protective devices for humans.
More recently, architecture has turned into
means of making money, entering into the
realm of speculation where architecture
became about investment and the
prospect of making money off the design there we have risk, but in an entirely
different meaning of the word. Now,
investing into the wrong design at the
wrong time can turn into a risk for the
future. Over-designed buildings became
part of a financial strategy that masked
any relationship in architectures original
intent, the creation of space that serves
humanity. In one of my favorite books of
2009, Life Inc., Douglas Rushkoff writes of
how humanity has come to resemble a
huge corporation and, alongside it,
architecture has become a soul-less,
resale-value driven venture - a profession
where the generic taste of the potential
buyer became the driving force behind
design intent. Considerations such as
personal taste, lifestyle-suitability, and the
needs of the client are no longer the
primary considerations they once were.
The recession - itself partly a result of the
use and abuse of architecture, risking for
the sake of profit - has taught us the lesson
that architecture should not be reduced to
speculative financial constrictions but must
act as a private, personal, and individual
reflection on ones spatial and lifestyle
needs. We must make sure there is a
recalibration of values once we are out of
the downturn again.
- reflections of culture, we see each
building reflecting the story of the time,
and how that iteration of culture wished to
project itself to the future. Architecture
also persists through our infrastructure

from bridges to public spaces and even the

very layout of our cities themselves. In this
sense, one could consider architects as
being the arbiters of our future history.
What is the fundamental purpose of
architecture? [Martha Thorne] Thats a very
simple yet complicated question.
Architecture exists to create the physical
environment in which people live.
Obviously thats a very simple answer, but
if we deep digger we see the complexities.
What is the built environment? what
constitutes quality of life? how do
architects determine whether something is
positive, helpful or relevant for individuals
and collectives? [Richard Rogers] It serves
society and improves quality of life. Its a
physical manifestation of the societys
wishes to be civilised! public domain
being the obvious place which
encapsulates this as buildings, alongside
being art and science, are part of the
public domain. [Prof. Mohsen Mostafavi]
Architecture should fulfil multiple criteria.
One of its purposes is to itself. A lot of
people believe to some degree, in the
autonomy of architecture as a discipline
which means that part of the purpose of
architecture is to construct new forms of
knowledge that relate to the enhancement
and advancement of the discipline itself. In
a way, this is inseparable from the
performance or performativity of
architecture in terms of its responsibilities
to engage with the society at large. There
is, in a sense, a purposive dimension to
architecture which really provides the
symbolic ideas of habitation and- broadlyserving the humankind. Its both this
version of architecture that removes
purpose, and one that really engages it
fully in a purposive dimension. I think the
simultaneity of these two conditions thats

History of Philippine
Understanding the roots of Philippine
architecture is an interesting adventure as
you revisit your heritage and discover how
the lives of Filipinos from different periods
of our history were reflected through
structures of houses, churches, mosques,
temples, government buildings, cultural
centers and many others. Just by reviewing
our history as a nation, the Philippines is a
melting pot of various cultures not just
from its Western colonizers but even from
its neighbors in Asia even before the
Spaniards came. Our countrys history
produced a conglomeration of architectural
design which still exists at present. Let us
trace our nations architectural history and
characteristics through its five periods.

Pre-Hispanic Era
The earliest records of precolonial
architecture in the Philippines are rock
shelters and caves in Palawan. Early
Filipinos are nomadic since they are
constantly in search for food through
hunting or fishing so they mainly rely on
nature when creating shelter and do not
need to build permanent structures. With
the development of tools, tentlike shelters
and tree houses were also created to serve
as their abode. As farming became a stable
source of food, the locals were accustomed
to creating permanent structures to serve
as their home. The houses of the natives
before the Spanish colonization were
predominantly rectangular in shape and
built on stilts so it may be lifted and be
transported to a new site. Several factors
also affect the type of materials and
configuration of houses such as the
difference of climate and topography of

numerous Filipino groups in different parts

of the country. For instance, there are
variations when it comes to preHispanic
houses of those from Ifugao, the bahay
kubo (nipa hut) from the lowlands and the
Maranaos very intricate torogan house.
Beautifully designed mosques were also
widespread in the Mindanao region as early
as 14th and 15th century due to the
emergence of the Islamic religion even
before the arrival of the conquistadores.

Spanish Colonial Era

The arrival of Spanish conquerors
introduced the Antillean style of
architecture. This type of architecture is
European (but originated from Central
America and not Spain) which was tweaked
to suit the tropical climate of The Filipino
bayanihan spirit is best exemplified in this
painting by Carlos Botong Francisco
where neighbors would help one another to
carry a nipa hut and move to another
place. Source: the
Philippines and thereafter, had its own
Filipino and unique character. Aside from
houses, Mother Spain also bestowed its
influence on the architecture of churches,
the symbolism of its major endowment in
the Philippines, Catholicism. The most
glorious colonial churches are still standing
firm and most of them are found in the
Visayan islands of Panay, Cebu and Bohol,
Ilocos Regions, Southern Luzon particularly
in Laguna and Batangas. According to
architectural experts, most of the colonial
churches are Spanish or Mexican baroque
based on the evident elements. It is also
notable that the construction of these
churches was mainly influenced by the
environmental conditions of the country
which would constantly experience natural
disasters (typhoon and earthquake) and
human destruction as well (fire and

attacks) during that time. Antillean style of

houses influenced by the Spanish
colonizers in the Philippines. Source: One thing
that we must appreciate from these
churches is how they were crafted with
Asian Moorish style and elements. It is not
wellknown that during the Spanish period,
Chinese and Muslim elements in
architectural style became part of the
Catholic Church structures. This is due to
the fact that mostly Filipinos are
inexperienced with the construction of
stone buildings. Master builders and
artisans who participated in the creation of
the churches were Chinese and Muslims
from the South. Chinese influence are
shown through red airdried bricks which
were produced from a mixture of coral lime
and/or loam and sugar cane juice and lion
figures made of granite apparent in front of
San Agustin Church. On the other hand,
Moorish and Islamic style is apparent in
deeply incised relief carvings of church
facades and its interior. We learned from
Philippine History that there was obligatory
construction work imposed on natives in
nonMuslim areas during that period but
most of them involved cutting, transporting
and processing the materials to build the
churches. The Miagao Church is a Roman
catholic church located in Miagao, Iloilo,
Philippines. The churchs overall
architectural style falls under the Baroque
Romanesque architectural style. Its ochre
color is due to the materials used in
constructing the church, adobe, egg, coral
and limestone. Source:

