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Technical Service Training

4F27E Automatic Transaxle


Curriculum Training TC3073018H
Diagnostics

Student Information

CG 7860/S en 10/2000

Introduction

Preface

After a one year black box phase, the 4F27E automatic transaxle offered in the Focus has been released for repair
in service. The course on the 4F27E Automatic Transaxle, TC3073016H was developed to give technicians the
skills and the required knowledge for correct diagnostics and successful repairs.
The course consists of the following Student Information publications:
 Curriculum Training 4F27E Automatic Transaxle Design and Operation, CG 7859/S
 Curriculum Training 4F27E Automatic Transaxle Diagnostics, CG 7860/S

This Student Information publication describes the transaxle control system including all its electronic
components, and gives important notes on transaxle diagnostics.
This Student Information publication is arranged in lessons and designed as a self-learning medium in line with the
new Ford global training concept.
Each lesson begins with a list of the objectives to be achieved in the course of the lesson and ends with test
questions to check learning process. The answers to these are to be found at the end of the Student Information
publication.

Please remember that our training literature has been prepared solely for FORD TRAINING PURPOSES.
Repair and adjustment operations MUST always be carried out according to the instructions and
specifications in the workshop literature.
Please make extensive use of the training courses offered by Ford Technical Training Centers to gain
extensive knowledge in both theory and practice.

Service Training

Contents

Introduction
Page

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Lesson 1 Preliminary checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5


At a glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Customer concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Know and understand the customer concern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Fluid level check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Checking the transmission fluid level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Fluid condition check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Checking condition of the transmission fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Sources of faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Checking possible sources of faults affecting transaxle control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Checking adjustment of the selector lever cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Test questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Lesson 2 Transaxle control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


At a glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Powertrain control module (PCM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
EEC V PCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Limited operation strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Service Training

Introduction

Contents
Page

Selector lever positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16


Selector lever position P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Selector lever position R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Selector lever position N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Selector lever position D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Selector lever position 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Selector lever position 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
ESSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Control of shift operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Test questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Lesson 3 Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
At a glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
TP sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
MAF and IAT sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
CKP sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
TSS sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
OSS sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
TR sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Recognition of selector lever position and actuation of reversing lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Transmission of the starter motor solenoid current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Stoplamp switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
TFT sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
O/D switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Test questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Service Training

Contents

Introduction
Page

Lesson 4 Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
At a glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Solenoid valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Solenoid valve actuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Main regulating valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Shift solenoid valves SSA and SSB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
PWM solenoid valves SSC, SSD and SSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Air conditioning relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Selector lever shift lock solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Ignition key lock solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
O/D indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Powertrain warning indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Test questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Lesson 5 Diagnostic instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54


At a glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Transaxle operation check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Shift point road test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Special testing procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Line pressure test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Stall speed test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Air pressure test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Test questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

List of abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Answers to the test questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Service Training

Lesson 1 Preliminary checks

At a glance

Objectives
On completing this lesson, you will be able to:
 question the customer about the concern and the operating conditions
 check and if necessary correct the transmission fluid level
 check and assess the condition of the transmission fluid
 check the vehicle for possible external sources of faults affecting transaxle control

Service Training

Customer concerns

Lesson 1 Preliminary checks

Know and understand the customer concern


 Before a diagnosis can be made, it is essential to
fully understand the customer concern.
 Therefore, the customer must be questioned about
the operating conditions in which the concern
occurs.
 If possible, the customer concern should be
reproduced in a road test with the customer.

The following operating conditions should be known:


Cold

Warm-up phase

Normal operating
temperature

Under 0C

0 20C

Over 20C

Good

Poor

Off-road

Urban traffic

Interurban travel

Highway

Unladen

Laden

When upshifting

When downshifting

Engine operating state

Exterior temperature

Surface state

Traffic conditions

Vehicle laden state

In overrun

Concern occurs

Service Training

Lesson 1 Preliminary checks

Fluid level check

Checking the transmission fluid level


NOTE: The fluid level must be correct for the
transaxle to operate correctly.
 The following conditions must be satisfied to
carry out the fluid level check correctly:
the vehicle must be on level ground,
the engine must be idling,
the selector lever must be moved through all
the positions several times,

7748/47/VF

the selector lever must be positioned in P,


the transmission fluid temperature should be
55 5C.
 In these conditons the fluid level must lie in the
middle between the MIN and MAX marks on
the fluid level indicator.
 The fluid level must be corrected as necessary and
the fluid level check repeated.
 The difference between the MIN and MAX
marks is 0.4 liters.
NOTE: Always fill with the specified transmission
fluid. Refer to the current service
literature for the specification.
NOTE: If transmission fluid is being added, the
vehicle should be driven forwards and
backwards briefly to allow the
transmission fluid to flow out of the filler
pipe and avoid distortion of the
measurement.
NOTE: The transmission fluid is designed to last the
life of the transaxle and has not to be
changed.

Service Training

Fluid condition check

Lesson 1 Preliminary checks

Checking condition of the transmission fluid


 If the customer has indicated a concern, the
check on the fluid level should be followed by a
check on the condition of the fluid.
 The color and smell of the fluid may provide an
initial indication of possible transaxle damage.
NOTE: The fluid should be a dark red color. A
brown or black discoloration indicates
transaxle damage.
 To identify deposits, the transmission fluid
should be dripped onto an absorbent towel and
the mark inspected.

7860/01/VF

 If solid particles are found, the fluid pan must be


removed for further checking.
 If the fluid pan is found to contain further
deposits which indicate contamination of the
fluid and transaxle damage, the transaxle must
be disassembled, the components checked and
changed as necessary and the transaxle cleaned
completely.

Service Training

Lesson 1 Preliminary checks

Sources of faults

Checking possible sources of faults affecting transaxle control


 Before carrying out a comprehensive transaxle
diagnostic check, various sources of faults should
be excluded. These include:
loose or corroded cables and connectors,
retrofitted auxiliary equipment not approved by
Ford such as air conditioning, cellular phone,
speed control system for example,
non-approved tire sizes.
NOTE: Customer concerns relating to the automatic
transaxle may also be attributable to
malfunctions in the engine management
system.

