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MANUFACTURING AND DESIGN OF

INSULATION SYSTEM FOR


AIR COOLED TURBO GENERATOR
BY V.P.I PROCESS

APROJECTREPORTSUBMITTEDINPARTIAL
FULFILLMENTOFTHEREQUIREMENTS
FORTHEAWARDOF

BACHELORDEGREE
IN
ELECTRICALENGINEERING
SUBMITTEDBY

G.VENKATESHBABU
(04A21A0258)
M.K.CHAITANYASARMA
(04A21A0216)
M.V.SATYATEJA
(04A21A0254)
L.PRANEETHCHAITANYA
(03A21A0226)
UNDERTHEESTEEMEDGUIDANCEOF

T.Ravi.M.E..,
Asstprof.
SwarnandhraCollege
Narsapuram

R.K.MANOHAR
SrDGM
QualityControl(E.M)
BHEL,Ramachandrapuram

REGD.OFFICE: BHEL, SIRIFORT, NEWDELHI-110 049

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CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled MANUFACTURING
AND DESIGN OF INSULATION SYSTEM FOR AIR COOLED
TURBO GENERATOR BY V.P.I PROCESS
Submitted by
G.VENKATESH BABU
(04A21A0258)
M.KRISHNA CHAITANYA SARMA
(04A21A0216)
M.V.SATYA TEJA
(04A21A0254)
L.PRANEETH CHAITANYA
(03A21A0226)
In partial fulfilment of BACHELORS DEGREE IN ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING for the academic Year 2007-2008 of
IV-Year from SWARNANDHRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY, affiliated to JNT UNIVERSITY, WEST GODAVARI
DIST., A.P, INDIA.
A record of bonafide work carried by them under my guidance in
BHEL, RAMACHANDRAPURAM, HYDERABAD-32.

SIGNATURE OF PROJECT GUIDE


SHRI R.K.MANOHAR
DGM,B.Tech(Elect),(SQC&OR)
Electrical Machines,(Quality Control),
BHEL,Ramachandrapuram.

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ABSTRACT
In developing countries like India, power generation is a major break
through to meet the present demands of the nation. Power generation of several
types are on forefront, the dominant component of power generation is TURBOGENERATOR which produces large capacity, the word TURBO stands for turbine
drive. Generally the turbines used to drive these turbo-generators are of reaction
type.
In large-scale industries manufacturing generators, insulation design
plays a vital role. Insulation is known to be the heart of the generator. If
insulation fails, generator fails which leads to the loss of crores of rupees. The
latest technology for insulation in the world and adopted by BHEL, (Hyderabad)
unit is VACUUM PRESSURE IMPREGNATION which is of resin poor thermosetting
type. This type is preferred as it is highly reliable and possesses good
mechanical, thermal properties and di-electric strength. As the quantity of resin
used is less, hence the over all cost of insulation is reduced.
In our project we have made a detailed study of the VPI system of
insulation. This system is employed by BHEL first in the country and second in
the world next to Germany.
Project Associates:
G.Venkatesh Babu
(04A21A0258)
M.K.Chaitanya Sarma
(04A21A0216)
M.V.Satya Teja

(04A21A0254)

L.Praneeth Chaitanya
(03A21A0226)

Project Guide External:

Project

Guide

Internal:
R.K.Manohar., Sr.D.G.M,
Quality Control (E.M),
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T.Ravi. M.E..,
Asst prof.

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B.H.E.L. R.C.Puram.

Swarnandhra

College

APPROVED BY HOD OF EEE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.

ABSTRACT

1.1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

1.2. PROFILE

10

OF

BHEL

1.3. PREFACE

12

2. INTRODUCTION

13

2.1DRAWBACKS

OF EARLY VPI PROCESS

13

2.2 ADVANTAGE

OF PRESENT RESIN POOR VPI PROCESS

14

3. INTRODUCTION
3.1

TO VARIOUS PARTS OF A GENERATOR

16
16

STATOR

3.2 ROTOR

17

3.3 FIELD CONNECTIONS AND MULTI CONTACTS

19

3.4 EXCITATON SYSTEM

20

3.5 PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATOR AND AVR

21

3.6 VARIOUS LOSSES IN A GENERATOR

23

4.

MANUFACTURE OF GENERATOR

4.1VARIOUS STAGES IN MANUFACTURE


4.1.1

OF GENERATOR

STATOR MANUFACTURING PROCESS

4.1.2 STATOR

CORE CONSTRUCTION

4.1.3 PREPARATION

OF STATOR LAMINATIONS

4.1.4 RECEPTION OF SILICON STEEL ROLLS


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26
26
26
26

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4.1.5 SHEARING

26

4.1.6 BLANKING

AND NOTCHING

26

4.1.7 COMPOUND

NOTCHING

26

4.1.8 INDIVIDUAL

NOTCHING

27

4.1.9 DEBURRING

27

4.1.10 VARNISHING

27

28

STATOR

5.1 TRAIL

CORE ASSEMBLY

PACKET ASSEMBLY

5.2 NORMAL

CORE ASSEMBLY

28
28

5.2.1 STEPPED

PACKET ASSEMBLY

28

5.2.2 NORMAL

PACKET ASSEMBLY

28

5.2.3 IN

PROCESS PRESSING

5.2.4 FITTING
6. STATOR

OF CLAMPING BOLTS

6.2 TYPES

7.1 STATOR
7.1.2 TURN

INSULATION

WINDING INSULATION SYSTEM FEATURES

7.1.1 STRAND

INSULATION

INSULATION

7.1.3 GROUND
7.1.4

MATERIAL USED IN COIL MANUFACTURING

OF CONDUCTOR COILS

7. ELECTRICAL

WALL INSULATION

SLOT DISCHARGES

7.2 INSULATING

MATERIALS

7.2.1 CLASSIFICATION
7.2.2 INSULATING
7.3 ELECTRICAL

OF INSULATING MATERIALS

MATERIALS FOR ELECTRICAL MACHINES

RESISTANCE

7.3.2 DIELECTRIC

STRENGTH

CONSTANT

7.3.5 DIELECTRIC

LOSS

8.1

29
31
34
34
38
39
40
40
41
42
43

FACTOR

7.3.4 DIELECTRIC
8 RESIN

29

PROPERTIES OF INSULATION AND FEW DEFINITIONS

7.3.1 INSULATION
7.3.3 POWER

29
29

WINDING

6.1 CONDUCTOR

29

IMPREGNATION

INSULATION MATERIALS FOR LAMINATIONS

44
45

8.2 VARNISH

46

8.3 MATERIAL FOR RESIN POOR BARS


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8.4 RESIN
MATERIALS

RICH SYSTEM
FOR RESIN POOR HALF BARS

9. MANUFACTURE
9.1 FOR

OF STATOR COILS

RESIN POOR PROCESS

9.1.1 RECEPTION

48
48

OF COPPER CONDUCTORS

9.1.2 TRANSPOSITION
9.1.3 PUTTY

OPERATION

49

9.1.4 STACK

CONSOLIDATION

9.1.5 BENDING
9.1.6 FINAL
9.2 FOR

TAPING

9.2.1 PUTTY

WORK

9.2.2 FINAL

TAPING

9.2.3
10.

51

FINAL BAKING

AN OVERVIEW

10.1 ADVANTAGES

OF RESIN POOR SYSTEM

10.2 DISADVANTAGES
10.3 ADVANTAGES
11. ASSEMBLY

11.5

52

OF STATOR CORE

53

HOLDERS ASSEMBLY

11.3 STIFFENER
11.4 EYE

52

OF RESIN RICH SYSTEM

OF STATOR

11.1 RECEPTION
11.2 WINDING

OF RESIN POOR SYSTEM

52

OF RESIN RICH SYSTEM

10.4 DISADVANTAGES

ASSEMBLY

FORMATION

CONNECTING RINGS ASSEMBLY

11.6 PHASE
12.

50

RESIN RICH PROCESS

CONNECTORS

THE VPI PROCESS

12.1 INTRODUCTION

TO

VPI

PROCESS

54

12.2 HISTORY

54

12.3 VPI

57

PROCESS FOR RESIN POOR INSULATED JOBS

12.3.1 GENERAL

57

12.3.2 PREHEATING
12.3.3 VACUUM

CYCLE

12.3.4 IMPREGNATION
12.3.5 POST CURING
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12.3 .6 ELECTRICAL
12.4 GLOBAL
12.5 RESIN

61

TESTING

PROCESSING

61

MANAGEMENT

61

12.6 SPECIFIC

62

INSTRUCTIONS

12.7 PRECAUTIONS
12.8 FEATURES
13. FACILITIES
13.1 DATA

AND BENEFITS

AVAILABLE IN

PLANT

BHEL

COLLECTION OF SAMPLES

13.1.1INDO-BHARAT II
13.1.2

VPI

INDO BHARAT

II

ROTOR
STATOR

63
65
65
68

13.1.3 High voltage levels of stator/rotor windings for multi turn machines
13.1.4 Testing results of indo bharat-ii rotor

72

13.1.5 Testing results of indo bharat-ii stator

73

14. Comparision between resin poor and resin rich systems 74


14.1 Drawbacks

74

14.2 Suggestions
14.3 justification

75

15. Present insulation systems used in the world

75

15.1 Westinghouse electric co: Thermalastic

76

15.2 General electric co:


Micapals i and ii, epoxy mica mat, micapal ht and hydromat
15.3 Alsthom, gec alsthom, alstom power:
Isotenax, resitherm, resiflex, resivac and duritenax
15.4 Siemens ag, kwu: micalastic

