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FLETCHER HIGH SCHOOL

SUMMER REVIEW PACKET


For students entering PreAP PRECALCULUS

Name: __________________________________________________________

1.
2.
3.

This packet is to be handed in to your Precalculus teacher on the first day of the school
year.
All work must be shown in the packet OR on separate paper attached to the packet.
Completion of this packet will be counted toward your first quarter grade.

Summer Review Packet for Students Entering PreAP Precalculus


Radicals:
To simplify means that 1) no radicand has a perfect square factor and
2) there is no radical in the denominator (rationalize).
ab = a ! b and the Quotient Property

Recall the Product Property


Examples: Simplify

24 = 4 ! 6
=2 6

Simplify

7
=
2

7
2

a
b

find a perfect square factor


simplify
split apart, then multiply both the numerator and the
denominator by

14
multiply straight across and simplify
2
4
If the denominator contains 2 terms
multiply the numerator and the denominator by the conjugate of the denominator
The conjugate of 3 + 2 is 3 ! 2 (the sign changes between the terms).
=

14

a
=
b

Simplify each of the following.

(2 x)8

!64

3.

11
9

6.

( 5 ! 6 )( 5 + 2 )

Rationalize.
1
7.
2

8.

1.

32

5.

2.

3
2! 5

4.

49m 2 n8

Complex Numbers:
Form of complex number - a + bi
Where a is the real is part and bi is the imaginary part

!1 = i and i 2 = !1

Always make these substitutions

To simplify: pull out the


" 5 = "1 ! 5

Example:

= i 5

! 1 before performing any operation

Pull out

List twice

Simplify
= i 2 25
= (!1)(5) = !5 Substitute

Make substitution

Treat i like any other variable when +, -, ! , or (but always simplify i 2 = !1 )

Example: 2i (3 + i ) = 2(3i ) + 2i (i )
= 6i + 2i 2
= 6i + 2(!1)
= ! 2 + 6i

Example: (i 5 ) 2 = i 5 ! i 5

!1

Distribute
Simplify
Make substitution
Simplify and rewrite in complex form

Since i = ! 1 , no answer can have an i in the denominator RATIONALIZE!!

Simplify.
9.

!49

11. !6(2 ! 8i ) + 3(5 + 7i )

10. 6 !12

12. (3 ! 4i )

13. (6 ! 4i )(6 + 4i )

Rationalize.
1 + 6i
14.
5i

Geometry:
Pythagorean Theorem (right triangles): a 2 + b 2 = c 2
Find the value of x.
15.

16.
9

17.
x
x

12

x
8

12

18. A square has perimeter 12 cm. Find the length of the diagonal.

* In 30 ! 60 ! 90 triangles,
sides are in proportion 1, 3 ,2 .

*In 45 ! 45 ! 90 triangles,
sides are in proportion 1,1, 2 .

60

45

2
1
30

45
1

Solve for x and y.


19.

20.

45

45

4
x

45

45
y

21.

22.
60

60

30

30

Equations of Lines:
Slope intercept form: y = mx + b

Vertical line: x = c (slope is undefined)

Point-slope form: y ! y1 = m(x ! x1 )

Horizontal line: y = c (slope is 0)

Standard Form: Ax + By = C

Slope: m =

y2 ! y1
x2 ! x1

23. State the slope and y-intercept of the linear equation: 5x 4y = 8.

24. Find the x-intercept and y-intercept of the equation: 2x y = 5

25. Write the equation in standard form: y = 7x 5

Write the equation of the line in slope-intercept form with the following conditions:
26. slope = -5 and passes through the point (-3, -8)

27. passes through the points (4, 3) and (7, -2)

28. x-intercept = 3 and y-intercept = 2

Graphing:
Graph each function, inequality, and / or system.
!2 x + y = 4
30. "
$x # y = 2

29. 3 x ! 4 y = 12
6

-5

-5

-2

-2

-4

-4

-6

-6

31. y < !4 x ! 2

32. y + 2 = x + 1
6

-5

-5

-2

-2

-4

-4

-6

-6

33. y > x ! 1

34. y + 4 = ( x ! 1) 2
6

-5

-5

-2

-2

-4

-4

-6

-6

Vertex:

_________________

x-intercept(s): _________________
y-intercept(s): _________________
6

Systems of Equations:

3x + y = 6
2x ! 2 y = 4
Substitution:
Elimination:
Solve 1 equation for 1 variable.
Find opposite coefficients for 1 variable.
Rearrange.
Multiply equation(s) by constant(s).
Plug into 2nd equation.
Add equations together (lose 1 variable).
Solve for the other variable.
Solve for variable.
Then plug answer back into an original equation to solve for the 2nd variable.

y = 6 ! 3 x solve 1st equation for y


2 x ! 2(6 ! 3 x) = 4
plug into 2nd equation

6 x + 2 y = 12 multiply 1st equation by 2


2 x ! 2 y = 4 coefficients of y are opposite

2 x ! 12 + 6 x = 4
8 x = 16
x=2

8 x = 16
x=2

distribute
simplify

Plug x = 2 back into original

3(2) + y = 6
6+ y = 6
y=0

Solve each system of equations. Use any method.


