You are on page 1of 54

.

(. 2121/1993),
, .
(, ) , , , , ,
.

( )
,




:

:

:
,
,

:
:

-:
:

Copyright
Copyright..
.....
.....(
()
)

,
,,
, 2013
2013

,
,,
,
2015

2015

8560
8561
560/15
775/15
ISBN
ISBN (set)
(set)978-960-16-6460-6
978-960-16-6460-6
ISBN
ISBN(vol.
(vol.1)2)978-960-16-5047-0
978-960-16-5048-7

( ) 38, 104 37 A,
TH.: 210.36.50.000, 210.52.05.600, 801.100.2665 - FAX: 310.36.50.069
KENTPIKH : EMM. MENAKH 16, 106 78 AHNA, TH.: 210.38.31.078
YOKATATHMA BOPEIA A: KOPYTA (TEPMA ONTOY - EPIOXH B KTEO), 570 09
KAOXP EONIKH, T.. 1213, TH.: 2310.70.63.54, 2310.70.67.15 - FAX: 2310.70.63.55
Web site: http/www.patakis.gr e-mail: info@patakis.gr,


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

3
8 () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1 2 / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

4
9 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1 ( )
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 ( )
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57
60
67
73
79
91
99

10 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

104
106
117
134

11 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

142
143
146
151

12 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

155
156
157
164
169
179
195
214
226
234
240

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259



, . , !

.

, ,
,
.

.

,
.

,
.
,
. ,
,
, ,
.


. . 6992797955
thgarmpis@gmail.com

A 8

. , . ,
.
, .
, , .
, . .


.
.

( )
V m. H :
m
=
V
S.I. 1 kg/m3 .
V. m
,  =
= .
V
H .
.
.

p ( ) F
.
F
p =
.

S.I. 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 .
F ,
F
, p =
.
A
F = pA,
. .
(Atm).
pat = 1Atm = 105 Pa
9

.
, ,
.

.

F
.



(-).


:
p = gh
: .
h: , .
.

Pascal



. F .
.


F,
F

( ).
A

Pascal
()
.

,
pat .
Pascal,
. h :
p = pat + gh
10



, ( -),

( ).
, . .
.
:


.


.
.


:


,


,
.



.
, .

.
.
.


V t t.
V
=
t
S.I. 1 m3/s.
11


. t x,
V = A  x (1).
x
 =
(2).
t
V (1)
  x (2)
 =
=
 = .
t
t

.


.
A1 1 , A 2 2 . ,
.
m1 1 t m 2
 2 .
V1 , V2 m1 , m 2 .
m =   V (1),
V = A  x (2),
x =   t (3).
(2)
(3)
(2)
(3)
m1 =   V1 1  x1 11  t (4)
m 2 =   V2  2  x 2  2 2  t (5).
, , m1 m 2 (
).
.
(4)
m1 = m 2 (5) 11  t =  2 2  t  A1 1 =  2 2 (6) ( ).
 = , (6) 1 = 2  = .
.

, , :
m1 = m2 , V1 = V2 , A11 = 2 2 , 1 =  2 .
.
() ,
,
.
() , , .
,
. . m1
1 m2 2 , m1 = m2

,
( ), ( ).
, ( ),
( ) ( ).

12

(2 > 1 ).
, (A 2 < A1 ),
.

 BERNOULLI
.
, . y1 , 1 , p1
,

y2 , 2 , p2 ,

.
( I).

F1 = p1A1 F2 = p2 A 2
F1.
t m s1 ,
m, V, s2
.
-
, ( I) ( II).
, W. =  (1).
W. = W + WB (2), W ()
( ) WB , m
y1 y2 . :

WB = m g y2  y1 =   Vg y2  y1

(3), .

W = WF1 + WF2 = +F1  s1  F2  s2 = p1A1  s1  p2 A 2  s2

V = A1  s1 = A 2  s2 , W = p1  V  p2  V  W = p1  p2  V (4).


(2)

(3)
(4)

W. = p1  p2  V    Vg y2  y1

(5).

:
1
1
1
1
1
 =
m 22  m 12 =   V22    V12 =   V 22  12 (6)
2
2
2
2
2
(5)
1
1
1
(1) (6) p1  p2  V    Vg y2  y1 =   V 22  12  p1  p2  gy2 + gy1 = 22  12 
2
2
2
1 2
1 2
1 2
p1 + 1 + gy1 = p2 + 2 + gy2 p +  + gy = .
2
2
2
Bernoulli .
Bernoulli, :
 1

(p),  2 
 2

(gy) .

(
)

13

1 2
1 m 2

1
2 ,
 =

 =
.
2
2 V
V
2
m
U
gy , gy =
gy =
.
V
V
Bernoulli .
,
Bernoulli :
1
1
1
p1 + 12 = p2 + 22 p + 2 = .
2
2
2
, , , .
. , .
, 1 = 2 = 0, Bernoulli :
p1 + gy1 = p2 + gy2 p + gy = . ( ).

Torricelli
( )
h , .
Bernoulli ( )
( ), :
1
1
pE + 2 + gh = pK + 2 + 0 (1) (yE = y1 = h, yK = y2 = 0)
2
2
, , , pE = pK = pat (2).

,  = 0 (3).
(4)
1
1 2
(1) (2) pat + 0 + gh = pat + 2 + 0  gh =
   = 2gh .
2
2 
 = 2gh Torricelli :
H h
h.

A E A K .

A E  =      =   . A K << A E ,  <<  .


.

Bernoulli . ,
. 2 1 , 3 . Bernoulli,  2
1 , 3  ,
, , ,
. ,
.
14

Bernoulli .
, ,
.
().
,
.
.
, . ,
.


, , , .
.
.

. .
F . F
, ()
.
,
.
0 .
:
F
F
F 
F .

F F =  .

F
.
: S.I. 1 Ns/m 2 .
poise () = 1 dyns/cm 2 = 101 Ns/m 2
(1 dyn = 105 N, 1 cm 2 = 104 m 2 ).
.
, .

F =  . 
.
, , ,
.
R.

, .
15


.

m
V

p
pat = 1Atm
p.

kg
m3
kg/m3
N
m2
Pa = N/m 2
1tm = 105 Pa
Pa = N/m 2

m/s
m3/s

1 2

2

J/m3

gy

J/m3
Ns/m 2
m

.
m
m
=
(1)
V
V
F
F
p=
=
(2)
A
A
pat = 1Atm = 105 Pa (3)
p. = gh (4)
=

=

V
= A (5)
t

A1 1 =  2 2 1 = 2 (6)

Bernoulli

p1 +

1 2
1
 + gy1 = p2 + 22 + gy2 (7)
2 1
2

Torricelli

=

2gh

F = 




(8)
(9)

.
m
. ,
V
m
 =
= ., .
V

F
p =
, F

. F ,

 =

F
.
A
p. h
. p.
.
A11 =  2 2 1 =  2 .
1
1
p1 + 12 + gy1 = p2 + 22 + gy2 Bernoulli .
2
2
, , y1 = y2 = 0,
1
1
Bernoulli p1 + 12 = p2 + 22 .
2
2
, 1 = 2 = 0, Bernoulli p1 + gy1 = p2 + gy2
( ).

