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LTE Radio Access, Rel RL30,

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LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline


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LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

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DN0951772
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LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Table of contents
This document has 51 pages.

DN0951772

Summary of changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
2.1.6

Scope of LTE access dimensioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


LTE Access Network Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S1_U Interface (eNB SAE-GW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S1_MME Interface (eNB MME). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X2_U Interface (Source eNB Target eNB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X2_C Interface (Source eNB Target eNB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O&M Interface (eNB O&M System) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S-Plane interface (eNB Signal Reference Clock) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

4
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.2

LTE access dimensioning workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Definition of input parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radio-related Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LTE traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
QoS settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signaling inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front mile input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Definition of output parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
5.1
5.2

General concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Dimensioning based on traffic demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Dimensioning based on the Radio interface throughputs . . . . . . . . . . . 19

6
6.1
6.2
6.3

U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces . . . . . . . . . . .


S1_U and X2_U dimensioning based on the user traffic demand . . . . .
S1U and X2U dimensioning based on the Radio interface troughput . .
U-Plane traffic dimensioning - Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21
21
26
31

7
7.1
7.2
7.3

C-Plane dimensioning: S1_MME and X2_C interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . .


General concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C-Plane dimensioning based on the user traffic demand . . . . . . . . . . .
C-Plane dimensioning based on the Radio interface throughput. . . . . .

32
32
32
37

O&M I/F dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

9
9.1
9.2

S-plane dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Timing over Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Synchronous Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

10

Resulting eNB transport capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

11

Front mile dimensioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

12

LTE access dimensioning example: eNB transport capacity vs. expected


user traffic demands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

13

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

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LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

List of figures
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15

Figure 16
Figure 17
Figure 18
Figure 19
Figure 20

LTE Access Network reference architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8


U-Plane (UP), C-Plane (CP) and M-Plane (MP) protocol stacks in LTE Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
LTE Access interface dimensioning components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
LTE Access dimensioning workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
LTE Access interface dimensioning flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
S1_U dimensioning with RT traffic using M/D/1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
S1_U dimensioning with NRT traffic using M/G/R-PS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Relation between cell radius (R) and inter-site distance (ISD) . . . . . . . . 25
Dimensioning U-Plane traffic - the "All Average" option . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Dimensioning the U-Plane traffic - the "All Average / Single Peak" option .
27
Dimensioning based on the Radio IF troughput - the Single Peak plus Allbut-one-Avarage option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Dimensioning the U-Plane traffic - the "All Peak" option. . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
U-Plane traffic distribution within the eNB: a) logical distribution,
b) mapping to the transport capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
General concept of control plane traffic load calculations in LTE access
network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Distribution of the eNB traffic between UL and DL parts of the eNB transport sub-module: a) logical flow distribution, b) allocation to the eNB transport sub-module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Front Mile S1_U dimensioning with RT traffic using M/D/1. . . . . . . . . . . 44
Front Mile S1_U dimensioning with NRT traffic using M/G/R-PS . . . . . . 45
Source of statistical multiplexing gain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Calculated eNB transport capacity based on user traffic demand . . . . . 48
eNB transport capacity vs. user traffic growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

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LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

List of tables
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Table 8
Table 9
Table 10
Table 11
Table 12
Table 13
Table 14
Table 15
Table 16
Table 17
Table 18
Table 19
Table 20
Table 21

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LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Configuration settings . . . . . . . . . . . 14


LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Radio-related inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Traffic model inputs - LTE User Profile
15
LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Traffic model inputs - Real Time
Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Traffic model inputs - Non-Real Time
Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Traffic model inputs - User traffic
demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Traffic model inputs - QoS settings 17
LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Signaling inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Traffic model inputs - Front mile inputs
18
Interface dimensioning outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Dimensioning based on the user traffic demand vs. dimensioning based on
the Radio interface throughput - comparative analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Event load: Attach/Detach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Event load: Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Cell size: default values per Clutter type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Event load: Tracking Area Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Event load: State Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Event load: LTE Active to LTE Idle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Event load: LTE Active to LTE Idle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Dimensioning inputs: User traffic demand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Dimensioning inputs: Radio interface throughputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
eNB transport capacity: Dimensioning based on user traffic demand vs.
Radio interface throughputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

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LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Summary of changes

1 Summary of changes
Issue History
Issue
number

Date of issue

01B

2010-06-22

Reason for update


Figure LTE Access dimensioning workflow updated
Figure U-Plane traffic distribution within the eNB: a)
logical distribution, b) mapping to the transport
capacity updated
In LTE access dimensioning example: eNB transport
capacity vs. expected user traffic demands, list
describing LTE traffic profile updated
Figure Calculated eNB transport capacity based on
user traffic demand updated

01C

2010-10-11

Figure LTE Access dimensioning workflow updated


All chapters: editorial changes
Chapter: S-Plane interface (eNB Signal Reference
Clock) deleted

01D

2010-11-19

Table Frequency of selected signaling events for


default settings of TM parameters updated
Figure Distribution of the eNB traffic between UL and
DL parts of the eNB transport sub-module: a) logical
flow distribution, b) allocation to the eNB transport
sub-module modified

03 DRAFT

2011-06-22

New issue for RL30 pre-release


All chapters editorial changes.
New chapter: Front mile dimensioning added

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Scope of LTE access dimensioning

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

2 Scope of LTE access dimensioning


By convention used in this document, LTE Access Network provides the interconnection
between Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) and Evolved Packet Core (EPC) domains.
Figure 1 LTE Access Network reference architecture shows the LTE Access Network
reference architecture. It comprises the following logical interfaces:

S1_U: User data transport between eNB and S-GW (GTP-U tunneling)
S1_MME: Signaling transport between eNB and Mobility Management Entity
(MME) (S1AP protocol)
X2_U: User data transport between eNB nodes during handover (GTP-U tunneling)
X2_C: Signaling transport between eNB nodes (X2AP protocol)
O&M i/f: Transport of O&M data between eNBs and O&M System

LTE Access dimensioning covers only the interfaces at the eNB side (i.e. last mile), as
indicated in Figure 1 LTE Access Network reference architecture.
NOTE:

Dimensioning of the LTE Access interfaces at the EPC side is out of


scope of this document.

This guideline describes the overall dimensioning process and covers all relevant points
important for dimensioning: definition of input and output parameters, dimensioning
workflow and possible limitations coming from the LTE network and LTE network elements.
The baseline for LTE specification as used in this guideline is the feature set of LTE
RL20 Release.

Figure 1

LTE Access Network reference architecture

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2.1

Scope of LTE access dimensioning

LTE Access Network Reference Model


Overview of the LTE Access interfaces for U-Plane, C-Plane and M-Plane, together with
the involved protocol stacks can be seen in Figure 2 U-Plane (UP), C-Plane (CP) and
M-Plane (MP) protocol stacks in LTE Access.

2.1.1

S1_U Interface (eNB SAE-GW)


The S1_U interface is used for transport of user data between the eNB and SAE-GW
using GTP-U protocol. Each S1 bearer consists of a pair of GTP-U tunnels (one for
uplink and one for downlink). The eNB performs mapping between Radio Bearer IDs
(RBID) and GTP-U Tunnel Endpoints. The GTP-U protocol is defined in [TS29.281], see
References 1., and its position in the protocol stack is shown in Figure 2 U-Plane (UP),
C-Plane (CP) and M-Plane (MP) protocol stacks in LTE Access.

2.1.2

S1_MME Interface (eNB MME)


The S1_MME interface is used for transferring signaling information between the eNB
and MME using S1-AP protocol see References 2. [TS36.413]. It is used for S1 bearer
management, mobility and security handling and transport of NAS signaling messages
between the UE and MME. S1_MME protocol stack is shown in Figure 2 U-Plane (UP),
C-Plane (CP) and M-Plane (MP) protocol stacks in LTE Access.

2.1.3

X2_U Interface (Source eNB Target eNB)


The X2_U interface is used for forwarding user data between the source eNB and target
eNB during inter-eNB handovers. A GTP-U tunnel is established across the X2 between
the source eNB and the target eNB. Thus the protocol stack is the same as for S1_U
(Figure 2 U-Plane (UP), C-Plane (CP) and M-Plane (MP) protocol stacks in LTE
Access).