Checking adjustment of the selector lever cable


 The adjustment of the selector lever cable is
checked with the selector lever in position D.
 In this position the marks on the shift shaft lever
must line up with the marks on the transmission
range (TR) sensor.
NOTE: An incorrectly adjusted selector lever cable
can cause stiff operation of the selector
lever and differences between the
selected transmission range and the
range actually obtained.

Service Training

ELE0008134

Test questions

Lesson 1 Preliminary checks

Find the correct answer or fill in the gaps.


1.

Various conditions must be satisfied to carry out the transmission fluid level check correctly. Which
of the following conditions is INCORRECT?

V
V
V
V
2.

c) The selector lever should be moved through all the positions several times and left in position P.
d) The transmission fluid temperature should be 55 5C.

a) Brown
b) Black
c) Dark red
d) Yellow

Before a comprehensive transaxle diagnostic check is made, various sources of faults should be
excluded. These do NOT include

V
V
V
V

10

b) The engine speed must be kept at 2500 rpm.

Abnormal discoloration of the transmission fluid during the fluid level check may be an initial
indication of transmission damage. What is the color of the transmission fluid when in good
condition?

V
V
V
V
3.

a) The vehicle must be standing on level ground.

a) loose or corroded connectors.


b) retrofitted auxiliary equipment not approved by Ford.
c) non-approved tire sizes.
d) original accessories.

Service Training

Lesson 2 Transaxle control

At a glance

Objectives
On completing this lesson, you will be able to:
 describe the components of the transaxle control system
 name the locations of the powertrain control module (PCM) and data link connector (DLC)
 describe the basic operation of the transaxle control system
 describe the hydraulic limited operation strategy
 name the shift operations which can be carried out by the PCM in the different selector lever positions
 describe the operation and advantages of controlling shift operations with electronic synchronous shift control
(ESSC)

Service Training

11

Overview

Lesson 2 Transaxle control

14
5
1
6

15

8
16

17

10

11

13
12

7860/21/VF

12

Service Training

Lesson 2 Transaxle control

Overview

Key to the illustration opposite


1 EEC V PCM
2 Data link connector (DLC)
3 Throttle position (TP) sensor
4 Mass air flow (MAF) and intake air temeprature (IAT) sensor
5 Crankshaft position (CKP) sensor
6 Turbine shaft speed (TSS) sensor
7 Output shaft speed (OSS) sensor
8 Transmission range (TR) sensor
9 Transmission fluid temperature (TFT) sensor
10 Overdrive (O/D) switch
11 Stoplamp switch
12 Selector lever shift lock solenoid
13 Ignition key lock solenoid
14 Solenoid valves in valve body
15 Air conditioning relay
16 Powertrain warning indicator in the instrument cluster
17 O/D indicator in the instrument cluster

Service Training

13

Powertrain control module (PCM)

Lesson 2 Transaxle control

EEC V PCM
Location
 The EEC V PCM is located on the right-hand
A-pillar behind the cowl side trim panel.

Operation
 On vehicles with an automatic transaxle the
104-pin PCM carries out the transaxle control
functions in addition to the engine management.

 The PCM evaluates the incoming signals from


the individual sensors and actuates the solenoid
valves in the transaxle valve body directly
according to the operating state.

Diagnostics
 A diagnostic check can be carried out on the
transaxle control system through the data link
connector (DLC) located close to the central
junction box (CJB).

14

7748/20/VF

1 EEC V PCM
2 Inertia fuel shutoff (IFS) switch

Service Training

Lesson 2 Transaxle control

Powertrain control module (PCM)

Limited operation strategy


 If correct gear shift operations can no longer be
guaranteed due to failure of certain signals, the
PCM switches to a hydraulic limited operation
strategy.
 In this the PCM no longer actuates the solenoid
valves in the valve body.
 Continued operation is assured subject to the
following limited conditions:
maximum main line pressure (harsh
engagement),

7748/43/VF

Powertrain warning indicator

3rd gear in selector lever positions D, 2


and 1 without the torque converter clutch
(TCC),
reverse gear in selector lever position R.
 The driver is notified of the limited operation
strategy by the powertrain warning indicator in
the instrument cluster (flashing signal).
NOTE: The powertrain warning indicator is also
illuminated in the event of the engine
overheating or the transmission fluid
temperature being too high.

Service Training

15

Selector lever positions

Lesson 2 Transaxle control

Selector lever position P

Selector lever position 2

 No gear is shifted in selector lever position P.

 Only 2nd gear is shifted in selector lever position


2. It is not possible to shift into 1st gear.

 The parking pawl is engaged manually through the


selector lever cable and the shift shaft.

Selector lever position R

 If the selector lever is moved to position 2 at a


higher vehicle speed than that permitted for 2nd
gear, the transaxle does not shift down until the
appropriate vehicle speed has been reached.

 Reverse gear is shifted in selector lever postion


R.

Selector lever position 1

Selector lever position N

 Only 1st gear is shifted in selector lever position


1.

 No gear is shifted in selector lever position N.


 The powertrain is not immobilized.

Selector lever position D


 The transaxle control system allows all the gears to
be shifted in selector lever position D and when
the O/D switch is not operated.

 In addition to the 1st gear one-way clutch, the


reverse gear brake is operated to provide engine
braking effect in overrun.
 If the selector lever is moved to position 1 at a
higher vehicle speed than that permitted for 1st
gear, the transaxle does not shift down until the
appropriate vehicle speed has been reached.

 Operating the O/D switch prevents the transaxle


shifting into 4th gear or causes it to shift down into
3rd gear.

16

Service Training

Lesson 2 Transaxle control

Service Training

Notes

17

ESSC

Lesson 2 Transaxle control

Control of shift operations


 During a shift operation, some shift elements are
released while others are supplied with pressure.
Ideally, these processes should take place
simultaneously (synchronously) to avoid jerky
shifting (refer to diagram A opposite).
 Whenever possible the time taken by the shift
operation should remain within the time frame
intended for it.
 When the shift operation is controlled
conventionally, the pressure build up or reduction
at the shift elements is set and fixed for the ideal
condition (synchronous gear shifting).
 Since conventional control offers no way of
influencing the control process when shift element
wear is varied when the transaxle has been in
service for a long time, the pressure build up or
reduction may no longer take place synchronously.