American and Japanese Era

The 1896 Philippine Revolution
paved the way to the countrys
independence from Spain. However, it

became a shortlived liberty when the

Americans became the countrys new
invaders. There was a drastic change on
the Moorish carvings are very evident on
this marvelous San Agustin Church door in
Intramuros. Source: Photo by Min Yang
from architectural design which
was introduced by the Americans as they
establish the civil government. A lot of
structures were built to serve as
government buildings from cities to
municipalities. The design and style of the
establishments were akin to Greek or
Roman constructions. Famous American
architects such as William Parsons and
Edgar Bourne started the protomodernist
way of designing constructions and they
were commonly unadorned facades
together with large windows. Another
prestigious master designer during that
time was American architect and urban
planner Daniel Burnham. He was the one
responsible for creating the master plans
for Manila and Baguio. His contributions to
the local architecture together with Parsons
were the Kahn system of concrete
reinforcements and the introduction of
hollow blocks, the use of antitermite
hardwood and the mass fabrication of
building types. American architecture
influence in the Philippines can be
classified in two types the socalled first
generation Filipino architects who studied
architecture and engineering in the United
States who were sponsored by the colonial
masters and the Second generation
architects who emerged in the late 1920s
and 1930s.
The first generation exemplifies
combined Beaux Arts elements with a
touch of modernism promoting the ideas of
utility in architecture. The second
generation on the other hand introduced
the Art Deco portraying exotic

embellishments. El Hogar Filipino is a

beauxarts building, designed by architect
Senior Ramon and buikt by the Pasig River
on Muelle dela Industria street in Binondo.
Source: The
Japanese invasion during World War II
lasted only for three years and did not
bring any significant architectural change
in the Philippines.
The Late Twentieth Century During
this period in Philippine history starting in
the 60s architects started to merge
modernist style with the use of traditional
and local materials. And in the 70s Former
first Lady Imelda Marcos popularized a
national architectural style through the
regimes ostentatious building projects
using indigenous materials and icons. The
defunct Manila Metropolitan Theater
designed by Filipino architect Juan M. de
Guzman Arellano. Source:

Pre-Spanish Era
Banaue Rice Terraces
The Banaue Rice Terraces are 2,000year-old terraces that were carved into the
mountains of Ifugao in the Philippines by
ancestors of the indigenous people. The
Rice Terraces are commonly referred to by
Filipinos as the "Eighth Wonder of the
World". It is commonly thought that the
terraces were built with minimal
equipment, largely by hand. The terraces
are located approximately 1,500 metres
(5,000 ft) above sea level. They are fed by
an ancient irrigation system from the
rainforests above the terraces. It is said
that if the steps were put end to end, it
would encircle half the globe.

The Banaue Rice Terraces refer to

the cluster close to the Banaue poblacion
as seen from the viewpoint. Contrary to
popular belief perpetrated by its inclusion
on the twenty peso banknote, the Banaue
Rice Terraces are not a UNESCO World
Heritage Site. They were not included in
the UNESCO inscription Rice Terraces of the
Philippine Cordilleras due to the presence
of numerous modern structures, making it
score low in the integrity criterion of
UNESCO. The Banaue Rice Terraces are
however declared by the Philippine
government as a National Cultural Treasure
under Ifugao Rice Terraces by virtue of
Presidential Decree No. 260 in 1973.
The five clusters inscribed as part of
the Rice Terraces of the Philippine
Cordilleras are Batad, Bangaan, Hungduan,
Mayoyao Central and Nagacadan Batad
and Bangaan are under the jurisdiction of
the Municipality of Banaue but are not
referred to as the Banaue Rice Terraces.
The kota
With the arrival of Muslim scholars
from nearby Indonesia, the native Filipinos
were introduced to the concept of the Kota
or fort. The Muslim Filipinos of the south
strong fortresses called kota or moong to
protect their communities. These kotas
were usually made of stone and bamboo or
other light materials and surrounded by
trench networks. As a result, some of these
kotas were burned easily or destroyed.

Notable Kotas

Kota Selurong: an outpost of

the Bruneian Empire in Luzon, later
became the City of Manila. area by
the lower reaches and mouth of

the Pasig River before the arrival

of Spanish colonizers in the 16th
century. It was a vassal polity of
the Bruneian Empire.
During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah (1485
1521) the Sultanate of Brunei decided to
break Tondo's monopoly in the Chinese
trade by attacking Tondo and establishing
the polity of Seludong (Maynila) as a
Bruneian satellite. This is narrated
through Tausug and Malay royal histories.

Kuta Wato/Kota Bato: Literally

translates to "stone fort" the first
known stone fortification in the
country, its ruins exist as the
"Kutawato Cave Complex" The name
Cotabato was derived from
the Maguindanao word kuta
wato and the Malay Bruneian word
of Kota Batu, or City of
Stone; kota mean city or fortress,
and batu mean rock or stone.
Cotabato City had witnessed more history
than any other place in Mindanao. Its
history dates back to the 15th century
when Shariff Kabunsuan, a Johore-born
missionary of Malay and Arab descent,
landed along the banks of the Rio Grande
de Mindanao and introduced Islam to the
natives. Islam was the faith that moved the
early settlers to communal life, and to
establish theSultanate of
Maguindanao with its golden age ushered
in by Sultan Dipatuan Qudarat during the
17th century the time when Cotabato City
developed as the capital town of

Kota Sug/Jolo: The capital and seat

of the Sultanate of Sulu. When it was
occupied by the Spaniards in the
1870s they converted the kota into
the world's smallest walled city. In

the 14th century, Arab traders

landed on the island to introduce
and convert its inhabitants to Islam.
The native inhabitants on the island
are the Tausg people. The Tausugs
are part of the larger Moro
group which dominates the Sulu
Archipelago. The Moro had an
independent state known as
the Sultanate of Sulu, which was
politically and economically centered
on Jolo, the residence for Sulu
Sultanates. The Seat of the Royal
Sultanate of Sulu was in Astana
Putih, which is Tausug for White
Palace in Umbul Duwa in the
municipality of Indanan on Jolo

Idjang in Savidug (Batanes castles)

The Ivatan people of the northern
islands of Batanes often built fortifications
to protect themselves during times of war.
They built their so-called idjangs on hills
and elevated areas.[5] These fortifications
were likened to European castles because
of their purpose. Usually, the only entrance
to the castles would be via a rope ladder
that would only be lowered for the villagers
and could be kept away when invaders

Bahay Kubo
The Bahay Kubo (literally "cube
house") is the Filipino word for Nipa huts,
they were the native houses of the
indigenous people of the Philippines before
the Spaniards arrived. similar to those
found in neighboring countries such
as Indonesia, Malaysia, and other countries
of Southeast Asia.