!2 x + y = 4
35. "
#3 x + 2 y = 1

!2 x + y = 4
36. "
$3 x # y = 14

"2 w ! 5 z = 13
37. #
$6 w + 3 z = 10

add
simplify

Exponents:
TWO RULES OF ONE
1. a 1 = a
Any number raised to the power of one equals itself.
2. 1a = 1
One to any power is one.
ZERO RULE
3. a 0 = 1
Any nonzero number raised to the power of zero is one.
PRODUCT RULE
4. a m ! a n = a m+ n
When multiplying two powers that have the same base, add the exponents.
QUOTIENT RULE
am
5. n = a m!n
a
When dividing two powers with the same base, subtract the exponents.
POWER RULE
6. (a m ) n = a m!n
When a power is raised to another power, multiply the exponents.
NEGATIVE EXPONENTS
1
1
7. a !n = n and
= an
!n
a
a
Any nonzero number raised to a negative power equals its reciprocal raised to the opposite positive
power.
Express each of the following in simplest form. Answers should not have any negative
exponents.
38. 5a

3c
39. !1
c

2ef !1
40.
e !1

(n3 p !1 ) 2
41.
(np ) !2

43. (a 3 ) 2

44. (!b3c 4 )5

45. 4m(3a 2 m)

Simplify.
42. 3m 2 2m

Polynomials:
To add / subtract polynomials, combine like terms.
EX:

8x ! 3y + 6 ! (6 y + 4x ! 9)

Distribute the negative through the parantheses.

= 8x ! 3y + 6 ! 6 y ! 4x + 9
= 8x ! 4x ! 3y ! 6 y + 6 + 9
= 4x ! 9 y + 15

Combine terms with similar variables.

Simplify.
46. 3x 3 + 9 + 7x 2 ! x 3

47. 7m ! 6 ! (2m + 5)

To multiplying two binomials, use FOIL.


EX:

(3x ! 2)(x + 4)

Multiply the first, outer, inner, then last terms.

= 3x 2 + 12x ! 2x ! 8

Combine like terms.

= 3x 2 + 10x ! 8

Multiply.
48. (3a + 1)(a 2)

49. (s + 3)(s 3)

50. (c 5)2

51. (5x + 7y)(5x 7y)

Factoring.
Follow these steps in order to factor polynomials.
STEP 1: Look for a GCF in ALL of the terms.
a.) If you have one (other than 1) factor it out front.
b.) If you dont have one, move on to STEP 2.
STEP 2: How many terms does the polynomial have?
2 Terms
a.) Is it difference of two squares? a 2 ! b2 = (a + b)(a ! b)
EX: x 2 ! 25 = (x + 5)(x ! 5)
a 3 ! b3 = (a ! b)(a 2 + ab + b2 )

b.) Is it sum or difference of two cubes?

a 3 + b3 = (a + b)(a 2 ! ab + b2 )

EX: m3 + 64 = (m + 4)(m2 ! 4m + 16)


p 3 ! 125 = ( p ! 5)( p 2 + 5p + 25)

3 Terms
x 2 + bx + c = (x + )(x + )

Ex: x 2 + 7x + 12 = (x + 3)(x + 4)

x 2 ! bx + c = (x ! )(x ! )

x 2 ! 5x + 4 = (x ! 1)(x ! 4)

x 2 + bx ! c = (x ! )(x + )

x 2 + 6x ! 16 = (x ! 2)(x + 8)

x 2 ! bx ! c = (x ! )(x + )

x 2 ! 2x ! 24 = (x ! 6)(x + 4)

4 Terms -- Factor by Grouping


a.) Pair up first two terms and last two terms
b.) Factor out GCF of each pair of numbers.
c.) Factor out front the parentheses that the terms have in common.
d.) Put leftover terms in parentheses.
Ex: x 3 + 3x 2 + 9x + 27 =