Control of shift operations with ESSC


 In the 4F27E automatic transaxle an electronic
synchronous shift control (ESSC) system is used.
 The ESSC system monitors the shift operations and
is able to adapt these to the wear in the shift
elements over the service life of the transaxle.
 This is possible since the individual shift elements
are actuated by the modulating valves directly or
through accumulators.
 The system monitors firstly the shift time and
secondly whether the shift operation is
synchronous.
 If the PCM detects a deviation from the stored set
values for the shift time and synchronization of the
shift operation, the pressure build up or reduction is
adjusted accordingly.

 The result of premature pressure reduction (B) at


the element to be switched off is an undesired
increase in the turbine shaft speed and the engine
speed since the element to be switched on is still
unable to transmit the input torque.
 The result of delayed pressure reduction (C) at the
element to be switched off is an undesired drop in
the turbine shaft speed and the engine speed as
both shift elements are transmitting the input
torque. When this happens, the torque is
transmitted to the transaxle housing through
internal locking.
 In both cases the gear shift operation is jerky.
 In addition, wear in the shift elements lengthens the
shift operation. Consequently, shifting gears in
transaxles which have been in service for a fairly
long time takes longer.

18

Service Training

Lesson 2 Transaxle control

ESSC

B
1

7748/36/VF

Shift operation
1
2
3
4

Pressure of component to be switched off


Pressure of component to be switched on
Turbine shaft speed
Synchronization range of shift operation

Service Training

A Synchronous gear shift


B Non-synchronous gear shift (premature pressure
reduction at elements to be switched off)
C Non-synchronous gear shift (delayed pressure
reduction at element to be switched off)

19

Test questions

Lesson 2 Transaxle control

Find the correct answer or fill in the gaps.


1.

The EEC V PCM is located

V
V
V
V
2.

V
V

a) in 1st gear and in selector lever position R in reverse gear.


b) in 2nd gear and in selector lever position R in reverse gear.
c) in 3rd gear and in selector lever position R in reverse gear.
d) in 4th gear and in selector lever position R in reverse gear.

a) Serious transaxle damage ensues.


b) The selector lever can only be moved to position 1 at the highest permissible vehicle speed for
1st gear.
c) The PCM does not shift the gears until the highest permissible vehicle speed for the gear in
question is reached.
d) The engine overrevs.

a) electronic standardized shift control.


b) electronic synchronous shift control.
c) ice and snow driving program.
d) electronically assisted hydraulic shift control.

The advantage of ESSC lies in

V
V
V
V

20

d) behind the cowl side trim panel on the right-hand A-pillar.

ESSC means

V
V
V
V
5.

c) behind the cowl side trim panel on the left-hand A-pillar.

What is the result when the driver moves the selector lever to position 1 at a vehicle speed of
120 km/h (75 mph)?

V
V

4.

b) in the engine compartment.

With the hydraulic limited operation strategy continued operation is assured in selector lever
positions D, 2 and 1

V
V
V
V
3.

a) underneath the glove department.

a) the monitoring and adjustment of the shift operations.


b) the monitoring and adjustment of the engine management.
c) the monitoring of the torque converter clutch.
d) the adjustment to the driving style of the driver.

Service Training

Lesson 3 Sensors

At a glance

Objectives
On completing this lesson, you will be:
 familiar with the use of the signals of the TP sensor and able to work out possible causes of the fault from the
substitute function
 familiar with the use of the signals of the MAF and the IAT sensors and able to work out possible causes of the
fault from the substitute function
 familiar with the use of the signals of the CKP sensor and able to work out possible causes of the fault from the
substitute function
 familiar with the use of the signals of the TSS sensor and able to work out possible causes of the fault from the
substitute function
 familiar with the use of the signals of the OSS sensor and able to work out possible causes of the fault from the
substitute function
 familiar with the use of the signals of the TR sensor and able to work out possible causes of the fault from the
substitute function
 familiar with the use of the signals of the stoplamp switch and able to work out possible causes of the fault
from the substitute function
 familiar with the use of the signals of the TFT sensor and able to work out possible causes of the fault from the
substitute function
 familiar with the use of the signals of the O/D switch and able to work out possible causes of the fault from the
substitute function

Service Training

21

TP sensor

Lesson 3 Sensors

Location
 The throttle position (TP) sensor is located on
the throttle body.

7748/22/VF

Signal use
 The TP sensor supplies the PCM with
information about the position of the throttle
plate.
 It also detects the speed of actuation of the
throttle plate.
 The PCM uses the signals for the following
functions among other things:

7748/40/VF

to determine the shift timing,


to control the main line pressure,
to control the TCC,
for kickdown.

22

Service Training

Lesson 3 Sensors

TP sensor

Diagnostics/substitute function
 In the event of failure of the TP sensor, the
engine management system uses the signals of
the MAF and IAT sensors as a substitute signal.

A
89

90

91

 At the same time the main line pressure is


increased so shift operations may be harsh.
B

7860/02/VF

A PCM
B TP sensor
89 Signal line
90 Reference voltage
91 Reference ground

Service Training

23

MAF and IAT sensors

Lesson 3 Sensors

Location
 The mass air flow (MAF) sensor is located
between the air cleaner housing and the air
intake pipe leading to the throttle body.
 The intake air temperature (IAT) sensor is
incorporated in the housing of the MAF sensor.

Signal use
 The PCM uses the signals from the MAF sensor
in conjunction with the IAT sensor as the
primary load signal.

7748/21/VF

 The PCM uses the signals among other things


for the following functions:
1

to control the shift operations,


to control the main line pressure.

7748/39/VF

1 IAT sensor
2 MAF sensor

24

Service Training

Lesson 3 Sensors

MAF and IAT sensors

Diagnostics/substitute function

30

 In the event of failure of the MAF sensor, the


signal of the TP sensor is used as a substitute.

30

 In addition, the main line pressure is increased


and shifting to 4th gear is prevented.

39

91

36

88

F
7860/03/VF

A
B
C
D
E
F

Fuse
Ignition switch
Diode
Current holding relay
MAF and IAT sensors
PCM

36 MAF sensor
39 Signal line IAT sensor
88 MAF sensor
91 Reference ground

Service Training

25

CKP sensor

Lesson 3 Sensors

Location
 The crankshaft position (CKP) sensor is located
on the engine/transaxle flange.