Spanish Era
Spanishcolonization introduced Euro
pean architecture into the country. The
influence of European architecture and its

style actually came via the Antilles through

the Manila Galleon. One of Spain's most
lasting legacy in terms of architecture was
its colonial parish churches designed by
innumerable Spanish friars. Many
structures were made from local materials
such as volcanic rock and coral.

Bahay na bato
Typical house of noble Filipinos. It is
a mixture of native Filipino, Spanish and
Chinese influences. During the 19th
century, wealthy Filipinos built some fine
houses, usually with solid stone
foundations or brick lower walls, and
overhanging, wooden upper story with
balustrades and capiz shellsliding windows,
and a tiled roof. Excellent preserved
examples of these houses of the illustrious
Filipinos can be admired in Vigan, Ilocos

Quema House
The Quema House is the ancestral
home of the Quema family Chinese trader
Don Enrique Quema built his ancestral
house in the Philippines. Built in the 1820s,
it is a historic landmark in
the town of Vigan, Ilocos Sur in the
Philippines. The town itself was declared
a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999.
- roof has a steep pitch suggestive of
traditional Chinese architecture
- ground floor was used as storage and as
a garage for horse-drawn carriages
- living quarters were housed in the upper
- exterior walls of the upper storey are
enclosed by wood-framed, sliding window
panels of kapis
- wide plank hardwood floors

In 2009, the Filipino American

Association of Pittsburgh (FAAP) chose the
Quema House as the model for the design
of a Philippine Nationality Room (PNR) at
the Cathedral of Learning in the University
of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania, USA). The
house was adjudged as most
representative of 18th-century architecture
unique to the Philippines, a requirement for
a Nationality Room.[4] As of 2011, there are
27 Nationality Rooms in the Cathedral of
Learning, all representing 18th-century
architecture of different countries.[5] The
Philippine Nationality Room will function as
a regular classroom for Humanities classes.
Target date of construction is set for the
summer of 2012.

Padre Burgos House

The house was built in 1788 and
owned by his grandparents Don Juan
Gonzales and Doa Florentina Gascon. It is
a two-story structure located near the
Provincial Capitol and close to St. Pauls
Metropolitan Cathedral. It was renovated
by the Filipinas Foundation, Inc. and
inaugurated on May 3, 1975. In January
1989, a Contract of Lease was executed by
the Ilocos Sur Historical and Cultural
Foundation, Inc. leasing the memorabilia
for 50 years, and turning over the
administration to the National Museum.
- symmetrical and well-proportioned but
compared to those built in later years, it is
relatively small.
-The ground floor is made of red cal bricks
and of lime mortar while the upper-storey
of it is made of Philippine hardwood from
the mountains of Abra.
-The facade of the house is divided equally
by five pilasters.
-The original materials of the roof were
made of clay tiles. But today, it has been
replaced with corrugated galvanized iron

sheets except in the kitchen where the clay

roof is still well-preserved.
- Suffused lights enter the spacious room
through the capiz incorporated at the wood
frame panels.
During the American period, the ground
floor of the house was used as the Post
Office of Vigan. From 1946 to 1965 the
house served as the office of the Philippine
National Bank. At present, the house is
known as the Burgos Museum where
the Ilocano history and Tingguian cultural
artifacts are featured.

When Juan de Salcedo founded
Vigan in 1572, he decided to pattern its
urban plan with that of Intramuros, the
walled city inManila.
The urban planners of the Spanish
government also followed a basic pattern
that can be observed in most old towns in
the country, whose establishment dates
back to the Spanish colonial period. This
pattern is detailed in the Ley de las
Indias, the Law of the Indies, and was put
into force in the 18th century. Under the
Law of the Indies streets were to follow a
grid pattern, the center of which being
a plaza or central park. In Vigan, the
central park is the Plaza Salcedo.
It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in
that it is one of the few Hispanic towns left
in the Philippines where its structures have
remained intact, and is well known for
its cobblestone streets and a unique
architecture that fuses Philippine and
Oriental building designs and construction,
with colonial European architecture. In
1999, Vigan was listed by UNESCO as the
best preserved example of Spanish colonial
towns in Asia. Its architecture is the
conglomeration of cultural elements from

the Philippines, China, and Spain, making it

unique in the world. The city is unique in
the Philippines because it is one of many
extensive surviving Philippine historic
cities, dating back to the 16th century.In
May 2015, Vigan City was officially
recognized as one of the New7Wonders

Founded by

June 12, 1571

Miguel Lpez de Legazpi

Intramuros Construction of
the defensive walls was started by Spanish
colonial government in the late 16th
century to protect the city from foreign
invasions. The 0.67-square-kilometre
(0.26 sq mi) walled city was originally
located along the shores of the Manila Bay,
south of the entrance to Pasig River.
The outline of the defensive wall of
Intramuros is irregular in shape, following
the contours of Manila Bay and the
curvature of the Pasig River. The walls
covered an area of 64 hectares (160 acres)
of land, surrounded by 8 feet (2.4 m) thick
stones and high walls that rise to 22 feet
(6.7 m). An inner moat (foso) surrounds
the perimeter of the wall and an outer
moat(contrafoso) surrounds the walls that
face the city.
Several bulwarks (baluarte), ravelins
(ravellin) and redoubts (reductos) are also
strategically located along its massive
walls following the design of medieval
fortifications. The
seven bastions (clockwise, from Fort
Santiago) are the Bastions of Tenerias,
Aduana, San Gabriel, San Lorenzo, San
Andres, San Diego, and Plano. The bastions
were constructed at different periods of

