Modulus and other concepts are discussed and extended from convexity to S-convexity here.

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Modulus and other concepts are discussed and extended from convexity to S-convexity here.

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plagiarism and extension

I.M.R.PINHEIRO

I.R.

Australia

E-mail address: mrpprofessional@yahoo.com∗

Dr. K. Goebel, published by Compositio Mathematica, to S-convexity.

AMS:26A51

1 Introduction

Our introduction gets developed via four major logical trends:

1. Basic definitions;

2. Basic symbology;

4. Generalized index of sections for this paper.

In what follows, we simply try to organize the paper presentation with clarity.

1. Basic definitions:

The concept of S-convexity is split into two notions, which are described

below [5]:

∗ Correspondence: PO Box 12396, A’Beckett st., Melbourne, Au, 8006

1 AMS: 26A51

1

Definition 1. A function f : X− > < is said to be S-convex in the first

sense if

1

f (λx + (1 − λs ) s y) ≤ λs f (x) + (1 − λs )f (y),

∀x, y ∈ X and ∀λ ∈ [0, 1], where X ⊂ <+ .

sense if

f (λx + (1 − λ)y) ≤ λs f (x) + (1 − λ)s f (y),

∀x, y ∈ X and ∀λ ∈ [0, 1], where X ⊂ <+ .

2. Basic symbology:

by saying that f ∈ Ks1 ;

• We use the same reasoning for a function g, S-convex in the second

sense, and say then that g ∈ Ks2 ;

• We name s1 the generic class constant for those functions that are S-

convex in the first sense;

• We name s2 the generic class constant for those functions that are S-

convex in the second sense;

• B represents an arbitrary Banach space;

• || || represents the norm for B;

• θ is the zero element in B;

• x, y, z are elements in B;

• d(X) represents the diameter of a set X ⊂ B;

• Kr the ball with radius r and centered in θ.

3. Sources used in this text as basis, including for symbols above, are basically

[5] and [1].

4. The index for this paper includes:

• Introduction;

• Results regarding convexity;

• Extension of definitions from convexity to S−convexity and some basic

results as well;

• Extension of main results;

• Application;

• Conclusion.

2

2 Results regarding convexity

The results below are mentioned in [1] as having originated from [2], [0], [3], and

[2], respectively. The text below is not a faithful copy of the English words used

there, however (only the mathematical symbols are cut and pasted).

Definition 3. B is called uniformly convex iff for every positive number ², there

exists a positive number δ such that for arbitrary x, y ∈ K1 , the inequality

||x − y|| ≥ ²

implies

x+y

|| || ≤ 1 − δ.

2

Definition 4. B has normal structure iff every bounded and convex subset X,

of B, containing more than one point, contains a nondiametral point, i.e., a point

such that sup[||x − y|| : y ∈ X] < d(X).

Definition 5. The space is called uniformly non-square iff there is a positive

number δ such that there are no x, y ∈ K1 such that

x−y

|| || > 1 − δ

2

and

x+y

|| || > 1 − δ,

2

at the same time.

Definition 6. B is called strictly convex iff there are no segments laying on the

boundary of K1 .

The definition and the results found below are mentioned in [1].

Definition 7. The modulus of convexity of B is the function δ : [0, 2]− > [0, 1]

defined by·the following formula ¸

δ(²) = inf 1 − || x+y

2 || : x, y ∈ K 1 , ||x − y|| ≥ ² .

Definition 8. The characteristic of convexity of B is the number ²0 = sup[² :

δ(²) = 0].

3

3 Extension of definitions to S−convexity

3.1 To s1 -convexity:

Definition 9. B is called uniformly s1 −convex iff for every positive number ²,

there exists a positive number δ such that for arbitrary x, y ∈ K1 , the inequality

||x − y|| ≥ ²

implies

x+y

|| || ≤ 1 − δ.

2

Definition 10. B has normal structure iff every bounded and s1 -convex subset

X, of B, containing more than one point, contains a nondiametral point, i.e., a

point such that sup[||x − y|| : y ∈ X] < d(X).

Definition 11. The space is called uniformly non-square iff there is a positive

number δ such that there are no x, y ∈ K1 such that

x−y

|| || > 1 − δ

2

and

x+y

|| || > 1 − δ,

2

at the same time.

Definition 12. B is called strictly s1 -convex iff there are no curves of the sort

λs p1 +(1 − λs )p2 laying on the boundary of K1 , where p1 and p2 are both points

in B.

3.2 To s2 -convexity:

Definition 13. B is called uniformly s2 -convex iff for every positive number ²,

there exists a positive number δ such that for arbitrary x, y ∈ K2 , the inequality

||x − y|| ≥ ²

implies

x+y

|| || < 2 − δ.