Signal use
 The CKP sensor is an inductive sensor which
provides the PCM with information about the
engine speed and the position of the crankshaft.
 The signal is used among other things for the
following functions:
7748/23/VF

to control the TCC,


to check the torque converter slip,
to control the main line pressure.
Diagnostics/substitute function
 No substitute signal is available for the CKP
sensor. If the sensor fails, the engine stops.

A
21

22

7860/04/VF

A PCM
B CKP sensor
21 CKP sensor (+)
22 CKP sensor ()

26

Service Training

Lesson 3 Sensors

TSS sensor

Location
 The turbine shaft speed (TSS) sensor is located
in the transaxle housing above the transaxle
input shaft.

Signal use
 The TSS sensor is an inductive sensor which
measures the speed of the transaxle input shaft.
 The signal is used for the following functions:
to control the shift operations,
to control the TCC,
to check the torque converter slip,
diagnostics (plausibility check).
7748/24/VF

Diagnostics/substitute function
 In the event of failure of the TSS sensor, the
signal of the output shaft speed (OSS) sensor is
used as a substitute signal.
 4th gear is deselected.

 The 3rd2nd gear shift is no longer carried out.


 The TCC is released or no longer actuated.
34

76

7860/05/VF

A TSS sensor
B PCM
34 Signal line TSS sensor
76 Reference ground

Service Training

27

OSS sensor

Lesson 3 Sensors

Location
 The output shaft speed (OSS) sensor is located
in the transaxle housing above the rotor in the
differential.

Signal use
 The OSS sensor is an inductive sensor which
measures the vehicle speed by means of a rotor
located on the differential.
 The signal is used among other things for the
following functions:
to determine the gear shift timings,
as an input signal for the vehicle speed for the
PCM,
diagnostics (plausibility check).

7748/25/VF

Diagnostics/substitute function
 In the event of failure of the OSS sensor, the
signal of the TSS sensor is used as a substitute
signal.
 This can result in harsh gear shift operations.

58

33

7860/06/VF

A OSS sensor
B PCM
33 OSS sensor ()
58 OSS sensor (+)

28

Service Training

Lesson 3 Sensors

TR sensor

Location
 The transmission range (TR) sensor is located on
the shift shaft on the transaxle housing.

Signal use
 When the shift shaft is moved by means of the
selector lever cable, sliding contacts for the
different positions inside the TR sensor are
tapped.
 Separate contacts are present for transmission of
the starter motor current when starting in selector
lever positions P and N.
NOTE: The selector lever cable must be adjusted
correctly to guarantee correct operation
of the TR sensor.
 The signals of the TR sensor are used for the
following functions:

7748/26/VF

to recognize the selector lever position,


to actuate the reversing lamps in selector
lever position R,
to transmit the starter motor current in
selector lever positions P and N.

Service Training

29

TR sensor

Lesson 3 Sensors

Recognition of the selector lever position and actuation of the reversing lamps
Diagnostics/substitute function

30

E
7

11

64

A
7860/07/VF

A
B
C
D
E

PCM
TR sensor
Current holding relay
Fuse
To reversing lamps

 If a fault occurs while the vehicle is moving, the


PCM initially calculates whether the vehicle is
currently moving forwards or in reverse. The main
line pressure is increased with the result that gear
changes may be harsh.

30

4 R signal
7 1 signal
8 2 signal
11 D signal
64 P and N signal
 When moving forwards, selector lever position D
is assumed and 1st gear is no longer shifted.
 In the event of a complete failure while the vehicle
is moving, the hydraulic limited operation strategy
is selected.

Service Training

Lesson 3 Sensors

TR sensor

Transmission of the starter motor solenoid current


Diagnostics/substitute function

30

3 2 1 0

2 1 0

B
27

A
M

7860/08/VF

A
B
C
D
E
F
G

Starter motor
TR sensor
PCM
Starter motor relay
Bridge
Ignition switch
Fuse

 No substitute signal is available for the TR sensor.


 If the connection is broken, the engine cannot be
started.

Service Training

27 Passive ant-theft system (PATS)

 If there is a short circuit, the engine can also be


started in R, D, 2 or 1.

31

Stoplamp switch

Lesson 3 Sensors

Location
 The stoplamp switch is mounted on the brake
pedal bracket.

Signal use
 When the brake pedal is depressed, the stoplamp
switch actuates the following components:
stoplamps,
PCM,
selector lever shift lock solenoid.
 The signal from the stoplamp switch is used by
the PCM to release the TCC when the brake
pedal is depressed.

7748/27/VF

32

Service Training

Lesson 3 Sensors

Stoplamp switch

Diagnostics/substitute function
30

 There is no substitute function available for the


stoplamp switch.

 If the connection to the stoplamp switch is


broken, the selector lever cannot be moved out
of position P.

NOTE: The lever can be released manually (refer to


Lesson 3 Actuators: Selector lever
shift lock solenoid in this Student
Information publication).

92

7860/20/VF

A
B
C
D
E

Fuse
Stoplamp switch
To stoplamps
To selector lever shift lock solenoid
PCM

92 Braking signal

Service Training

33

TFT sensor

Lesson 3 Sensors

Location
 The transmission fluid temperature (TFT) sensor
is located in the internal wiring harness to the
solenoid valves in the fluid pan.

Signal use
 The TFT sensor is an negative temperature
coefficent (NTC) resistor which measures the
transmission fluid temperature.

7748/30/VF

 The PCM uses the transmission fluid


temperature for the following functions:
the TCC cannot be closed until the
transmision fluid reaches the specified
temperature,
in extreme sub-zero temperatures it is not
possible to shift to 4th gear until the normal
operating temperature has been reached,
if the transmission fluid temperature is too
high, a preset fixed shift curve is selected and
the TCC is closed in 2nd, 3rd and 4th gears;
if the transmission fluid temperature
continues rising, the powertrain warning
indicator is illuminated.

