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Basic Factors affecting

Television Transmission
and Reception

By Stephen Kiambi

SK-TV/VDS

Basic Factors affecting Television


Transmission & Reception
1. Gross structure
2. Image continuity
3. Number of scanning lines
4. Flicker
5. Fine structure
6. Tone gradation
SK-TV/VDS

1. Gross Structure
Frame adopted is rectangle with Aspect Ratio
(Width/Height) = 4/3

Reasons:
1. Most of the motion occurs in horizontal plane
2. Eyes can view more easily and comfortably
3. For enabling direct television transmission of
film programs without wastage of any film
area - Motion pictures use a rectangular
frame with width/height ratio of 4/3 so
adopted this aspect ratio in TV
SK-TV/VDS

Requirements on the choice of gross structure:


1. Aspect ratio of the size of the picture produced
on the receiver screen and the picture being
televised must be the same
achieved by setting the magnitude of the current
in the deflection coils to correct values both at the
TV camera and the receiving picture tube
2. Same point should be scanned at any instant
both by the camera tube beam and the picture
tube beam
achieved by transmitting synchronizing pulses
along with the picture information
SK-TV/VDS

2. Image Continuity
To create an illusion of continuity we make use of
persistence of vision : sensation produced when nerves
of the eyes retina are stimulated by incident light does
not cease immediately after the light is removed but
persists for about 1/16th of a second
Scanning rate is made greater than 16 fps i.e. number
of pictures shown per second is more than 16 hence
our eye can be able to integrate the changing levels of
brightness in the scene
Present day motion pictures 24 still pictures of the
scene are taken per second and projected on the
screen at the same rate

SK-TV/VDS

Scanning in Television systems


The scene is scanned rapidly both in the horizontal
and vertical directions simultaneously
Frame repetition rate is 25 per second (PAL) and 30
per second (NTSC)

SK-TV/VDS

Horizontal scanning

Linear rise of current in the deflection coils deflects the beam across the
screen with a continuous uniform motion for the trace from left to right .
At the peak of the rise, the saw tooth wave reverses its direction and
decreases rapidly to its initial value, producing the retrace or fly-back

SK-TV/VDS

Vertical Scanning

Saw tooth current in the vertical deflection coils moves the electron beam
from top to bottom of the raster at uniform speed while the electron beam
is being deflected horizontally

SK-TV/VDS

Because of the motion in the scene being televised, the


information or brightness at the top of the target plate or
picture tube screen normally changes by the time the
beam returns to the top to recommence the whole
process. This information is picked up during the next
scanning cycle and the whole process is repeated 25
times to cause an illusion of continuity
During the horizontal and vertical retrace intervals, the
scanning beams at the camera tube and the picture tube
are blanked and no picture information is either picked
up or reproduced
Synchronizing pulses are transmitted during this period
resulting in distortionless reproduction of the picture
details
SK-TV/VDS

3. Number of scanning lines


Most scenes have brightness variations in the
vertical directions.
The ability of the scanning beam to allow
reproduction of electrical signals according to
these variations and the capability of the human
eye to resolve these distinctly (while viewing)
depends on the total number of lines employed
for scanning
Concept: The number of scanning lines is judged
considering the bar pattern as shown (next slide)
where alternate lines are black and white

SK-TV/VDS

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If the thickness of the scanning beam is equal to the


width of each black and white bar and the number of
scanning lines is chosen equal to the number of
bars, then the electrical information corresponding

to the brightness of each bar will be correctly


reproduced during the scanning process
The greater the number of lines, the better will be the
resolution

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However the total number of lines is limited by the


resolving capability of the human eye at the minimum
viewing distance

SK-TV/VDS

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With reasonable brightness variation and a minimum


viewing distance of 4 times the picture height (D/H = 4),
the angle that any two adjacent elements must subtend
at the eye for distinct resolution is approximately one
minute (1/60 degree)

For a 14 inch screen, D = ?