2
R A = R 2 =
.
4
V = Ah = R 2 h.
, p =

16


. 
.1

P AS C AL
1.

2.

3.
F
pB =
gh B
A
B

hB
hA

pA = pat + p.
pA = pat + gh

pA = p. = gh

pA =

F
+ gh A
A

4.

5. m

pA = p. + p.

pA = p. + .

pA =

Mg
+ gh
A

6.

pA = 0
p = 1gh1
p = 1gd1
pE = 1gd1 + 2 gh2
pZ = 1gd1 + 2 gd 2

.2

pA =

( M + m )g
A

+ gh

7.

pA =
p =
p =
pE =
pZ =

pat
pat + 1gh1
pat + 1gd1
pat + 1gd1 + 2 gh2
pat + 1gd1 + 2 gd 2


.
: p. = gh h
,
.

17

.3

 
( > )
1
2

h1

= 2 .
h2
1
: :

p = pat + 1g h1 + d  p = pat + 1gh1 + 1gd (1)


p = pat + 2 gh2 + 1gd (2). (1). (2) :
pat + 1gh1 + 1gd = pat + 2 gh2 + 1gd  1 gh1 = 2 gh2 (3) 

h1

= 2
h2
1

(4)

.
(pA = p ).
(3)
: pA = pat + 1gh1 p = pat + 2 gh2
pat + 1gh1. pA = p .
(pE  pZ ).
: pE = pat pZ = pat + 2 gh, pE  pz .

U . V = 998 kg/m3  .
 = 18,4 cm d = 1,56 cm. ;
g = 10 m/s2 1Atm = 105 Pa.

V = 998 kg/m ,  = 18, 4 cm = 0,184 m , d = 1,56 cm = 0,0156 m , g = 10 m/s2 , 1Atm = 105 Pa ,  = ; , pA = ;


3

p = pat +  g  + h = pat +  g +  gh (1)

p = pat +  g(  + d ) +  gh (2)

(1), (2)  pat +  g +  gh = pat +  g  + d +  gh 

 g =  g  + d    =   + d 
 =  


0,184
  = 998 
kg/m3   = 920 kg/m3
+d
0,1996

pA = pat +  g  pA = 105 + 998  10  0,184 Pa  pA = 101  836,32 Pa.


2
, , , pA = p .

) (

p = pat +  g d +  = 105 + 920  10  0,1996 Pa = 101.836,32 Pa.


pA = p = 101.836,32 Pa.

18

.4


, U  = 13.600 kg/m3 .
. h = 20 cm.
;
g = 10 m/s2 1Atm = 105 Pa.

 = 13.600 kg/m 2 , h = 20 cm = 0,2 m , g = 10 m/s2 , 1Atm = 105 Pa , p. = ;


,
p. = pA (1).
, , :
pA = p (2).

p = pat + gh = 105 + 13.600  10  0,2 Pa = 127.200 Pa 


p = 127.200 Pa (3).
(1), (2), (3) p. = 127.200 Pa.

.5

 h. F
:
F = p  
.

F = p   = gh  
F
h.


, , . :
F1 = p   = gh1  
F2 = p   = gh2  
F3 = pE   = gh3  
h3 > h2 > h1 , F3 > F2 > F1 .
,
,
.


 p. F
:
F = pA
.

F = pA = ghA
F
,


. F
.

m,
B V :
m
=
(1), V = hA (2), B = mg (3)
V
(1)
(3)
m
F = pA = ghA (2)
gV = mg
B.
V
F = B F < B 
(   ) .
19

r = 0,1 m,  = 0,4 m
 = 1.000 kg/m3 .
) .
)  = 106 m2
.
g = 10 m/s2 ,  = 3,14.

r = 0,1 m ,

 = 0,4 m ,

 = 1.000 kg/m3 ,

g = 10 m/s2 ,

 = 3,14

) F = ;
p p = g (1). A = r 2 (2).
(1)
F = pA (2) gr 2 = 1000  10  0,4  3,14  0,01 N = 125,6 N  F = 125,6 N.
)  = 106 m 2 , F = ;
p = gr (3).
:
F = p   = gr   = 1.000  10  0,1  106  = 103   F = 10-3 N

.6

( )
F1
A
= 1
F2
A2

d1
A
= 2
d2
A1

WF1 = WF2 = F1d1 = F2d2


(F1 ) (d1 )
(F2 ) (d 2 ).
F2 > F1 d2 < d1  2 > 1 .

, F1
A1. . F
p1 = 1 (1). Pascal,
A1
A 2 . ,
F
F2 , p2 = 2 (2). , Pascal
A2
(1)
F1
F
F
A
p1 = p2 (2)
= 2  1 = 1 (3).
A1
A2
F2
A2

B = F2 .
d1 ,
d 2 , V , .
d
A
V = A1d1 = A 2d 2  1 = 2 (4).
d2
A1
WF1 = F1d1  ( ) WF
F
d (3) A1 A 2
1
= 1  1 (4)

= 1  WF1 = WF2

WF2 = F2d 2 
WF2
F2 d 2
A 2 A1
.
:

20

m = 1.000 kg.
) F1
m;
) ,
d2 = 0,1 m;
) F1 , F2 . ;
R1 R 2 = 5R1 g = 10 m/s2 .
F1 F2
, .***

m = 1.000 kg , R 2 = 5R1 , g = 10 m/s2


) F1 = ;
F1

A1 = R12 (1). . F
p1 = 1 (2).
A1
Pascal,
A2 = R22 (3).
, F2 , p2 =

F2
A2

(4). -

, Pascal :
p1 = p2

(2)
(4)

F1
F
F
A
= 2  1 = 1
A1
A2
F2
A2

(1)
(3)

F1
R12
F1
R12
F
1
1
=

=
 1 =
 F1 =
F (5)
2
2
F2
F2
F2
25
25 2
R 2
25R1

( ), F2 = B = mg = 10.000 N.
(5)  F1 =

1
 10.000 N  F1 = 400 N.
25

) d 2 = 0,1 m , d1 = ;
d1 ,
d 2 , V , .
V = A1d1 = A 2d 2  R12d1 = R 22d 2  R12d1 = 25R12d 2  d1 = 25d 2  d1 = 2,5 m.
) WF1 = ; ,

WF2 = ;

WF1 = F1d1 = 400  2,5 J = 1.000 J  WF1 = 1.000 J


WF2 = F2d 2 = 10.000  0,1 J = 1.000 J  WF2 = 1.000 J
.

*** 2. 32.

21

B.
.7


1 = 2

A1 1 =  2 2

.
() , , .
m1 1 m 2
 2 , m1 = m2 . V1 = V2 .

1. h . 10 m
2 m/s. 2,5 m;

h = . , d1 = 10 m , 1 = 2 m/s , d 2 = 2,5 m , 2 = ;


, , . :
d
10
1 =  2  11 =  2 2  d1h1 = d 2 h2  d11 = d 2 2  2 = 1 1  2 = 2 
m/s  2 = 8 m/s
d2
2,5
2. . h1 = 2 m
1 = 0,8 m/s. 2 = 4 m/s;

h1 = 2 m , 1 = 0,8 m/s , 2 = 4 m/s , h2 = ;


d . , ,
. :

0,8
1 =  2  11 =  2 2  dh11 = dh2 2  h11 = h2 2  h2 = h1 1  h2 = 2 
m  h2 = 0,4 m
2
4
3. 1,44  103 m3 /s. 12
 =
cm.