2.1.4

X2_C Interface (Source eNB Target eNB)


The X2_C interface is used for transferring signaling information between neighboring
eNBs using the X2-AP protocol, see References 3. [TS36.423]. This signaling is used
for handovers and inter-cell RRM signaling. X2_C protocol stack is shown in Figure 2 UPlane (UP), C-Plane (CP) and M-Plane (MP) protocol stacks in LTE Access.

2.1.5

O&M Interface (eNB O&M System)


O&M interface is used for transferring M-Plane traffic from the O&M system to the eNB.
M-Plane traffic (messaging and data) can be based on UDP or TCP protocol stacks, as
indicated in Figure 2 U-Plane (UP), C-Plane (CP) and M-Plane (MP) protocol stacks in
LTE Access.

2.1.6

S-Plane interface (eNB Signal Reference Clock)


This is an optional interface used for synchronizing an eNB with the reference clock's
signal according to Timing over Packet (ToP) standard. Since the synchronization traffic
is negligible within the total eNB traffic, dimensioning of the S-Plane interface will not be
handled here.

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Scope of LTE access dimensioning

Figure 2

10

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

U-Plane (UP), C-Plane (CP) and M-Plane (MP) protocol stacks in LTE
Access

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LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Introduction

3 Introduction
LTE Access dimensioning allows determining the required transport capacity of the BTS
on the following logical LTE interfaces:

S1_U: User data transport between eNB and SAE-GW


S1_MME: Signaling transport between eNB and MME
X2_U: User data transport between eNB nodes during handover
X2_C: Signaling transport between eNB nodes
O&M i/f: Transport of O&M data between eNBs and O&M System

Note that these are logical interfaces which share the physical transport interface at the
eNB. Specification of the transport capacity requirements for these interfaces is of the
utmost importance if the operator does not have its own transport infrastructure and has
to use leased lines. eNB transport capacity components subject to dimensioning are
shown in the following figure.In the following sections the LTE Access dimensioning
workflow is described.

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11

Introduction

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Figure 3

12

LTE Access interface dimensioning components

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LTE access dimensioning workflow

4 LTE access dimensioning workflow


Figure 4 LTE Access dimensioning workflow depicts the consecutive steps in the LTE
Access dimensioning process.
The dimensioning starts with specifying dimensioning inputs. These include the LTE
traffic profile, and radio-related inputs. For a detailed description of the input parameters
please refer to Definition of input parameters.
Next, the actual dimensioning follows covering all the above-mentioned interfaces at the
eNB side. As the result a set of dimensioning outputs is provided, i.e. the required transport capacity for the eNB along with the capacity split per logical interfaces. A detailed
description of the output parameters is provided in Definition of output parameters.

Figure 4

4.1

LTE Access dimensioning workflow

Definition of input parameters


The following groups of inputs are defined:

Configuration settings
Radio-related Inputs
LTE traffic model
QoS settings
Signaling inputs
Front mile inputs

They will be described in the following sub-sections.

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LTE access dimensioning workflow

4.1.1

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Configuration settings
This group of inputs specifies the configuration settings and is valid for calculation methodology basing on Dimensioning based on the Radio interface throughputs.

Configuration settings
parameters

Default value

Comment
Specifies the selected Radio dimensioning option.
Possible alternatives:

Radio dimensioning option

All-Avarage /
Sngle-Peak

Radio protocol overhead for


Radio dim option [%]

2%

Protocol overhead on the Radio interface for the Radiobased dimensioning (PDCP/RLC/MAC)

Transport protocol overhead for


Radio dim option [%]

28%

Protocol overhead on the S1/X2 interface for the Radiobased dimensioning (GTP-U/UDP/IP/Eth)

3%

A simplified X2 U-Plane dimensioning approach is used,


where the X2 U-Plane traffic is calculated as a percentage
of the total S1 U-Plane traffic. Recommended default
values have been obtained based on the analysis of the
user mobility model [Random_Direction_Model].

X2 U-Plane traffic as a percentage of the total S1 U-Plane


traffic [%]
C-Plane traffic as a percentage
of the U-Plane traffic [%]

Table 1

3%

All-Avarage
All-Avarage / Sngle-Peak
Single-Peak plus All-but-one-Avarage
All-Peak

A simplified C-Plane dimensioning approach is used,


where the C-Plane traffic is calculated as a percentage of
the U-Plane traffic.

LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Configuration settings

4.1.2

Radio-related Inputs
Radio-related inputs include the parameters calculated or used during the LTE Radio
planning which impact the LTE access dimensioning. They are summarized in Table
2 LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Radio-related inputs. For more informations see
LTE Radio Dimensioning Guideline.

Radio related inputs

Default value

Supported LTE channel bandwidth

20MHz

Inter Site Distance [m](*)

clutter dependant

Comment
One of: 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 MHz
Four clutter types are considered in LTE Radio planning:
Dense-urban, Urban, Sub-urban and Rural; each having
different radio wave propagation conditions, cell sizes
and supporting different throughputs.
Calculated out of the LTE Radio capacity/coverage
planning [LTE_Radio_Dim_RL20]

Table 2

14

LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Radio-related inputs

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LTE access dimensioning workflow

Radio related inputs

Default value

Comment

Number of eNBs per clutter type


(*)

N/A

---

Number of radio cells per eNB of


a given clutter type

--It is used to:

Peak / Average radio cell


capacity of a given clutter type
(UL/DL) [kbps]

N/A

- set the traffic demand limits per eNB based on the


available Radio i/f throughputs
- calculate the S1_U and X2_U bandwidth if the
dimensioning is based on the Radio cell throughput

(*) This input is valid for dimensioning based on the user traffic demand only.
Table 2

LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Radio-related inputs (Cont.)

4.1.3

LTE traffic model


LTE traffic model (TM) is used only for the Dimensioning based on the user traffic
demand. It is used to define LTE user profile, including user mobility, supported LTE
services and the offered traffic demand per user. TM inputs are necessary for calculating
the average traffic demand on the interfaces. Traffic model values should be provided
based on the operator inputs or as specified in the reference LTE Traffic Model.
Traffic model inputs are grouped into three categories:
1) LTE user profile: These are the basic parameters for characterization of an LTE user
profile:

Number of LTE users within eNB


User mobility parameters, related to inter-eNB handovers (via X2 and S1).

LTE traffic profile parameters are summarized in Table 3 LTE Access Dimensioning
inputs: Traffic model inputs - LTE User Profile.
LTE traffic profile parameters

Default value

Number of subscribers per eNB

N/A

Total number of subscribers in range of single eNB.

Share of active subscribers

30%

Specifies the share of active subscribers within


eNB.Note: Active users are users in the connected state,
i.e. authenticated in the network (i.e. in "RRC-connected"
mode).

Number of active users per eNB


within a clutter [#]

N/A

Number of connected users in the eNB. Note: Active


users are users in the connected state, i.e. authenticated
in the network (i.e. in "RRC-connected" mode).

50 km/h

Average user velocity in a cell. User mobility parameter

N/A

Occupancy of the PDCP buffer filled with data during the


handover transient state, i.e. when the eNB stops sending
traffic to the UE being in handover. User mobility parameter

User velocity [km/h]


PDCP buffer occupancy in DL
[kbits]

Table 3

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Comment

LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Traffic model inputs - LTE User Profile

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LTE access dimensioning workflow

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

2) Service definition: Here the application services supported by LTE are defined.
Services are grouped into two categories: real time (RT) services and non-real time
(NRT) services. For each group a different set of parameters is used to characterize the
service.
Supported RT and NRT services are summarized in in the following tables
Real Time Services
Parameters

Default value

Service name

N/A

Service bit rate [kbps]

Service-dependent

Service bit rate as supported by the relevant codec

Average packet size [bytes]

Service-dependent

Average packet size specified on the user application


level (including user data payload plus RTP, UDP and
User IP headers).

Average call length [s]

Service-dependent

Average duration of a RT call.

Activity factor

Service-dependent

Activity factor of a RT service

Table 4

Comment
3 different RT services are supported by default: VoIP,
Video and Streaming.

LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Traffic model inputs - Real Time Services

Non-Real Time Services


Parameters

Default value

Service name

Pre-defined

Average packet length


[bytes]

Service-dependent

Average packet length specified on the user application


level (including user data payload plus TCP and User IP
headers)

TCP file size [kbps]

Service-dependent

This parameter describes the average length of a TCP


file.

UL: DL ratio [%]

25%

Asymmetry factor between UL and DL parts of the NRT


traffic.

Table 5

Comment
nRT services supported by default are HTTP and FTP.

LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Traffic model inputs - Non-Real Time Services
3) User traffic demand: It specifies an averagetraffic generated in the busy hour (BH) by
a single LTE user.

Traffic demand parameters

User traffic demand in the Busy


Hour [kbps] or [mErl]

Table 6

16

Default value

Comment
Defines an average user-generated traffic in the busy
hour.

N/A

RT services are assumed to be symmetric (i.e. RT UL


= RT DL), whereas NRT services are assumed asymmetric (i.e. in principle,
NRT DL ? NRT UL)

LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Traffic model inputs - User traffic demand

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LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

4.1.4

LTE access dimensioning workflow

QoS settings
QoS settings are used for dimensioning based on the user traffic demand only. They
specify the QoS parameters of each QCI class, in terms of the required traffic delay and
transport scheduler weights.

LTE user profile parameters

Default value

Comment

DiffServ PHB weight

PHB dependant

Specifies the transport scheduler's weight of the corresponding PHB.

QoS metric: packet delay on S1


link [ms]

15 ms

Max tolerable transport delay of IP packets from the


e2e service quality viewpoint.
Note: It is not recommended to use the dimensioning
framework with delay targets lower than 3 ms

Table 7

LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Traffic model inputs - QoS settings

4.1.5

Signaling inputs
Signaling inputs include the parameters that impact the C-Plane load calculation.
CPlane load is calculated based on the analysis of signaling events and message flows.

Signaling inputs

Default value

Unreachable UEs when paged


[%]

10.00%

Average number of repeated


pagings [#]

MTC Share of requested


Service Flows [%]
Tracking Areas under a paging
control point [#]
Attach Frequency per BH [#]

Comment
The share of user equipment that was not reached
when paged.

The average number of repeated paging by MME.


Estimate that how many page repeats in MME there
are periodically repeated before the MME stops
paging.

15.00%

The frequency of the paging procedure executed in


the scenario when there is incoming call for the UE in
MME.

1
0.1

Number of Tracking Areas per eNB.


The average number of attaches of one subscriber
during the Busy Hour.

Number of tracking areas per


UE [#]

The number of tracking area (TA) identities UE can


register.

Periodic TAU frequency [#/BH]

Number of periodic tracking area updates.

Keep-alive interval
RRC release timer

Table 8

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40s

Time between heartbeat messages sent by always-on


application to keep connectivity open.

60s

Inactivity timer after which the UE is moved to


RRC_Idle state.

LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Signaling inputs

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LTE access dimensioning workflow

4.1.6

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Front mile input


Front mile inputs are used for dimensioning based on the user traffic demand only. This
group of input parameters refers to capacity dimensioning of traffic from several eNBs
aggregated at some point of network. It can be either Serving gateway (SAE GW) at LTE
core or any other aggregation point within the network (i.e. router).

Front mile inputs

Default value

Comment

Aggregation node

SAE Gateway

Defines where the transport multiplexing gain is calculated.

Capacity of transport interface

10 Gbps

Capacity of the transport interface at the aggregation


node.

Number of eNBs

---

Number of eNBs being aggregated from one area type.

Total number of eNBs

---

Number of eNBs being aggregated from all areas.

Table 9

LTE Access Dimensioning inputs: Traffic model inputs - Front mile inputs

4.2

Definition of output parameters


LTE Access dimensioning outputs include the eNB interface-related capacity parameters obtained through the dimensioning. They are summarized in Table 10 Interface
dimensioning outputs:
Interface dimensioning outputs

Comment

Transport capacity per logical interface


of the eNB [Mbps]

These are bandwidth portions of the


individual logical interfaces at the eNB side.

Total transport capacity per eNB of a


given clutter type [Mbps]

This is a dimensioned total transport capacity


to be installed at the eNB side; it is specified
as a sum of the capacities of individual logical
interfaces.

Transport capacity per selected aggre- This is total transport capacity of interface of
gation node without multiplexing gain selected aggregation node without multiplex[Mbps] (*)
ing gain. All last mile link capacities are summarized here.
Transport capacity per selected aggre- This is total transport capacity of interface of
gation node with multiplexing gain
selected aggregation node with multiplexing
[Mbps] (*)
gain. All last mile link capacities are summarized here taking into account the gain
achieved by aggregation.
Multiplexing gain [%] (*)

This is achieved statistical multiplexing gain


resulting from aggregation of several eNBs.

(*) This output is valid for front mile dimensioning only.


Table 10

18

Interface dimensioning outputs

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General concept

5 General concept
There are two general approaches proposed to dimension the transport capacity of the
eNB:

Dimensioning based on the user traffic demand: eNB transport capacity is calculated based on the estimated user traffic demand so that some transport QoS performance targets are assured (packet delay and loss).
Dimensioning based on the Radio interface throughputs: eNB transport capacity is
calculated from the supported Radio interface throughputs.

Network planner is free to use any of the above options knowing the availability of input
data and potential advantages and drawbacks of each option, as summarized in the
section U-Plane traffic dimensioning - Summary Here, a general dimensioning
workflow is described for both options.

5.1

Dimensioning based on traffic demand


When using this option, the LTE Access dimensioning workflow consists of the following
steps:

Specification of the traffic demand: First, the traffic offered to the LTE Access
network has to be specified. Parameters required to appropriately model the offered
U-Plane and C-Plane traffic are described in the LTE Traffic Model and Signaling
sections. The TM parameters' values need to be set by the operator or, alternatively,
taken from the LTE reference traffic model specified in [LTE_TM].
Transport aggregation: LTE services are grouped into IP DiffServ classes supported
for the U-Plane traffic in the LTE Transport domain. For each service a specific
DiffServ PHB class (Per Hop Behavior) is assigned and the dimensioning is done
respecting service priorities (see section S1_U and X2_U dimensioning based on
the user traffic demand).
Specification of Quality of Service targets: Certain level of QoS must be guaranteed
for the traffic in the LTE transport network.
Optional: Front mile: Selection of aggregation node (with its interface transport
capacity) and specification of number of eNBs to be aggregated.
Dimensioning: In order to guarantee the QoS requirements for the traffic to be transmitted in the LTE transport network, different approaches are used to calculate the
bandwidth on the eNB interfaces - M/D/1 for RT traffic and M/G/R-PS for NRT traffic.
U-Plane dimensioning methods for RT/NRT traffic are described in the section UPlane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces . In addition C-Plane and MPlane traffic is dimensioned accordingly, as described in section C-Plane dimensioning: S1_MME and X2_C interfaces.
At the end, U-Plane RT/NRT, C-Plane and M-Plane traffic share the dimensioned
interface capacity according to the priorities resulting from their DiffServ PHB settings. Front mile dimensioning is covered in section Front mile dimensioning.

5.2

Dimensioning based on the Radio interface throughputs


When using this approach, the dimensioning workflow is much simplified. It consists of
three steps as shown in the following figure.

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General concept

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

First, radio-related inputs need to be collected from the Radio planning (see section
Radio-related inputs for details).
Next, the following parameters are specified, as a part of configuration settings (see
section Configuration settings for details):
the amount of Radio (Uu) and Transport (S1/X2) overheads,
the estimated amount of handover and signaling traffic as a percentage of the
overall user traffic demand.
Finally, the eNB transport capacity dimensioning is performed according to the rules
described in section S1_U and X2_U dimensioning based on the Radio interface
throughput.

Figure 5

20

LTE Access interface dimensioning flowchart

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U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces

6 U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U


interfaces
S1_U and X2_U interfaces are dimensioned jointly reflecting the fact that both interfaces
share a common buffer of the transport scheduler and are multiplexed together on the
transport link.
. The joint S1_U and X2_U transport capacity is calculated separately for each clutter
type (dense-urban, urban, suburban and rural), using two alternative methods:

Dimensioning based on the user traffic demand


Dimensioning based on the radio interface throughput

Both methods will be presented in the following sections.

