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You are on page 1of 17

Quadrotor Modeling

(Marilena Vendittelli)

Introduction

Modeling

Control Problems

Models for control

Main control approaches

Elective in Robotics - Quadrotor Modeling (M.Vendittelli)

Hummingbird

DraganFlyer X4

CEA Quadrotor

Mesicopter

Stanford University

applications

surveying, maintenance

aerial transportation, manipulation

communication networks

search and rescue operations

all these activities require

vertical, stationary, slow flight

Pelican

a quadrotor is characterized by

high maneuverability

vertical take-off and landing (VTOL)

hovering capabilities

microdrones GmbH

STARMAC

Stanford University

...

NanoQuad

KMel Robotics

controlled by varying the angular speed of each rotor

actuation

u = (T,u=, (T,

, ), , )

force distribution

f1

f2

R,2

R,1

!1

!2

2 1, . . . , 4

fi = b fi2i = bi=

i = 1, . . . , 4

i

R,i = di2 = d 2

R,i

i

f4

f3

both depend on the rotor

!4

!3

R,4

R,3

and radius and on air density

can be determined by static

thrust test

motor control

!d

C(s)

configuration

s possible if we

x, y, z

xb , y b , z b

, ,

[X, Y, Z]T

p, t

V

Body frame axes

Euler angles Z,Y,X '

two steps. In a

Position vector w.r.t. an inertial frame

enerates control

xb

Pan

and

tilt

angles

SRB for actuated camera

aw control input

Vector of vehicle linear

w.r.t. an inertial frame

yb velocities

r the roll angle, x

#

Vector

of

vehicle

angular

velocities

w.r.t. an inertial frame

SRI

zb on image plane

y s = [s1 , s2 ]

Target coordinates

sd = [sd1 , sd2 ]

Target desired position on image plane

(16)

z

Tib

Transformation matrix from UAV body frame to inertial frame

Tbc

Transformation matrix from camera frame to UAV body frame

H

Transformation matrix from camera frame to point feature

g

Gravity acceleration

(17)

T

Aircraft speed along x body axis

B Analytical Jacobian

I

J

Ji

Interaction Matrix

we can close a

Jc

Jacobian sub-matrix relative to control inputs

e:

B

I

Jc

Right pseudo-inverse of Jc

Jd

Jacobian sub-matrix relative to variables causing drift

(18)

(x, y, z) position of SR

origin in SR

ol stands for eq.

RB =

c c c s s s c c s c + s s

s c s s s + c c s s c s c

s

c s

c c

w.r.t. SR

(22)

nalytical

Jacobian

, ]sd2s

] Target

Target

desired

position

on image

plane

s s s(16)

+ c csssd==[s

s[s

c

c

(22)

d1

,

s

coordinates

on

image

plane

1 2

teraction

Matrix

Tib

Transformation

matrix from

body

frame to inertial fram

fUAV

1

c

s

c

c

s

=

[s

,

s

]

Target

desired

position

on

image

plane

f

d

d1 d2

2

R,1frame to UAV body fram

(16)

cobian

sub-matrix

relative

inputs

Tbc to control

Transformation

matrix from camera

Tib

Transformation matrix from UAV body frame to inertial

,2

Transformation matrix from camera frame to point feature

of

JH

ght pseudo-inverse

c

Tbc

matrix from !

camera

frame to UAV body

! Transformation

1

1

0

s

g

Gravity

acceleration

2

cobian sub-matrix relative to variables

causing drift '

H

Transformation

matrix

fromaxis

camera frame to point featur

c c s T

= 0(17)

Aircraft (23)

speed along

x body

xb

g

Gravity

acceleration

J

Analytical Jacobian

SRB

0

s

c

c

f4

(17)

T Ji

Aircraft

speed

alongybx body axis

f

3

Interaction

Matrix

x

#

can

close

a

Jacobian

c s s SR

sI c c sJJcc + sAnalytical

sJacobian

sub-matrix relative to control inputs

zb

y J

Matrix of Jc !4

Jc

sclose

sInteraction

cRight

(22)

!3 pseudo-inverse

c

s sa+ c c s si

relativetotovariables

control causing

inputs drift

Jacobian sub-matrix

sub-matrix relative

(18)

VIc=

zy,

z)

JcJdc c Jacobian

s(x,

Jc R,3

Right pseudo-inverse of Jc

R,4

c cJacobian

s c crelative

s

s

c s ssub-matrix

s c +

e block

diaJ

to

variables

causing drift

(18)

I d

equation of motion

M

+a rigid

Jbody

(24)

0

s

dynamics

with

mass

m

subject

s

c

s

s

s

s s c forces

s c applied

B =1J of

R

=

(22)to the

+ c cto

external

B

implements

cmass

s

to

= for0ofeq.

(23)

s c s sc

ccc+ s s

c

center

according

Newton-Eulero

formalism

c

c

c

c

s

s s

ands

block di0 s cI R

cB = s c s

s s + c c s s c s c

(22)

plements

FI = mV I

(23)

translational dynamics in SRI

s

c s

c c

ds for eq. 1

=

FI applied to the com and expressed in SRI

FVI Iexternal

force

m

T

expressed

in SRI

=

(

x,

y,

z)

I

+ J

M

=

J

(23)

rotational

dynamics

in

SR

B

B

1

J MB )

(24)

JMB (= J +

J +

MB, J resp. external moment around com and inertia tensor expressed in SRB

1

in SR

=( p, q, r) rotational velocity expressed

V I (25)

=

FI B

m

Elective in Robotics

Quadrotor

Modeling

(M.