time, the reason for the differences in

style. As mentioned above, the oldest
bastion is the San Diego Bastion.
The historic city was home to
centuries-old churches, schools, convents,
government buildings and residences, the
best collection of Spanish colonial
architecture before much of it was
destroyed by the bombs of World War II. Of
all the buildings within the 67-acre city,
only one building, the San Agustin Church,
survived the war.
In 1574, a fleet of Chinese pirates
led by Limahong attacked the city and
destroyed it before the Spaniards drove
them away. The colony had to be rebuilt
again by the survivors. These attacks
prompted the construction of the wall. The
city of stone began during the rule
of Governor-General Santiago de Vera.
Construction of the walls began on 1590
and continued under many governorgenerals until 1872. The city was planned
and executed by Jesuit Priest, Antonio
Sedeno. Leonardo Iturriano, a Spanish
military engineer specializing in
fortifications, headed the project. Chinese
and Filipino workers built the walls.
Since the construction was carried on
during different periods and often far apart,
the walls were not built according to any
uniform plan.
Before the American Era, entrance
to the city was through eight
gates or Puertas namely (clockwise, from
Fort Santiago)Puerta Almacenes, Puerta de
la Aduana, Puerta de Santo
Domingo, Puerta Isabel II, Puerta del
Parian, Puerta Real, Puerta Sta. Lucia,
and Puerta del Postigo.
Formerly, drawbridges were raised and the
city was closed and under sentinels from

11:00 pm till 4:00 am. It continued so until

1852, when, in consequence of the
earthquake of that year, it was decreed
that the gates should thenceforth remain
open night and day. Intramuros was heavily
damaged during the battle to recapture the
city from the Japanese Imperial
Army during the Second World War.
Reconstruction of the walls was started in
1951 when Intramuros was declared a
National Historical Monument, which is
continued to this day by the Intramuros
Administration (IA).
The main square of the city of Manila
was Plaza Mayor (later known as Plaza
McKinley then Plaza de Roma) in front of
the Manila Cathedral. East of the plaza was
the Ayuntamiento (City Hall) and facing it
was the Palacio del Gobernador, the official
residence of the Spanish viceroyalties to
the Philippines. An earthquake on June 3,
1863 destroyed the three buildings and
much of the city.
The Global Heritage Fund identified
Intramuros as one of the 12 worldwide
sites "on the verge" of irreparable loss and
destruction on its 2010 report titled Saving
Our Vanishing Heritage, citing its
insufficient management and development

Fort Santiago

fort Prez
Dasmarias (1590)
Italian-Spanish school of
Fernndo Valds y
Tamon (1730s)
Leonardo Iturriano

The location of Fort Santiago was

also once the site of

thepalace and kingdom of Rajah Suliman,

king of Maynila of pre-Spanish era. [11] It was
destroyed by the conquistadors upon
arriving in 1570, encountering several
bloody battles with the Muslims and native
Tagalogs. The Spaniards destroyed the
native settlements and erected Fuerza de
Santiago in 1571.

named the battery of Santa Barbara, the

patron saint of all good artillerymen. These
arches formed casemateswhich afforded a
lower tier of fire
through embrasures. Curtain walls of
simplest character, without counter forts or
interior buttresses, extended the flanks to
a fourth front facing the city.

Location of Fort Santiago was once

the site of a palisaded fort, armed with
bronze guns, of Rajah Matanda,
a Muslimrajah of pre-Hispanic Manila who
himself was a vassal to the Sultan of
Brunei. The fort was destroyed by maestre
de campo (master-of-camp) Martin de
Goiti who, upon arriving in 1570 from
Cebu, fought several battles with the
Muslim natives. The Spaniards started
building Fort Santiago (Fuerte de Santiago)
after the establishment of the city of
Manila under Spanish rule on
June 24, 1571, and made Manila the capital
of the newly colonized islands.[4]

In 1714, the ornate gate of Fort

Santiago was erected together with some
military barracks. The Luzon earthquakes
of 1880, which destroyed much of the city
of Manila, destroyed the front edifice of the
fort changing its character.

The fort is one of the most important

historical sites in Manila. Several lives were
lost in its prisons during the Spanish
Colonial Period and World War II. Jos Rizal,
the Philippine national hero, was
imprisoned here before his execution in
1896. The Rizal Shrine museum displays
memorabilia of the hero in their collection
and the fort features, embedded onto the
ground in bronze, his footsteps
representing his final walk from his cell to
the location of the actual execution.
The stones used were
volcanic tuff quarried from Guadalupe (now
Guadalupe Viejo inMakati).[6] The fort as
Dasmarias left it consisted of a
castellated structure without towers,
trapezoidal in trace, its straight gray front
projecting into the river mouth. Arches
supported an open gun platform above,

In Fort Santiago, there are bastions

on each corner of the triangular fort. The
Santa Barbara Bastion (Baluarte de Santa
Brbara) faces the bay and Pasig
River;Baluarte de San Miguel, faces the
bay; Medio Baluarte de San Francisco,
Pasig River
During the leadership of Fernndo
Valds y Tamon in the 1730s, a large
semicircular gun platform to the front
called media naranja (half orange) and
another of lesser dimensions to the river
flank were added to the Bastion of Santa
Barbara. Thecasemates were then filled in
and embrasures closed. He also changed
the curtain wall facing cityward to
a bastioned front. A lower parapet,
bordering the interior moat, connects the
two bastions.[7]
In early 1988, Fort Santiago was
turned inside out, with government
permission, by US goldseekers who, by
excavating, hoped to uncover the
legendary war treasure. Unfortunately, the
excavations drew a blank in every case.
Baston de San Lorenzo