) ;
)
1

. ;
4

 = 1,44  10 m /s ,
3

=

12


cm =

12


2

 10 m

)  = ;
, .
2
4
4  1, 44  103
 =    =
=
=
m/s   = 0,4 m/s.
2
4

122  104


1
) 1 = 0,4 m/s , A 2 =
A , 2 = ;
4 1
1
11 = 2  2  11 = 2  1  2 = 41  2 = 1,6 m/s.
4
22

4.  = 102 m3 /s. 10

1 =

cm.

) 1 ;
) .
) 0,45 m .
g = 10 m/s2 .

 = 102 m3 /s ,

10

1 =

cm =

10  102


m=

101


m,

g = 10 m/s2

) 1 = ;
:
A1 =

2
1


4



102
2
-2
 m 2 = 10 m 2  A = 10 m2
1
4
4
4

 = 11  1 =


102
=
m/s  1 = 4 m/s.
1
102
4

) ;
(2 > 1 ). , (A 2 < A1 ), .
) h = 0,45 m ,

A2 = ;

1
(1).
2
1 , 2 h = 0,45 m.
.... , , :
11 = 2  2   2 = 1

.... (, ): K .()    .(  ) = WB 
2 =

12 + 2gh

(2)

(1)  A 2 =

2 =

1
1
m
22  m
12 = +mgh 
22 
12 = 2gh 
22 =
12 + 2gh 
2
2

42 + 2  10  0,45 m/s  2 = 5 m/s

102 4 2 102 2

m =
m = 2  103 m 2  A 2 = 2  10-3 m2 .
4
5
5

A 2 :
 = 11 =  2 2   2 =


102 2
 2 =
m  A 2 = 2  10-3 m2
2
5

23

.8

( ) B ERNO UL LI
p1 +

1 2
1
 + gy1 = p2 + 22 + gy2
2 1
2

,
.
T y1 , 1 , p1 ,
. y2 , 2 , p2 , .

1.
, , h = 5 m.
2Atm
10 m/s, 1,82 Atm.
) ;
)
, ;
103 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 , 1Atm = 105 Pa.

h = 5 m , p1 = 2Atm = 2  105 Pa , 1 = 10 m/s , p2 = 1,82Atm = 1,82  105 Pa ,  = 103 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 , 1Atm = 105 Pa
) 2 = ;
1 2
1 2
ernoulli , , p1 +
1 + gy1 = p2 +
 + gy2 (1).
2
2 2
, y1 = 0 y2 = h.
1
1
1
1
(1)  p1 + 12 + 0 = p2 + 22 + gh  2  105 +
 103  102 = 1,82  105 +
 103 22 + 103  10  5 
2
2
2
2
200.000 + 50.000 = 182.000 + 50022 + 50.000  50022 = 18.000  22 = 36 m 2 /s2  2 = 6 m/s .
A
) 1 = ;
A2
, , :



6

3
1 =  2  11 =  2 2  1 = 2  1 =
 1 =
2
1
2
10
2
5
2.
. ,
5Atm  3Atm .
h , ;
103 kg/m2 , g = 10 m/s2 , 1Atm = 105 Pa.

p1 = 5Atm = 5  105 Pa ,

g = 10 m/s2 , 1Atm = 105 Pa , h = ;


1 2
1 2
Bernoulli , , p1 +
 + gy1 = p2 +
 + gy2 (1).
2 1
2 2
, y1 = 0 y2 = h.
, A1 = A2 = A (2).
(2)
, , 1 =  2  11 =  2 2
1 = 2 (3).
(3)
1
1
(1)
p1 + 12 + 0 = p2 + 12 + gh  p1 = p2 + gh (4) 
2
2
p1  p2
5  105  3  105
2  105
gh = p1  p2  h =
h=
m=
m = 20 m  h = 20 m.
3
g
10  10
104
24

p2 = 3Atm = 3  105 Pa ,

 = 103 kg/m3 ,

(4) Bernoulli p1 = p2 + gh.


p2 < p1 , h .
p = p1  p2 = gh, h.
3. .
1 = 18 cm2 ( )  2 = 6 cm2 .
1 = 4 m/s.
) 2 ;
) ;
103 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 , 1Atm = 105 Pa , .

A1 = 18 cm 2 ,

A 2 = 6 cm 2 ,

1 = 4 m/s ,

 = 103 kg/m3 ,

g = 10 m/s2 , 1Atm = 105 Pa

) 2 = ;
, , :

18
1 =  2  11 =  2 2  2 = 1 1  2 = 4 
m/s  2 = 12 m/s
2
6
) p1 = ;
1 2
1 2
1 + gy1 = p2 +
 + gy2 (1).
2
2 2
, , y1 = y2 = 0.
, p = pat = 1Atm = 105 Pa.


1
1
1
1
1
1
(1)  p1 + 12 = p2 + 22  p1 = p2 + 22  12  p1 =  105 +
 103  122 
 103  42  Pa =
2
2
2
2
2
2


5
5
= 100.000 + 72.000  8.000 Pa = 164.000 Pa = 1,64  10 Pa  p1 = 1,64  10 Pa.
Bernoulli , , p1 +

4. 20 m/s.
) p ;
) F A = 100 m2 ;
) ;
1,2 kg/m3 , 1Atm = 105 Pa.

 = 20 m/s ,  = 0 ,  = 1,2 kg/m , 1Atm = 10 Pa


) p = ;

. ,  = 0.
1 2
1 2
Bernoulli , , pB +
 + gy1 = p +
 + gy2 (1).
2 
2 
, , y1 = y2 = 0.
1
1
1
1
(1)  pB + 2 + 0 = p + 0 + 0  p  p = 2 p = 2  p =
 1,2  202 Pa  p = 240 Pa
2
2
2
2
) A = 100 m 2 , F = ;
p F F = A  p  F = 100  240 N  F = 24.000 N.
) pB = ;
, ,
p = pat = 1Atm = 105 Pa. p = p  p  p = p  p  pB = 100.000  240 Pa  pB = 99.760 Pa.
3

25

.9

V ENTO URI
1 =

2gh
2

 A1 
 A   1
2

( )

Ventouri .
A1 , A 2 h , .
, , .
pB = p1 = pat + gh1 p = p2 = pat + gh2 , :

p1  p2 = pat + gh1  pat  gh2 = g h1  h2 = gh  p1  p2 = gh (1)


, , 1 =  2  11 =  2 2  2 =
Bernoulli , , p1 +

1
 (2).
2 1

1 2
1
1 + gy1 = p2 + 22 + gy2 (3).
2
2

, , y1 = y2 = 0.
(3)  p1 +
p1  p2 =

gh =

1 2
1
 = p2 + 22
2 1
2

1 12 2 1 2

  1
2  22 1
2

(1)

(2)

gh =

p1 +

1 2
1 2
1 = p2 +  12 12 
2
2 2


1 2  12
1  2  1 
2
 2



1 2  12
2gh
1  2  1  12 =
 1 =
2  2
A12


1
A 22

2gh
2

 A1 
 A   1
2


A1 = 3A 2 ,

h = 0,1 m ,

1 =

2gh

26

 A1 
 A   1
2

g = 10 m/s2 ,
=

1 = ;

2  10  0,1
m/s =
32  1

2
m/s = 0,5 m/s  1 = 0,5 m/s.
8

.10

TO RRI C EL LI
.
 =

2gh

( , . 14 Torricelli)
.

