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You are on page 1of 19

For students entering PreAP PRECALCULUS

Name: __________________________________________________________

1.

2.

3.

This packet is to be handed in to your Precalculus teacher on the first day of the school

year.

All work must be shown in the packet OR on separate paper attached to the packet.

Completion of this packet will be counted toward your first quarter grade.

Radicals:

To simplify means that 1) no radicand has a perfect square factor and

2) there is no radical in the denominator (rationalize).

ab = a ! b and the Quotient Property

Examples: Simplify

24 = 4 ! 6

=2 6

Simplify

7

=

2

7

2

a

b

simplify

split apart, then multiply both the numerator and the

denominator by

14

multiply straight across and simplify

2

4

If the denominator contains 2 terms

multiply the numerator and the denominator by the conjugate of the denominator

The conjugate of 3 + 2 is 3 ! 2 (the sign changes between the terms).

=

14

a

=

b

(2 x)8

!64

3.

11

9

6.

( 5 ! 6 )( 5 + 2 )

Rationalize.

1

7.

2

8.

1.

32

5.

2.

3

2! 5

4.

49m 2 n8

Complex Numbers:

Form of complex number - a + bi

Where a is the real is part and bi is the imaginary part

!1 = i and i 2 = !1

" 5 = "1 ! 5

Example:

= i 5

Pull out

List twice

Simplify

= i 2 25

= (!1)(5) = !5 Substitute

Make substitution

Example: 2i (3 + i ) = 2(3i ) + 2i (i )

= 6i + 2i 2

= 6i + 2(!1)

= ! 2 + 6i

Example: (i 5 ) 2 = i 5 ! i 5

!1

Distribute

Simplify

Make substitution

Simplify and rewrite in complex form

Simplify.

9.

!49

10. 6 !12

12. (3 ! 4i )

13. (6 ! 4i )(6 + 4i )

Rationalize.

1 + 6i

14.

5i

Geometry:

Pythagorean Theorem (right triangles): a 2 + b 2 = c 2

Find the value of x.

15.

16.

9

17.

x

x

12

x

8

12

18. A square has perimeter 12 cm. Find the length of the diagonal.

* In 30 ! 60 ! 90 triangles,

sides are in proportion 1, 3 ,2 .

*In 45 ! 45 ! 90 triangles,

sides are in proportion 1,1, 2 .

60

45

2

1

30

45

1

19.

20.

45

45

4

x

45

45

y

21.

22.

60

60

30

30

Equations of Lines:

Slope intercept form: y = mx + b

Standard Form: Ax + By = C

Slope: m =

y2 ! y1

x2 ! x1

Write the equation of the line in slope-intercept form with the following conditions:

26. slope = -5 and passes through the point (-3, -8)

Graphing:

Graph each function, inequality, and / or system.

!2 x + y = 4

30. "

$x # y = 2

29. 3 x ! 4 y = 12

6

-5

-5

-2

-2

-4

-4

-6

-6

31. y < !4 x ! 2

32. y + 2 = x + 1

6

-5

-5

-2

-2

-4

-4

-6

-6

33. y > x ! 1

34. y + 4 = ( x ! 1) 2

6

-5

-5

-2

-2

-4

-4

-6

-6

Vertex:

_________________

x-intercept(s): _________________

y-intercept(s): _________________

6

Systems of Equations:

3x + y = 6

2x ! 2 y = 4

Substitution:

Elimination:

Solve 1 equation for 1 variable.

Find opposite coefficients for 1 variable.

Rearrange.

Multiply equation(s) by constant(s).

Plug into 2nd equation.

Add equations together (lose 1 variable).

Solve for the other variable.

Solve for variable.

Then plug answer back into an original equation to solve for the 2nd variable.

2 x ! 2(6 ! 3 x) = 4

plug into 2nd equation

2 x ! 2 y = 4 coefficients of y are opposite

2 x ! 12 + 6 x = 4

8 x = 16

x=2

8 x = 16

x=2

distribute

simplify

3(2) + y = 6

6+ y = 6

y=0

!2 x + y = 4

35. "

#3 x + 2 y = 1

!2 x + y = 4

36. "

$3 x # y = 14

"2 w ! 5 z = 13

37. #

$6 w + 3 z = 10

add

simplify

Exponents:

TWO RULES OF ONE

1. a 1 = a

Any number raised to the power of one equals itself.

2. 1a = 1

One to any power is one.

ZERO RULE

3. a 0 = 1

Any nonzero number raised to the power of zero is one.

PRODUCT RULE

4. a m ! a n = a m+ n

When multiplying two powers that have the same base, add the exponents.

QUOTIENT RULE

am

5. n = a m!n

a

When dividing two powers with the same base, subtract the exponents.

POWER RULE

6. (a m ) n = a m!n

When a power is raised to another power, multiply the exponents.

NEGATIVE EXPONENTS

1

1

7. a !n = n and

= an

!n

a

a

Any nonzero number raised to a negative power equals its reciprocal raised to the opposite positive

power.