Paco park

April 22, 1822


Don Nicolas Ruiz

Paco Park was planned as

a municipal cemetery for the well-off and
established aristocratic Spanish families
who resided in the old Manila,
or Intramuros. The cemetery is circular in
shape, with an inner circular fort that was
the original cemetery with niches on the
hollow walls. As the population continued
to grow, a similar second outer wall was
built with the thick adobe hollow walls with
niches, the top of the walls made into a
walkway circumnavigating the park. A
Roman Catholic chapel was built inside the
inner walls, dedicated to St. Pancratius.
The landscape design was done
by Ildefonso Santos from 1967 to
ure_of_the_Philippines - cite_note-12
The church is of Romanesque
architecture coordinated with its
surroundings of what used to be the Paco
Cemetery. The wholeness of the place with
the park, the olden day cemetery and the
Paco Church is reminiscent of the rich yet
dark past of the country under colonial
regimes. That is why the church is not only
a favorite place for intimate weddings but
as well for every sightseers who are
looking for a place of solace in the midst of
the city. Paco Park Cemetery is one of the
edifices built during the Spanish regime
who's construction began in the late 1700s
and was completed in 1820.
Paco Park is a
4,114.80 m2 (44,291.3 sq ft) recreational
garden and was once Manilas municipal
cemetery built by the Dominicans during
the Spanish colonial period.[1] It is located

on General Luna Street and at the east end

of Padre Faura Street in Paco, Manila,
Burial site of Filipino priests Jose
Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto
Zamora, who were executed by the
Spanish authorities in 1872 for their
alleged role in the 1872 Cavite mutiny.
According to an on-site inscription,
an order for the construction of a cemetery
in Bagumbayan was issued in 1807, due to
the outbreak of a cholera epidemic in
Manila. Maestro de Obras Don Nicolas Ruiz
developed a plan for the Paco Cemetery,
while Don Jose Coll served as supervisor of
the construction work. The cemetery was
primarily designed as a municipal
cemetery for the affluent and established
aristocratic Spanish families who resided in
the old Manila, or the city within the walls
of Intramuros during the Spanish colonial
era. It was on April 22, 1822 when the
cemetery was officially inaugurated,
although it had been in use for two years
prior to its completion.
In 1859, Governor Fernndo
Norzagaray y Escudero proposed the
extension of the cemetery to
approximately 4,500 square yards,
enclosing the original plan with another
circular outer wall. For the amount of Php
19,700, a Chinese builder won the bid to
build the outer portion of the cemetery. At
that time, the niches cost Php 20 for three
years, which was subject to renewals as no
one was granted privilege to own the
niches in perpetuity.
Interment at the Paco Cemetery
ceased in 1912. It had been the burial
ground for several generations and
descendants of those buried in the park
had the remains of their ancestors

exhumed and transferred to other

cemeteries in Manila.The park was
converted into a National Park in 1966
during the term of President Diosdado
Macapagal. Paco Park and its care was
placed under the responsibility of the
National Parks Development Committee
(NPDC) during the regime of
President Ferdinand E. Marcos.

San Agustin Intramuros

San Agustn Church and Monastery,
built between 1587 and 1606, is one of the
oldest churches in the Philippines, and the
only building left intact after the
destruction of Intramuros during the Battle
of Manila (1945). The present structure is
actually the third to stand on the site and
has survived seven major earthquakes, as
well as the wars in Manila. The church
remains under the care of
the Augustinians who founded it.
San Agustn Church lies within the
walled city of Intramuros located in the
capital city Manila, Philippines. It is the
first European stone church to be built in
thePhilippines designed
in Spanish architectural structure. The
church also houses the legacies of the
Spanish conquistadors, Miguel Lpez de
Legazpi, Juan de Salcedo and Martn de
Goiti who are buried and laid to rest in a
tomb, underneath the church.
The church has 14 side chapels and
a trompe-l'oeil ceiling. Up in the choir loft
are the hand-carved 17th-century seats of
molave, a beautiful tropical hardwood.
Adjacent to the church is a small museum
run by the Augustinian order, featuring
antique vestments, colonial furniture, and
religious paintings and icons.

It was named a National Historical

Landmark by the Philippine government in
1976. Together with three other ancient
churches in the country, it was designated
as part of the World Heritage Site "Baroque
Churches of the Philippines" in 1993.
The San Agustin Church is patterned
after some of the magnificent temples built
by the Augustinians in Mexico, its present
edifice was built in 1587, and completed,
together with the monastery, in 1604.The
atmosphere is medieval since "both church
and monastery symbolize the majesty and
equilibrium of a Spanish golden era."
The massive structure of the church,
the symmetry and splendor of the interiors
(painted by two Italians who succeeded in
producing trompe l'oeil), the profile of the
mouldings, rosettes and sunken panels
which appear as three-dimensional
carvings, a baroque pulpit with the native
pineapple as a motif, the grand pipe organ,
the antechoir with a 16th-century crucifix,
the choir seats carved in molave with ivory
inlays of the 17th century and the set of 16
huge and beautiful chandeliers from Paris.

San Agustin Church

In Paoay, Ilocos Norte, it is the most
famous of these churches. This unique
specimen of Filipino architecture from the
Spanish area has been included in the
World Heritage Sites List of the UNESCO.
The church was built by the Augustinian
friars from 1694 until 1710. It shows the
earthquake proof baroque style
The bell tower served as an
observation post in 1896 for the
Katipuneros during the Philippine
revolution against the Spaniards, and again
by the Filipino guerillas during the

Japanese occupation in World War II. Paoay

church is the Philippines' primary example
of a Spanish colonial earthquake
baroque architecture dubbed by Alicia
Coseteng, an interpretation of the
European Baroque adapted to the seismic
condition of the country through the use of
enormous buttresses on the sides and back
of the building.

bottom part is plain. Gothic features are

also present through the use
of finials while the triangular pediment
shows Chinese elements and Oriental
strokes. Crenellations, niches, rosettes and
the Augustinian coat of arms can also be
seen. Facade is made of brick on the lower
level and coral stones on the upper level.
Bell Tower[edit]

The adaptive reuse of baroque style

against earthquake is developed since
many destructive earthquakes destroyed
earlier churches in the
country. Javanesearchitecture reminiscent
of Borobudur of Java can also be seen on
the church walls and facade

Adjacent to the facade is a threestorey coral bell tower constructed

separately from the church building on the
right side resembling a pagoda. It was in
1793 when the cornerstone of the bell
tower was laid.[4] It stands at some distance
from the church as a protection against
earthquake.[7] It served as observational
post for Filipino revolutionaries against the
Spaniards in 1898 and by
Filipino guerrillas against Japanese soldiers
during World War II. By virtue of
Presidential Decree No. 260, Paoay Church
was declared as a National Cultural
Treasure by the Philippine government in
1973. The church was designated as
a UNESCO World Heritage Site

The most striking feature of Paoay

Church is the 24 huge buttresses of about
1.67 metres (5.5 ft) thick at the sides and
back of the church building. Extending
from the exterior walls, it was conceived to
a solution to possible destruction of the
building due to earthquakes. Its stair-like
buttresses (known as step buttresses) at
the sides of the church is possibly for easy
access of the roof.