Smax = h,

h
,  = gh ,  = 2gh ,  = 45
2
.
d=

.

, , ,
.

B.
Torricelli,
 =

2g h  d

(1).

d. x
, y
. :
1 2
x =  , x =  t (2), y = gt (3), y =
gt (4)
2
x = S y = d.
x=S
S
(2)
S =  t  t =
(5)

(5)
1
1 S2 (1)
gS2
S2
y=d
(4)
d = gt 2
d= g 2
d=
d=
 S2 = 4hd  4d 2  4d 2  4hd + S 2 = 0 (6)
2
2 
4g h  d
4 hd
d, -

,   0  4h
Smax = h (7).

 4  4S2  0  16h2  16S2  0  16S2  16h2  S  h, :

(6) S = Smax = h, 4d 2  4hd + h2 = 0  2d  h = 0  2d  h = 0  2d = h  d =


(1)
(5)

(8)

 =


h 
2g  h 
  =
2 


(7)

t=

(9)

 =

gh

2 + 2y

t=
(9)
(11)

h
g

2g

h
  =
2

(10). (3)

gh + gh =

(10)

2gh   =

gh

y = g

h
(8).
2

(9)
h
 y =
g

gh (11)

2gh .
27

1
m ,
h
d =
(8). .... , , :
2

(8)
1
1
2
2

=
W

K


=
W

m

m
=
+mgd

.... (, ):
 .()

.(  )
B


2
2
....
(9)
2
2
2
   = gh   =  + gh
 = 2gh

2
Bernoulli, Bernoulli , , :

1 2
1 2
p +
 + gy1 = p +
 + gy2 (12)
. 2
2
,
,

h
y1 = d =
(8) y2 = 0. , ,
Bernoulli
2
, p = p = pat (13).

(13)
(9)
1
h
1
(12)
pat + 2 + g
= pat + 2 + 0  2 = 2 + gh

2
2
2

2
 = 2gh   = 2gh .
.
(9), (11)  = y = gh ,  = 45.
.

Torricelli,
 =

2g h  h1

(1).

h1. ,
, :
x = S =  t (2) y = h1 =
(2)

(1)

S =

(3)

2h1
 S = 2 h1 h  h1
g

2g h  h1 

1 2
gt  t =
2 

(4)

(), S  = 2 h2 h  h2

(5).

, :

) = 2 h (h  h ) 
h (h  h ) = h (h  h )  h h  h = h h  h 
h h  h h = h  h  h( h  h ) = ( h  h ) ( h + h ) 

S = SA
1

(4)
(5)

2 h1 h  h1

2
1

2
2

2
1

2
2

h = h1 + h2 (6). h = h1 + d (7).
(6), (7)  h2 = d.

E AB = ZH,  S1 = S5 .
E  =
,   S2 = S4 .
E  =  ,
 S3 = Smax .

28

2h1
g

(3)

1. .
, h = 1,25 m ,  = 2 cm2 . 5 L;
g = 10 m/s2 .

h = 1,25 m , A = 2 cm 2 = 2  104 m 2 , V = 5 L = 5  103 m3 , g = 10 m/s2 , t = ;


Torricelli,  =
. 14).
 = 2  10  1,25 m/s   = 5 m/s.
 =  (1).  =
(1), (2)  A =

V
t

2gh (. -

(2).

V
V
5  103
t=
t=
s  t = 5 s.
t
A
2  104  5

2. . , h = 1,8 m , 10 cm2 ,
4  103 m3 /s.
)
.
) h 
.
g = 10 m/s2 .

h = 1,8 m ,

A = 10 cm 2 = 10  104 m 2 = 103 m 2 ,

 . = 4  103 m3/s ,

g = 10 m/s2

) ;
Torricelli, :
 =

2gh =

2  10  1,8 m/s = 6 m/s   = 6 m/s. :

  =     = 6  103 m3/s.  . = 4  103 m3/s.   >  . ,


, ()
.
) h = ;
, , .

4  103
 . =     . =    = .   =
m/s   = 4 m/s.

103
 2
42
 = 2gh  2 = 2gh  h =  =
m = 0,8 m  h = 0,8 m.
2g
2  10

29

. 11



h. .
T W. P. :
1
m2 + mgh
2
 1

=  2 + gh  A
 2


W. =
P.

1
Bernoulli , , :
1 2
1 2
pB +
 + gy1 = p +
 + gy2 (1)
2 
2 
,  = 0, ,  = .
, y1 = 0 y2 = h.
1
1
1 2
(1)  pB + 0 + 0 = p + 2 + gh  pB  p = 2 + gh  p =
 + gh (2).
2
2
2
m :
W. = pV

(2)

 1 2

 1 m 2 m 
1
1
2
2
 2  + gh  V =  2  V  + V gh  V = 2 m + mgh  W. = 2 m + mgh

F F = A  p
P. = F

(3)

(2)

 1

F =  2 + gh  A (3).
 2


 1

P . =  2 + gh  A.
 2


2
.... , m , :
.... (, ):  =
W  K  .(  )    .( ) = W . + WB 
1
1
m2  0 = W.  mgh  W. =
m2 + mgh (4)
2
2
:
 m2


+ mgh 
 2
 m
W. (4)
 2

P. =
(5)
P. =
 P. = 
+ gh  
t
t
2

 t
V
 =
= A (6).
t

(5)

30

( )

 V
m
=
t
t
(7)

=

V
t

(6)

 

m
=  (7).
t

 2

 1

P. = 
+ gh    P. =  2 + gh  A.
2
2






1.  = 1.000 kg/m3  = 900 kg/m3 .
d1 = 20 cm, d2 = 30 cm.
) -;
) ;
)  = 1 cm2
-.
) A = 400 cm2 .
)
264 N. ;
1Atm = 105 Pa, g = 10 m/s2 .