Express each of the following in simplest form. Answers should not have any negative

exponents.

38. 5a

3c

39. !1

c

2ef !1

40.

e !1

(n3 p !1 ) 2

41.

(np ) !2

43. (a 3 ) 2

44. (!b3c 4 )5

45. 4m(3a 2 m)

Simplify.

42. 3m 2 2m

Polynomials:

To add / subtract polynomials, combine like terms.

EX:

8x ! 3y + 6 ! (6 y + 4x ! 9)

= 8x ! 3y + 6 ! 6 y ! 4x + 9

= 8x ! 4x ! 3y ! 6 y + 6 + 9

= 4x ! 9 y + 15

Simplify.

46. 3x 3 + 9 + 7x 2 ! x 3

47. 7m ! 6 ! (2m + 5)

EX:

(3x ! 2)(x + 4)

= 3x 2 + 12x ! 2x ! 8

= 3x 2 + 10x ! 8

Multiply.

48. (3a + 1)(a 2)

49. (s + 3)(s 3)

50. (c 5)2

Factoring.

Follow these steps in order to factor polynomials.

STEP 1: Look for a GCF in ALL of the terms.

a.) If you have one (other than 1) factor it out front.

b.) If you dont have one, move on to STEP 2.

STEP 2: How many terms does the polynomial have?

2 Terms

a.) Is it difference of two squares? a 2 ! b2 = (a + b)(a ! b)

EX: x 2 ! 25 = (x + 5)(x ! 5)

a 3 ! b3 = (a ! b)(a 2 + ab + b2 )

a 3 + b3 = (a + b)(a 2 ! ab + b2 )

p 3 ! 125 = ( p ! 5)( p 2 + 5p + 25)

3 Terms

x 2 + bx + c = (x + )(x + )

Ex: x 2 + 7x + 12 = (x + 3)(x + 4)

x 2 ! bx + c = (x ! )(x ! )

x 2 ! 5x + 4 = (x ! 1)(x ! 4)

x 2 + bx ! c = (x ! )(x + )

x 2 + 6x ! 16 = (x ! 2)(x + 8)

x 2 ! bx ! c = (x ! )(x + )

x 2 ! 2x ! 24 = (x ! 6)(x + 4)

a.) Pair up first two terms and last two terms

b.) Factor out GCF of each pair of numbers.

c.) Factor out front the parentheses that the terms have in common.

d.) Put leftover terms in parentheses.

Ex: x 3 + 3x 2 + 9x + 27 =

(x

) (

+ 3x 2 + 9x + 27

) (

= x2 x + 3 + 9 x + 3

=

( x + 3)( x

+9

Factor completely.

52. z 2 + 4z ! 12

53. 6 ! 5x ! x 2

10

54. 2k 2 + 2k ! 60

56. 9c 2 + 30c + 25

58. 27z 3 ! 8

57. 9n2 ! 4

To solve quadratic equations, try to factor first and set each factor equal to zero. Solve

for your variable. If the quadratic does NOT factor, use quadratic formula.

EX: x 2 ! 4x = 21

x 2 ! 4x ! 21 = 0

Now factor.

(x + 3)(x ! 7) = 0

Set each factor equal to zero.

x + 3 = 0 x ! 7 = 0 Solve each for x.

x = !3

x=7

60. x 2 ! 4x ! 12 = 0

61. x 2 + 25 = 10x

62. x 2 ! 14x + 40 = 0

DISCRIMINANT: The number under the radical in the quadratic formula (b2 ! 4ac) can tell

you what kinds of roots you will have.

IF b2 ! 4ac > 0 you will have TWO real roots.

IF b2 ! 4ac = 0 you will have ONE real root

(touches x-axis twice)

(touches the x-axis once)

-2

-2

-4

-4

(Graph does not cross the x-axis)

11

QUADRATIC FORMULA allows you to solve any quadratic for all its real and imaginary

roots. x =

b b2 4ac

2a

x 2 + 2x + 3 = 0

a =1 b = 2 = 3

Find dicriminant.

D = 22

4 1 3

D = 4 12

D= 8

2 8

2

2 2i 2

x=

2

x = 1 i 2

Solve : x =

Use EXACT values.

63. x 2

9x + 14 = 0

64. 5x 2

2x + 4 = 0

Discriminant = _________________

Discriminant = _________________

Roots = _______________________

Roots = _______________________

12

Synthetic Division can ONLY be used when dividing a polynomial

by a linear (degree one) polynomial.

EX:

2x 3 + 3x 2 ! 6x + 10

x+3

Long Division

2x 3 + 3x 2 ! 6x + 10

x+3

Synthetic Division

2x 3 + 3x 2 ! 6x + 10

x+3

1

x+3

3

2

2x + 3x ! 6x + 10

2x 2 ! 3x + 3 +

= x+3

!3

(!) (2x 3 + 6x 2 )

! 3x 2 ! 6x

(!)