6.1

S1_U and X2_U dimensioning based on the user traffic


demand
With this approach the U-Plane transport capacity for S1_U and X2_U interfaces is calculated as a sum of bandwidth portions of the RT and NRT traffic:
Equation 1
S1 & X2 Capacity [kbps] = S1 & X2 Capacity RT + S1 & X2 Capacity NRT
The RT and NRT capacities are calculated separately using different inputs and dimensioning formulas.Bandwidth of the RT traffic is calculated using M/D/1 formula [MD1],
which uses IP packet delay as a QoS measure in the dimensioning.
Dimensioning RT U-Plane traffic with M/D/1
RT U-Plane capacity is calculated as a sum of the capacity portions occupied by individual RT services:
Equation 2

S1_&_X2_Capacity_RT[kbps] =

{ S1_&_X2_Capacity_RT Service }

Service

The RT capacity per service is calculated using the M/D/1 formula [MD1]:
Equation 3

S1_&_X2_Capacity_RT Service [ kbps ] = M/D/1 { packet_delay Service,


packet_size Service, S1_&_X2_traffic_load Service, PHB_weight Service
, S1_&_X2_OH Service }

where:

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U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

packet_delayService [ms] is the max tolerable transport delay of IP packets on the last
mile link. It is the assumed QoS target for dimensioning the RT traffic, specified separately for each service class. Default value (for each service class) is 15 ms.
packet_sizeService [bytes] is the average size of an IP packet per service.
S1_&_X2_traffic_load Service [kbps] is the user traffic demand per service on S1 and
X2 interfaces
PHB_weight Service is the weight of the DiffServ scheduler queue that serves the QoS
class of the service; it determines the bandwidth available to that QoS class during
the congestion (i.e. all queues fully occupied with traffic).
S1_U_OHService [%] is the S1_U transport overhead per service.

Dimensioning the U-Plane bandwidth for RT traffic using M/D/1 is graphically illustrated
in the following figure:

Figure 6

S1_U dimensioning with RT traffic using M/D/1

NRT U-Plane capacity is assigned so that it fulfills the requirements of the QoS class
with the most stringent delay targets. Dimensioning procedure runs separately for each
service (with respective delay targets) and the final capacity is picked up as a max of the
capacities needed by individual services:
Equation 4

S1_&_X2_Capacity_NRT [kbps] = Max Service { S1_&_X2_Capacity_NRTService }

The application e2e delay per service is calculated using the M/G/R-PS formula [MGRPS]:

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U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces

Equation 5
S1_&_X2_e2eDelay_NRT Service [s] = M/G/R-PS { r_peak Service, file_size Service
, transfer_delayPHB(Service), S1_&_X2_traffic_load PHB(Service), PHB_weightService
, S1_U_OH Service }

where:

r_peak Service [kbps] is the max bit rate of the user traffic per service, as resulting
from the available Radio interface throughput; it is calculated with the M/G/1-PS
formula [MGR-PS], using the following inputs:

Equation 6

r_peak Service [kbps] = M/G/1-PS { total_traffic_load,avg_cell_troughput, Uu_OH Service }

where:

total_traffic_load [kbps] is the total user traffic in a radio cell,


avg_cell_througput [kbps] is the average radio cell throughput; it is the outcome of
the radio planning (refer to [LTE_Radio_Dim]). The user traffic per cell, as specified
via the traffic model should not exceed the average radio cell throughput,
Uu_OH Service [%] denotes the protocol overhead on the Radio interface (including
RLC and PDCP layers).
file_size Service [kBytes] is an average size of a TCP file per service,
S1_%_X2_traffic_load PHB (Service) [kbps] is the user traffic demand on S1 and X2
interfaces for the whole PHB class the service belongs to (i.e. sum over all services
within the class).

The application e2e delay per service is calculated for the dimensioned link capacity and
for ideal, non congested link. Using these two delays, the Transport Network delay can
be estimatedwhich is the QoS requirement for the dimensioning. Finally, NRT capacity
which fulfills QoS requirement for each service can be calculated.
Equation 7
S1_&_X2_Capacity_NRT Service [kbps] = TN_delay_estimation
{ S1_&_X2_e2eDelay_NRTService, S1_&_X2_e2eDelay_NRT_min Service
, file_size Service }

where:

DN0951772

S1_&_X2_e2eDelay_NRTService [s] is the application e2e delay per service calculated using the M/G/R-PS formula
S1_&_X2_e2eDelay_NRTmin Service [s] is the minimum application e2e delay per
service for ideal and non congested link calculated using the M/G/R-PS formula
file_size Service [kBytes] is an average size of a TCP file per service.

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U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Dimensioning the U-Plane bandwidth for NRT traffic using M/G/R-PS is illustrated in the
following figure.

Figure 7

S1_U dimensioning with NRT traffic using M/G/R-PS

Calculating user traffic due to inter-eNB handovers


U-Plane traffic of an eNB due to inter-eNB handovers (joint X2 and S1) is calculated with
the following formula:
Equation 8
HO_traffic_load [kbps] = HO_Freq { t_ps S1_traffic_load + D PDCP }

where:

S1_traffic_load [kbps] is the U-Plane traffic load per eNB on S1 interface.


HO_Freq [1/s] is the inter-eNB handover frequency of a user calculated as:

Equation 9
1
12R
HandoverInter-eNB --- = ----------- c v
s

where:

R [m] is cell size (radius). Note: relation between the cell radius (R) and the inter-site
distance (ISD; input parameter see Table LTE Access dimensioning input: Radiorelated inputs) is illustrated in the following figure.
v [m/s] is average user velocity
c [1/m2] is average user density per radio cell, calculated as:

Equation 10
1
2
n
c -------2 = ----------- ------23 3 R
m

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LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces

where:

n [#] is a mean number of users per cell. Note: Formula for the handover frequency
(Equation 9) and user density per cell (Equation 10) have been derived from
theanalysis of the mobility model. The reference mobility model used here for the
inter-eNB handover analysis was Random Direction Model
[Random_Direction_Model]
t_ps [s] is a switchover duration,
t_D PDCP [kbits] is the PDCP buffer occupancy of an eNB, which in turn depends on
the Radio interface's utilization. It is calculated with a polynomial function of the
Radio I/F utilization, which reflects the PDCP buffer occupancy results obtained via
simulations:

Equation 11
3,4 (Uu_util < 0,3)

D PD CP [kbps] = 3

3
2
10 (1,3452xUu_util -1,6896xUu_util +Uu_util-0,1024) ( Uu_util 0,3 )

where:

Uu_util [%] is the Radio I/F utilization, calculated as:

Equation 12
Uu_util [#] = gross_traffic_load_per_cell
----------------------------------------------------------------------avg_cell_troughput

where:

gross_load_traffic_per_cell [kbps] is the total user traffic in a radio cell with radio
overhead.

Figure 8

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Relation between cell radius (R) and inter-site distance (ISD)

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U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces

6.2

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

S1U and X2U dimensioning based on the Radio interface


troughput
Alternatively to the dimensioning based on the user traffic demand, the U-Plane transport capacity (S1_U, X2_U) can be determined based on the supported radio interface
throughput. The idea behind this approach is the observation that the eNB transport
capacity should be not higher than the available capacity of the radio cells served by this
eNB.
eNB U-Plane transport capacity derived from available Radio IF throughputs (denoted
as eNB_U-Plane Transport_Capacity Radio-based) can be calculated using one of the following options:

All Avarage
All Avarage / Single Peak
"Single Peak plus All-but-one-Average
"All Peak

They will be summarized in the following sub-sections.