77

78

15.5 Abb industrie ag:


micadur, micadur compact, micapact and micarex 79
15.6 Toshiba corporation: tosrich and tostight-i

79

15.7 Mistubishi electric corporation

80

15.8 Hitachi ltd: hi-resin and super high-resin

80

15.9 Summary of present day insulation

80

16. a new trend in insulation system


16.1 Micalastic
16.2 Micalastic insulation in itaipu
17. Conclusion
18. BIBLIOGRAPHY
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81
82
83

77

71

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LIST OF TABLES
Classification of insulations according to temperature
Insulating materials for electrical machines
Properties of an electrical insulation
Materials used in resin rich and resin poor process
Table showing temperature and time to be maintained for different
type of jobs in VPI
LIST OF FIGURES
Photograph of a small round rotor
Figure showing the flow of eddy currents in rotor body with and
without laminations
Flow diagram showing various stages in generator manufacture
Fig showing the shape of laminations after completion of notching and
deburring operation
Roebel and diamond pulled coils
Schematic diagram for a 3- Y connected stator winding with 2 parallel
conductors per phase
Photographs of end windings and slots of random wound stator
Photograph of a form wound stator winding
A single form wound coil being inserted into two slots
C.S of a random stator winding slot
C.S of a form wound multi-turn slots containing
a.) form wound multi-turn coils.
b.) directly cooled roebel bars
C.S of multi-turn coil, where the turn insulation and strand insulation
are same
Side view showing one way of transposing insulated strands in stator
bar
C.S of multi-turn coil with 3 turns and 3 strands per turn
Layout of mould used in baking of stator by resin rich process
Vertical VPI tank for smaller jobs
Resin tank in which resin is stored

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LIST OF SYMBOLS ABBREVATIONS AND NOMENCLATURE
C.S.

Cross Section

AVR

Automatic Voltage Regulator

PMG

Permanent Magnetic Generator

VPI

Vacuum Pressurised Impregnation

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1.1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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1.2.PROFILE OF B.H.E.L.
Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) is today the largest engineering
enterprise of India with an excellent track record of performance. Its first plant
was set up at Bhopal in 1956 under technical collaboration with M/s. AEI, UK
followed by three more major plants at Haridwar, Hyderabad and Tiruchirapalli
with Russian and Czechoslovak assistance.
These plants have been at the core of BHELs efforts to grow and
diversify and become Indias leading engineering company. The company now
has 14 manufacturing divisions, 8 service centres and 4 power sector regional
centres, besides project sites spread all over India and abroad and also regional
operations divisions in various state capitals in India for providing quick service
to customers.
BHEL manufactures over 180 products and meets the needs of coresectors like power, industry, transmission, transportation (including railways),
defence, telecommunications, oil business, etc. Products of BHEL make have
established an enviable reputation for high quality and reliability.
BHEL has installed equipment for over 62,000 MW of power generationfor Utilities, Captive and Industrial users. Supplied 2,00,000 MVA transformer
capacity and sustained equipment operating in Transmission & Distribution
network up to 400kV AC & DC, Supplied over 25,000 Motors with Drive Control
System Power projects. Petrochemicals, Refineries, Steel, Aluminium, Fertiliser,
Cement plants etc., supplied Traction electric and AC/DC Locos to power over
12,000 Km Railway network.
Supplied over one million Valves to Power Plants and other Industries.
This is due to the emphasis placed all along on designing, engineering and
manufacturing to international standards by acquiring and assimilating some of
the best technologies in the world from leading companies in USA, Europe and
Japan, together with technologies from its-own R & D centres BHEL has acquired
ISO 9000 certification for its operations and has also adopted the concepts of
Total Quality Management (TQM).
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BHEL presently has manufactured Turbo-Generators of ratings up to
560 MW and is in the process of going up to 660 MW. It has also the capability to
take up the manufacture of ratings unto 1000 MW suitable for thermal power
generation, gas based and combined cycle power generation as-well-as for
diverse industrial applications like Paper, Sugar, Cement, Petrochemical,
Fertilisers, Rayon Industries, etc. Based on proven designs and know-how backed
by over three decades of experience and accreditation of ISO 9001. The Turbogenerator is a product of high-class workmanship and quality. Adherence to
stringent quality-checks at each stage has helped BHEL to secure prestigious
global orders in the recent past from Malaysia, Malta, Cyprus, Oman, Iraq,
Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Saudi Arabia. The successful completion of the
various export projects in a record time is a testimony of BHELs performance.
Established in the late 50s, Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) is,
today, a name to reckon with in the industrial world. It is the largest engineering
and manufacturing enterprises of its kind in India and is one of the leading
international companies in the power field. BHEL offers over 180 products and
provides systems and services to meet the needs of core sections like: power,
transmission, industry, transportation, oil & gas, non-conventional energy
sources and telecommunication. A wide-spread network of 14 manufacturing
divisions, 8 service centres and 4 regional offices besides a large number of
project sites spread all over India and abroad, enables BHEL to be close to its
customers and cater to their specialised needs with total solutions-efficiently and
economically. An ISO 9000 certification has given the company international
recognition for its commitment towards quality. With an export presence in more
than 50 countries BHEL is truely Indias industrial ambassador to the world.

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1. 3. Preface
Power is the basic necessity for economic development of a
country. The production of electrical energy and its per capital consumption is
deemed as an index of standard of living in a nation in the present day
civilization. Development of heavy or large-scale industries, as well as medium
scale industries, agriculture, transportation etc, totally depend on electrical
power resources of engineers and scientists to find out ways and means to
supply required power at cheapest rate. The per capital consumption on average
in the world is around 1200KWH, the figure is very low for our country and we
have to still go ahead in power generation to provide a decent standard of living
for people.
An AC generator is a device, which converts mechanical
energy to electrical energy. The alternator as it is commonly called works on the
principle of Electro Magnetic Induction. Turbo generators are machines
which can generate high voltages and capable of delivering KA of currents .so
the designer should be cautious in designing the winding insulation. So
insulation design plays a major role on the life of the Turbo Generator. In our
project we deal with the Manufacture process of turbo generator and its
insulation design by VPI process.
The first half of project is concerned with the aspects of generator
manufacturing comprising of stator manufacturing, in a step by step procedure
involving different stages, and the latter stage includes the insulation design of
the generator by VPI process in a detailed manner, which completes the
generator design.
We more over stress mainly on VPI insulation process. Before going
deep into the topic, we will start with a brief introduction.

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2.

Introduction

Electrical insulating materials are defined as materials that offer a


large resistance to the flow of current and for that reason they are used to keep
the current in its proper path i.e. along the conductor. Insulation is the heart of
the generator. Since generator principle is based on the induction of e.m.f in a
conductor when placed in a varying magnetic field. There should be proper
insulation between the magnetic field and the conductors. For smaller capacities
of few KW, the insulation may not affect more on the performance of the
generator but for larger capacities of few MW (>100MW) the optimisation of
insulation is an inevitable task, moreover the thickness of insulation should be
on par with the level of the voltage, also non homogenic insulation provisions
may lead to deterioration where it is thin and prone to hazardous short circuits,
also the insulating materials applied to the conductors are required to be flexible
and have high specific (dielectric) strength and ability to withstand unlimited
cycles of heating and cooling.
Keeping this in view among other insulating materials like solids
gases etc liquid dielectrics are playing a major role in heavy electrical equipment
where they can embedded deep into the micro pores and provide better
insulating properties. Where as solid di-electrics provide better insulation with
lower thickness and with greater mechanical strength. So the process of
insulation design which has the added advantage of both solid and liquid
dielectrics would be a superior process of insulation design. One such process
which has all the above qualities is the VPI (vacuum pressurised impregnation)
process and has proven to be the best process till date.
2.1

Drawbacks of Early VPI Process:


DR. MEYER brought the VPI system with the collaboration of WESTING

HOUSE in the year 1956. It has been used for many years as a basic process for
thorough filling of all interstices in insulated components, especially high voltage
stator coils and bars. Prior to development of thermosetting resins, the widely
used insulation system for 6.6kv and higher voltages was a VPI system in which,
Bitumen Bonded Mica Flake Tape is used as main ground insulation. The
bitumen is heated up to about 180C to obtain low viscosity which aids thorough
impregnation.
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To assist penetration, the pressure in the autoclave was raised to 5 or 6
atmospheres. After appropriate curing and calibration, the coils or bars were
wound and connected up in the normal manner. These systems performed
satisfactorily in service provided they were used in their thermal limitations.
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, however, many large units, principally
turbine generators, failed due to inherently weak thermoplastic nature of
bitumen compound.
Failures were due to two types of problems:
a. Tape separation
b. Excessive relaxation of the main ground insulation.
Much development work was carried out to try to produce new insulation
systems, which didnt exhibit these weaknesses.
The first major new system to overcome these difficulties was basically a
fundamental improvement to the classic Vacuum Pressure Impregnation
process: Coils and bars were insulated with dry mica flake tapes, lightly
bonded with synthetic resin and backed by a thin layer of fibrous material. After
taping, the bars or coils were vacuum dried and pressure impregnated in
polyester resin. Subsequently, the resin was converted by chemical action from
a liquid to a solid compound by curing at an appropriate temperature, e.g.
150C. this so called thermosetting process enable coils and bars to be made
which didnt relax subsequently when operating at full service temperature. By
building in some permanently flexible tapings at the evolutes of diamond shaped
coils, it was practicable to wind them without difficulty. Thereafter, normal slot
packing, wedging, connecting up and bracing procedures were carried out. Many
manufacturers for producing their large coils and bars have used various
versions of this Vacuum Pressure Impregnation procedure for almost 30 years.
The main differences between systems have been used is in the type of
micaceous tapes used for main ground insulation and the composition of the
impregnated resins. Although the first system available was styrenated
polyester, many developments have taken place during the last two decades.
Today, there are several different types of epoxy, epoxy-polyester and polyester