34

Service Training

Lesson 3 Sensors

TFT sensor

Diagnostics/substitute function
 In the event of a short circuit to ground or to
battery positive, the following substitute strategy
is adopted:

A
91

37

First, the value measured previously is


assumed to be valid.
After a defined length of time the cylinder
head temperature (CHT) sensor is used to
provide a substitute signal.
If the CHT signal lies above a defined level,
the value of the transmission fluid
temperature is assumed to be high to
protect the transaxle.
 The PCM cannot detect a malfunction within the
tolerance range of the TFT sensor.

7860/09/VF

A PCM
B TFT sensor
37 Signal line
91 Reference ground

 This can lead to undesired changes in shift


timing, inconsistent closing and opening of the
TCC and to harsh gear changes.

Service Training

35

O/D switch

Lesson 3 Sensors

Location
 The overdrive (O/D) switch is located on the
side of the selector lever.

Signal use
 The O/D switch sends the PCM a signal to select
or deselect 4th gear in selector lever position
D.
 The signal of the O/D switch is used for the
following functions:
as an input signal to the PCM to indicate the
drivers wishes,
to display the drivers wishes with the O/D
indicator in the instrument cluster.
7748/29/VF

Diagnostics/substitute function

30

 No substitute signal is available for the O/D


switch. In the event of failure, it is still possible
to shift to 4th gear in selector lever position D.

C
29

D
7860/10/VF

A
B
C
D

Fuse
Current holding relay
O/D switch
PCM

29 Signal line

36

Service Training

Lesson 3 Sensors

Test questions

Find the correct answer or fill in the gaps.


1.

For what is the TP signal NOT used by the PCM?

V
V
V
V
2.

d) To check torque converter slip.

a) TSS sensor
b) OSS sensor
c) TFT sensor
d) CKP sensor

a) the TSS signal is used as a substitute signal.


b) there is no substitute signal available; the engine stops.
c) the VSS signal is used as a substitute signal.
d) the CKP signal is used as a substitute signal.

The signal of the TR sensor is used for various functions. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

V
V
V
V
5.

c) To control the TCC.

In the event of failure of the OSS sensor

V
V
V
V
4.

b) To control the main line pressure.

Which of the following sensors has NO influence on the TCC control?

V
V
V
V
3.

a) To determine the shift timings.

a) To recognize the manual selector lever position.


b) To actuate the reversing lamps.
c) To operate the selector lever shift lock solenoid.
d) To transmit the starter motor current.

Which of the following possible faults in the TFT sensor cannot be detected by the PCM?

V
V
V
V

a) A malfunction within the measuring tolerance.


b) A malfunction outside the measuring tolerance.
c) A short circuit to ground.
d) A short circuit to battery positive.

Service Training

37

Notes

38

Lesson 3 Sensors

Service Training

Lesson 4 Actuators

At a glance

Objectives
On completing this lesson you will be able to:
 describe the operation of the solenoid valves and work out possible causes of the fault from the substitute
functions
 describe the operation of the air conditioning relay
 describe the operation of the selector lever shift lock solenoid and unlock the selector lever manually in the
event of a malfunction
 describe the operation of the ignition key lock solenoid
 describe the operation of the O/D indicator
 describe the operation of the powertrain warning indicator

Service Training

39

Solenoid valves

Lesson 4 Actuators

1
2
3

4
7860/19/VF

1 SSB
2 SSA
3 Main regulating valve

4 SSC
5 SSE
6 SSD

Location
 Six electronically operated solenoid valves are
located on the valve body in the fluid pan:
a main regulating valve,
three PWM solenoid valves (SSC, SSD and
SSE),
two shift solenoid valaves (SSA and SSB).

40

Service Training

Lesson 4 Actuators

Solenoid valves

Solenoid valve actuation


Selector lever position

Gear

SSA

SSB

SSC

SSD

SSE

On

Off

0%

0%

0%

Off

Off

0%

0%

0%

On

Off

0%

0%

0%

D1

Off

Off

0%

100%

100%

D2

Off

Off

0%

0%

100%

D3

Off

Off

0%

0%

0%

D3 TCC

Off

On

100%

0%

0%

D4

On

Off

100%

0%

0%

D4 TCC

On

On

100%

0%

0%

M2

Off

Off

0%

0%

100%

D3*

Off

Off

0%

0%

0%

D4*

On

Off

100%

0%

0%

M1

On

On

0%

0%

100%

D2*

Off

Off

0%

0%

100%

D3*

Off

Off

0%

0%

0%

D4*

On

Off

100%

0%

0%

N
R
D1
D2
D3
D3 TTC

Neutral
Reverse gear
1st gear (automatic)
2st gear (automatic)
3rd gear (automatic)
3rd gear (automatic) with torque converter
clutch
D4
4th gear (automatic)
D4 TTC 4th gear (automatic) with torque converter
clutch
M2
2nd gear (manual)
M1
1st gear (manual)

Service Training

NOTE:

For selector lever positions 2 and 1


the table also shows the actuation of the
solenoid valves in the event of
downshifting from selector lever position
D at high vehicle speed. (*)

41

Solenoid valves

Lesson 4 Actuators

Diagnostics/substitute function

A
81

44

73

102

99

82

7860/18/VF

A PCM
B Solenoid valves in valve body

 The PCM continuously checks the electrical


connections to the solenoid valves. Depending on
which fault is detected, dfferent limited operation
strategies are employed and a fault code is set.

1
44
73
81
82
99
102

SSB
Main regulating valve
SSA
Main regulating valve
SSC
SSD
SSE

CAUTION: Faults in the electrical connections


to the solenoid valves can lead to
serious transaxle damage.

 Faults in the electrical connections to the solenoid


valves can affect gear shifting adversely.

42

Service Training

Lesson 4 Actuators

Solenoid valves

Main regulating valve


Operation
 The main regulating valve controls the main line
pressure for the different operating conditions in
the individual transmission ranges.
 The main line pressure is controlled according to
the current engine load.
 The PCM supplies the main regulating valve with a
current of between approximately 0 and 1 amp
according to the required main line pressure. Here,
0 amps means maximum main line pressure.

Diagnostics/substitute function
 When the PCM detects that the main regulating
valve remains switched on all the time, fault code
P0747 is set.
 A main regulating valve which is switched on all
the time leads to slipping clutches at the time at
which the fault appears.
 When this is detected, the main regulating valve is
switched off.
 When the PCM detects that the main regulating
valve remains switched off all the time or is
temporarily disconnected, fault code P0746 or
P1760 is set.
 A main regulating valve which is switched off all
the time leads to harsh gear changes.