(x

) (

+ 3x 2 + 9x + 27

) (

= x2 x + 3 + 9 x + 3
=

( x + 3)( x

+9

Factor completely.
52. z 2 + 4z ! 12

53. 6 ! 5x ! x 2

10

54. 2k 2 + 2k ! 60

55. !10b4 ! 15b2

56. 9c 2 + 30c + 25

58. 27z 3 ! 8

57. 9n2 ! 4

59. 2mn ! 2mt + 2sn ! 2st

To solve quadratic equations, try to factor first and set each factor equal to zero. Solve
for your variable. If the quadratic does NOT factor, use quadratic formula.
EX: x 2 ! 4x = 21

Set equal to zero FIRST .

x 2 ! 4x ! 21 = 0
Now factor.
(x + 3)(x ! 7) = 0
Set each factor equal to zero.
x + 3 = 0 x ! 7 = 0 Solve each for x.
x = !3
x=7

Solve each equation.


60. x 2 ! 4x ! 12 = 0

61. x 2 + 25 = 10x

62. x 2 ! 14x + 40 = 0

DISCRIMINANT: The number under the radical in the quadratic formula (b2 ! 4ac) can tell
you what kinds of roots you will have.
IF b2 ! 4ac > 0 you will have TWO real roots.
IF b2 ! 4ac = 0 you will have ONE real root
(touches x-axis twice)
(touches the x-axis once)
-2
-2

-4
-4

IF b2 ! 4ac < 0 you will have TWO imaginary roots.


(Graph does not cross the x-axis)

11

QUADRATIC FORMULA allows you to solve any quadratic for all its real and imaginary
roots. x =

b b2 4ac
2a

EX: Solve the equation: x 2 + 2x + 3 = 0


x 2 + 2x + 3 = 0
a =1 b = 2 = 3

Determi values for a, b, and c.


Find dicriminant.

D = 22

4 1 3
D = 4 12
D= 8

There are two imaginary roots.

2 8
2
2 2i 2
x=
2
x = 1 i 2

Solve : x =

Solve each quadratic.


Use EXACT values.
63. x 2

9x + 14 = 0

64. 5x 2

2x + 4 = 0

Discriminant = _________________

Discriminant = _________________

Type of Roots: _________________

Type of Roots: _________________

Roots = _______________________

Roots = _______________________

12

Long Division can be used when dividing any polynomials.


Synthetic Division can ONLY be used when dividing a polynomial
by a linear (degree one) polynomial.
EX:

2x 3 + 3x 2 ! 6x + 10
x+3
Long Division
2x 3 + 3x 2 ! 6x + 10
x+3

Synthetic Division

2x 3 + 3x 2 ! 6x + 10
x+3

1
x+3
3
2
2x + 3x ! 6x + 10

2x 2 ! 3x + 3 +
= x+3

!3

(!) (2x 3 + 6x 2 )
! 3x 2 ! 6x
(!)

(!3x 2 ! 9x)
3x + 10
(!) (3x + 9)
1

!6

10

!6

!9

!3

"
2

= 2x ! 3x + 3 +

1
x+3

Divide each polynomial using long division OR synthetic division.


65.

c3 ! 3c 2 + 18c ! 16
c 2 + 3c ! 2

66.

x 4 ! 2x 2 ! x + 2
x+2

To evaluate a function for a given value, simply plug the value into the function for x.
Evaluate each function for the given value.
67. f (x) = x 2 ! 6x + 2

f (3) = ________

68. g(x) = 6x ! 7

g(x + h) = ________

13

69. f (x) = 3x 2 ! 4

5 !" f (x + 2) #$ = ________

Composition and Inverses of Functions:

Recall: f ! g (x) = f (g(x)) OR f [g(x)] read f of g of x Means to plug the inside function
(in this case g(x) ) in for x in the outside function (in this case, f(x)).
Example: Given f (x) = 2x 2 + 1 and g(x) = x ! 4 find f(g(x)).

f (g(x)) = f (x ! 4)
= 2(x ! 4)2 + 1
= 2(x 2 ! 8x + 16) + 1
= 2x 2 ! 16x + 32 + 1
f (g(x)) = 2x 2 ! 16x + 33

Suppose f (x) = 2x, g(x) = 3x ! 2, and h(x) = x 2 ! 4 . Find the following:


70. f !" g(2) #$ = ________

71. f !" g(x) #$ = ________

72. f !" h(3) #$ = ________

73. g !" f (x) #$ = ________

To find the inverse of a function, simply switch the x and the y and solve for the new y value.
Example:
f (x) = 3 x + 1
Rewrite f(x) as y
y = 3 x +1

Switch x and y

x = 3 y +1

( x )3 = ( 3 y + 1 )

Solve for your new y


3

Cube both sides

x3 = y + 1

Simplify

y = x3 ! 1

Solve for y

f !1 (x) = x 3 ! 1

Rewrite in inverse notation

Find the inverse, f -1(x) , if possible.