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In practice, pixels are not equally spaced but have random


distribution of black, gray and white depending on the nature of
the picture details.
Analysis and tests suggests 70% of the total lines get separately
scanned in the vertical direction and remaining 30% get merged
with other elements due to the beam spot falling equally on two
consecutive lines (as shown in figure)

Thus the effective number of lines distinctly resolved


Nr = Nv K
where K is the resolution factor whose value lies between 0.65 & 0.75
SK-TV/VDS

Assuming K = 0.7;
Nr = 860 0.7 = 602

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Other factors influencing the choice of the


number of lines
With line numbers > 500 there isnt much improvement in the
resolution .
Channel bandwidth increases with increase in the number of
lines:
- cost of the system increases
- reduces the number of channels in a given
VHF/UHF transmission band

As a compromise between quality and cost, the


total number of lines (inclusive of those lost
during vertical retrace) has been chosen to be
625 in the 625-B monochrome TV system.
SK-TV/VDS

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4. Flicker
25 frames per second in television picture is
not rapid enough to allow the brightness of
one picture or frame to blend smoothly into
the next during the time when the screen is
blanked between successive frames: produces
flicker
Eliminated in motion pictures by showing
each picture twice (increased blanking rate)
i.e. 48 views of the scene per second still
the same 24 picture frames per second
SK-TV/VDS

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Interlaced scanning
In Television pictures 50 vertical scans per
second to reduce flicker
Downward rate of travel of scanning electron
beam is increased
Alternate lines get scanned instead of every
successive lines
Here total number of lines are divided into two
groups called fields
i.e. each field is scanned alternatively
(interlaced scanning) to reduces flicker
SK-TV/VDS

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Interlaced scanning

SK-TV/VDS

contd..

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Interlaced scanning

contd..

625 lines of each frame /picture are divided into


sets of 312.5 lines
Each set is scanned alternatively
Horizontal sweep oscillator is made to work at a
frequency of 15625 Hz (i.e. 312.5 50 = 15625)
Vertical sweep circuit run at a frequency of 50 Hz
instead of 25 Hz
Reduces the undesired effects of hum due to
pickup from mains
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Scanning periods
Normal duration of the horizontal line is 64s
(1/15625 = 64s)
active line period = 52s
line blanking period = 12s

Normal duration of the vertical trace is 20 ms


(1/50 = 20 ms)
18.720 ms - for bringing the beam from top to
bottom
1.280 ms to commence the next cycle
SK-TV/VDS

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Scanning periods

SK-TV/VDS

contd..

21

Scanning periods

contd..

20 horizontal lines could be scanned during


each vertical retrace interval
Thus 40 scanning lines are lost per frame
Thus active number of lines scanned Na =
625-40 = 585

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5. Fine Structure

Resolving power or resolution: the ability of


an image reproducing system to represent the
fine structure of an object

Vertical resolution: Vr = Na K; Na-active


number of lines, K-resolution factor
Ex: Assuming K=0.69; Vr = 585 0.69 400
lines

Horizontal resolution: Hr = Vr x Aspect Ratio


Bandwidth: highest video frequency related
to the time taken in scanning two adjacent
pixels
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Time period of one


sq. wave T=2t/Hr
t=time to scan one line
B/W=1/T=Hr/2t
(see notes)

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Video Signal Bandwidth Calculation Example

For 525 lines system it is 4Hz!

Thus Bandwidth depends on:


Number of Active lines
Aspect Ratio
Resolution factor or Kell factor
Horizontal line trace period
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Interlace error
- Usually the interlace ratio is 2:1
- Any error in the scanning timings and sequence would
reduce the quality of the reproduced picture