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resin in common use. Choice of resin system and associated micaceous tape is a
complex problem for the machine manufacturer.
Although the classic Vacuum Pressure Impregnation technique has
improved to a significant extent, it is a modification to the basic process, which
has brought about the greatest change in the design and manufacture of
medium-sized a.c. industrial machines. This is the global impregnation
process. Using this system, significant increases in reliability, reduction in
manufacturing costs and improved output can be achieved.
2.2 Advantage of present resin poor VPI process:
VPI is a process, which is a step above the conventional vacuum
system. VPI includes pressure in addition to vacuum, thus assuring good
penetration of the varnish in the coil. The result is improved mechanical strength
and electrical properties. With the improved penetration, a void free coil is
achieved as well as giving greater mechanical strength. With the superior
varnish distribution, the temperature gradient is also reduced and therefore,
there is a lower hot spot rise compared to the average rise.
In order to minimise the overall cost of the machine & to reduce
the time cycle of the insulation system vacuum pressure Impregnated System is
used. The stator coils are taped with porous resin poor mica tapes before
inserting in the slots of cage stator, subsequently wounded stator is subjected to
VPI process, in which first the stator is vacuum dried and then impregnated in
resin bath under pressure of Nitrogen gas.

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3 Introduction to various parts of a Generator:
The manufacturing of a generator involves in manufacturing of all
the parts of the generator separately as per the design requirements and
assembling them for the operation. It is worth knowing the parts of the Turbo
Generator. Usually for larger generators the assembling is done at the generator
installation area in order to avoid the damage due to mechanical stresses during
transportation, also this facilitates easy transportation. Let us have a view about
various parts of a turbo generator. Parts of a turbo generator:
1. Stator
2. Rotor
3. Excitation system
4. Cooling system
5. Insulation system
6. Bearings

3.1

STATOR:
3.1.1 STATOR FRAME
The stator frame is of welded steel single piece construction. It supports

the laminated core and winding. It has radial and axial ribs having adequate
strength and rigidity to minimise core vibrations and suitably designed to ensure
efficient cooling. Guide bards are welded or bolted inside the stator frame over
which the core is assembled. Footings are provided to support the stator
foundation.
3.1.2 STATOR CORE
The stator core is made of silicon steel sheets with high permeability
and low hysteresis and eddy current losses. The sheets are suspended in the
stator frame from insulated guide bars.
Stator laminations are coated with synthetic varnish; are stacked and
held between sturdy steel clamping plates with non-magnetic pressing fingers,
which are fastened or welded to the stator frame.
In order to minimise eddy current losses of rotating magnetic flux which
interacts with the core, the entire core is built of thin laminations. Each
lamination layer is made of individual segments.
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The segments are punched in one operation from electrical sheet steel
lamination having high silicon content and are carefully deburred.

The stator

laminations are assembled as separate cage core without the stator frame. The
segments are staggered from layer to layer so that a core of high mechanical
strength and uniform permeability to magnetic flux is obtained. On the outer
circumference the segments are stacked on insulated rectangular bars, which
hold them in position.
To obtain optimum compression and eliminate looseness during operation the
laminations are hydraulically compressed and heated during the stacking
procedure. To remove the heat, spaced segments are placed at intervals along
the core length, which divide the core into sections to provide wide radial
passages for cooling air to flow.
The purpose of stator core is
1.

To support the stator winding.

2.

To carry the electromagnetic flux generated by rotor winding.

So selection of material for building up of core plays a vital role.

3.1.3STATOR WINDING:
The stator winding is a fractional pitch two layer type, it consisting
of individual bars.

The bars are located in slots of rectangular cross section

which are uniformly distributed on the circumference of the stator core.


In order to minimize losses, the bars are compared of separately
insulated strands which are exposed to 360.degrees transposing
To minimize the stator losses in the winding, the strands of the top
and bottom bars are separately brazed and insulated from each other.

3.2

ROTOR:

3.2.1 ROTOR SHAFT:


Rotor shaft is a single piece solid forging manufactured from a
vacuum casting. Slots for insertion of field winding are milled into the rotor body.
The longitudinal slots are distributed over the circumference. So that solids poles
are obtained. To ensure that only high quality forgings are used, strengthen test,
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material analysis and ultrasonic tests are performed during manufacture of the
rotor. After completion, the rotor is based in various planes at different speeds
and then subjected to an over speed test at 120% of rated speed for two
minutes.

3.2.2.

ROTOR

WINDING AND RETAINING RINGS:

The rotor winding consisting of several coils, which are inserted


into the slots and series connected such that two coils groups from one pole.
Each coil consists of several connected turns, each of which consists of two half
turns which are connected by brazing in the end section. The individual turns of
the coils are insulated against each other, the layer insulation L-shaped strips of
lamination epoxy glass fibre with nomax filler are used for slot insulation. The
slot wedges are made of high electrical conductivity material and thus act as
damper winding. At their ends the slots wedges are short circuited through the
rotor body.
The centrifugal
single

forces of the rotor end

winding are contained by

piece of non magnetic high strengthen steel in order to reduce stray

losses, each retaining rings with its shrinks fitted insert ring is shrunk into the
rotor body in an overhang position. The retaining rings are secured in the axial
position by a snap ring.

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Figure 1: Photograph of a small round rotor. The retaining rings are at the
each end of the rotor.

3.3 FIELD CONNECTION AND MULTICONTACTS:


The field current is supplied to the rotor through multi contact
system arranged at the exciter side shaft end.

3.3.1 BEARINGS:
The generator rotor is supported in two sleeve bearings. To eliminate
shaft current the exciter and bearing is insulated from foundation plate and oil
piping.
The temperature of each bearing is maintained with two RTDs
(Resistance Temperature Detector) embedded in the lower bearing sleeve so
that the ensuring point is located directly below the Babbitt. All bearings have
provisions for fitting vibration pick up to monitor shaft vibrations.
The oil supply of bearings is obtained from the turbine oil system.

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3.4 EXCITATION SYSTEM:


In all industrial applications, the electrical power demand is ever
increasing. This automatically demands for the design, development and
construction of increasingly large capacity Synchronous generators. These
generators should be highly reliable in operation to meet the demand. This calls
for a reliable and sophisticated mode of excitation system.
When the first a.c generators were introducing a natural choice for the
supply of field systems was the DC exciter. DC exciter has the capability for
equal voltage output of either polarity, which helps in improving the generator
transient performance. DC exciters, how ever, could not be adopted for large
ratings because of the problems in the design commutator and brush gear,
which is economically unattractive. Of course, the problems are not uncommon
in power stations but Of the environment with sulphur vapours, acidic fumes as
in the cases of petrochemical and fertilizer industries, exposure of DC exciter.
This adds to the problem of design.
Types of a.c exciters are:
(1)High frequency excitation
(2)Brush less excitation
(3)Static excitation
The high frequency D.C exciter is a specially designed inductor type
alternator with no winding on its rotor. It is designed to operate at high
frequency to reduce the size of the rotor; the a.c exciter was very reliable in
operation.

Though

this

system eliminates

all

problems

associated

with

commutator, it is not free from problems attributable to slip rings and its brush
gear. Thus brushless excitation system was introduced.
The BL exciter consists of field winding on the stator. This system proved
to be highly reliable and required less maintenance. Absence of power cables
and external ac power supplies males the system extremely reliable. The
problem associated with brushes like fast wear out of brush, sparkling etc, are
eliminated.
This suffers from the disadvantage of lack of facility for field suppression
in the case of an internal fault in generator.
The system comprises shaft driven AC exciter with rotating diodes.

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3.5 PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATOR AND AVR:


This system is highly reliable with least maintenance and is ideally suitable
for gas driven generators.
The static excitation system was developed contemporarily as an
alternative to brush less excitation system. This system was successfully
adapted to medium and large capacity Turbo generators. Though the system
offers very good transient performance, the problems associated with slip rings
and brush gear system are still present.
This system consists of rectifier transformer, thyristor converts, field
breaker and AVR. This system is ideally suitable where fast response is called for.
The system is flexible in operation and needs very little maintenance.
Thus, each excitation system has its own advantages and disadvantages.
The selection of system is influenced by the transient response required, nature
of pollution and pollution level in the power plant and cost of equipment.
Exciters are those components, which are used for giving high voltage to
the generator during the start up conditions. The main parts that are included in
the exciter assembly are:
(1)Rectifier wheels
(2)Three phase main exciter
(3)Three phase pilot exciter
(4)Metering and supervisory equipment

3.5.1 RECTIFIER WHEELS:


The main components of the rectifier wheels are Silicon Diodes, which are
arranged in the rectifier wheels in a three-phase bridge circuit. The internal
arrangement of diode is such that the contact pressure is increased by
centrifugal force during rotation.
There are some additional components contained in the rectified wheels.
One diode each is mounted in each light metal heat sink and then connected in
parallel. For the suppression of momentary voltage peaks arising from
commutation, RC blocks are provided in each bridge in parallel with one set of
diodes. The rings from the positive shrunk on to the shaft. This makes the circuit
connections minimum and ensures accessibility of all the elements.
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3.5.2 THREE PHASE PILOT EXCITER:


The three phase pilot exciter is a six-pole revolving field unit; the frame
accommodates the laminated core with the three-phase winding. The rotor
consists of a hub with poles mounted on it. Each pole consists of separate
permanent magnets, which are housed, in non-metallic enclosures. The magnets
are placed between the hub and the external pole shoe with bolts. The rotor hub
is shrunk on to the free shaft end.