Miagao Church
Its walls are made of
large coral stones on the lower part and
bricks at the upper levels. The mortar used
in the church
includes sand and lime with sugarcane juic
e boiled
with mango leaves, leather and rice straw.
Its walls suggests Javanese architectural
The stone facade appear as
massive pediment rising from the ground
and is built leaning towards the front.
Square pilasters and
stringed cornices divide the facade
vertically and horizontally respectively. Its

The Miagao Church also known as

the Sto. Tomas de Villanueva Parish
Church is a Roman catholic church located
in Miagao, Iloilo, Philippines. It was also
called the Miagao Fortress Church since it
served as defensive tower of the town
against Muslim raids. The church was
declared as a UNESCO World Heritage
Site on December 11, 1993 together with
San Agustin Church in Manila; Nuestra
Seora de la Asuncion Church in Santa
Maria, Ilocos Sur; and San Agustin
Church in Paoay, Ilocos Norte under the
collective title Baroque Churches of the
Philippines, a collection of four
Baroque Spanish-era churches.[1]

To preserve the church, it underwent

restoration in 1960 and completed in 1962.
It was declared a national shrine by
Presidential Decree No. 260 of former
President Ferdinand Marcos.
The church's over-all architectural
style falls under the Baroque Romanesque
architectural style. Its ochre color is due to
the materials used in constructing the
church, adobe, egg, coral and limestone.
The church's foundation is 6 meters deep
and the massive stone walls at 1.5 meters
thick are intensified through the use of 4
meter thick flying buttresses as protection
to the Moro invaders as stipulated under
Royal Decree 111 of 1573 (Law of the
The faade of Miagao church
consists of an ornately decorated bas-relief
in the middle of two huge watchtower
belfries on each side. The bas-relief is a
mixed influence of Medieval Spanish,
Chinese, Muslim and local traditions and
elements, a unique characteristic of the
church faade. A prominent part of the
faade is a coconut tree depicted as the
tree of life where St. Christopher holds on.
St. Christopher is dressed in local and
traditional clothing carrying the Child Jesus
on his back. The rest of the faade features
the daily life of the people of Miagao during
that time including native flora (like
papaya, coconut and palm tree) and fauna.
Above the wooden door entrance at
the center of the faade just below the
image of St. Christopher is a carved image
of the town's patron saint, St. Thomas of
Villanueva. At each side of the door is the
images of St. Henry of Bavaria on the left
and Pope Pius VI. Above the images of St.
Henry and Pope Pius VI is their respective

The two huge unequal

belltowers directly attached to the main
church serve as watchtowers to defend the
town against invasion of Moros. It has two
different designs since it was
commissioned by two different priests .On
the left side is the older belfry, the tallest
west belfry with four levels. Originally, the
east belfry was constructed only with two
levels. It was in 1830 when Father
Francisco Perez decided to add another
story to the east belfry. Until now, the east
belfry (three levels) is one level shorter
that the west belfry (four levels).
The interior's most prominent
structure is the gold plated retablo or
sanctuary. The present altar used is the
original altar from the late 1700s that was
believed to be lost during the fire of 1910
and discovered during repair excavations
in 1982. It contains three niches. On the
middle is the crucifix and on both sides are
the statues of its patron saint, St. Thomas
of Villanova and St. Joseph. The tabernacle
below the crucifix is finished in 98% pure
gold and silver. On both sides of the
sanctuary are images of the Sacred Heart
of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary
which dates back in 1780.

Cape Bojeador Lighthouse

Cape Bojeador Lighthouse, also
known as Burgos Lighthouse, is a cultural
heritage structure in Burgos, Ilocos Norte,
that was established during the Spanish
Colonial period in the Philippines. It was
first lit on March 30, 1892, and is set high
on Vigia de Nagpartian Hill overlooking the
scenic Cape Bojeador where
early galleons used to sail by. After over
100 years, it still functions as a welcoming
beacon to the international ships that enter

the Philippine Archipelago from the north

and guide them safely away from the rocky
coast of the town. The light marks the
northwestern-most point in Luzon. The
northeastern-most being Cape Engao
Lighthouse onPalaui Island, Santa
Ana, Cagayan.
The 66-foot-tall (20 m) octagonal
stone tower, the most prominent structure
in the vicinity, can be seen from as far
away as Pasuquin town in the south
and Bangui on the east on a clear day.
Contrary to popular belief, it is not the
highest-elevated nor tallest lighthouse in
the Philippines. But the highest elevated
still original and active Spanish era
lighthouse in the country. Corregidor
Lighthouse is higher at over 600 feet
(180 m), and among the Spanish Colonial
lighthouses, the tower of Cape Melville
Lighthouse is the tallest at 90 feet (27 m).
In Mindoro Strait, the recently erected
modern tower at the Apo Reef Light Station
rises to a height of 110 feet (34 m).
The Cape Bojeador lighthouse was
part of the Spanish government's master
plan of illuminating the Philippine
archipelago. The project commenced with
the execution of the lighthouses in the
northern and western part of the
Philippines and those around Iloilo and
Cebu. The Burgos lighthouse was first lit on
March 30, 1892.
The lighthouse was first designed by
Magin Pers y Pers in 1887 and was finished
by the Lighthouse Service under Guillermo
Brockman.[4] It is typical of the Spanish
Colonial lighthouses which is all masonry
made with bricks that are widely used and
produced in the area. The octagonal tower
is topped with a bronze cupola and the

viewing gallery is surrounded by decorative

iron grill works.
The intense earthquake of 1990 that
hit most of Luzon damaged the lenses and
displaced the mechanism alignment of the
original first-order apparatus making it
inoperable. Cape Bojeador Lighthouse was
declared a National Historical Landmark on
August 13, 2004 and a National Cultural
Treasure on June 20, 2005 by the Philippine