 = 1.000 kg/m3 ,
) p = ;

 = 900 kg/m3 ,

d1 = 20 cm = 0,2 m ,

d 2 = 30 cm = 0,3 m , 1Atm = 105 Pa ,

g = 10 m/s2

.1

p = pat +  gd1 = 105 + 900  10  0,2 Pa = 101.800 Pa 


p = 101.800 Pa
) p = ;

.1

p = pat +  gd1 +  gd 2 = 105 + 900  10  0,2 + 1.000  10  0,3 Pa =

= 104.800 Pa  p = 104.800 Pa
)  = 1 cm 2 = 104 m 2 , F1 = ; .5
,
p = 101.800 Pa p = pat = 1Atm = 100.000 Pa, . p1 = p  pE = 1.800 Pa. F1 :
F1 = p1   = 1.800  104  = 0,18   F1 = 0,18 N
) A = 400 cm 2 = 4  102 m 2 , F2 = ; .5
, p = 104.800 Pa
pZ = pat = 1Atm = 100.000 Pa, .
p2 = p  p = 4.800 Pa. F2 :
F2 = p2 A = 4.800  4  102 N = 192 N  F2 = 192 N
) F. = 264  , V = ;
d, p ,
F V = Ad (1).
F. = 264 . F = F. = 264 .
F
264
F = p   p =
 p  =
Pa  p = 6.600 Pa.
A
4  102
p = p  p  p = p + pZ  p = 6.600 + 100.000 Pa 
p = 106.600 Pa.

p = pat +  g d + d1 +  gd 2  106.600 = 100.000 + 900  10 d + 0,2 + 1.000  10  0,3 


106.600 = 104.800 + 9.000d  9.000d = 1.800  d = 0,2 m.
(1)  V = 4  102  0,2 m3  V = 8  10-3 m3 .
31

2.
A1 = 1 cm2 A 2 = 10 cm2 .
,
k = 1.000 N/m . .
)  = 0,1 m;
) .
) (1) .
g = 10 m/s2 .

A1 = 1 cm 2 ,

A 2 = 10 cm 2 ,

k = 1.000 N/m ,

g = 10 m/s2

.6

)  = 0,1 m , m = ;
 = 0,1 m, .
F1
, F1 = B = mg (1).
F
p1 = 1 (2).
A1
Pascal, . ,
F
F2 , p2 = 2 (3). ,
A2
(2)
F1
F2
F1
A1
F1
1
Pascal p1 = p2 (3)
=

=

=
 F2 = 10F1 (4).
A1
A2
F2
A2
F2
10
, F. = k  .
, F2 = F. = k   (5).
(4)

(1)
(5)

k   = 10mg  m =

k  
1.000  0,1
m=
kg  m = 1 kg
10g
10  10

) d = ;
d 2 =  = 0,1 m. d1 , d 2 ,
V , .
A
10
V = A1d1 = A 2d 2  d1 = d 2 2  d1 = 0,1 
m  d1 = 1 m.
A1
1
d = d1 + d 2  d = 1,1 m.
) WF1 = ;

, F. .
1
1
WF1 = WF . = U . =
k  2 =
 1.000  0,12 J = 5 J  WF1 = 5 J.
2
2

WF1 , WF2 WF1 = F1d1 WF2 = F2d 2 , .


.
32

3.
H = 2 m. h 10 cm2 ,
 = 2 m/s.
) h .
) ;
) 2tm, ,

.
1.000 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 , 1Atm = 105 Pa, 204 = 14,3, 240 = 15,5.

H = 2m,

A = 10 cm = 10 m ,
3

204 = 14,3 ,

 = 2 m/s ,

 = 1.000 kg/m3 ,

g = 10 m/s2 , 1Atm = 105 Pa ,

240 = 15,5

)  = ; , h = ; .10
 =    = 2  10-3 m3/s.
Bernoulli (
) ( ), :
1 2
1 2
pZ +
 + gy1 = p +
 + gy2 (1)
2 Z
2 
, ,
, pZ = p = pat (2).

,  = 0 (3).
, y1 = h y2 = 0.
(1)

(2)
(3)

1 2
2
22
 + 0  h =   h =
m  h = 0,2 m.
2
2g
2  10

pat + 0 + gh = pat +

) S = ; .10
d = H  h = 1,8 m. , , x = S =  t (4)
1 2
2d
gt  t =
 t = 0,6 s.
2
g
(4)  S = 2  0,6 m  S = 1,2 m
y=d=

) pZ = 2Atm = 2  105 Pa ,  = ; ,  = ; ,  = ; .10


Bernoulli , :
1
1
pZ +
 2 + gy1 = p +
 2 + gy2 (5)
2 Z
2 
() :
pZ = 2Atm = 2  105 Pa, p = 1tm = 105 Pa,
Z = 0, y1 = h, y2 = 0
1
(5)  pZ + 0 + gh = p + 2 + 0 
2
1
200.000 + 1.000  10  0,2 = 100.000 +
 1.000 2   = 204 m/s   = 14,3 m/s.
2
() :
S =  t  S = 14,3  0,6 m/s  S  = 8,58 m

 = S  S = 8,58  1,2 m = 7,38 m   = 7,38 m.


33

Bernoulli , , :
1
1 2
p +
 2 + gy1 = pE +
 + gy2 (6)
2 
2 E
, y1 = d = 1,8 m y2 = 0.
, , , :
p = pE = pat (7)
(7)
1
1
(6)
pat + 2 + gd = pat + 2 + 0 
2
2
1
1 2
2
2
2
 + gd = E   =  + 2gd   = 2 + 2gd 
2 
2
 = 204 + 2  10  1,8 m/s   = 240 m/s   = 15, 5 m/s.

 .... ,
Bernoulli .

4. 0,6 cm
10 m .
0,2 cm, 9 m/s.
) .
) ;
) .
) :
i) F1 F2
ii) W
V = 103 m3 .
)
.
 = 1.000 kg/m3 , 1Atm = 105 Pa, g = 10 m/s2 ,  = 3,14 .

r1 = 0,6 cm = 6  103 m ,
g = 10 m/s2 ,

r2 = 0,2 cm = 2  103 m ,

h = 10 m ,

2 = 9 m/s ,

 = 1.000 kg/m3 , 1Atm = 105 Pa ,

 = 3,14

) 1 = ; .7
A1 = r12 (1), A2 = r22 (2).
, , :
2

1 =  2  11 =  2 2

(1)
(2)

)  . = ;
 . = 11

(1)

r12 1 = 3,14  6  103

= 113,04  106 m3/s  . = 113,04  10-6 m3/s.

34

 r 
 1
r12 1 = r22 2  1 = 2  2   1 = 9    m/s  1 = 1 m/s
 3
 r1 

)  1 m /s =
2

) p1 = ; .8
Bernoulli , , :
1 2
1 2
p1 +
 + gy1 = p2 +
 + gy2 (3)
2 1
2 2
, p = p2 = pat = 1Atm = 105 Pa.
, y1 = 0 y2 = h
(4)
1
1
1
1
(3)
p1 + 12 + 0 = p2 + 22 + gh  p1 = p2 + 22  12 + gh 
2
2
2
2


1
1
p1 =  100.000 +
 1.000  92 
 1.000  12 + 1.000  10  10  Pa 
2
2


(4).

p1 = 240.000 Pa = 2,4  105 Pa = 2,4Atm.


) i) F1 = ; , F2 = ; Bernoulli, . 13
,
F1 = p1A1 o
F2 = p2 A 2 .

F1 = p1A1 = p1r12 = 2,4  105  3,14  6  103


F1 = 27,1296 N

F2 = p2 A 2 = p2 r22 = 105  3,14  2  103


F2 = 1,256 N

N = 27,1296 N 

N = 1,256 N 

ii) V = 103 m3 , W = ; Bernoulli, . 13


t m s1 , m, V,
s2 . W ()
( ) :
W = WF1 + WF2 = +F1  s1  F2  s2 = p1A1  s1  p2 A 2  s2  W = p1 A1  s1  p2 A2  s2 (5)
V = A1  s1 = A2  s2 (6).
(5)

(6)

W = p1  V  p2  V  W = p1  p2  V 

W = 2,4  105  105  103 J  W = 1,4  102 J = 140 J.