3.5.3.THREE PHASE MAIN EXCITER:


Three phases main exciter is a six-pole armature unit; the poles are
arranged in the frame with the field and damper winding. The field winding is
arranged on laminated magnetic poles. At the pole shoe, bars are provided
which are connected to form a damper winding.
The rotor consists of stacked laminations, which are compressed through
bolts over compression rings. The three- phase winding is inserted in the slots of
the laminated rotor. The winding conductors are transposed with in the core
length and end turns of the rotor windings are secure with the steel bands. The
connections are made on the side facing of the rectifier wheels. After full
impregnation with the synthetic resin and curing, the complete rotor is shrunk on
to the shaft.

3.5.4 .AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR:


The general automatic voltage regulator is fast working solid thyristor
controlled equipment. It has two channels, one is auto channel and the other is
manual. The auto channel is used for the voltage regulation and manual channel
is used for the current regulation. Each channel will have its own firing for
reliable operation.
The main features of AVR are:
(1)It has an automatic circuit to control outputs of auto channel and
manual channel and reduces disturbances at the generator terminals
during transfer from auto regulation to manual regulation.
(2)It is also having limiters for the stator current for the optimum
utilization of lagging and leading reactive capabilities of turbo
generator.
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(3)There will be automatic transfer from auto regulation to manual
regulation

in case do measuring PT fuse failure or some internal

faults in the auto channel.


(4)The generator voltage in both channels that is in the auto channel
and the manual channel can be controlled automatically.

3.5.5 COOLING SYSTEM:


Cooling is one of the basic requirements of any generator. The effective
working of generator considerably depends on the cooling system. The
insulation used and cooling employed is inter-related.
The losses in the generator dissipates as the heat, it raises the
temperature of the generator. Due to high temperature, the insulation will be
affected greatly. So the heat developed should be cooled to avoid excessive
temperature raise. So the class of insulation used depends mainly on cooling
system installed.
There are various methods of cooling, they are:
a. Air cooling- 60MW
b. Hydrogen cooling-100MW
c. Water cooling 500MW
d. H 2 & Water cooling 1000MW
Hydrogen cooling has the following advantages over Air-cooling:
1. Hydrogen has 7 times more heat dissipating capacity.
2. Higher specific heat
3. Since Hydrogen is 1/14th of air weight. It has higher compressibility
4. It does not support combustion.

DISADVANTAGES:
1. It is an explosive when mixes with oxygen.
2. Cost of running is higher.
Higher capacity generators need better cooling system.
3.6

VARIOUS LOSSES IN A GENERATOR

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In generators, as in most electrical devices, certain forces act to
decrease the efficiency. These forces, as they affect the generator, are
considered as losses and may be defined as follows:
3.6.1 Copper loss in the winding.
3.6.2 Magnetic Losses.
3.6.3 Mechanical Losses

3.6.1

Copper loss:

The power lost in the form of heat in the armature winding of a generator
is known as Copper loss. Heat is generated any time current flows in a
conductor.
I2R loss is the Copper loss, which increases as current increases. The
amount of heat generated is also proportional to the resistance of the conductor.
The resistance of the conductor varies directly with its length and inversely with
its cross- sectional area. Copper loss is minimized in armature windings by using
large diameter wire. These includes rotor copper losses and Stator copper losses
3.6.2 Magnetic Losses (also known as iron or core losses)
(i) Hysteresis loss (Wh)
Hysteresis loss is a heat loss caused by the magnetic properties of the
armature. When an armature core is in a magnetic field the magnetic particles of
the core tend to line up with the magnetic field. When the armature core is
rotating, its magnetic field keeps changing direction. The continuous movement
of the magnetic particles, as they try to align themselves with the magnetic
field, produces molecular friction. This, in turn, produces heat. This heat is
transmitted to the armature windings. The heat causes armature resistances to
increase. To compensate for hysteresis losses, heat-treated Silicon steel
laminations are used in most dc generator armatures. After the steel has been
formed to the proper shape, the laminations are heated and allowed to cool. This
annealing process reduces the hysteresis loss to a low value.

(ii) Eddy Current Loss (We):


The core of a generator armature is made from soft iron, which is a conducting
material with desirable magnetic characteristics. Any conductor will have
currents induced in it when it is rotated in a magnetic field. These currents that
are induced in the generator armature core are called EDDY CURRENTS. The
power dissipated in the form of heat, as a result of the eddy currents, is
considered a loss.
Eddy currents, just like any other electrical currents, are affected by the
resistance of the material in which the currents flow. The resistance of any
material is inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area. Figure, view A,
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shows the eddy currents induced in an armature core that is a solid piece of soft
iron. Figure, view B, shows a soft iron core of the same size, but made up of
several small pieces insulated from each other. This process is called lamination.
The currents in each piece of the laminated core are considerably less than in
the solid core because the resistance of the pieces is much higher. (Resistance is
inversely proportional to cross-sectional area.) The currents in the individual
pieces of the laminated core are so small that the sum of the individual currents
is much less than the total of eddy currents in the solid iron core.

fig 1: Circuit showing flow of eddy currents in a rotor with and without laminations

As you can see, eddy current losses are kept low when the core material is made
up of many thin sheets of metal. Laminations in a small generator armature may
be as thin as 1/64 inch. The laminations are insulated from each other by a thin
coat of lacquer or, in some instances, simply by the oxidation of the surfaces.
Oxidation is caused by contact with the air while the laminations are being
annealed. The insulation value need not be high because the voltages induced
are very small.
Most generators use armatures with laminated cores to reduce eddy current
losses.

These magnetic losses are practically constant for shunt and compound-wound
generators, because in their case, field current is constant.
3.6.3 Mechanical or Rotational Losses:
These consist of
(i) friction loss at bearings.
(ii) Air-friction or windage loss of rotating rotor armature.
These are about 10 to 20% of F.L losses.
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Careful maintenance can be instrumental in keeping bearing friction to a
minimum. Clean bearings and proper lubrication are essential to the reduction of
bearing friction. Brush friction is reduced by assuring proper brush seating, using
proper brushes, and maintaining proper brush tension.
Usually, magnetic and mechanical losses are collectively known as Stray
Losses. These are also known as rotational losses for obvious reasons.
As mentioned above, these losses are responsible for the rise in
temperature of the generator body hence an appropriate insulation should be
used. Also the insulation should withstand the generator voltage and currents.
So an insulation whose breakdown voltage is of 5 to 6 times the normal voltage
is taken as Safety factor.

4. MANUFACTURE OF GENERATOR

4 . 1 Various stages in generator manufacturing:


In our project we have a detail study of only stator, rotor and the
insulation system used for it. The parts excitation system, cooling system and
bearings are external to the generator and are treated as a completed one and
are out of scope of our record. Now, generator manufacturing can be broadly
divided into three main parts:
4.1.1 Stator manufacture.
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The various stages involved in the generator manufacture and their sub
processes are shown in the flow diagram given below.

Figure 2: flow diagram showing various stages involved in generator manufacture.

Now these sub processes are explained in detail below. Let us start with Stator.
To facilitate manufacture erection and transport the stator consists of
following parts.
Now let us see the detailed study of stator manufacturing process.

4.1.1 STATOR MANUFACTURE PROCESS:


This stator manufacturing is a combination of two individual sub
processes, namely

Stator core construction and

Coil construction and their assembly.

4.1 .2 STATOR CORE CONSTRUCTION:


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4.1.3 PREPARATION OF STATOR LAMINATIONS
4.1.4 Reception of silicon steel rolls:
The silicon steel rolls received are checked for their physical, chemical,
mechanical and magnetic properties as per the specifications mentioned
above.
In order to reduce the Hysterisis loss, silicon alloyed steel, which has
low Hysterisis constant is used for the manufacture of core.

The

composition of silicon steel is


Steel
Silicon

- 95.8 %
- 4.0 %

Impurities- 0.2 %
From the formula for eddy current loss it is seen that eddy current
loss depends on the thickness of the laminations.

Hence to reduce the

eddy current loss core is made up of thin laminations which are insulated
from each other. The thickness of the laminations is about 0.5 mm. The
silicon steel sheets used are of COLD ROLLED NON-GRAIN ORIENTED
(CRANGO) type as it provides the distribution of flux throughout the
laminated sheet.
4.1.4 Shearing:
The cold rolled non grained oriented (CRNGO) steel sheets are cut to
their outer periphery to the required shapes by feeding the sheet into
shearing press. For high rating machines each lamination is build of 6
sectors (stampings), each of 60 cut according to the specifications.
4.1.5 Blanking and notching:
Press tools are used in making the core bolt holes and other notches for
the laminations. Press tools are mainly of two types.
i.

Compound notching tools.

ii.

Individual notching tools.