All Avarage
With this option the total U_Plane transport capacity at eNB shall support the aggregated average capacity of all cells. The calculated U_Plane transport capacity should
be:
Equation 13
eNB_U-Plane_Transport_CapacityRadio-based = (#_of_cells_per_eNB
ave_cell_throughput) (1 - Uu_OH) (1 + S1_X2_U_OH)
where:

ave_cell_throughput [kbps] is the average radio cell throughput. It is determined


under realistic air interface conditions and multiple users per cell, and should be the
outcome of the radio planning.
Uu_OH [%] is the transport overhead on the Radio interface (including RLC, MAC
and PDCP layers).
S1_X2_U_OH [%] is the U-Plane transport overhead on S1 and X2 interface (see
dimensioning inputs, see dimensioning inputs).

The "All Average" option is graphically presented in the figure below.

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Figure 9

U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces

Dimensioning U-Plane traffic - the "All Average" option

All Avarage / Single Peak


With this option the U-Plane transport capacity at eNB shall support the aggregated
average capacity of all cells, while at least supporting the peak capacity of one cell:
Equation 14
eNB_U-Plane_Transport_CapacityRadio-based = MAX {peak_cell_throughput;
#_of_cells_per_eNB ave_cell_throughput} (1 - Uu_OH) (1 + S1_X2_U_OH)
where:

peak_cell_throughput [kbps] is the peak radio cell throughput; it is determined under


ideal Radio interface conditions and with a single user per cell. It should be the
outcome of the radio planning.

The "All Average / Single Peak" option is graphically presented in the following figure.
This is the recommended option for U-Plane transport dimensioning at the eNB (often
3G operators use it to dimension the HSPA traffic).

Figure 10

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Dimensioning the U-Plane traffic - the "All Average / Single Peak" option

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U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Single Peak plus All-but-one-Avarage


With this approach the U-Plane transport capacity at eNB shall support the peak
capacity of one cell and the aggregated average capacity of the remaining cells.
The calculated U_Plane transport capacity should be:
Equation 15
eNB_UP_ Transport_CapacityRadio-based = [peak_cell_throughput +
(#_of_cells_per_eNB - 1) ave_cell_throughput] (1 - Uu_OH) (1 + S1_X2_U_OH)
The "Single Peak plus All-but-one-average" option is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 11

Dimensioning based on the Radio IF troughput - the Single Peak plus Allbut-one-Avarage option

All Peak
With this approach the U-Plane transport capacity at eNB shall support the aggregated
peak capacity of all cells. As the load per eNB will hardly achieve peak values in all cells
at the same time, this approach will lead to over-dimensioning, thus usually extra costs.
The calculated U_Plane transport capacity should be:
Equation 16
eNB_U-Plane Transport_CapacityRadio-based = (#_of_cells_per_eNB
peak_cell_throughput) (1 - Uu_OH) (1 + S1_X2_U_OH)
The "All Peak" option is illustrated in the figure below.

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LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Figure 12

U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces

Dimensioning the U-Plane traffic - the "All Peak" option

The figure below shows how the traffic of logical S1-U and X2-U interfaces is distributed
within the eNB and how it is mapped onto the available transport capacity.

Figure 13

U-Plane traffic distribution within the eNB: a) logical distribution,


b) mapping to the transport capacity

From the figure it can be seen that:


Equation 17
eNB_UP_Transport_Capacity_DL = S1_U_DL + X2_U_DL_in
Equation 18
eNB_UP_Transport_Capacity_UL = S1_U_UL + X2_U_DL_out
where:

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X2_U_DL_out is the outgoing X2 traffic, for which the eNB is the source eNB,
X2_U_DL_in is the incoming X2 traffic, for which the eNB is the target eNB

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U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Now, assume the uniform user/traffic distribution within all eNBs:


Equation 19
X2_U_DL_out [kbps] = X2_U_DL_in [kbps]]
Assume as well that the total X2_U_DL traffic is some percentage of the average S1_U
DL traffic:
Equation 20
X2_U_DL_out + X2_U_DL_in = HO_Share [%] S1_U_DLALL_AVG
To make the X2_U traffic independent from the selected dimensioning option, the
average S1_U traffic in (Equation 20) is always calculated using ALL_AVG option. From
(Equation 17):
Equation 21
S1_U_DL [kbps] = eNB_Transport capacity_DLALL_AVG - X2_U_DL_in
From Equation 19 - Equation 21:
Equation 22
HO_Share_[%]
X2_U_DL_out [kbps] = X2_U_DL_in [kbps] = --------------------------------------------2+HO_Share [%]
eNB_Transport_Capacity_DL ALL_AVG

From (Equation 17) - (Equation 18) and (Equation 22):


Equation 23

S1_U_DLOpt ion [kbps] = eNB_Transport_Capacity_DL Option


HO_Share [%]
------------------------------------------------ eNB_Transport_Capacity_DLALL_AVG
2 + HO_Share [%]

Equation 24
S1_U_UL Opt ion [kbps] = eNB_Transport_Capacity_UL Option
HO_Share [%]
--------------------------------------------- eNB_Transport_Capacity_UL ALL_AVG
2+HO_Share [%]

where :

30

Option {ALL_AVG; ALL_AVG_/_SINGLE_PEAK;


SINGLE_PEAK_+_ALL_BUT_ONE_AVG; ALL_PEAK}

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6.3

U-Plane traffic dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U interfaces

U-Plane traffic dimensioning - Summary


In the above, two alternative methods are proposed for the eNB transport dimensioning
with the U-Plane traffic

"Dimensioning based on the user traffic demand,


"Dimensioning based on the Radio interface throughput

The use of a particular method is the operator's choice and depends on the availability
of input data and the operator's strategy to assure the QoS to the customers. In general,
the dimensioning based on the user traffic demand is recommended, as it allows the
transport capacity to be exactly tailored to the user traffic demand; it also allows the
transport QoS parameters (such as packet delay) to be taken into account in the dimensioning. On the other hand, the dimensioning based on the Radio interface throughput
should be used when the exact traffic model is not available and/orthe transport QoS
performance does not need to be considered.
Their comparative analysis is presented in the following table.
PROS
Dimensioning based on
User traffic demand

Dimensioning based on
Radio I/F throughput

Table 11

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CONS

"Possibility to directly
account for transport QoS
impairments (i.e. data
transfer delay and /or
packet loss).
"Capacity is tailored to
the actual traffic needs
and not to the assumed
Radio I/F throughput (e.g.
dimensioning over Peak
cell throughput will lead to
over dimensioning)

"Difficult to collect all


input data; usually
operators can provide
only some of them (i.e.
simplified traffic model

"Easily available input


data: Peak/Avg cell
capacity can be easily collected from Radio
planning of system specification
"Straightforward
approach

"Impossibility to take
into account any transport QoS impairments
(i.e. packet loss, delay
etc.)
"May lead to overdimensioning, i.e. when
eNB transport is
dimensioned over
Peak cell throughput

Dimensioning based on the user traffic demand vs. dimensioning based on


the Radio interface throughput - comparative analysis

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C-Plane dimensioning: S1_MME and X2_C interfaces

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

7 C-Plane dimensioning: S1_MME and X2_C


interfaces
7.1

General concept
Similarly to the U-Plane traffic dimensioning, also the C-Planetraffic is dimensioned
according to the two proposed options:

- Dimensioning based on the user traffic demand: C-Plane traffic is carefully estimated based on the frequency of signaling events and the structure of signaling
flows.
- Dimensioning based on the Radio i/f throughput: C-Plane traffic is only roughly estimated as a percentage of the U-Plane traffic.

Both dimensioning options are described in detail below.

7.2

C-Plane dimensioning based on the user traffic demand


The S1_MME interface is used to exchange signaling messages between the eNB and
MME needed for bearer management, mobility and security handling and transport of
NAS signaling messages between the UE and MME.
The X2_C interface is a logical connection used to exchange control information
between two eNBs participating in an inter-eNB handover.
Dimensioning approach is the same for both interfaces. General concept of the dimensioning is shown in the following figure.