  
) 
=;,
 V  B

 U 
 t  = ;
B


1 2
1
1 =
 1.000  12 J/m3 = 500 J/m3 .
2
2
1 2
 K 

=
 = 500 J/m3 .

 V  B
2 1
gy1 = 0, y1 = 0.
 U 

= gy1 = 0.
 V  B

35

5. 0,2 m3/s 1 Atm.


H = 20 m.
) ;
) ;
) h = 15 m;
 = 103 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 , 1 Atm = 105 Pa.

 = 0,2 m3/s ,

H = 20 m ,

p1 = 1 Atm ,

 = 103 kg/m3 ,

g = 10 m/s2 , 1 Atm = 105 Pa

) 1 = ; .7
1 , 3 = 0 H = 20 m. .... ,
, :
1
1
.... (, ): K  .( )   
.(  ) = WB  m 32  m 12 = mgH 
2
2
1
2
0  m1 = mgH  1 = 2gH  1 = 2  10  20 m/s  1 = 20 m/s
2
) 1 = ;

.7

 = 11  1 =


0,2 2
 A1 =
m  A1 = 10-2 m2 .
1
20

) h = 15 m , A 2 = ; , p2 = ; .8
1 , 2 h = 15 m. .... , :
1
1
.... (, ): K .()    .(  ) = WB  m
22  m
12 = mgh 
22 
12 = 2gh 
2
2
2 =

12  2gh (1)  2 = 202  2  10  15 m/s  2 = 10 m/s



0,2 2
 = A 2 2  A 2 =
 A2 =
m  A 2 = 0,02 m2 .
2
10
1
1
 2 +  gy1 = p2 +
 2 +  gy2 (2).
2  1
2  2
, y1 = 0  y2 = h.

Bernoulli , , p1 +

1
1
1
1
1
 2 + 0 = p2 +  22 +  gh  100.000 +
 1.000  202 = p2 +
 1.000  102 + 1.000  10  15 
2  1
2
2
2
p2 = 100.000 Pa  p2 = 1 Atm

(2)  p1 +

(1)
1
1
1
1
 2 + 0 = p2 +  22 +  gh
p1 +  12 = p2 +  12  2gh +  gh 
2  1
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
p1 +  1 = p2 +  1   gh +  gh  p1 = p2  p2 = 1 Atm
2
2

(2)  p1 +

, , p = p = 1 Atm.

36

6.  = 0,1 m2 ,
m = 5,4 kg .
20 m/s.
) p ;
) F ;
) 2 , ;
. = 1,2 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 .

 = 0,1 m 2 ,

m = 5,4 kg ,

1 = 20 m/s ,

. = 1,2 kg/m3 ,

g = 10 m/s2 .

) p = ; .8
.
,  = 0 p = patm .
Bernoulli , , :
1
1
p +
. 2 + .gy1 = p +
 2 + .gy2 (1)
2
2 . 
, , y1 = y2 = 0.
1
1
1
(1)  p +  .
12 + 0 = p + 0 + 0  p  p =  .
12  p =  .
12 
2
2
2
1
2
p =
 1,2  20 Pa  p = 240 Pa.
2
) F = ; .5
p F
F = A  p  F = 0,1  240 N  F = 24 N.
) 2 = ;
1
 2 (2).
2 . 2
, F = 0  F = w  A  p = mg

p =

A

1
 2 = mg  2 =
2 . 2

2mg
 2 =
A.

(2)

2  5,4  10
m/s  2 = 30 m/s.
0,1  1,2

7. 1 kg/m3 .
120 m/s 100 m/s.
) p ;
)  = 50 m2 .
g = 10 m/s2 .
. = 1 kg/m ,
3

 = 120 m/s ,

 = 100 m/s ,

g = 10 m/s2

) p = ; .8
,
 . .
Bernoulli , , :
1
1
pB +
 2 + .gy1 = p +
 2 + .gy2 (1)
2 . 
2 . 
, , y1 = y2 = 0.
1
1
1
1
(1)  pB + . 2 = p + . 2  p = pB +
. 2 
 2 (2).
2
2
2
2 . 
37

Bernoulli , , :
1
1
p = pB +
. 2 
 2 (3)
2
2 . 
(2)
1
1
1
1
p = p  p (3) p = pB +  .
2   .
2  pB   .
2 +  .
2 
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
p = .     p =
 1 120  100 Pa  p = 2.200 Pa.
2
2

)  = 50 m 2 , m = ; .5
p F
F = A  p  F = 2.200  50 N  F = 110.000 N.
, :
F
F = 0  F = w  F = mg  m =
 m = 11.000 kg
g

, ( )
.

.

8. U . 24 m/s .
;
 = 800 kg/m3 , . = 1,2 kg/m3 , =
g = 10 m/s2 , 1 Atm = 105 Pa.

1 = 24 m/s ,

 = 800 kg/m3 ,

. = 1,2 kg/m3 ,

g = 10 m/s2 , 1 Atm = 105 Pa ,

h=;

.8

, . ,
(2 = 0)
(p2 = patm ).
Bernoulli , , :
1
1
p1 +
.12 + .gy1 = p2 +
 2 + .gy2 (1)
2
2 . 2
, , :
y1 = y2 = 0 ( , ).
1
1
(1)  p1 + .12 + 0 = patm + 0 + 0  p1 +
 2 = patm (2).
2
2 . 1
, , :
p = pE  p1 +  gh = patm (3)
 2
1
1
(2), (3)  p1 + .12 = p1 +  gh  .12 =  gh  h = . 1 
2
2
2 g
1,2  242
h=
m  h = 0,0432 m  h = 4,32 cm.
2  800  10

h p, p
(3) p = patm  p1 =  gh  h =
.
 g

38

9. . . 1 = 20 m/s.
) ;
) .
) h .
 = 103 kg/m3 ,
. = 1,2 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 , 1 Atm = 105 Pa.

1 = 20 m/s ,

 = 10 kg/m ,
3

. = 1,2 kg/m ,


3

g = 10 m/s2 , 1 Atm = 105 Pa

) p1 = ; .8
, .
,
(2 = 0)
(p2 = patm ).
Bernoulli , , :
1
1
p1 +
 2 + .gy1 = p2 +
 2 + .gy2 (1)
2 . 1
2 . 2
,
, y1 = y2 = 0.
1
1
.12 + 0 = pat + 0 + 0  p1 = patm  .12 
2
2


1
p1 =  100.000 
 1,2  202  Pa  p1 = 99.760 Pa.
2


(1)  p1 +

) ;
( )
p1 = 99.760 Pa.
patm = 100.000 Pa.
p = patm  p1 = 240 Pa
.
( .)
) h = ; .8
, ,  = 0,  = 0 pB = p1 = 99.760 Pa,
pE = patm = 105 Pa.
1
1
 2 +  gy1 = patm +
 2 +  gy2 (2)
2  
2  
, y1 = h  y2 = 0.
p  p1
(2)  p1 + 0 +  gh = pat + 0 + 0   gh = patm  p1  h = atm

 g
240
h=
m  h = 0,024 m  h = 2,4 cm.
103  10
Bernoulli , p1 +

39

10.  = 0,01 m2 h1 = 0,55 m h2 = 0,45 m.