Vendittelli)

1

c c c s s s c c s c + s s

ented by the

block

diLmatrix

rotational

M

+ and

+ IAR+B=

B =

D

inertia

svelocity

s c

c s s s + c c s s c

inversion 0implements

s

c s

c c

control stands for eq.

p

1 0

s

Ix 0 0

= q = 0 c c s

J = 0 Iy 0

r

0 s c c

0 0 Iz

control inputs

f2

T = f1+f2+f3+f4

d method

R,2

VI = (x,

y,

z)

T

MB = J +

J f1

R,1

!1

1

' F

T

V I =

I

mxb

SRB

f4

f3

yb

= J 1 ( J +#

MB )

=

l(f

f

)

'

2

4

n, the Visual servoing

# = l(f1f3)

zb

=( p, q,l r)T

T = R,1 +R,2R,3+R,4 ,3

(19)

)

(p, q, r)

( , ,

in Robotics - Quadrotor Modeling (M.Vendittelli)

Elective

R

R,4

applied forces

)

T(p, q, r)

(

,

,

and

=( p, moments

q, r)

(25)

0

0

,I)

r)

0 ( ,+

0 + FA + FD

FI =

RB( (p,

, ,q,)

mg

T

0

0 + F + F

0weight+ I RL

FI =

(

,

,

)

B

A

D

actuation

aerodynamics

disturbances

MB = L + T+ A + D

mg

0

L

Ix 0 0

MB = L + + A + D

J0 = 0 Iy 0

L

0 0 Iz

Ix 0 0

gyroscopicJeffects

= 0 Iy 0

'

T

0 0 Iz

Iy Ix

Ix

Iy

mathematical

model

of

the

system

= =

=

I

y =

x = vx

=

Iz

y = vy

z = vz

v x = FA,x

T

(cos() sin() cos() + sin() sin())

m

v y = FA,y

v z = FA,z + g

cos() cos()

sin()r

Ir

q

Ix

r +

q = A,y +

Ir

p

Iy

r +

Ix

Iy

r = A,z +

Iz

= f ( ) +g(

= f) u

( ) + g( ) u

state

= x,

(x,

vx,

, vy,

, vp,

,r)

, , p, q, r)

z , q,

y, z,

y,

y,z,

z,,

u = (T, u, = ,(T,

) , , )

r

p = A,x +

Iy

Iz

qr +

Ix

Ix

pr +

Iy

Ix

Iz

Iy

pq +

m

T =

[g

Ir blades inertia

cos() cos()

Iz

= f ( ) + g( ) u

= f ( ) + g( ) u

inputs

T

m

= cos()q

=

Iz

T

=m(x,

sin() cos())

Iz

Iy

Kzp (zd

z)

m

T =

[g Kzp (zd

cos() cos()

xd (t) = cos t

yd (t) = sin t

t

zd (t)xd (t)

= 1=

+ cos t

10

yd (t)

sin t

10

=( p, q, r)

simplified

model

for

control

design

section, the Visual servoing

action

(note the substitution assuming

negligible

r): aerodynamics

(

,

,

)

(p, q, r)

small

'

and

#

)

symmetric

shape

effects

gyroscopic

T

negligible disturbances

0

0

Jd

(19)

I

T

0

0

F

=

+

RB ( , , )

I sin() sin())

x

= (cos() sin() cos() +

mg m

T

0

K >0

T

p /2

y = (sin() sin() cos() sin() cos())

>0

m L

0

MB = L + + A

T

z = cos()

orm a circular trajectory

we cos() m + g

0

=

is such that:

Ix

/2

=

Iy(20)

0

0

Iz

11

attitude control

eight control

position control

trajectory planning

trajectory tracking

sensor-based control

Elective in Robotics - Quadrotor Modeling (M.Vendittelli)

12

control system

attitude

control

', #,

'd, #d, d

position

control

xd, yd, zd

13

fi =control

attitude

2

b i

i = 1, . . . , 4

determine the torques ', #, necessary to obtain a stable desired attitude 'd, #d, d

R,i = d i2

= [Kp (d ) + Kd ( d

= [Kp (d

= [K

) + Kd ( d

p (d

) + K

d (d

)]

)]

)]

height control

determine the thrust T necessary to bring and keep the quadrotor to a desired

height zd ) from the z dynamics:

m

T =

[g + zd + Kzp (zd

cos(#) cos(')

z) + Kzd (zd

IMU = + b + 2 SRB

z)]

14

' error

# error

error

z error

16

15

'

16

convergence and robustness performance

exteroceptive sensors (camera, laser, sonar) allow

indoor flight and can be used to obtain an accurate

estimation of the system state

References

R. Mahony, V. Kumar, P. Corke, "Multirotor Aerial Vehicles: Modeling, Estimation, and Control of

Quadrotor," IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, vol.19, no.3, pp. 20-32, Sept. 2012.

17

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