Service Training

43

Solenoid valves

Lesson 4 Actuators

Shift solenoid valves SSA and SSB


Operation
 The shift solenoid valves SSA and SSB are on/off
solenoid valves.
 When the shift solenoid valves are energized by the
PCM, hydraulic pressure is passed to the
corresponding hydraulic valves.
 When de-energized, the return from the hydraulic
valves is opened.
 SSA switches the hydraulic valve clutch control
and the hydraulic valve 34 shift.
 SSB switches the hydraulic valve M1 and R and
the hydraulic valve TCC control.

Diagnostics/substitute function
NOTE: In the following tables the upper line
indicates the gear shifted in normal
conditions. The lower line indicates the
gear actually shifted in the corresponding
fault condition.
 When the PCM detects that SSA remains switched
on all the time, fault code P0751 is set.

 When the PCM detects that SSA remains switched


off all the time, fault code P0750 or fault code
P0751 is set.
 The following gears are shifted:
R
N

D1 D2 D3 D3 TCC D4 D4 TCC M2 M1
1

3 TCC

 When the PCM detects that SSB remains switched


on all the time, fault code P0756 is set.
 The following gears are shifted:
R
R

D1 D2 D3 D3 TCC D4 D4 TCC M2 M1
1

3 TCC

3 TCC

 When the PCM detects that SSB remains switched


off all the time, fault code P0755 or fault code
P0756 is set.
 The following gears are shifted:
R
R

D1 D2 D3 D3 TCC D4 D4 TCC M2 M1
1

 The following gears are shifted:


R
N

44

D1 D2 D3 D3 TCC D4 D4 TCC M2 M1
1

Service Training

Lesson 4 Actuators

Solenoid valves

PWM solenoid valves SSC, SSD and SSE


 When the PCM detects that SSD remains switched
on all the time, fault code P0766 is set.

Operation
 The PWM solenoid valves SSC, SSD and SSE
control the pressure to the brakes and clutches.

 The following gears are shifted:

 The PWM solenoid valves are actuated by the


PCM with a fixed frequency of 50 Hz.

R
R

 The pressure is varied by modulating the time for


which the valve is switched on within a period
(pulse duty cycle) between 0% and 100%.
 A pulse duty cycle of 0% means that the pressure
channel to the clutches and brakes is opened; a
pulse duty cycle of 100% means that the pressure
channel is closed and the return is opened.

 The following gears are shifted:

3 TCC

1*

 When the PCM detects that SSD remains switched


off all the time, fault code P0765 or fault code
P0766 is set.
 The following gears are shifted:

 When the PCM detects that SSC remains switched


on all the time, fault code P0761 is set.

* without engine braking effect

R
Diagnostics/substitute function

D1 D2 D3 D3 TCC D4 D4 TCC M2 M1

D1 D2 D3 D3 TCC D4 D4 TCC M2 M1
2

3 TCC

 When the PCM detects that SSE remains switched


on all the time, fault code P0771 is set.
 The following gears are shifted:

R
R

D1 D2 D3 D3 TCC D4 D4 TCC M2 M1
4

4 TCC

R
R

 When the PCM detects that SSC remains switched


off all the time, fault code P0760 or fault code
P0761 is set.
 The following gears are shifted:

D1 D2 D3 D3 TCC D4 D4 TCC M2 M1
1

 When the PCM detects that SSE remains switched


off all the time, fault code P0770 or fault code
P0771 is set.
 The following gears are shifted:

R
R

D1 D2 D3 D3 TCC D4 D4 TCC M2 M1
1

R
R

Service Training

D1 D2 D3 D3 TCC D4 D4 TCC M2 M1
3

3 TCC

4 TCC

45

Air conditioning relay

Lesson 4 Actuators

Location
 The air conditioning relay is located in the
battery junction box (BJB) in the engine
compartment.

Operation
 The PCM applies ground to the control side of
the air conditioning relay depending on the air
conditioning control setting.
 This actuates the relay (R11) and the air
conditioning compressor clutch is engaged.

7748/46/VF

1 Battery junction box (BJB)


2 Central junction box (CJB)

 When the PCM registers a kickdown signal


(WOT, 95% open throttle), the ground in the
control circuit of the air conditioning relay is
switched off for a maximum of 15 seconds.

7748/35/VF

Battery junction box (BJB)

46

Service Training

Lesson 4 Actuators

Air conditioning relay

Diagnostics/substitute function

15

A
30

69

7860/17/VF

A
B
C
D
E
F

Fuse
Current holding relay
Air conditioning relay
PCM
Air conditioning compressor clutch diode
Air conditioning compressor clutch

69 Air conditioning relay (switch off signal)

 No substitute function is available for the air


conditioning relay.
 If a fault occurs, the air conditioning system will
not operate.

Service Training

47

Selector lever shift lock solenoid

Lesson 4 Actuators

Location
 The selector lever shift lock solenoid is located
in the selector lever bracket.
1

Operation
 When the ignition is switched on, the selector
lever shift lock solenoid is operated by
depressing the brake pedal (signal from the
stoplamp switch). This retracts the locking pin
and allows the selector lever to be moved out of
position P.

2
3

7860/22/VF

1 Solenoid
2 Locking pin
3 Manual release
Diagnostics/substitute function
30

 If the signal from the stoplamp switch is missing


or the ground connection is interrupted, the
selector lever can no longer be moved out of
position P.

B
C

P R N D 2 1

7860/23/VF

A
B
C
D

48

Fuse
Stoplamp switch
To ignition switch lock solenoid
Selector lever shift lock solenoid

Service Training

Lesson 4 Actuators

Selector lever shift lock solenoid

 The selector lever can be moved out of position


P by operating the manual release.
 For this, remove the cover of the release and
press a suitable object (for example an ignition
key) into the opening until the selector lever can
be moved out of position P.
NOTE: The selector lever will be locked again if
moved to position P again.

7748/48/VF

Service Training

49

Ignition key lock solenoid

Lesson 4 Actuators

Location
2

 The ignition key lock solenoid is incorporated in


the ignition lock.
1

Operation
 In selector lever position P the ground
connection to the solenoid is open. The locking
pin does not engage in the ignition lock. The
ignition key can be removed.
 In all the other selector lever positions the
ground connection to the solenoid is closed. The
locking pin engages in the ignition lock. The
ignition key cannot be removed.