)
;
)
.
) h1 h2 . h1 .
 = 103 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 , 1 Atm = 105 Pa.

 = 0,01 m 2 ,

h1 = 0,55 m ,

h2 = 0,45 m ,

 = 103 kg/m3 ,

g = 10 m/s2 , 1 Atm = 105 Pa

)  = ; ,  = ; .7, .8
Bernoulli ( ) ( ), :
1
1
pA +
 2 +  gy1 = p +
 2 +  gy2 (1)
2  
2  
, , , pA = p = pat (2).

,  = 0 (3).
, y1 = h2 y2 = 0.
(2)
1
1
(1) (3) pat + 0 +  gh2 = pat +
 2 + 0   gh2 =  2 
2  
2
 =

2gh2   =

2  10  0, 45 m/s   = 3 m/s.

 =    = 0,01  3 m3 /s   = 0,03 m3 /s.


)  = ; , p = ; .7, .8
, , :
1 =  2  A =    =  =

2gh2 (4)   = 3 m/s

Bernoulli ( ) , :
1
1
pA +
 2 +  gy1 = p +
 2 +  gy2 (5)
2
2  

,  = 0 (6).
, y1 = 0 y2 = h1 .
(2)
(4)
1
1
(5) (6) pat + 0 + 0 = p +  2 +  gh1
p = pat    2gh2   gh1 
2
2

p = at   g h1 + h2 (6)  p =  100.000  1.000  10  0,55 + 0,45  Pa  p = 90.000 Pa  p = 9  104 Pa.


) h1(max) = ;
p  0
h1 + h2 

40

(6)

pat   g h1 + h2  0   g h1 + h2  pat 

 100.000

pat
p
p
 h1  at  h2  h1(max) = at  h2  h1(max) = 
 0,45 m  h1(max) = 9,55 m.
 g
 g
 g
 1.000  10

8
1
8.1.1. :
)
)
)
) .
;

8.1.2. :
)
) ,

)
) .
;

8.1.3. :
)

)
)
)
.
;

)
) p = pat + gh .
;

8.1.7. p. h
:
)

8.1.8. :
)
)
)
) .
;

8.1.9. 8.1.4. :
)

)

)
) .
;

:
)
)
)
)
.
;

8.1.5. p :
)
)
)
)





.
;

8.1.6.
:
)

8.1.10. :
)
)

)
)
.
;
41

8.1.11. :
)

)
)

) , .
;

8.1.12. :
)
)
)
) .
;

8.1.13. :
) 1 =  2
) 11 = 2 2
) 11 = 2  2 ) A11 =  2 2
;

8.1.14. :
)
)
)
) ,
.
;

8.1.15. ,
m1 A1 t m 2
A 2
:
) m1 = m 2 ) m1 > m 2
) m1 < m 2
) m1  m 2
;

8.1.16. ,
:
) ,
) ,
) , ,

) , ,
.
;
42

8.1.17. :
) ,
) ,

) ,

) , .
;

8.1.18. Bernoulli :
)
)
)

)
.
;

8.1.19. H Bernoulli
:
) p + 2 + gy = .
1
) p +  + gy2 = .
2
1
) p + 2 + gy = .
2
1
) p +  + gy2 = .
2
;

8.1.20.
,
:
)
)
)
) .
;

8.1.21. Bernoulli, :
) ,
) ,


) ,


)
.
;

8.1.22.
, :
) ,

) ,

) Bernoulli,

) Bernoulli,
.
;

8.1.23. Bernoulli,
:
) ,

) ,

) ,

) ,
.
;

8.1.24.
Bernoulli.
:
)
)
)

)
.
;

8.1.25.
.
,

.

) .
)

, pat .
)
, pat .
;

8.1.26.
.
)
pat .
)
pat .
) .
) .
;

8.1.27.
.
,
:
)

) ()
) ().
;

8.1.28.
.
F , , . :
)

)
,
)
,

)

0 .
;
43

8.1.29.
. F
, ,

. F :
)

)
) 

)
.
;

8.1.30.
.
F ,
,
. F :

) F = A
) F = A



) F = A
) F = 


;

8.1.31. F = A


:


)
)

)
) .
;

8.1.32.
R :
)
)
) ,
) ,
.
;

8.1.33. :
)

)
)
)
.
;

2
8.2.1.


. , , ,
h :
) p = p = p = p
) p > p > p > p
) p < p < p < p
.

8.2.2.

44

. .

:
) F > F > F > F
) F < F < F < F
) F = F = F = F
.

8.2.3. U
,
1 2 . :


h1
= 1
h2
2


h1
= 2
h2
1

h1
2
h
2
= 12
) 1 = 22
h2
h2
2
1
.
)

8.2.4. , , U,
1 = 1.000 kg/m3 .

2 = 800 kg/m3 ,

h = 5 cm. :
) 1 cm
) 2 cm
) 4 cm ) 5 cm
.

8.2.5. h = 3 m
R =

10


d
:
) 5 cm
) 20 cm
) 10 cm
) 15 cm
.

8.2.8.


d1
d 2 .
WF1 , WF2
:
WF1
WF1
A
A
)
)
= 1
= 2
WF2
A2
WF2
A1
WF1
WF1
)
)
=1
<1
WF2
WF2
.

cm.


1.030 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 .

:
) 200  ) 273 
) 300 
) 309 
.

8.2.6.

 2 = 101.


F1 = 5 N,
F2
:
) 0,5  ) 5 
) 10  ) 50 
.

8.2.7.

F1 = 4 N
F2 = 12 N.

d1 , d 2 = 5 cm.

8.2.9. h .
8 m
1,5 m/s.
2 m
:
) 1,5 m/s ) 3 m/s ) 4,5 m/s ) 6 m/s
.

8.2.10. .
h1 = 2 m
1 = 2 m/s.
, 0,5 m,
:
) 0,5 m/s
) 1 m/s
) 4 m/s ) 8 m/s
.

8.2.11.
2 m/s.

1/3. :
2
)
m/s ) 4 m/s ) 6 m/s ) 8 m/s
3
.

45

8.2.12. 1 = 4 m/s. 1 = 9 cm 2 .

2 = 6 m/s, :
) 6 cm 2 ) 12 cm 2 ) 3 cm 2
) 27 cm 2
.

8.2.13.
1 = 2 cm
20 , 2 = 0,2 cm .
1 = 0,5 m/s,
:
) 1 m/s
) 2 m/s ) 2,5 m/s ) 5 m/s
.

8.2.14.

4:1. 1 , 1  2 , 2
1  2 , :
) 1 = 4 2 1 = 42
)  2 = 41 2 = 41
) 1 =  2 1 = 42
) 1 =  2 2 = 41
.

8.2.15. 10 m3/s
8,64  107 m3 . :
) 100
) 120
) 150
) 200
.

8.2.17. (
m3/s)

.
:
) 6 m3/s
) 6 m3/s
) 8 m3/s
) 8 m3/s
.

8.2.18. .
:
)
) ( )
) ( ).
.