2s

Definition 14. B has normal structure iff every bounded and s2 -convex subset

X, of B, containing more than one point, contains a nondiametral point, i.e., a

point such that sup[||x − y|| : y ∈ X] < d(X).

4

Definition 15. The space is called uniformly non-square iff there is a positive

number δ such that there are no x, y ∈ K1 such that

x−y

|| || > 1 − δ

2

and

x+y

|| || > 1 − δ,

2

at the same time.

Definition 16. B is called strictly s2 -convex iff there are no curves of the sort

λs p1 +(1 − λ)s p2 laying on the boundary of K2 , where p1 and p2 are both points

in B.

It is a simple consequence of these definitions that every uniformly S−convex

space is strictly S−convex and has got normal structure.

The modulus and characteristic of convexity is also the modulus and characteristic

for s1 -convexity. However, for s2 -convexity, things must be adapted acc.. See:

Definition 17. The modulus of s2 −convexity of B is the function δ : [0, 2]− >

[0, 2] defined

· by the following formula ¸

δ(²) = inf 2 − || x+y

2s || : x, y ∈ K2 , ||x − y|| ≥ ² .

3.3 To both:

Definition 18. The characteristic of S−convexity of B is the number ²0 = sup[² :

δ(²) = 0].

Theorem 4.1. B is uniformly S−convex then ²0 = 0.

Proof. Consider B to be uniformly S−convex. Then, either for every positive num-

ber ², there exists a positive number δ such that for arbitrary x, y ∈ K1 , the

inequality

||x − y|| ≥ ²

implies

x+y

|| || ≤ 1 − δ(²),

2

2 Some typo must have occurred at [1], at this stage.

5

case B is s1 −convex, or for every positive number ², there exists a positive number

δ such that for arbitrary x, y ∈ K2 , the inequality

||x − y|| ≥ ²

implies

x+y

|| || < 2 − δ(²),

2s

case B is s2 −convex. In both cases, simple manipulation of the consequences re-

lated to the choice of ² will lead us to δ(²) ≥ δ. If δ(²) = 0 then δ = 0. Therefore,

it must be the case that ² = 0.

Theorem 4.2. If ²0 < 1 then B has got normal structure.

Proof. The proof is very similar to that for the convex case, small adaptations to

the choice of z must be made, however.

The paragraph below is almost fully copied from [1]. Regardless of the value of

the notion involved, we simply extend their results, or believe we have done so,

according to the best of our knowledge.

Let C be a closed and S−convex subset of B and let F be a continuous trans-

formation of C into C. By F n , we denote the nth interaction of F and by I the

identity transformation via C.

µ ¶

k 2

(∗∗) 1 − δ( ) < 1,

2 k

then F has at least one fixed point.

Proof. From [1], we take for granted that ||F ( x+F x k

2 ) − x|| ≤ 2 ||x − F x|| and

x+F x k

||F ( 2 ) − F x|| ≤ 2 ||x − F x||. From both facts, we infer that

µ ¶

x + Fx x + Fx 2 k2

|| − F( )|| ≤ 1 − δ( ) ||x − F x||.

2 2 k 2

F

By putting G = I + 2 , we get

µ ¶

2 2 k2

||G x − Gx|| ≤ 1 − δ( ) ||x − Gx||.

k 2

6

Hence, the sequence xn = Gn x is convergent. If y = lim xn , then y ∈ C and

y = Gy = F y.

All remarks from [1] apply here as well.

6 Conclusion

We here have managed to re-word a few parts of [1] to suit our taste, have extended

their most relevant theorems to S−convexity, with the possible exception of the

last theorem from [1], regarding Fixed Point, which shall be dealt with in future

publications.

7

7 Bibliography

[0] Browder, F. E. On the center of a convex set. Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR N. S.,

59, pp. 837 − 840, (1948).

[1] Goebel, K. Convexity of balls and fixed-point theorems for mappings with non-

expansive square. Compositio Mathematica, tome 22, n. 3, p.269 − 274, 1970.

[2] James, R. C. Uniformly convex spaces. Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 40, pp.

396 − 414, (1936).

[3] Kirk, W. A. Uniformly non-square Banach spaces. Ann. of Math., 80, pp.

542 − 550, (1964).

[4] Lecture notes on nonexpansive and monotone mappings in Banach spaces. Cen-

ter for Dynamical Systems, Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University,

Providence, Rhode Island, USA, (1967).

[5] Pinheiro, M. R.; Exploring the concept of S-convexity. Aequationes Mathemat-

icae, Acc. 2006, Pub. Vol 74/3(2007).

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