4.1.6 COMPOUND OPERATION:


In this method the stamping with all the core bolt holes, guiding slots
and winding slots is manufactured in single operation known as Compound
operation and the press tool used is known as Compounding tool.
Compounding tools are used for the machines rated above 40 MW. Nearly
500 tons crank press is used for this purpose.
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4.1.7 INDIVIDUAL OPERATIONS:
In case of smaller machines the stampings are manufactured in two
operations. In the first operation the core bolt holes and guiding slots are
only made. This operation is known as Blanking and the tools used are
known as Blanking tools. In the second operation the winding slots are
punched using another tool known as Notching tool and the operation is
called Notching.
4.1.8 Deburring operation :
In this operation the burrs in the sheet due to punching are
deburred. There are chances of short circuit within the laminations if the
burrs are not removed.

The permissible is about 5 micrometer.

For

deburring punched sheets are passed under rollers to remove the sharp
burs of edges.

Figure 2: Figure showing the shape of laminations after the


completion of notching and deburring operations.

4.1.10 varnishing :
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Depending on the temperature withstand ability of the machine the
laminations are coated by varnish which acts as insulation. The lamination
sheets are passed through conveyor, which has an arrangement to
sprinkle the varnish, and a coat of varnish is obtained. The sheets are
dried by a series of heaters at a temperature of around 260 350 oC. Two
coatings of varnish are provided in the above manner till 12-18 micrometer
thickness of coat is obtained. Here instead of pure varnish a mixture of Tin
and Varnish is used such that the mixture takes 44sec to empty a DIN4
CUP.
The prepared laminations are subjected to following tests.
i) Xylol test

- To measure the chemical resistance.

ii) Mandrel test - When wound around mandrel there should not be any cracks.
iii) Hardness test

- Minimum 7H pencil hardness.

iv) IR value test

- For 20 layers of laminations insulation resistance

should not be less than

1M.

STATOR CORE ASSEMBLY:

5.1 TRAIL PACKET ASSEMBLY:

Clamping plate is placed over the assembly pit; stumbling blocks are
placed between the clamping plates and the assembly pit. Clamping plate is
made parallel to the ground by checking with the spirit level. One packet
comprising of 0.5 mm thickness silicon steel laminations is assembled over the
clamping plates by using mandrels and assembly pit .after assembling one
packet thickness of silicon laminations, inner diameter of the core is checked as
per the drawing also the slot freeness is checked with inspection drift .There
should not be any projections inside or outside the slot. If all the conditions are
satisfied the normal core assembly is carried out by dismantling the trial
packets.

5.2 NORMAL CORE ASSEMBLY

5.2.1 Stepped packed assembly:


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Steeped packets are assembled from the clamping plate isolating each
packet with ventilation laminations up to 4 to 5 packets of thickness 10cms for
an air cooled turbo generator of 120MW.

5.2. 2 Normal packet assembly:


Normal packet assembly is carried out using 0.5 mm silicon steel
laminations up to required thickness of 30mm by using mandrills and inspection
drift after normal packet assembly completion 1 layer of HGL laminations are
placed

and one layer of ventilation lamination

are placed and again normal

packet assembly is carried as above. The thickness of each lamination is 0.5 mm


and the thickness of lamination separating the packets is about 1 mm. The
lamination separating each packet has strips of nonmagnetic material that are
welded to provide radial ducts. The segments are staggered from layer to layer
so that a core of high mechanical strength and uniform permeability to magnetic
flux is obtained. Stacking mandrels and bolts are inserted into the windings slot
bores during stacking provide smooth slot walls.

5.2.3 In process pressings

To obtain the maximum compression and eliminate under setting


during operation, the laminations are hydraulically compressed and heated
during the stacking procedure when certain heights of stacks are reached.
The packets are assembled as above up to 800mm as above and 1 st
pressing is carried using hydraulic jacks up to 150kg/cm 2 and the pressing is
carried out for every 800mm and a pre final pressing is done before the core
length almost reach the actual core. Now the core is tested for the design
specifications and the compensation is done by adding or removing the packets.

5.2.4 Fitting of clamping bolts:

The complete stack is kept under pressure and locked in the frame
by means of clamping bolts and pressure plates. The clamping bolts running
through the core are made of nonmagnetic steel and are insulated from the core
and the pressure plates to prevent them from short circuiting the laminations
and allowing the flow of eddy currents.
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The pressure is transmitted from the clamping plates to the core by
clamping fingers. The clamping fingers extend up to the ends of the teeth thus,
ensuring a firm compression in the area of the teeth. The stepped arrangement
of the laminations at the core ends provides an efficient support to tooth portion
and in addition contributes to the reduction of stray load losses and local heating
in that area due to end leakage flux.
The clamping fingers are also made of non-magnetic steel to avoid eddycurrent losses. After compression and clamping of core the rectangular core key
bars are inserted into the slots provided in the back of the core and welded to
the pressure plates.

All key bars, except one, are insulated from the core to

provide the grounding of the core.

6 WINDING:
The next important consideration is winding. The stator winding and rotor
winding

consist of several components,

each with their own

function.

Furthermore, different types of machines have different components. Stator


windings are discussed separately below.

6.1 Stator Winding


There are three main components in a stator, they are
6.2 copper conductors (although aluminum is sometimes used)
6.3 The stator core
6.4 Insulation.
6.1 Conducting material used in coil manufacturing:
Copper material is used to make the coils. This is because
i)

Copper

has high electrical conductivity with excellent mechanical

properties
ii)

Immunity from oxidation and corrosion

iii)

It is highly malleable and ductile metal.

6.2 TYPES OF CONDUCTOR COILS:


Basically there are three types of stator winding structures employed over the
range from 1 KW to 1000 MW.
1.

Random wound stators.

2.

Form-wound stators using multi turn coils.

3.
Form-wound stators using Roebel bars.
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Out of these, two types of coils are manufactured and used in BHEL, Hyderabad.
1) Diamond pulled multi-turn coil (full coiled).
2) Roebel bar (half-coil).

Add here diag of roebel and diamond


pulled coils
In general, random-wound stators are typically used for machines less
than several hundred KW. Form-wound coil windings are used in most large
motors and many generators rated up to 50 to 100 MVA. Roebel bar windings are
used for large generators. Although each type of construction is described
below, some machine manufacturers have made hybrids that do not fit easily
into any of the above categories; these are not discussed in the project.
Generally in large capacity machines ROEBEL bars are used. These coils
were constructed after considering the skin effect losses.

In the straight slot

portion, the conductors or strips are transposed by 360 degrees.


The transposition is done to ensure that all the strips occupy equal length
under similar conditions of the flux. The transposition provides for a mutual
neutralisation of the voltages induced in the individual strips due to the slot
cross field and ensures that no or only small circulating currents exists in the bar
interior. Transposition also reduced eddy current losses and helps in obtaining
uniform e.m.f. More about transposition is discussed later in the section with
diagrammatic quote.
The copper is a conduit for the stator winding current. In a generator, the
stator output current is induced to flow in the copper conductors as a reaction to
the rotating magnetic field from the rotor. In a motor, a current is introduced into
the stator, creating a rotating magnetic field that forces the rotor to move. The
copper conductors must have a cross section large enough to carry all the
current required without overheating.
Figure 1.4 is the circuit diagram of a typical three-phase motor or
generator stator winding.

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Figure 1.4 schematic diagram for a three phase Y-connected stator


winding with two parallel conductors per phase
The diagram shows that each phase has one or more parallel paths for
current flow. Multiple parallels are often necessary since a copper cross section
large enough to carry the entire phase current may result in an uneconomic
stator slot size. Each parallel consists of a number of coils connected in series.
For most motors and small generators, each coil consists of a number of turns of
copper conductors formed into a loop. The rationale for selecting the number of
parallels, the number of coils in series, and the number of turns per coil in any
particular machine is beyond the scope of our project.
The stator core in a generator concentrates the magnetic field from the
rotor on the copper conductors in the coils. The stator core consists of thin
sheets of magnetic steel (referred to as laminations). The magnetic steel acts as
a low-reluctance (low magnetic impedance) path for the magnetic fields from the
rotor to the stator, or vice versa for a motor. The steel core also prevents most of
the stator winding magnetic field from escaping the ends of the stator core,
which would cause currents to flow in adjacent conductive material.

7. Electrical Insulation:
The final major component of a stator winding is the electrical insulation.
Unlike copper conductors and magnetic steel, which are active components in
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making a motor or generator function, the insulation is passive. That is, it does
not help to produce a magnetic field or guide its path. Generator and motor
designers would like nothing better than to eliminate the electrical insulation,
since the insulation increases machine size and cost, and reduces efficiency,
without helping to create any torque or current. Insulation is overhead, with a
primary purpose of preventing short circuits between the conductors or to
ground. However, without the insulation, copper conductors would come in
contact with one another or with the grounded stator core, causing the current
to flow in undesired paths and preventing the proper operation of the machine.
In addition, indirectly cooled machines require the insulation to be a thermal
conductor, so that the copper conductors do not overheat.
The insulation system must also hold the copper conductors tightly in
place to prevent movement. The stator winding insulation system contains
organic materials as a primary constituent. In general, organic materials soften
at a much lower temperature and have a much lower mechanical strength than
copper or steel. Thus, the life of a stator winding is limited most often by the
electrical insulation rather than by the conductors or the steel core. Furthermore,
stator winding maintenance and testing almost always refers to testing and
maintenance of the electrical insulation.

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High purity (99%) copper conductors/strips are used to make the coils.
This results in high strength properties at higher temperatures so that
deformations due to the thermal stresses are eliminated.