NB: For interlaced scanning, the total number of lines in any


TV system must be odd
SK-TV/VDS

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6. Tonal Gradation
It is the variation in brightness from pixel to pixel.
If the intensity changes from pixel to pixel, the rate
of variations of intensity is maximum which is equal
the bandwidth= 5MHz (for 625 lines).
Tonal gradation varies from 0Hz to 5MHz
Factors that affect the tonal quality of the
reproduced picture are
Contrast: diff in intensity between black and
white parts
Contrast ratio
Viewing distance
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COMPARISON OF VARIOUS TV
SYSTEM
CCIR 625 B monochrome system most parts of Europe, Africa and
India. BW: 5MHz, Resolution factor:0.69, Line frequency: 15625Hz
625 line Britain - BW: 5.5MHz, Resolution factor: 0.73
819 line France. BW:10.4MHz (improved vertical and horizontal
resolution)
525 line America. Frame frequency:30, line frequency: 15750, BW:
4MHz (i.e. lesser horizontal resolution)
Note: Greater the no. of lines, better the vertical resolution
Greater the BW, better the horizontal resolution
SK-TV/VDS

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END
FOLLOWING SLIDES:
-SOME NOTES ON TWO TYPES
OF SCANNING!
-SOME NOTES ON TYPES OF
DEFLECTION SYSTEMS IN CRT!

Scanning

NTSC

525 horizontal scanning lines/frame, 15750(=525x30)Hz


Vertical scanning, 60Hz

Frame rate should be greater than 40/sec for reduced


flickering
NTSC: 30frames/sec=60fields/sec, interlaced scanning
PAL: 25 frames/sec=50fields/sec, interlaced scanning

Scanning

Image Flicker and Frame Rate


Flicker: the action of scanning will become visible if the
vertical-scan rate is too slow, depending on the characteristics
of the human eye, the image brightness, and the viewing
conditions.
For TV, the vertical-scan rate ought to be 40Hz or higher. For
PC, even higher.
Frame rate: the rate at which all the lines in the picture are
reproduced.
Frame rate = vertical-scan rate for progressive scanning
system.
Frame rate < vertical-scan rate for interlaced scanning system.

Scanning
type 1

Sequential or progressive Scanning

Starting position

Last Line

TraceG

Vertical retrace

Scanning
type 2

Interlaced Scanning
1

3
5
B

Odd lines in 1st vertical trace

Inactive lines in 1st vertical retrace

1st field=262 1/2 lines


C

2
4

Frame
= 525
lines

D
Even lines in 2nd vertical
trace

D
Inactive lines in 2nd vertical retrace

2nd field=262 1/2 lines

Scanning

B. Grob and C.E. Herndon, Basic Television and Video Systems,


McGraw-Hill, 1999, 6thEd.

Types of
Scanning

Interlaced Vs. Progressive

Interlaced
Reduced bandwidth.
Small area flicker (for fine vertical detail).
Greater visibility of motion effects.
The above are not significant because the sharpness of
edges and the fineness of detail produced by camera are
not sufficient to generate visible spurious signals at
normal TV viewing distances.
50i (50 interlaced fields = 25 frames) is the standard video
field rate per second for PAL and SECAM television
60i (60 interlaced fields = 30 frames) is the standard video
field rate per second that has been used for NTSC
television for decades

Types of
Scanning

Interlaced Vs. Progressive

Progressive
Reduce all kinds of picture impairments.
Bandwidth gets twice.
Commonly used in computers and TV receivers with a
digital frame memory.
A DTV receiver could employ progressive scanning for its
display even though the incoming signal was interlaced 
de-interlacing issue!
Used in DTV production systems or other systems that
employ wideband transmission modes such as fiber optics.
60p is a progressive format used in high-end HDTV
systems. While it is not technically part of the ATSC or
DVB broadcast standards, it is rapidly gaining ground in
the areas of set-top boxes and video recordings

Scanning

Ex deinterlacing

Interlaced Frame=Field1+Field2 as
you can see clearly.

Deinterlaced. (But even after


deinterlacing some red and some
green pixels stay where the last field
was.)

Deinterlacing is the process of taking a stream of interlaced frames and converting it to a


stream of progressive frames.