74. f (x) = 5x + 2

75. f (x) =

14

1
1
x!
2
3

Rational Algebraic Expressions:


Multiplying and Dividing.
Factor numerator and denominator completely. Cancel any common factors in the top and
bottom. If dividing, change divide to multiply and flip the second fraction.
EX:
x 2 + 10x + 21
x 2 + 2x ! 15

5 ! 4x ! x 2
x 3 + 4x 2 ! 21x

(x + 7)(x + 3) (x + 5)(x ! 3)

(5 + x)(1 ! x) x(x ! 3)(x + 7)

(x + 3)
x(1 ! x)

Factor everything completely.

Cancel out common factors in the top and bottom.

Simplify.

Simplify.
76.

5z 3 + z 2 ! z
3z

79.

a 2 ! 5a + 6 3a + 12

a+4
a!2

77.

m2 ! 25
m2 + 5m

78.

80.

15

10r 5 3s

21s 2 5r 3

6d ! 9 6 ! 13d + 6d 2

5d + 1 15d 2 ! 7d ! 2

Addition and Subtraction.


First, find the least common denominator.
Write each fraction with the LCD.
Add / subtract numerators as indicated and leave the denominators as they are.
EX: 3x + 1 + 5x ! 4
x 2 + 2x 2x + 4

Factor deno min ator completely.

3x + 1
5x ! 4
+
x(x + 2) 2(x + 2)

Find LCD (2x)(x + 2)

2(3x + 1) x(5x ! 4)
+
2x(x + 2) 2x(x + 2)

Re write each fraction with the LCD as the deno min ator.

6x + 2 + 5x 2 ! 4x
=
2x(x + 2)
=

81.

2x x
!
5 3

Write as one fraction.

5x 2 + 2x + 2
2x(x + 2)

Combine like terms.

82.

b! a a+ b
+
a2b
ab2

16

83.

2 ! a 2 3a + 4
+
a 2 + a 3a + 3

Complex Fractions.
Eliminate complex fractions by multiplying the numerator and denominator by the LCD of
each of the small fractions. Then simplify as you did above
EX:
1
1+
a
Find LCD : a 2
2
!1
a2

1% 2
"
$# 1 + '& i a
a
=
" 2
% 2
$# 2 ! 1'& i a
a
=

a2 + a
2 ! a2

a(a + 1)
2 ! a2

1
2
84.
1
2+
4
1!

86.

1
6
! 2
m m
2
2
! 2
m m

5+

Multiply top and bottom by LCD.

Factor and simplify if possible.

1
z
85.
z +1
1+

1 1
! 2
x
x
87.
4 3
1+ + 2
x x
2+

17

Solving Rational Equations:


Multiply each term by the LCD of all the fractions. This should eliminate all of your fractions.
Then solve the equation as usual.
5
1 5
+ =
Find LCD first. x(x + 2)
x+2 x x
! 5 $
! 1$ ! 5$
x(x + 2) #
+ x(x + 2) # & = # & x(x + 2)
Multiply each term by the LCD.
&
" x + 2%
" x% " x%

5x + 1(x + 2) = 5(x + 2)

EX:

Simplify and solve.

5x + x + 2 = 5x + 10
6x + 2 = 5x + 10
x = 8 ' Check your answer. Sometimes they do not check!
Check :
5
1 5
+ =
8+2 8 8
5 1 5
+ =
10 8 8
5 5
=
8 8

Solve each equation. Check your solutions.


88.

12 3 3
+ =
x 4 2

89.

x + 10 4
=
x2 ! 2 x

18

90.

5
x!5

x
!1
x!5

Logarithms

log a x is equivalent to x

Product property:

log b mn

Quotient property: log b

m
n

p
Power property: log b m

ay

log b m log b n
log b m log b n
p log b m

log b n , then m
log b n
Change of base formula: log a n
log b a
Property of equality: If log b m

Solve each equation. Check your solutions.

91.

2(3) 2 x

94.

ln x ln( x 2) 1

92.

5log( x 2) 11

95.

3 l nx

19

93.

12 10 x

96.

3e

4 9