7.1

STATOR WINDING INSULATION SYSTEM FEATURES


The

stator

winding

insulation

system

contains

several

different

components and features which together ensure that electrical shorts do not
occur, that the heat from the conductor I 2R losses are transmitted to a heat sink,
and that the conductors do not vibrate in spite of the magnetic forces.
The basic stator insulation system components are the:
1. Strand (or sub conductor) insulation
2. Turn insulation
3. Ground wall (or ground or earth) insulation
Figures 1.8 and 1.9 show cross sections of random-wound and form-wound coils
in a stator slot, and identify the above components. Note that the form-wound
stator has two coils per slot; this is typical.
Figure 1.10 is a photograph of the cross section of a multi-turn coil. In addition to
the main insulation components, the insulation system sometimes has highvoltage stress-relief coatings and end-winding support components.
The following sections describe the purpose of each of these components. The
mechanical, thermal, electrical, and environmental stresses that the components
are subjected to are also described.
7.1.1 Strand Insulation
In random-wound stators, the strand insulation can function as the turn
insulation, although extra sleeving is sometimes applied to boost the turn
insulation strength in key areas. Many form-wound machines employ separate
strand and turn insulation. The following mainly addresses the strand insulation
in form-wound coils and bars. Strand insulation in random wound machines will
be discussed as turn insulation. Section 1.4.8 discusses strand insulation in its
role as transposition insulation.
There are both electrical and mechanical reasons for stranding a conductor in a
form wound coil or bar.

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From a mechanical point of view, a conductor that is big enough to carry the
current needed in the coil or bar for a large machine will have a relatively large
cross-sectional area. That is, a large conductor cross section is needed to
achieve the desired ampacity. Such a large conductor is difficult to bend and
form into the required coil/bar shape. A conductor formed from smaller strands
(also called sub-conductors) is easier to bend into the required shape than one
large conductor.

From an electrical point of view, there are reasons to make strands and insulate
them from one another. It is well known from electromagnetic theory that if a
copper conductor has a large enough cross-sectional area, the current will tend
to flow on the periphery of the conductor. This is known as the skin effect. The
skin effect gives rise to a skin depth through which most of the current flows.
The skin depth of copper is 8.5 mm at 60 Hz. If the conductor has a cross section
such that the thickness is greater than 8.5 mm, there is a tendency for the
current not to flow through the center of the conductor, which implies that the
current is not making use of all the available cross section. This is reflected as an
effective AC resistance that is higher than the DC resistance. The higher AC
resistance gives rise to a larger I 2R loss than if the same cross section had been
made from strands that are insulated from one another to prevent the skin effect
from occurring. That is, by making the required cross section from strands that
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are insulated from one another, all the copper cross section is used for current
flow, the skin effect is negated, and the losses are reduced.
In addition, Eddy current losses occur in solid conductors of too large a cross
section. In the slots, the main magnetic field is primarily radial, that is,
perpendicular to the axial direction. There is also a small circumferential (slot
leakage) flux that can induce eddy currents to flow. In the end-winding, an axial
magnetic field is caused by the abrupt end of the rotor and stator core. This axial
magnetic field can be substantial in synchronous machines that are underexcited.
By Amperes Law, or the right hand rule, this axial magnetic field will tend to
cause a current to circulate within the cross section of the conductor (Figure
1.11). The larger the cross sectional area, the greater the magnetic flux that can
be encircled by a path on the periphery of the conductor, and the larger the
induced current. The result is a greater I 2R loss from this circulating current. By
reducing the size of the conductors, there is a reduction in stray magnetic field
losses, improving efficiency.
The electrical reasons for stranding require the strands to be insulated from one
another. The voltage across the strands is less than a few tens of volts;
therefore, the strand insulation can be very thin. The strand insulation is subject
to damage during the coil manufacturing process, so it must have good
mechanical properties. Since the strand insulation is immediately adjacent to the
copper conductors that are carrying the main stator current, which produces the
I2R loss, the strand insulation is exposed to the highest temperatures in the
stator. Therefore, the strand insulation must have good thermal properties.
Section 3.8 describes in detail the strand insulation materials that are in use.
Although manufacturers ensure that strand shorts are not present in a new coil,
they may occur during service due to thermal or mechanical aging (see Chapter
8). A few strand shorts in form-wound coils/bars will not cause winding failure,
but will increase the stator winding losses and cause local temperature increases
due to circulating currents.

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44
7.1.1.1.1.1
7.1.2 Turn Insulation
The purpose of the turn insulation in both random- and form-wound stators
is to prevent shorts between the turns in a coil. If a turn short occurs, the
shorted turn will appear as the secondary winding of an autotransformer. If, for
example, the winding has 100 turns between the phase terminal and neutral
(the primary winding), and if a dead short appears across one turn (the
secondary), then 100 times normal current will flow in the shorted turn. This
follows from the transformer law:
npIp = nsIs (1.1)
Where n refers to the number of turns in the primary or secondary, and I is
the current in the primary or secondary. Consequently, a huge circulating current
will flow in the faulted turn, rapidly overheating it. Usually, this high current will
be followed quickly by a ground fault due to melted copper burning through any
ground-wall insulation. Clearly, effective turn insulation is needed for long stator
winding life.
The power frequency voltage across the turn insulation in a random-wound
machine can range up to the rated phase-to-phase voltage of the stator
because, by definition, the turns are randomly placed in the slot and thus may
be adjacent to a phase-end turn in another phase, although many motor
manufacturers may insert extra insulating barriers between coils in the same
slot but in different phases and between coils in different phases in the endwindings. Since random winding is rarely used on machines rated more than 600
V (phase-to-phase), the turn insulation can be fairly thin. However, if a motor is
subject to high-voltage pulses, especially from modern inverter-fed drives (IFDs),
inter-turn voltage stresses that far exceed the normal maximum of 600 V ac can
result. These high-voltage pulses give rise to failure mechanisms, as discussed in
Section 8.7.
The power frequency voltage across adjacent turns in a form-wound multi-turn
coil is well defined. Essentially, one can take the number of turns between the
phase terminal and the neutral and divide it into the phaseground voltage to
get the voltage across each turn. For example, if a motor is rated 4160 V rms
(phasephase), the phaseground voltage is 2400V.
This will result in about 24 Vrms across each turn, if there are 100 turns between
the phase end and neutral. This occurs because coil manufacturers take
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considerable trouble to ensure that the inductance of each coil is the same, and
that the inductance of each turn within a coil is the same. Since the inductive
impedance (XL) in ohms is:
XL = 2_fL (1.2)
Where f is the frequency of the AC voltage and L is the coil or turn inductance,
the turns appear as impedances in a voltage divider, where the coil series
impedances are equal. In general, the voltage across each turn will be between
about 10 Vac (small form-wound motors) to 250 V ac (for large generator multi turn
coils).
The turn insulation in form-wound coils can be exposed to very high transient
voltages associated with motor starts, IFD operation, or lightning strikes. Such
transient voltages may age or puncture the turn insulation. This will be
discussed in Section 8.7. As described below, the turn insulation around the
periphery of the copper conductors is also exposed to the rated AC phase
ground stress, as well as the turnturn AC voltage and the phase coil-to-coil
voltage.
Before about 1970, the strand and the turn insulation were separate components
in multi turn coils. Since that time, many stator manufacturers have combined
the strand and turn insulation. Figure 1.12 shows the strand insulation is
upgraded (usually with more thickness) to serve as both the strand and the turn
insulation. This eliminates a manufacturing step (i.e., the turn taping process)
and increases the fraction of the slot cross section that can be filled with copper.
However, some machine owners have found that in-service failures occur sooner
in stators without a separate turn insulation component [1.11].
Both form-wound coils and random-wound stators are also exposed to
mechanical and thermal stresses. The highest mechanical stresses tend to occur
in the coil forming process, which requires the insulation-covered turns to be
bent through large angles, which can stretch and crack the insulation. Steadystate, magnetically induced mechanical vibration forces (at twice the power
frequency) act on the turns during normal machine operation. In addition, very
large transient magnetic forces act on the turns during motor starting or out-ofphase synchronization in generators. These are discussed in detail in Chapter 8.
The result is the turn insulation requires good mechanical strength.
The thermal stresses on the turn insulation are essentially the same as those
described above for the strand insulation. The turn insulation is adjacent to the
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copper conductors, which are hot from the I 2R losses in the winding. The higher
the melting or decomposition temperature of the turn insulation, the greater the
design current that can flow through the stator.
In a Roebel bar winding, no turn insulation is used and there is only strand
insulation. Thus, as will be discussed in Chapter 8, some failure mechanisms that
can occur with multi turn coils will not occur with Roebel bar stators.
7.1.3 Ground wall Insulation
Ground wall insulation is the component that separates the copper conductors
from the grounded stator core. Ground wall insulation failure usually triggers a
ground fault relay, taking the motor or generator off-line.* Thus the stator
ground wall insulation is critical to the proper operation of a motor or generator.
For a long service life, the ground wall must meet the rigors of the electrical,
thermal, and mechanical stresses that it is subject to.

7.1.4 Slot Discharges:


Slot discharges occur if there are gaps within the slot between the surface
of the insulation and that of the core. This may cause ionisation of the air in the
gap, due to breakdown of the air at the instances of voltage distribution between
the copper conductor and the iron.