Scanning

Scanning Frequencies
Scanning Frequencies (in NTSC)
Horizontal scanning frequency
fH = 525 lines/frame x 30frames/sec=15,750 lines/sec =
15,750Hz
Horizontal scanning period H = 1/15750=63.492sec

Vertical scanning frequency


fV = 60Hz
Vertical scanning period = 1/60=16.67msec

Compare with PAL system discussed


earlier!

Scanning

Retrace Time
During flyback (both horizontal and vertical) all the
picture information is blanked out.
Thus, retrace part of the sawtooth wave is made as
short as possible.
The retrace time is about 10%(~17%) of the time
needed for the total line, for horizontal scanning
The lower frequency vertical sawtooth waves
usually have a flyback time less than 5% of that
needed for one complete cycle.
The vertical retrace time is much longer than the
time needed to scan a complete horizontal line.

Scanning

Trace & Retrace


Trace & Retrace in NTSC System
Deflection
current

Horizontal trace

Pulse retrace (about 17% of Hor.


Scanning period)

Saw tooth
waveform
for trace &
retrace

Horizontal Scanning period


= 1/15750 sec = 63.5s
Deflection
current

Vertical trace
Retrace

Vertical Scanning
Period = 1/60 sec
=16.7ms

About 483 lines

CRT Deflection Systems


SOME NOTES ON TYPES OF DEFLECTION SYSTEMS IN CRT

Saw-tooth wave
Saw-tooth wave

Horizontal
deflection
plane

60Hz Sawtooth wave


Vertical deflection plane

Electro-static deflection

Vertical deflection coil

Horizontal
deflection
coil
15750Hz
Saw-tooth wave

Electro-magnetic deflection

K.Lee, Analog & Digital Television and Video


Engineering, Hyungseul, 2004. (Korean)

CRT Deflection Systems

Electrostatic deflection
An electrostatic deflection system generally consists of metallic
deflection plates used in pairs within the neck of the CRT.
The simplest design incorporates flat rectangular parallel plates facing
each other, with the electron beam directed along the central plane
between them.
An electrical charge is applied to these plates to direct the beam to
the proper area of the CRT. To move the
beam to the right, a positive charge is applied to the
right plate to pull the beam while a negative charge is applied to
the left plate to push the electron beam to the proper position.
The amount of the charge
applied to the plates controls the amount of deflection.
The beam deflection angle off-axis does not exceed 20  small sized
screen
Most electrostatic deflection CRTs are used to display electronic
waveforms as a function of time. (radar and oscilloscope)

CRT Deflection Systems

Flemings rule

Flemings left hand rule

Flemings right hand rule

CRT Deflection Systems

Electromagnetic deflection

F. Hasime, ABC of Physics, Blue Backs


(Korean)

CRT Deflection Systems

Electromagnetic deflection

The direction of the electron beam is into the slide (paper).


B. Grob and C.E. Herndon, Basic
Television and Video Systems,
McGraw-Hill, 1999, 6thEd.

CRT Deflection Systems

Electromagnetic deflection
Electromagnetic deflection uses a magnetic field generated by four
coils to move the beam beam across the CRT.
Electromagnetic deflection is commonly found on
CRTs that use a raster-scan type display. Current flows through the
electron beam as it moves from the electron gun (cathode) to the
phosphor face (anode) of the CRT. This current develops a circular
magnetic field. By introducing an external magnetic field,
the beam can be deflected. Controlling the polarity and strength of this
external field controls the amount and direction of the beam deflection.
In contrast with electrostatic deflection systems, the components in an
electromagnetic deflection system are almost universally located outside
the tube envelope, rather than inside the vacuum.
Free of obstructions in the neck of the CRT  larger-diameter electron
beam can be used  permits greater beam current, consequently brighter
picture.
Deflection angles of 110 (55 off-axis) are commonly used in video
display tubes without excessive spot defocusing.  large sized screen

CRT Deflection Systems

Electromagnetic deflection

CRT Deflection Systems

Deflection Symptoms