Figure 14

General concept of control plane traffic load calculations in LTE access


network

Steps for calculating the signaling load in LTE access network


Control plane traffic load on S1_MME and X2_C interfaces is calculated as a sum of
bandwidth portions of traffic load generated by selected events in the Busy Hour multiplied by the number of subscribers. Overall procedure is impacted by:
1. 1. List of events causing the control plane traffic. Each event is described by a
detailed message flow and size of control messages, including the overhead (SCTP
+ IP + (IPSec) + Eth). These parameters are used for calculating the traffic load per
event as a sum of lengths of all messages sent on each interface and direction.
Considered signaling events are:
Attach

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Detach
Handover
Tracking Area Update
State transition
Paging
2. Frequency of each event per subscriber (Fevent [1/s]) is calculated based on the
traffic model. For every event the formula is different and is presented in this
chapter.
3. Traffic load per event resulting from multiplying the traffic load generated by the
event (Levent [bits]) with its frequency (Fevent [1/s]):
Equation 25
Tevent [bps] = Levent x Fevent
4. 4. Total load of signaling traffic resulting from the events is multiplied by the total
number of subscribers (#UE [#]):
Equation 26

T [bps] = #UE

T event

event

where:

T [bps] is the total traffic load generated by the selected events on S1_MME/X2_C
interface,
Tevent [bps] is a traffic load generated by the event per subscriber,
#UE [#] is the total amount of subscribers

Signaling events
Following subchapters explain a set of signaling events used for calculation of the
control plane load. Each subchapter contains following information:

Event load - is a total amount of data sent in each interface and direction without
transport overhead.
Event frequency - this section will describe the formula and parameters used for
event frequency calculation.

Attach/Detach (Non Access Stratum signaling)


These events are triggered when subscriber either attaches to or detaches from the
network.
Signaling load [bytes]

Attach / Detach

Table 12

S1 (DL)

S1 (UL)

Attach to LTE_Active state

356

520

Attach to LTE_Idle state

396

594

Detach

82

108

Event load: Attach/Detach

Event frequency

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C-Plane dimensioning: S1_MME and X2_C interfaces

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

It is assumed that frequency of Attach event is equal to Detach event and the Attach to
LTE_Active state is equal to Attach to LTE_Idle state.
Handover (Access Stratum signaling)
For C-plane calculations intra-eNB handover is not taken into calculations due to the fact
that no traffic is generated either in S1_MME or in X2_C interfaces. Only inter-eNB
handover is considered.
Signaling load [bytes]
S1 (DL)

S1 (UL)

X2 (DL)

X2 (UL)

72

88

136

Inter eNB handover


Table 13

Event load: Handover

Event frequency:
Please refer to equation 9 and equation 10
Clutter type

Cell size radius [m]


Table 14

Dense
urban

Urban

Sub-urban

Rural

166.67

577.33

1000

3000

Cell size: default values per Clutter type

Tracking Area Update (Non Access Stratum signaling)


Tracking Area Update (TAU) procedure is used for tracking the location of moving UEs
while they are in the LTE_Idle state. A TAU can be either periodic (network access point
remains the same) or related to mobility (network access point changes).
Signaling load [bytes]

Tracking Area Update


Table 15

S1 (DL)

S1 (UL)

92

60

Event load: Tracking Area Update

Event frequency:
The same values are assumed for mobility in RRC_connected and Idle state. Additionally the number of tracking areas UE can register periodic TAU and TAU probability
depending on TA size parameters are taken into account for the frequency calculation:
Equation 27
1
TAU Idle --s

1
= HO_freq x TAU_prob x ----------------------------------- + Periodic_TAU_freq
TAU_number

where:

34

HO_freq [1/s] is the output received from handover frequency calculations.


TAU_prob [#], TAU probability is a probability of Tracking Area Update for a single
user and is a function of TA size.

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Equation 28
TAU_prob [#] 1,4079 x NumberOfeNB

-0,5

where:

NumberOfeNBs [#] is a number eNodeBs per Tracking Area.


TA_number [#] is a number of Tracking Areas per subscriber.
Periodic_TAU_freq [#] is a periodic TAU frequency per subscriber

State Transitions (Access Stratum signaling)


LTE_Idle to LTE_Active:
This procedure is used when there is user data to be sent to/from the UE while the UE
is in the LTE_Idle state. This procedure is initiated by either the UE (if it has uplink data
tosend), or by the network (if there is downlink data waiting to be sent to the UE).
Signaling load [bytes]

LTE Idle to LTE Active


Table 16

S1 (DL)

S1 (UL)

120

132

Event load: State Transitions

Event frequency:
Equation 29
1
Idle_to_Active_Load --- = BHCA U-plane ( 1-share_of_active_subs )
s

where:

BHCAU-plane [#] is a sum of BHCA of all applications per subscriber


share_of_active_subs [%] is a share of active subscribers out of total number of
users

LTE Active to LTE Idle


Signaling load [bytes]
S1 (DL)

S1 (UL)

40

78

LTE Active to LTE Idle


Table 17

Event load: LTE Active to LTE Idle

Event freqency:
It is assumed that the frequency of UE state transitions from LTE_Active to LTE_Idle is
equal to reverse event.
Impact of smartphones on number of state transitions
Smartphones load the network in new way. Their always-on applications rely on 'keepalive' messages to keep the connectivity open. On the other hand, to preserve the
battery, the 'fast dormancy' feature has been introduced by UE vendors. With that
feature shortly after data transmission is over, the smartphone UE goes to the idle mode.

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LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Keep-alive message sent by application causes reverse state change to active mode.
These additional events are accounted in C-plane dimensioning based on the equation
below:
Equation 30

1
sm_events --- =
s

0
if { keep_alive_interval < RRC_release_timer }

3600
- ( 1-share_of_active_subs ) 2 if ( keep_alive_interval RRC_release_timer )
-------------------------------------------------keep_alive_interval

where:

sm_events [#] - additional state transitions caused by smartphone users.


keep-alive_interval [s] - time between heartbeat messages sent by always-on application to keep connectivity open.
RRC_release_timer [s] - inactivity timer after which the UE is moved to RRC_Idle
state.
share_of_active_subs [%] - a part of the BH when no data is sent to or from subscriber. The same parameter as used for state transition frequency

Paging (Non Access Stratum signaling)


A UE in the LTE_Idle state is traceable only to its registered TAs. Every time the EPC
needs to initiate contact with a UE which is in LTE_Idle state, a paging procedure is initiated.
Signaling load [bytes]

Paging
Table 18

S1 (DL)

S1 (UL)

60

Event load: LTE Active to LTE Idle

Event frequency:
Equation 31
1
Paging --- = ( 1+Unreach x repeated Ave ) TA cp ( MTC SF BHCA U-Plane )
s

where:

36

Unreach [%] means number of unreachable UEs when paged.


repeatedAVG [#] is an average number of repeated paging.

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7.3

C-Plane dimensioning: S1_MME and X2_C interfaces

TACP [#] is number of Tracking Areas under a network paging control point (MME,
eNB).
MTC SF [%] is a Mobile Terminated Call Share of requested Service Flows
BHCAU-plane [#] is a sum of BHCA of all applications per subscriber. The same
parameter as used for state transitions calculations.

C-Plane dimensioning based on the Radio interface


throughput
When using this option, the C-Plane traffic is defined as a percentage of the average UPlane traffic. Traffic of the S1_MME interface is specified as a percentage of the S1_U
traffic:
Equation 32
S1_MME_DL [kbps] = CP_Share [%] S1_U_DL ALL_AVG

Equation 33
S1_MME_UL [kbps] = CP_Share [%] S1_U_ULALL_AVG

To make the C-Plane traffic independent from the selected dimensioning option(
(ALL_AVG, ALL_AVG_/_SINGLE_PEAK,
SINGLE_PEAK_+_ALL_BUT_IN_ONE_AVG, ALL_PEAK), the average S1_U traffic in
Equation 32- Equation 33 is always calculated using ALL_AVG option. Referring to an
Equation 17 and Equation 18 one gets:
Equation 34
S1_U_DL ALL_AVG [ kbps ] = eNB_Transport_Capacity_DL ALL_AVG X2_U_DL_in

Equation 35
S1_U_UL ALL_AVG [ kbps ] = eNB_Transport_Capacity_UL ALL_AVG X2_U_DL_out

From (Equation 32) - (Equation 33) and (Equation 34) - (Equation 35) one gets:
Equation 36
2 x CP_Share [%]
S1_MME_DL [kbps] = ----------------------------------------------- eNB_Transport_Capacity_DL ALL_AVG
2+HO_Share [%]