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Within the slots, the outer surface of the conductor insulation is at
earth potential, in the overhanging it will approach more nearly to the potential
of the enclosed copper. Surface discharge will take place if the potential gradient
at the transition from slot to overhang is excessive, and it is usually necessary to
introduce voltage grading by means of a semi-conducting (graphite) surface
layer, extending a short distance outward from the slot ends.
So insulation of these stator bars is an inevitable task. It is worth
now to know about insulation.

Till

now

we

have

discussed

the

manufacturing

process, but the manufacture is incomplete without


insulation design.
7.2

INSULATING MATERIALS:
Insulating materials or insulators are extremely diverse in origin and

properties. They are essentially non-metallic, are organic or inorganic, uniform or


heterogeneous in composition, natural or synthetic. Many of them are of natural
origin as, for example, paper, cloth, paraffin wax and natural resins. Wide use is
made of many inorganic insulating materials such as glass, ceramics and mica.
Many of the insulating materials are man-made products and manufactured in
the form of resins, insulating films etc., in recent years wide use is made of new
materials whose composition and organic substances. These are the synthetic
Organo-silicon compounds, generally termed as silicones.
Properties of a good Insulating Material:
The basic function of insulation is to provide insulation live wire to live wire
or to the earth. A good insulating material needs the following physical and
electrical properties.
1.

It should be good conductor to heat and bad conductor to electricity.

2.

It should withstand the designed mechanical stress.

3.

It

should

have

good

chemical

and

thermal

resistively

environmental resistively.
4.

High dielectric strength sustained at elevated temperatures.

5.

High resistivity or specific resistance

6.

Low dielectric Hysterisis.

7.

Good thermal conductivity.

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8.

High degree of thermal stability i.e. it should not deteriorate at high


temperatures.

9.

Low dissipation factor.

10.

Should be resistant to oils and liquid, gas flames, acids and alkalis.

11.

Should be resistant to thermal and chemical deterioration.

7.2.1 CLASSIFICATION

OF INSULATING MATERIAL:

The insulating material can be classified in the following two ways.


I.
II.

Classification according to substance and materials.


Classification according to temperature.

i. Classification according to substance and materials:


1. Solids (Inorganic and organic)
EX: Mica, wood slate, glass, porcelain, rubber, cotton, silks, rayon, ethylene,
paper and cellulose materials etc.
1. Liquids (oils and varnishes)
EX: linseed oil, refined hydrocarbon minerals oils sprits and synthetic varnishes
etc.
2. Gases
EX: Dry air, carbon dioxide, nitrogen etc.

CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO TEMPERATURE:


Class
Y

Permissible
temperatur
e
90

Materials

Cotton, silk, paper, cellulose, wood etc neither


impregnated nor immersed in oil. These are
unsuitable
for
electrical
machine
and
apparatus as they deteriorate rapidly and are
extremely hygroscopic.
A
Cotton, silk & paper, natural resins, cellulose
105
esters, laminated wool, varnished paper.
E
Synthetic material of cellulose base
120
B
Mica, asbestos, glass fibre with suitable
130
bonding substance
F
Material of class B with binding material of
155
higher thermal stability.
H
Glass fibre and asbestos material and built up
180
mica with silicon resins.
C
Above
Mica, porcelain, quartz, glass (without any
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49
bonding agent) with silicon resins of higher
thermal stability.

180

7.2.2 INSULATING MATERIALS FOR ELECTRICAL MACHINES:

Name of
Material

Insulati
on
Class

1. Samicatherm
calmica glass-n,
mimica, domica,
folium, filamic
novobond-s, epoxy
therm laxman isola
calmicaflex
2. Samica flex

Shelf life
(In
7.2.2.1.1.1.1.1 Ap
months)
plic
At
At
o
ati
20
5c
o
on
C
6
12 Main insulation of
stator bars

3. Vectro asbestos
B/F
2
(365.02/365.32)
4. (used in resin rich)
5. Epoxide
6
7.2.2.1.1.1.2
impregnated glass
F
cloth
6. Polyester resin mat
6
& rope

8
12

7. Glassoflex
Turbo laminate

12

8. Hyper seal tape

12

9. SIB775
varnish

4302

12

10. SIB475 or 4301


varnish

12

or

Overhang
insulation of
motor coils, at 3rd
bends of multi
turn coil
Main pole coils of
synchronous
machines
Winding
holders
and
inter-half
insulation
Bar to winding
holder & stiffener
groove of support
segment
of
clamping plate
Inter-turn
insulation of rotor
winding
As finishing layer
in overhangs of
motor coils
Stack
Consolidation
of
stator bars
Base coat varnish
before taping of
stator bars

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11. SIB 643 or8003
Varnish or K8886
varnish
12. SIB 642 or 8001
varnish

Conductive coat in
straight portion of
stator bars
At slot emerge
portion on stator
bars

7.3 FEW DEFINITIONS OF ELECTRIAL PROPERTIES OF

INSULATION:
7.3.1 INSULATON RESISTANCE:
It may be defined as the resistance between two conductors usually
separated by insulating materials. It is the total resistance in respect of
two parallel paths, one through the body and other over the surface of the
body.
Insulation Resistance is influenced by the following factors.
1) It falls with every increase in temperature.
2) The sensitivity of the insulation is considerable in the presence of
moisture.
3) Insulation resistance decrease with increase in applied voltage.

7.3.2 DIELECTRIC STRENGTH:


The voltage across the insulating material is increased slowly the way in
which the leakage current increases depend upon the nature and condition
material.
7.3.3 POWER FACTOR:
Power factor is a measure of the power losses in the insulation and should
be low. It varies with the temperature of the insulation. A rapid increase
indicates danger.
7.3.4 DIELECTRIC CONSTANT:
This property is defined as the ratio of the electric flux density in the
material .To that produced in free space by the same electric force.
7.3.5 DIELECTRIC LOSS:
The dielectric losses occur in all solid and liquid dielectric due to
(b) Conduction current
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51
(c) Hysterisis.
Additional to the Electrical properties there are many factors such as thermal,
chemical etc.., they are tabulated as below.
S.No

Thermal Properties

Chemical Properties

Mechanical

1.

Specific heat

Resistance to external

Properties
Density

2.

Thermal

chemical effects.

Viscosity

3.

conductivity.

Resistance to chemical in

Moisture absorption

4.

Thermal plasticity

soils.

Hardness of surface

5.

Ignitability

6.

Softening point

7.

Heat Aging

Surface tension
Effect of moisture and water.

Uniformity.

Thermal expansion.

8. Resin Impregnation:
Resin impregnation fills the porosity of a part with a resin to create a
pressure-tight part for hydraulic applications which can withstand several
thousand psi, to improve machine ability, or to allow electroplating. The parts
are placed in a mesh basket and loaded into a vacuum tank. This is then
submerged in a bath of Anaerobic resin. A vacuum is pulled to remove all air
from the porosity of the parts. This vacuum is released to and the tank is
pressurised, causing the resin to be drawn into the porosity of the parts. Parts
that typically undergo resin impregnation include hydraulic fittings for pressure
tightness and plating, covers and plated for pressure tightness, as well as
machined components.
The previous method of sealing parts was a furnace treatment, which formed
a hard oxide layer on the internal and external surfaces of a part, filling the
porosity. Most machining operations were performed prior to sealing the part
because the hard oxide layer adversely affected mach inability. Residue left by
traditional cutting fluids tended to inhibit the formation of an oxide layer. With
resin impregnation, conventional cutting fluids can be used because the furnace
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52
treatment is eliminated resulting in improved mach inability. These fluids
efficiently remove heat from the cutting tool, extending the tool life. Machining a
porous part effectively creates a continuous interrupted cut.
Each time the tool impacts metal after passing through a pore, it may chip and
become dull. Resin impregnation reduces that effect and may also provide added
lubrication to the cutting tool. Before resin impregnation, many parts were
mechanically plated. Resin impregnation allows the use of electroplating.

EPOXY RESINS:
Epoxy resins are poly ethers derived from epi-chloro hydrin and Bisphenol monomers through condensation polymerization process. These resins
are product of alkaline condensed of epi-chloro hydrin and product of alkaline
condensed of epi-chloro hydrin and poly-hydric compounds.
In epoxy resins cross-linking is produced by cure reactions. The liquid
polymer has reactive functional group like oil etc, otherwise vacuum as pre
polymer. The pre polymer of epoxy resins allowed to react curing agents of low
inductor weights such as poly-amines, poly-amides, poly-sulphides, phenol, urea,
formaldehyde, acids anhydrides etc, to produce the three dimensional cross
linked structures.
Hence epoxy resins exhibit outstanding toughness, chemical inertness and
excellent mechanical and thermal shock resistance. They also possess good
adhesion property. Epoxy resins can be used continuously up to 300F, but with
special additions, the capability can be increased up to a temperature of 500F.
Epoxy resins are made use as an efficient coating material. This includes
coating of tanks containing chemicals, coating for corrosion and abrasion
resistant containers. Epoxy resins are made up of as attractive corrosion and
wear resistant floor ware finishes.
These are also used as industrial flooring material. They are also used as
highways Surfacing and patching material. Moulding compounds of epoxy resins
such as pipe fitting electrical components bobbins for coil winding and
components of tooling industrial finds greater application in industries.

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The epoxy resins similar to polyester resins can be laminated and Fibre
Reinforced (FPR) and used in glass fibre boats, lightweight helicopters and
aeroplanes parts.
In the modern electronic industry, the application of epoxy resins is great.
Potting and encapsulation (coating with plastic resin) is used for electronic parts.
Most of the printed circuits bodies are made of laminated epoxy resin which is
light but strong and tough.