7748/28/VF

Illustration of principle
1 Ignition lock
2 Solenoid
3 Locking pin

Diagnostics/substitute function
30

 A short circuit to ground means that the ignition


key can no longer be removed from the ignition
lock.

 If an electrical connection to the solenoid is cut,


the ignition key can be removed in all the
selector lever positions.

P R N D 2 1

7860/24/VF

A
B
C
D

50

Fuse
Ignition key lock solenoid
Selector lever shift lock solenoid
To stoplamp switch

Service Training

Lesson 4 Actuators

O/D indicator

Location
 The O/D indicator is located in the instrument
cluster and colored green.

Operation
 The O/D indicator is illuminated by the PCM
through the standard corporate protocoll (SCP)
databus after receiving the signal from the O/D
switch on the selector lever.

7748/42/VF

 It tells the driver that 4th gear is deselected by


the transaxle control system.
Diagnostics/substitute function
 No substitute function is available for the O/D
indicator.

A
15

16

 If the O/D indicator should fail, the driver will


no longer be informed that 4th gear has been
deselected.

B
C
D

7860/25/VF

A
B
C
D

PCM
Instrument cluster
Instrument cluster microprocessor
O/D indicator

15 SCP data line


16 SCP data line

Service Training

51

Powertrain warning indicator

Lesson 4 Actuators

Location
 The powertrain warning indicator is located in
the instrument cluster and is colored orange.

Operation
 It flashes to tell the driver that the transaxle
control system is in the limited operation
strategy or that the transmission fluid
temperature is too high.

7748/43/VF

NOTE: The powertrain warning indicator is also


illuminated in the event of the engine
overheating.
Diagnostics/substitute function
 No substitute function is available for the
powertrain warning indicator.

A
15

16

 If it should fail, any faults in the transaxle


control system or engine overheating are no
longer indicated to the driver.

B
C
D

7860/26/VF

A
B
C
D

PCM
Instrument cluster
Instrument cluster microprocessor
Powertrain warning indicator

15 SCP data line


16 SCP data line

52

Service Training

Lesson 4 Actuators

Test questions

Find the correct answer or fill in the gaps.


1.

In selector lever position D the solenoid valves are actuated in D3 without the TCC as follows:

V
V
V
V
2.

d) SSA off; SSB off; SSC 100%; SSD 100%; SSE 100%.

a) serious transaxle damage.


b) slipping clutches.
c) harsh gear changes.
d) no perceptible differences.

a) the selector lever can no longer be moved out of position P.


b) the selector lever can always be moved out of position P.
c) the transaxle control system switches to the hydraulic limited operation strategy.

What could make it impossible to remove the ignition key from the ignition lock?

V
V
V
5.

c) SSA on; SSB on; SSC 0%; SSD 0%; SSE 0%.

A break in the circuit of the selector lever shift lock solenoid means that

V
V
V
4.

b) SSA off; SSB off; SSC 0%; SSD 0%; SSE 0%.

A main regulating valve which is switched off all the time leads to

V
V
V
V
3.

a) SSA on; SSB on; SSC 100%; SSD 100%; SSE 100%.

a) A break in the circuit of the ignition key lock solenoid.


b) A short circuit to ground in the circuit of the ignition key lock solenoid.
c) A short circuit to battery positive in the circuit of the ignition key lock solenoid.

What function does the powertrain warning indicator perform which is NOT directly related to
control of the automatic transaxle?

V
V
V
V

a) Indication of excessive engine speed.


b) Indication of engine overheating.
c) Indication of an anti-lock brake (ABS) module malfunction.
d) Indication of an instrument cluster malfunction.

Service Training

53

At a glance

Lesson 5 Diagnostic instructions

Objectives
On completing this lesson, you will be able to:
 carry out a road test to check the shift timings as described in the service literature and work out possible causes
of the fault from the test results
 carry out the line pressure test as described in the service literature and work out possible causes of the fault
from the test results
 carry out the stall speed test as described in the service literature and work out possible causes of the fault from
the test results
 carry out the air pressure test as described in the service literature and work out possible causes of the fault
from the test results

54

Service Training

Lesson 5 Diagnostic instructions

Transaxle operation check

Shift point road test


NOTE: Refer to the current service literature for the
precise procedure and specifications.
 To check that the transaxle control system is
operating correctly, a road test must be carried out
to check the shift timings.

NOTE: Fault or diagnostic trouble codes indicating


faults in the vehicle wiring harness, the
PCM or sensors not related to the
transaxle must be rectified first.

 In addition to the shift timings, the operation of the


O/D switch and the TCC should also be checked
during the road test.
NOTE: Engine and transmission must be at normal
operating temperature for the test.
NOTE: It is recommended that the worldwide
diagnostic system (WDS) be connected
and that the appropriate signals be
selected in the datalogger to establish the
shift timings and ensure correct operation
of the throttle.

WARNING: The road test with WDS must be


carried out with two persons on safety
grounds. The passenger can monitor
the signals and note the appropriate
actual values. Failure to follow this
instruction may result in personal
injury.
 Incorrect shift timings indicate faults in the
transaxle control system.
 After the road test and before disconnecting
connectors the fault or diagnostic trouble codes
must be read out (KOEO, KOER).
 When fault or diagnostic trouble codes are present,
carry out the appropriate measures to rectify the
fault with reference to the service literature.

Service Training

55

Special testing procedures

Lesson 5 Diagnostic instructions

Line pressure test


NOTE: Refer to the current service literature for the
precise procedure and specifications.
 The object of the line pressure test is to make
sure that the line pressure lies within the
tolerance.
 If it lies outside the tolerance, this may indicate
hydraulic and mechanical malfunctions of the
corresponding components.
 Connect a pressure test gauge or the WDS to the
line pressure test connector.