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C-Plane dimensioning: S1_MME and X2_C interfaces

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Equation 37

S1_MME_UL [kbps] = CP_Share [%]


HO_Share [%]
eNB_Transp_Cap_UL ALL_AVG --------------------------------------------- eNB_Transp_Cap_DLALL_AVG
2+HO_Share [%]

Signaling traffic on the X2 interface due inter-eNB handovers for downlink is calculated
as a percentage of the downlink X2 U-Plane traffic:
Equation 38
X2_C_DL_in [kbps] = CP_Share [%] x X2_U_DL_in

Equation 39
X2_C_DL_out [kbps] = CP_Share [%] x X2_U_DL_out

From Equation 22:


Equation 40
X2_C_DL_in [kbps] = X2_C_DL_out [kbps]=
CP_Share [kbps] HO_Share [%]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ eNB_Transport_Capacity_DL ALL_AVG
2+HO_Share [%]

For uplink, it is calculated from the X2_C downlink traffic using the ratio of X2 signaling
flows for uplink and downlink derived from the analysis of the message flows (refer to
section C-Plane dimensioning based on the user traffic demand):
Equation 41
X2_C_UL [kbps] = X2_C_DL X2_C_UL_:_DL_ratio

From Equation 40:


Equation 42

X2_C_UL_in [kbps] = X2_C_UL_out [kbps]= 0.425 x


CP_Share [%] HO_Share [%]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- eNB_Transport_Capacity_DL ALL_AVG
2+HO_Share [%]

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O&M I/F dimensioning

8 O&M I/F dimensioning


For the M-Plane bandwidth it is recommended to allocate extra 1Mbps at the eNB side,
including the transport overhead. This is specified on the O&M applicationlevel, so the
additional transport overhead needs to be added.

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S-plane dimensioning

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

9 S-plane dimensioning
S-plane interface is in use with Timing over Packet (ToP) standard. For dimensioning,
very straightforward approach is adopted. Having the rate of messages and their lengths
with transport overhead, the required interface capacity can be derived. Below one can
find calculation details.

9.1

Timing over Packet


The calculation is defined by Equation 43:
Equation 43:
BW_ToP [kbps] = ( PTP_sync_msg_size + Trs_OH ) PTP_sync_msg_rate
+ ( PTP_announce_msg_size + TRS_OH ) PTP_announce_msg_rate

where:

BW_ToP [bps] is the transport capacity required for s-plane interface


PTP_sync_msg_size [bits] is a PTP synchronization message size
PTP_announce_msg_size [bits] is a PTP announce message size
PTP_sync_msg_rate [1/s] is a frequency of synchronization messages
PTP_announce_msg_rate [1/s] is a frequency of announce messages
Trs_OH [bits] is a transport overhead.

Exemplary calculation:

The values used below are defaults. For some configurations they can vary.
PTP_announce_msg_rate: 544 [bits]
PTP_sync_msg_size: 352 [bits]
PTP_announce_msg_rate: 0,5 [1/s]
PTP_sync_msg_rate: 16 [1/s]
Trs_OH (Eth+IP+UDP): 336+160+64 = 560 [bits]

Equation 44:
( ( 544 + 560 ) 0,5 + ( 352 + 560 ) 16 )
BW_ToP = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16 [kbps]
1000

9.2

Synchronous Ethernet
Although Synchronous Ethernet is not in use with S-plane interface, it may be used
instead of the ToP standard for synchronization purposes. Therefore appropriate calculation is shown below. The calculation is defined by Equation 46:
Equation 45
BW_SyncE [kbps] = ( SSM_PDU_size + SSM_msg_Hdr_size ) SSM_msg_rate

where:

40

BW_SyncE [bps] is the transport capacity required for synchronization


SSM_PDU_size [bits] is a SSM synchronization message size

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S-plane dimensioning

SSM_MSG_rate [bits] is a frequency of synchronization messages


SSM_Hdr_size [bits] is an SSM message header length

Exemplary calculation:The values used below are default ones. For some configurations
they can vary.

SSM_PDU_size: 6104 [bits]


SSM_msg_rate: 5 [1/s]
SSM_Hdr_size: 224 [bits]

Equation 46:
((6104+224) x 5
BW_SyncE [kbps] = ------------------------------------------ 8 [kbps]
1000

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Resulting eNB transport capacity

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

10 Resulting eNB transport capacity


Dimensioned bandwidth of the logical interfaces is distributed to the uplink and downlink
part of the eNBs transport card, as depicted in Figure 15 Distribution of the eNB traffic
between UL and DL parts of the eNB transport sub-module: a) logical flow distribution,
b) allocation to the eNB transport sub-module.

Figure 15

Distribution of the eNB traffic between UL and DL parts of the eNB transport sub-module: a) logical flow distribution, b) allocation to the eNB transport sub-module

Based on Figure 15 Distribution of the eNB traffic between UL and DL parts of the eNB
transport sub-module: a) logical flow distribution, b) allocation to the eNB transport submodule, the transport capacities to be set for UL and DL parts of the eNB transport submodule can be figured out.

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Front mile dimensioning

11 Front mile dimensioning


Front mile dimensioning is possible for the methodology based on user traffic demand
only. It is not available for calculation based on radio interface throughputs as this simplified approach provides the rough estimation only without accounting any QoS settings.
Dimensioning of front mile link in fact means either dimensioning of S1 interface at
Serving Gateway or the transport link capacity at aggregation node (e.g. router, switch).
In first case, the output from calculation is summarized U-plane traffic from all eNBs with
multiplexing gain taken into account. If calculation is being done per selected aggregation node at some point of network (e.g. router, switch), also the signaling, X2 and O&M
traffic are included. The point of this calculation is to observe, what multiplexing gain can
be achieved by the aggregation of several eNBs.
Suppose that in order to provide the required level of service (defined by the QoS
requirements) to a given traffic mix (t1) the transport link capacity should be at least C 1,
whereas in case of another traffic mix (t2) the required transport link capacity is different,
C 2. If the traffic mix (t1) and (t2) is multiplexed on a common transport link and the resulting traffic mix can be served with a transport link capacity C and:
Equation 47
C C1 + C 2

then the difference (C1 + C2) - C indicates the benefit resulting from traffic aggregation.
The dimensioning algorithm finds the lowest front mile link capacity that is still able to
provide the required level of service to all aggregated eNBs. Calculation methodology
proposed here applies exactly the same models as for last mile dimensioning, extended
with one step to calculate the multiplexing gain. M/D/1 model is used for Real-Time
services and M/G/R-PS for non-Real-Time; necessary modification and adjustment of
input parameters is shown below. The description focuses on the differences comparing
to the last mile dimensioning.
Note: In order to obtain the statistical multiplexing gain both, last and front mile, links
capacities are required.
Front mile dimensioning RT U-Plane traffic with M/D/1
Front Mile RT U-Plane capacity is calculated as a sum of the capacity portions occupied
by individual RT services summarized from all eNBs:
Equation 48
FM_S1_&_X2_Capacity_RT[kbps] =

{ S1_&_X2_Capacity_RT eNB,Service }

eNB Service

Aggregated from all eNBs RT capacity per service is calculated using the M/D/1 formula
[MD1]:

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Front mile dimensioning

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Equation 49

FM_S1_&_X2_Capacity_RT Service[kbps] = M / D / 1 packet_delay Service, packet_size Service,

S1_&_X2_traffic_loadeNB,Service, PHB_weight Service, S1_U_OHService

eNB

where:

packet_delayService [ms] is the max tolerable transport delay of IP packets on the


front mile link. It is the assumed QoS target for dimensioning the RT traffic, specified
separately for each service class. Default value (for each service class) is 15 ms
packet_sizeService [bytes] is the average size of an IP packet per service.
eNBS1_&_X2_traffic_loadeNB,Service[kbps] is the user traffic demand per service on
S1 and X2 interfaces summarized from all aggregated eNBs.
"PHB_weightService[#] is the weight of the DiffServ scheduler queue that serves the
QoS class of the service; it determines the bandwidth available to that QoS class
during the congestion (i.e. all queues fully occupied with traffic).
"S1_U_OHService [%] is the S1_U transport overhead per service.