American Era Architectural Works

During 1902, Judge William Howard
Taft was appointed as the head of the
Philippine commission to evaluate the
needs of the new territory. In 1904, he then
appointed American architect Daniel
Burnham to be his planner for the city of
Manila. Burnham had in mind a long treelined boulevard along the bay beginning at
a place dominated by a magnificent hotel
which is now the Manila Hotel designed by
New York architect, William Parsons. During
Burnham's stay, only three buildings were
able to be built. Namely: the legislative
building, building of the finance, and the
agricultural department.
Many buildings were damaged
during the Battle of Manila in 1945 and
after the Second World War, a Filipino
architect in the name of Juan Arellano
designed new buildings. One of his
creations was the Metropolitan Theater
which was an example of an art deco and
was built in 1935. It was destroyed during
the liberation of Manila by the combined
American and Filipino troops in 1945 and
after it was reconstructed by the
Americans, it eventually fell into disuse in
the 1960s. A decade later, it was once
again restored but again fell into decay.
There are sculptures along the faade of
the theater and it was made by the Italian

sculptor Francesco Riccardo Monti. While

the faade was sculpted by Francesco, the
interior surface of the building which was
covered with highly stylized relief carvings
of Philippine plants were designed by
Isabelo Tampingco.
Another example of an art deco was
the Manila Jai Alai Building along Taft
Avenue and was designed by architect
Welton Becket. Aside from hosting jai alai,
it also boasts of the famous sky lounge. It
was however demolished under the
command of former city mayor Lito Atienza
in the year 2000. Other art deco structures
can be found in the Far Eastern University
(FEU) and it was designed by the National
Artist, Pablo Antinio. There are 5 structures
in total 3 were built before Worl War II and
the remaining 2 were built after. Although
the university suffered heavy damages
during the war, it was restored
immediately to its former art deco design.
The university was even given a UNESCO
Asia Pacific-Heritage Award for Cultural
Heritage in 2005 for the preservation of its
art deco structure.

Post-World War II Era

In 1946, the independent Philippines
expressed its identity by implementing
modernism through the utilization of
reinforced concrete, steel and glass, the
pre-dominance of cubic forms, geometric
shapes and Cartesian grids, and the
absence of applied decoration.
In 1947, a corps of architects and
engineers were tasked to study the modern
US and Latin American capitals and
formulate the master plan for Manila.
Federico Ilustre, consulting architect from
the 1950s to 1970s, worked on the
buildings at the Elliptical Road in Quezon

City. The centerpiece is the 66-meter high

Art Deco Quezon Memorial Monument,
composed of three pylons topped by
winged figures representing the three
island groups.
The 1950s and 1960s staple architectural
elements were the brise-soleil
(sunbreaker), glass walls, pierced screens
and thin concrete shells.
The post-war doctrine was Form follows
function, professed by the third
generation architects, namely, Cesar
Concio, Angel Nakpil, Alfredo Luz, Otillo
Arellano, Felipe Mendoza, Gabriel Formoso,
and Carlos Arguelles.
The 1950s also witnessed Space Age
aesthetics and Soft Modernism, which
experimented with the sculptural plasticity
of poured concrete to come up with soft
and sinuous organic forms with the use of
thin-shell technology.

The New Millennium

At present, the Philippines have
embraced the tripartite decision of
columnar architecture (Tower-on-thePodium) for skyscrapers. More micro-cities
such as Rockwell Center and Fort Bonifacio
Global City are developing.
The Filipino architects nowadays are
considered to be late modernists and
eventually neo-modernists or super
The Gramercy Residences was
planned and designed by California-based
architectural group Jerde Partnership
International, in collaboration with
Philippine architectural firm Roger Villarosa
Architects & Associates. Source:

Modern commercial buildings are

known for their unpredictability and
orchestrated chaos exuding the
architecture of deconstruction vibe just like
The Gramercy Residences.
The clamor to fight climate change
has generated green architecture to
minimize the negative results of modernity
and building high rise structures. The
current trend is to improve efficiency of
constructed buildings while moderating the
use of energy.
The Zuellig Building was designed by
international architectural firm Skidmore,
Owings and Merrill, in cooperation with
local architectural firm W.V. Coscolluela &
Associates. This high-rise commercial
building is considered to be the most ecofriendly building in the Philippines. It is
certified at Platinum Level under the LEED
program of the US Green Building Council
True enough, the evolution of
Philippine architecture is a source of pride
for Filipinos. Let us make sure that we
contribute in the preservation of our
cultural heritage through the structures of
the past which will make us appreciate our
identity as a nation.
Leandro Locsin (1928-1994) was in
some ways a quintessential Renaissance
man. A brilliant architect, interior designer,
artist and classically trained pianist, Locsin
was also a keen art collector, amassing a
sizable collection of fine Chinese art and
ceramics during his lifetime. It is for his
buildings, however, that he is remembered.
From airport terminals to memorial
chapels, arts centers to stock exchange
structures, Locsin left his mark on the
urban landscape of the Philippines.

Locsin was determined to

reconfigure western architectural mores for
a Filipino audience. His most substantial
contribution to Filipino architecture is the
Cultural Center of the Philippines, a
collection of five buildings that
demonstrate the architects drive to find a
vernacular form of modernist architecture.
The National Theatre building within the
complex is a good example of Locsins
trademark style. Known as floating
volume. it consists of a two-floor-high
block of travertine marble cantilevered 12
feet into the air. The theatre harks back to
traditional Filipino dwelling huts, but on a
monumentally modern scale.
Despite the wide range of buildings Locsin
created, all of them have one thing in
common: concrete. His ability to make this
most monolithic of materials appear
weightless, and to elegantly combine
Western brutalism with vernacular
elements, led Locsins peers to dub him the
poet of space.
Francisco Bobby Maosa has been
challenging architectural convention in his
native country for five decades. He
displayed an artistic temperament from an
early age and remained a keen painter
throughout his life. Along with his three
brothers, Maosa eventually chose to
pursue architecture, and before long
became the outspoken champion of
indigenous architecture, popularizing the
idea of Philippine architecture for Filipinos.
Maosas distinctive style, known as
Contemporary Tropical Filipino Architecture,
is a heady mixture of seemingly
incongruous elements. Coconut lumber,
rattan, shell, thatch and even indigenous
textiles are juxtaposed with hypermodern
materials: metal, glass, concrete. The
Coconut Palace at the Cultural Center of

the Philippines complex typifies Manosas

style. Its coconut gourd roof, coconut shell
chandelier and pineapple fiber bedcovers
are infused with technological innovation
for the modern era. In 2009 Maosa was
designated a National Artist in