8.2.19.
.

:
) ) ) .
.

8.2.20.
:
)
) .
.

8.2.21. 8.2.16. 4 m/s. g = 10 m/s2 ,


:
) 0,4 m ) 0,8 m
) 1 m ) 1,2 m
.

46

h 1.

2h,  2 .
, :
) 1 >  2 ) 1 =  2
) 1 <  2
.

8.2.22.

8.2.25. -


.

,

:
) ) ) .
.


10 m/s. ,
1,2 kg/m3 ,
, 1tm = 105 Pa.
A. p
:
) 20 Pa
) 30 Pa
) 40 Pa
) 60 Pa
. F
 = 50 m 2 :
) 2.000  ) 3.000 
) 4.000  ) 5.000 
.

8.2.26.

8.2.23.

3 > 1 >  2 .
. (1), (2), (3) :
) 1 =  2 =  3
)  2 > 1 >  3
)  2 < 1 <  3
. (1), (2), (3) :
) p1 = p2 = p3
) p2 > p1 > p3
) p2 < p1 < p3
. , ,
:
) h1 = h2 = h3
) h2 > h1 > h3
) h2 < h1 < h3
.

.

1 , , ,
 2 .
. :
)  =  =  = 
)  >  =  = 
)  >  >  > 
)  >  >  > 
. :
) p = p = p = p
) p > p > p > p
) p > p > p > p
) p > p > p > p
.

8.2.27.

8.2.24.



. , 3Atm
2Atm .
103 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 1Atm = 105 Pa. h , :
) 5 m ) 10 m ) 15 m ) 20 m
.


. ,
.
, :
) h1 = h2
) h1 > h2
) h1 < h2
.
47

8.2.28. A1
1. F1
, ,

1.  2 ,

F2 ,
. :
) F2 = 2F1 ) F2 = 4F1 ) F2 = 8F1 ) F2 = 16F1
.

A
8.3.1. 100 m . , 1 m 0,6 m, ;
1.020 kg/m3 , 1Atm = 105 Pa, g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.2.  =

20

cm

 = 1.000 kg/m 2  = 920 kg/m3 .
d1 = 10 cm, d 2 = 20 cm.
) -;
) ;
) ; (
.)
g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.3.  = 1.000 kg/m3  = 800 kg/m3 .


d1 = 30 cm, d 2 .
103.400 Pa.
) -;
) d 2 ;
) F1  = 2 cm 2
-.
)
F2 = 34 N.
1Atm = 105 Pa, g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.4. 4 cm 2 .
d1 = 0,1 m. . 2 , d
, ;
1.000 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.5. U .  = 1.000 kg/m3  = 900 kg/m3 .


- d = 0,1 m.
) .
) ;
) ;
1Atm = 105 Pa, g = 10 m/s2 .
48

20

8.3.6. h = 10 m R =

cm.

) ;
)
.
1.030 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.7.
U,
 = 13.600 kg/m3 .
.
p. = 154.400 Pa, h.
1Atm = 105 Pa, g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.8.
m = 2.000 kg.
) F1 m;
)
d 2 = 0,01 m;
) F1 , F2 . ;
R1 R 2 = 8R1 , g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.9. ,
A1 A 2 = 5A1. ,
k .
.
m = 2 kg,  = 0,1 m.
) k ;
) .
) (1) .
g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.10. 1 =
1 = 4 m/s.
) ;

10


cm.

) , 2 =

5


cm. -

;
) , ;

8.3.11. 1,44  103 m3/s. 1 = 0,4 m/s.


) 1 ;
) .
) 0,192 m .
g = 10 m/s2 .

49

8.3.12.
. 3Atm 8 m/s, 2,84Atm.
, A1 = 10 cm 2
A 2 = 20 cm 2 .
) ;
) ;
) h , ;
)
, , F1 ()
F2 ()
.
)
.
 = 1.000 kg/m3 , 1Atm = 105 Pa, g = 10 m/s2 .
.

8.3.13.
. 1,82Atm 6 m/s, 10 m/s.
5 cm 2 .
, h = 5 m.
) ;
) .
)
, , W
V = 103 m3 .
 = 1.000 kg/m3 , 1Atm = 105 Pa, g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.14.  = 8  103 m3/s .


A = 103 m 2 .
) , ;
) , 4tm 3tm ,
h , ;
)
, , W m = 1 kg.
 = 1.000 kg/m3 , 1Atm = 105 Pa, g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.15.  = 48  104 m3/s. -

A1 = 12 cm 2 (
) A 2 . 2,2Atm.
) 1 ;
) 2 ;
)  2 .
 = 1.000 kg/m3 , 1Atm = 105 Pa.

50

8.3.16. , 30 m/s.
) p ;
) F A = 100 m 2 ;
) ;
, 1,2 kg/m3 , 1Atm = 105 Pa, g = 10 m/s2
.

8.3.17.  = 2,4  103 m3/s.

A1 , A 2 , 1 = 2 2 .
1,26Atm, 1,2Atm.
) 1 , 2 , .
) 1 ,  2 , .
 = 1.000 kg/m3 , 1Atm = 105 Pa.

8.3.18. Ventouri
. A1 , A 2
A1 = 2A 2 h = 0,15 m, h
, .
) , ;
) 1 ;
) ;
 = 1.000 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.19. .
h = 0,8 m 3 cm 2 .
) ;
) 4,8 L;
g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.20. . ,
h = 0,8 m , A = 20 cm 2 ,
6  103 m3/s.
) .
) h ,
.
) A1 = 1,5 m 2 ,

( ).
g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.21. . , h = 1,8 m ,
10 cm 2 ,
8  103 m3/s.
) .
) ;
 = 3,2 m, g = 10 m/s2 .

51

8.3.22.
H = 1,25 m. , h = 0,45 m
,
20 cm 2 , .
)
.
)
;
) ;
)  ;
g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.23.
h = 0,9 m. , d
, , .
) d

Smax ;
) .
) 
. ;
g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.24. H = 5 m. 1 Atm 0,04 m 2 .


) ;
) ;
) h = 1,8 m;
 = 103 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 , 1 Atm = 105 Pa.

8.3.25.  = 0,2 m 2 . 10 m/s.


) p ;
) F ;
) ,
;
. = 1,2 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.26. 0,8 kg/m3.


100 m/s 80 m/s.
) p ;
)  = 60 m 2 , .
g = 10 m/s2 .

8.3.27. U .
18 m/s .
;
 = 900 kg/m3 , . = 1,2 kg/m3 ,
g = 10 m/s2 , 1 Atm = 105 Pa.

52

8.3.28. . .
1 = 25 m/s.
) ;
) .
) h .
 = 103 kg/m3 ,
. = 1,2 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 , 1 Atm = 105 Pa.

8.3.29.  = 0,02 m 2 .  = 4 m/s.


8  104 Pa.
) h2 ;
) ;
) h1;
) h1 h2 .
h1 .
 = 103 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 , 1 Atm = 105 Pa.

8.3.30. A = 40 cm 2 h = 10 m.  = 4 m/s.
) ;
) 500 kg .
)
, 500 kg ;
 = 1.000 kg/m3 , g = 10 m/s2 .

53