The figure below illustrates the workflow for dimensioning of RT services at aggregation
point. Red marking indicates the modification comparing to the Figure S1_U dimensioning with RT traffic using M/D/1:

Figure 16

Front Mile S1_U dimensioning with RT traffic using M/D/1

When looking at last and front mile links dimensioning, two major differences can be
found:

"input parameter: traffic load per service is a sum of traffic from all users served by
aggregated eNBs.

Front Mile dimensioning NRT U-Plane traffic with M/G/R-PS


As the same model is applied for front mile dimensioning, the dimensioning process is
very similar to the one used in the section S1_U and X2_U dimensioning based on the

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Front mile dimensioning

user traffic demand. Red marking indicates the modification comparing to the Figure
S1_U dimensioning with NRT traffic using M/G/R-PS.

Figure 17

Front Mile S1_U dimensioning with NRT traffic using M/G/R-PS

The differences are:

"input parameter: traffic load per PHB is a sum of traffic from all users served by
aggregated eNBs
ave_cell_throughput). For each eNB i, the appropriate set of parameters is being
used for M/G/R-PS and the resulting front mile bandwidth is weighted by the load of
individual eNB:

Equation 50
k

FM_BW NRT =

Load_eNB (i)

FM_BWNRT (i ) ----------------------------------------k
i=l
Load_eNB (j)
j=l

where:

FM_BWNRT [kbps] is a resulting front mile capacity of NRT services


k [#] is a number of aggregated eNBs

Multiplexing gain calculation


The rate with which the eNB (traffic source) generates data packets is not constant in
time, but forms bursts on a lower time scale. The resulting aggregated bandwidth is
lower than the sum of individual links. Due to this fact, the required bandwidth of a link
does not increase linearly with the number of simultaneous sessions. This is graphically
illustrated in the following figure:

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Front mile dimensioning

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Figure 18

Source of statistical multiplexing gain.

Equation 51
Aggregated_BW
Multiplexing_gain [%] = 1 -------------------------------------------Bw_1+...+Bw_n

where:

Aggregated_BW [kbps] is the,resulting front mile link capacity,


Bw_...[kbps] are the transport capacities of eNB last mile links.

The resulting multiplexing gain value indicates how much the traffic from several
sources can be squeezed and what saving can be achieved on front mile link.

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LTE access dimensioning example: eNB transport capacity vs. expected user traffic demands

12 LTE access dimensioning example: eNB


transport capacity vs. expected user traffic
demands
The proposed LTE Access dimensioning approach is based on the supported Radio
interface throughputs (average and peak) and thus the resulting eNB transport capacity
is set for the Radio interface limits. Interesting would be however to see how it fits to the
actual user traffic demands, as expected at the eNB.
Let us consider the following user traffic profile which follows the NSN LTE Traffic Model
specification and can be considered as a representative LTE traffic profile, as for now
(2Q 2010):

3 cells per eNB


Number of RRC_connected users per eNB:
600 connected users (200 connected users per cell)
VoIP traffic assumptions:
50 mErl / user (i.e. 1 call per user of 3 min duration in the Busy Hour)
Used VoIP codec: G.729 (codec rate: 8 kbps)
Voice activity factor: 60%
Data traffic assumptions, xDSL (flat rate) service model:
Peak Information rate (PIR) per user (in DL): 1024 kbps
Overbooking factor (in DL): 1/30
Resulting mean data traffic per user: ~ 34 kbps
C-Plane traffic: 0.3 kbps per user
Percentage of the total users in the inter-eNB handover: 2%
Needed O&M bandwidth: 1 Mbps

The resulting traffic demand per radio cell and per eNB (U-Plane + C-Plane) is as
follows:
User traffic demand per cell (DL)

7.9 Mbps

User traffic demand per eNB (DL)

23.9 Mbps

Table 19

Dimensioning inputs: User traffic demand.

Let us consider as well the following Radio interface throughputs obtained via radio link
simulations for a 10 Mhz system bandwidth:

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LTE access dimensioning example: eNB transport capacity vs. expected user traffic demands

Radio Interface throughputs per


cell [Mbps]

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

Clutter type
Dense Urban
(ISD:500m)

Urban
(ISD:1732m)

Rural
(ISD:3000m)

10MHz - Peak DL (incl. 2x2 MIMO) 66.400

66.608

66.608

10MHz - Pve DL (incl. 2x2 MIMO)

17.000

15.964

12.858

10MHz - Peak UL

23.560

20.720

17.456

10MHz - Ave UL

7.000

5.943

4.588

Table 20

Dimensioning inputs: Radio interface throughputs

Figure 19 Calculated eNB transport capacity based on user traffic demand summarizes
the calculated bandwidth based on the traffic profile inputs. Note that the allocated bandwidth (40.2 Mbps) is so that the transport link utilization with respect to the offered user
traffic (23.9 Mbps) remains below 60%. This is to assure the requested QoS targets
(packet delay, loss) and accommodate the transport overhead.

Figure 19

Calculated eNB transport capacity based on user traffic demand

Table 21 eNB transport capacity: Dimensioning based on user traffic demand vs. Radio
interface throughputs summarizes the U-Plane bandwidth calculated based on the user
traffic demand vs. the bandwidth calculated based on Radio interface throughputs,
according to four options described in U-Plane Traffic Dimensioning: S1_U and X2_U
Interfaces. It can be seen that in the latter case the allocated bandwidth is higher for
each of the options what - for this case - proves that:

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LTE access dimensioning example: eNB transport capacity vs. expected user traffic demands

The currently expected LTE traffic demands fit well within the available LTE radio
capacity limits (assuming 10 MHz system bandwidth)
Dimensioning with peak cell rates leads for most of the cases to over-dimensioning
of the transport link. Therefore, the options "Single Peak Plus All-but-one-average"
and "All Peak" should be avoided, unless used for some specific reasons, e.g.
directly supporting peak cell rates during tests, demos, etc.

User traffic demand per eNB

23.696 Mbps

Transport capacity per eNB (U-Plane)


Dimensioning based on the user traffic demand

38.219 Mbps

Dimensioning based on the Radio IF throughput - All Average

53.550 Mbps

Dimensioning based on the Radio IF throughput - All Average/Single


Peak

69.720 Mbps

Dimensioning based on the Radio IF throughput - Single Peak plus


All-but-one-average

105.420 Mbps

Dimensioning based on the Radio IF throughput - All Peak

209.160 Mbps

Table 21

eNB transport capacity: Dimensioning based on user traffic demand vs.


Radio interface throughputs

The Figure 20 eNB transport capacity vs. user traffic growth shows how the eNB transport dimensioning copes with some traffic evolution scenarios. A realistic traffic growth
scenario has been used assuming annual VoIP traffic growth of 10% and annual data
growth of 25%. The Figure 20 eNB transport capacity vs. user traffic growth compares
the eNB transport capacity calculated based on the user traffic demand with the one
based on radio interface throughputs. It shows that also within a 2-3 years timescale
using "All-Average" or All-Average/Single-Peak" should be enough to cope with
expected traffic demands.
2009

2010

2011

2012

User traffic demand per eNB

23.686 Mbps

29.598 Mbps

36.974 Mbps

46.192 Mbps

Transport capacity per eNB

38.219 Mbps

45.536 Mbps

54.373 Mbps

64.155 Mbps

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LTE access dimensioning example: eNB transport capacity vs. expected user traffic demands

Figure 20

50

LTE Access Dimensioning Guideline

eNB transport capacity vs. user traffic growth

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References

13 References
1. [TS29.281] 3GPP TS 29.281, "General Packet Radio System (GPRS) Tunneling
Protocol User Plane (GTPv1-U)
2. [TS36.413] 3GPP TS 36.413, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (EUTRA); S1 Application Protocol (S1AP)
3. [TS36.423] 3GPP TS 36.423, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
(E-UTRAN); X2 Application Protocol (X2AP)
4. [Random_Direction_Model] C. Bettstetter, Mobility Modeling in Wireless Networks:
Categorization, Smooth Movement, Border Effects, ACM Mobile Computing and
Communications Review, 5, 3, pp. 55-67, July 2001

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