(!3x 2 ! 9x)

3x + 10

(!) (3x + 9)

1

!6

10

!6

!9

!3

"

2

= 2x ! 3x + 3 +

1

x+3

65.

c3 ! 3c 2 + 18c ! 16

c 2 + 3c ! 2

66.

x 4 ! 2x 2 ! x + 2

x+2

To evaluate a function for a given value, simply plug the value into the function for x.

Evaluate each function for the given value.

67. f (x) = x 2 ! 6x + 2

f (3) = ________

68. g(x) = 6x ! 7

g(x + h) = ________

13

69. f (x) = 3x 2 ! 4

5 !" f (x + 2) #$ = ________

Recall: f ! g (x) = f (g(x)) OR f [g(x)] read f of g of x Means to plug the inside function

(in this case g(x) ) in for x in the outside function (in this case, f(x)).

Example: Given f (x) = 2x 2 + 1 and g(x) = x ! 4 find f(g(x)).

f (g(x)) = f (x ! 4)

= 2(x ! 4)2 + 1

= 2(x 2 ! 8x + 16) + 1

= 2x 2 ! 16x + 32 + 1

f (g(x)) = 2x 2 ! 16x + 33

70. f !" g(2) #$ = ________

To find the inverse of a function, simply switch the x and the y and solve for the new y value.

Example:

f (x) = 3 x + 1

Rewrite f(x) as y

y = 3 x +1

Switch x and y

x = 3 y +1

( x )3 = ( 3 y + 1 )

3

x3 = y + 1

Simplify

y = x3 ! 1

Solve for y

f !1 (x) = x 3 ! 1

74. f (x) = 5x + 2

75. f (x) =

14

1

1

x!

2

3

Multiplying and Dividing.

Factor numerator and denominator completely. Cancel any common factors in the top and

bottom. If dividing, change divide to multiply and flip the second fraction.

EX:

x 2 + 10x + 21

x 2 + 2x ! 15

5 ! 4x ! x 2

x 3 + 4x 2 ! 21x

(x + 7)(x + 3) (x + 5)(x ! 3)

(x + 3)

x(1 ! x)

Simplify.

Simplify.

76.

5z 3 + z 2 ! z

3z

79.

a 2 ! 5a + 6 3a + 12

a+4

a!2

77.

m2 ! 25

m2 + 5m

78.

80.

15

10r 5 3s

21s 2 5r 3

6d ! 9 6 ! 13d + 6d 2

5d + 1 15d 2 ! 7d ! 2

First, find the least common denominator.

Write each fraction with the LCD.

Add / subtract numerators as indicated and leave the denominators as they are.

EX: 3x + 1 + 5x ! 4

x 2 + 2x 2x + 4

3x + 1

5x ! 4

+

x(x + 2) 2(x + 2)

2(3x + 1) x(5x ! 4)

+

2x(x + 2) 2x(x + 2)

Re write each fraction with the LCD as the deno min ator.

6x + 2 + 5x 2 ! 4x

=

2x(x + 2)

=

81.

2x x

!

5 3

5x 2 + 2x + 2

2x(x + 2)

82.

b! a a+ b

+

a2b

ab2

16

83.

2 ! a 2 3a + 4

+

a 2 + a 3a + 3

Complex Fractions.

Eliminate complex fractions by multiplying the numerator and denominator by the LCD of

each of the small fractions. Then simplify as you did above

EX:

1

1+

a

Find LCD : a 2

2

!1

a2

1% 2

"

$# 1 + '& i a

a

=

" 2

% 2

$# 2 ! 1'& i a

a

=

a2 + a

2 ! a2

a(a + 1)

2 ! a2

1

2

84.

1

2+

4

1!

86.

1

6

! 2

m m

2

2

! 2

m m

5+

1

z

85.

z +1

1+

1 1

! 2

x

x

87.

4 3

1+ + 2

x x

2+

17

Multiply each term by the LCD of all the fractions. This should eliminate all of your fractions.

Then solve the equation as usual.

5

1 5

+ =

Find LCD first. x(x + 2)

x+2 x x

! 5 $

! 1$ ! 5$

x(x + 2) #

+ x(x + 2) # & = # & x(x + 2)

Multiply each term by the LCD.

&

" x + 2%

" x% " x%

5x + 1(x + 2) = 5(x + 2)

EX:

5x + x + 2 = 5x + 10

6x + 2 = 5x + 10

x = 8 ' Check your answer. Sometimes they do not check!

Check :

5

1 5

+ =

8+2 8 8

5 1 5

+ =

10 8 8

5 5

=

8 8

88.

12 3 3

+ =

x 4 2

89.

x + 10 4

=

x2 ! 2 x

18

90.

5

x!5

x

!1

x!5

Logarithms

log a x is equivalent to x

Product property:

log b mn

m

n

p

Power property: log b m

ay

log b m log b n

log b m log b n

p log b m

log b n , then m

log b n

Change of base formula: log a n

log b a

Property of equality: If log b m

91.

2(3) 2 x

94.

ln x ln( x 2) 1

92.

5log( x 2) 11

95.

3 l nx

19

93.

12 10 x

96.

3e

4 9

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