Pioneers in
Architecture during the
Post-World War II
Federico Ilustre

Was a Filipino architect who worked

for the Bureau of Public Works (now
the Department of Public Works and
It was during his tenure as
consulting architect that some of the
country's prominent postwar
architectural structures were built.
He passed his licensure
examinations in 1937.
He started his career as a draftsman
for Juan Nakpil. He graduated from
Mapua Institute of Technology.
It was One of his work is the Quezon
Memorial Shrine in Quezon City. It is
made of Carrara marble and is 66
meters high, the age of President
Quezon when he died. The three
pylons represent Luzon, Visayas and
Mindanao, the three main
geographical divisions of the
country. On top are sculptures of
mourning angels holding sampaguita
the national flowerwreaths,
designed by the Italian sculptor
Francesco Riccardo Monti. The
structure isn't just a memorialit is
a mausoleum holding the remains of
President Quezon and his wife,
Aurora. The little door at the base

leads to a small museum containing

Quezon's presidential memorabilia.
Other Works:
o former GSIS Headquarters
Building, Manila, 1957
o Veterans Memorial Building,
Manila, 1957 (Demolished 2007)
o Independence Grandstand
(now Quirino Grandstand), Rizal
Park, Manila, 1949
o Manila International Airport,
Nichols Field, 1961 (demolished;
currently the site of the Ninoy
Aquino International Airport
Terminal 2)
o Department of
Agriculture Building, Quezon City
o National Housing Authority
Building, Quezon City
o Planetarium, Rizal Park, Manila

Cesar Homero Concio, Sr.

First University Architect of the

University of the Philippines.
When the University transferred to
Diliman from Padre Faura in the late
1940s, Cesar Concio was tasked to
continue what Louis Croft has
He is also one of the architects
selected by President Roxas in 1947
to study the trends in Architecture
and Engineering to design the
buildings of the Capital City,
especially in his position as the chief
architect of the UP Diliman Campus.
In 1964, he also won several awards
such as Gold Medal Merit which was
given by the Philippine Institute of
Architects and the Patnubay ng
Sining at Kalinangan Award by the
City of Manila.
While studying, he worked as a
draftsman for Andres Luna de San
Pedro and was

later promoted to apprentice

construction supervisor, draftsmandesigner, and
construction inspector. He was also
engaged at Mapua as laboratory and
assistant. As a Philippine
government pensionado, he pursued
further studies in
architecture, town planning, and
housing at the Massachusetts
Institute of
Technology where he received his
master of arts in 1940.
His works include UP Dilimans
Palma and Melchor Halls, Church of
the Risen Lord; several buildings for
Silliman University; the UP College of
Forestry Building in Los Baos; the
Insular Life Building in Makati; the
Childrens Memorial Hospital in
Quezon City; the Mother of Perpetual
Church in Baclaran; the Union
Church of Manila; and the Ramona
Apartments on
Adriatico Street, Manila.

church was build designed by the

renowned Filipino architect Jose de
Ocampo. This church is of a coupular
design centered on the image of the
Virgin. It functions as the center
point of the pilgrimages to Antipolo.

Angel E. Nakpil

Jose Lorenzo de Ocampo

Was a notable Filipino architect and

He is best known for his work on
the Antipolo Cathedral which was
completed in 1954 after the old
church was destroyed during World
War II.Antipolo Church
The image of "Our Lady of Peace and
Good Voyage" has been venerated in
the church of Antipolo for centuries.
The old church that housed the
virgin was destroyed in February
1945 when the Americans bombed
Antipolo as part of the liberation
campaign of Manila. In 1954 a new

Was a leading Filipino architect.

Nephew of architect and national
artist of the Philippines Juan Nakpil.
He graduated from the UST in 1931.
Harvard-trained architect.
He served as the City Planning
Commissioner of Manila during the
post-war reconstruction years, from
1947 - 1949. He was a charter
member of the United Architects of
the Philippines, which was founded
in 1975.
The National Press Club building was
inaugurated on December 30, 1955
with President Magsaysay as
sponsor, along with several cabinet
members and other government
officials and other donors. The NPC
building became a historic
monument to the ideals of press
freedom and unity among
colleagues in the country's
newspaper industry.

Felipe Mendoza

He was president of the Philippine

Institute of Architects in 1965, the
Technological Organizations of the
Philippines in 1965, and the
Federation of Professional
Associations in 1981. He has actively
participated in
the Architects Regional Council Asia,

a council of architectural
associations from
11 Asian countries.
His major works include the
Batasang Pambansa Buildings in
Quezon City; the
Development Academy of the
Philippines Building in Pasig, Rizal;
the Rizal
Commercial Banking Corporation
Building on Buendia, Makati, and 23
of its
branches throughout the country;
the Philippine Commercial and
Industrial Bank
Building (Antonino Building) on T.M.
Kalaw, Manila; the Far Eastern
Hospital on Nicanor Reyes, Manila;
the Library and the Science Center
of Xavier University in Cagayan de
Oro; the San Jose Seminary building
in the
Ateneo de Manila University campus
in Quezon City; the Assumption
Buildings in Antipolo, Rizal; and the
Mormon Temple in Green Meadows,
Quezon City.
Nature plays an important part in
Mendozas approach to design. He is
meticulous about orientation when
planning a building and makes the
possible use of natural light and
ventilation. Through large openings
and interior

gardens, he brings the outdoors

indoors. The use of wide eaves and
balconies to
protect openings gives his works a
distinctly tropical character.
In 1976 Mendoza received the
Patnubay ng Sining at Kalinangan
Award from the
City of Manila. In 1982 the UAP
conferred on him its highest honor,
the Likha
Award and Gold Medal of Merit. He
was the first recipient of the award.

Jose Maria Zaragosa

He graduated from the University of

Santo Tomas in Manila in 1936,
passing the licensure examinations
in 1938 to become the 82nd
architect of the Philippines.
His prolificacy in designing religious
edifices was reflected in his body of
work that was predominated by
about 45 churches and religious
centers, including the Santo
Domingo Church, Our Lady of Rosary
in Tala, Don Bosco Church, the
Convent of the Pink Sisters, the San
Beda Convent, Villa San Miguel, Pius
XII Center, the Union Church, and
the controversial restoration of the
Quiapo Church, among others.
His major Works are: Meralco
Building (Pasig City), Sto. Domingo
Church and Convent (Quezon City),
Metropolitan Cathedral of Cebu City,
Villa San Miguel in Mandaluyong.