TIA0005613

1 Line pressure test connector

 At idle speed note the line pressure in the


individual selector lever positions and compare it
with the specification.
 If the line pressure lies outside the tolerance, this
can be due to the following causes:

Test result

Possible cause

Line pressure too low in all selector lever positions

Fluid pump worn


Fluid leak at fluid pump or valve body
Malfunction of main regulating valve
Main line pressure regulating valve sticking

Line pressure too low only in D, 2 and 1

Fluid leak in circuit of 1st3rd gear clutch

Line pressure too low only in 2

Fluid leak in circuit of 2nd/4th gear brake band servo

Line pressure too low only in 1 and R

Fluid leak in circuit of reverse gear brake

Line pressure too low only in R

Fluid leak in circuit of reverse gear clutch

Line pressure too high in all selector lever positions

Malfunction of main regulating valve


Main line pressure regulating valve sticking
Transaxle control system in hydraulic limited
operation strategy

56

Service Training

Lesson 5 Diagnostic instructions

Special testing procedures

Stall speed test


NOTE: Refer to the current service literature for the
precise procedure and specifications.

WARNING: Before the stall speed test, check


the parking brake is working correctly
and apply it securely. Failure to follow
this instruction may result in personal
injury.
CAUTION: The stall speed test must only be
carried out after completing the line
pressure test with line pressure values
within the specification as otherwise
further transaxle damage may ensue.
CAUTION: Only maintain full throttle in each
selector lever position for a maximum
of 3 seconds.

 If the stall speed is too low, first check the engine


idle speed. If this is not correct, rectify the cause of
this first.
 If the engine idle speed is correct, remove the
torque converter and check the one-way clutch of
the stator for slipping.
 An excessive stall speed may be due to the
following causes:
Test result

Possible cause

Speed too high in D,


2 and 1

1st3rd gear clutch


slipping

Speed too high only in


2

2nd/4th gear brake band


slipping

Speed too high in 1


and R

Reverse gear brake


slipping

Speed too high only in


R

Reverse gear clutch


slipping

CAUTION: Release the accelerator pedal at


once and shift in Neutral if the
maximum permissible engine speed is
exceeded.
CAUTION: Between the tests in the individual
selector lever positions, let the engine
run at idle speed for at least 15
seconds to allow the torque converter
to cool.
NOTE: On completion of the stall speed test the fault
or diagnostic trouble codes P0712 and
P1783 (excessive transmission fluid
temperature) may be set. These must be
deleted with the WDS.

Service Training

57

Special testing procedures

Lesson 5 Diagnostic instructions

Air pressure test

2
1

10
5
7
8
6
9
7860/27/VF

Plate for transaxle air pressure test


1 Release 2nd/4th gear brake band servo
2 Apply 2nd/4th gear brake band servo
3 Apply 3rd/4th gear clutch
4 Apply reverse gear clutch
5 Torque converter bypass

6 Apply reverse gear brake


7 Torque converter filling
8 Apply 1st3rd gear clutch
9 Actuate 12 accumulator
10 Actuate ND accumulator

NOTE: Refer to the current service literature for the


precise procedure and specifications.

 Supply compressed air to the test connection of the


clutch to be checked.

 Even when the line pressure is correct, intermittent


shift faults can occur.
 These may be due to a malfunction in the clutches,
brakes or brake band.
 To locate the component concerned, the air
pressure test can be carried out with the appropriate
special tool.

NOTE: Only use a compressed air source supplying


controlled dry compressed air at 2.75 bar
(40 psi).
 A dull noise or a movement is perceptible when a
component is applied or released correctly.
 Whistling noises indicate a leaking seal or valve
ball.

 To apply the special tool, first detach the fluid pan


and drain off the fluid.
 Then detach the solenoid valve housing and install
the plate for the transaxle air pressure test with the
gasket as described in the current service literature.

58

Service Training

Lesson 5 Diagnostic instructions

Test questions

Find the correct answer or fill in the gaps.


1.

It is a prerequisite for a shift point road test that

V
V
V
V
2.

c) all the fault or diagnostic trouble codes have been deleted.


d) the transmission fluid has been changed.

a) a fluid leak at the reverse gear brake.


b) a fluid leak at the reverse gear clutch.
c) a worn fluid pump.
d) a malfunction of the main regulating valve.

Which test must be completed successfully before the stall speed test can be carried out?

V
V
V
V
4.

b) a comprehensive engine diagnostic check has been carried out.

Insufficient line pressure only in selector lever position R indicates

V
V
V
V
3.

a) the engine and transaxle have reached normal operating temperature.

a) Shift point road test.


b) Line pressure test.
c) Air pressure test.
d) Read out the diagnostic trouble codes.

What are possible causes of whistling noises during the air pressure test?

V
V
V
V

a) Sticking clutch or brake.


b) Blocked fluid channel.
c) Leaking gasket or valve ball.
d) Sticking accumulator.

Service Training

59

List of abbreviations
The abbreviations conform to standard SAE J1930 with the exception of those marked with an asterisk (*).

ABS

Anti-lock Brake System

MAF

Mass Air Flow

BJB*

Battery Junction Box

NTC*

Negative Temperature Coefficient

CHT*

Cylinder Head Temperature

O/D*

Overdrive

CJB*

Central Junction Box

OSS

Output Shaft Speed

CKP

Crankshaft Position

PATS*

Passive Anti-Theft System

DLC

Data Link Connector

PCM

Powertrain Control Module

EEC V*

Electronic Engine Control,


5th Generation

PWM*

Pulse Width Modulation

ESSC*

Electronic Synchronous Shift Control

SCP*

Standard Corporate Protocol

IAT

Intake Air Temperature

SS

Shift Solenoid

IFS

Inertia Fuel Shutoff

TCC

Torque Converter Clutch

KOEO*

Key On, Engine Off

TFT

Transmission Fluid Temperature

KOER*

Key On, Engine Running

60

Service Training

List of abbreviations
TP

Throttle Position

TR

Transmission Range

TSS

Turbine Shaft Speed

VSS

Vehicle Speed Sensor

WDS*

Worldwide Diagnostic System

WOT

Wide Open Throttle

Service Training

61

Answers to the test questions


Lesson 1 Preliminary checks

Lesson 4 Actuators

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

5.

Lesson 2 Transaxle control


1.

2.

Lesson 5 Diagnostic instructions

3.

1.

4.

2.

5.

3.

4.

Lesson 3 Sensors
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

62

Service Training

Notes

Service Training

63

Notes

64

Service Training