PROPERTIES:
1) Epoxy resins have good mechanical strength less shrinkage and excellent
dimensional stable after casting.
2) Chemical resistance is high.
3) Good adhesion to metals.
4) To impact hardness certain organic acid anhydrides and alphabetic amines
are mixed.
APPLICATIONS:
1) They are used in the manufacture of laminated insulating boards.
2) Dimensional stability prevents crack formation in castings.
3) They are also used as insulating varnishes.
8.1 INSULATING MATERIAL FOR LAMINATIONS: The core stacks in modem machines are subjected to high pressers during
assembly and there fore to avoid metal-to-metal contact, laminations must be
well insulated. The main requirements of good lamination insulation are
homogeneously in thin layers toughness and high receptivity.
We use varnish as insulating material for laminations.

8.2

VARNISH

This is most effective type of insulation now available. It makes the


laminations nest proofs and is not affected by the temperature produced in
electrical machines varnish is usually applied to both sides of lamination to a
thickness of about 0.006mm. On plates of 0.35mm thickness varnish gives a
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54
stacking factor about 0.95.In order to achieve good insulation properties the
following processes are in BHEL.

THERMOPLASTIC PROCESS OF INSULATION


THERMOSETTING PROCESS OF INSULATION

BHEL is practicing only thermosetting process of insulation so


Thermosetting types of insulation are of two types:

RESIN RICH SYSTEM OF INSULATION

RESIN POOR SYSTEM OF INSULATION

The various types of materials used in the resin rich and resin poor process a
given below.
Let us have an overview.
8.3

Materials used in resin poor system:

MATERIAL FOR RESIN POOR


DIAMOND COILS

Treated trivoltherm
Impregnated polyester fleece
Glass mat with accelerator
Hostofon folium
Synthetic fibre tape
Resin poor mica tape
Polyester fleece tape with
graphite
Semiconductor asbestos tape
Polyester glass tape
Polyester fleece tape
Nomex
polyamide
adhesive
tape
VARNISH

HALF BARS

EPOXY glass cloth


Nomex glass fleece
Fine mica polyester glass cloth
Nomex
Form micanite
Form mica tape
Copper foil
Polyester fleece tape with
graphite for ICP
Polyester fleece for OCP
Polyester fleece tape with silic
carbide
Mica splitting tape

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Polyester glass tape


Rutapox
Hardener (H-90)

55

Materials used in resin rich process:


MATERIAL FOR RESIN RICH BARS:

VARNISH

Preprag
Nomex
Epoxy resin rich mica tape
Glass tape
PTFE tape

Mica powder
Graphite powder
Conductive varnish
Semiconductor varnish

8.4

RESIN RICH SYSTEM:

In olden days, Resin Rich system of insulation is used for all Electrical
Machines. In insulator contains nearly 40% of EPOXY RESIN, so it gives good
thermal stability Resin Rich Insulation consists of the following materials in
percentage
1. MICA PAPER TAPE -40-50%
2. GLASS PAPER TAPE-20%
3. EPOXY RESIN-40%
The bars are insulated (or) taped with RESIN RICH TAPE and place in the
Pre-assembled stator core including stator frame.
In resin rich system of insulation Mica paper will give a good dielectric strength
and Glass fiber tape will give a good mechanical strength and Epoxy resin can
withstand up to 155 degree Centigrade so it gives a good thermal properties.
Resin rich and Resin poor insulating materials are characterized by the contact
of the Epoxy Resin. In Resin rich system the content of Epoxy Resin tape is 40%
so it is named as RESIN RICH SYSTEM, and in Resin poor system the content of
Resin tape is 8%. By VIP impregnation process, the required amount is added to
then conductor bars after assembling the core and placing the winding in the
core. In resin rich system before placing of coils in the stator slots the rich tape

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56
will be wrapped over the bars. Nevertheless, this system has the following
disadvantages:
1. This system is very time consuming and very long procedure.
2. Total cost of the system is more.
In order to minimize the over all cost of the machine and to reduce the time
cycle of the system, the VACUUM PRESSURE IMPREGNATION SYSTEM is being
widely used. This process is very simple, less time consuming and lower cost.
BHEL, HYDERABAD is equipped with the state of the art technology of
VACUUM PRESSURE IMPREGNATION.
The core or coil building and assembling method depends on the insulation
system used. The difference in core building is
1. For Resin rich insulation system the laminations are stacked in the frame
itself.
2. For Resin poor insulation system (VPI) cage core of open core design is
employed.
The manufacturing of coils also differs for both as explained above for core.
1. For resin poor process
2. For resin rich process

13.2.1
MANU

Manufacturing of stator coils depends on the type of the insulation process


used for the stator. I.e. the process is different for resin rich and resin poor
process although few of the sub processes are same for both.
9.1

For resin poor process:

In this process the high voltage insulation is provided according to the resin
poor mica base of thermosetting epoxy system.

Several half overlapped

continuous layers of resin poor mica tape are applied over the bars.

The

thickness of the tape depends on the machine voltage.


9.1.1 Reception of copper conductors:
The copper conductors rolls are received is checked for physical and
mechanical properties. First piece is checked for specifications such as length

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and if found satisfactory, mass cutting to desired length is carried out by feeding
into the cutting mills.
9.1.2 Transposition:
Conductors are adjusted one over another for a given template and
the bundles are transposed by 360 degrees by setting the press for Roebel
Transposition. Now they are
bundled and consolidated by
tying

with

cutter

tape

at

various places.
Similarly all the bundles are
processed. Thus each stator
bundle has a transposed coils
in each phase such that the
flux distribution is equal and hence the induced e.m.f.
Figure 4: Side View showing one way of transposing insulated strands in stator bar.

9.1.3 Putty operation:


All the transposed bars are shifted to putty operation. Here a single bar is
taken for putty operation by filling up the uneven surfaces on the width face by
filling with NOMAX. I.e., NOMAX sheets are inserted in the crossovers on the
width face to the both ends. Form mica net is placed over the width face of the
bar on both sides & wrapped with PTFE (poly tetra flamo ethane) tape.
9.1.4 Stack consolidation:
Now 2 to 3 bars are inserted into hydraulic presser and they are pressed
horizontally and vertically to a pressure up to 150kg/cm2. At the same time the
bars are subjected o heating from 140 to 160 degrees for duration of 2-3 hrs.
Then the bars are unloaded and clamped perfectly. Now inter half and inter strip
testing is carried out and the dimensions are checked using a gauge.
9.1.5 Bending:
Each of the samples is placed over the universal former & the universal
former is aligned to the specifications. The bar is bent on both the sides i.e.
on turbine side (TS) and exciter side (ES).the 1 st bend and the 2nd bend is
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carried out and continued by over hang formation. Now the 3 rd bend is carried
by inserting nomax sheet from the end of straight part to the end of 3 rd bend
and the bars are clamped tightly. Now the clamps are heated to 60 degrees
for 30mins. Inter half and inter strip tests follows.
9.1.6 Final taping:
The taping may be machine or manual taping and the taping is done
according to the type of insulation used. In case of resin poor system, resin
poor tape is wrapped by 9*1/2 over lap in the straight portion up to overhang
and 6*1/2 over lap layers in the intermittent layers. The intermittent layers
are follows.
1st intermittent layer is ICP (internal corona protection) tape. This is
wrapped by butting only in straight portion.
2nd is split mica tape. One layer of split mica is wrapped by butting &
using conductive tape at the bottom so that split mica is not overlapped.
Next layer is O.C.P (outer corona protection). OCP tape is wrapped
final in straight portion by but joint up to end of straight portion on both the
sides.
Next intermittent layer is ECP (end corona protection). ECP tape is
wrapped from the end of straight portion up to over hang over a length of 90110mm. Now the bars are wrapped
finally with hyper seal tape from straight portion to the end of 3 rd bend in
overlapping layers for protecting the layers from anti fingering. The IH & IS
tests follows and the bars are discharged to the stator winding.

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Fig 2. Cross-section of a multi turn coil, where three turns and three strands per turn.

9.2

For Resin rich system:

The coil manufacture is same as in case of resin poor but differ in a few
stages. The Conductor cutting and material used is same as resin poor system.
Transposition is done same as that of resin poor system. Stacking of coils is
done. In this case high resin glass cloth is used for preventing inter half shorts.
There is a difference in putty work.
9.2.1 Putty work:
Nomex is used in between transposition pieces. 775 varnish is applied over the
straight portion of bar and mica putty is applied on the width faces of the bars.
Mica Putty mixture is a composition of SIB 775 Varnish, mica powder and china
clay in the ratio of 100:50:25.
Straight part baking is done for 1hour at a temperature of 160C and a pressure
of 150kg/sq.cm.Then bending and forming is done. Half taping with resin rich
tape is done for over hangs and reshaping is done. To ensure no short circuits
half testing of coils is done.
9.2.2 Final taping:

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Initial taping and final tapings is done with resin rich tape (semica therm
tape) to about 13-14 layers. The main insulation layers are 12*1/2 overlap in the
straight portion and 9 layers in the overhang.

Figure 3: Layout of a mould used in baking of stator by Resin rich process


9.2.3 Final baking:
Final baking is done for 3hrs at a temperature of 160C in cone furnace.
The bar is fed into the baking mould.

The bar is heated for 1 hr at 90 degree to get gelling state.

The temperature of the mould is increased to 110 degrees in 30 mins and


simultaneously the moulds are tightened. Now in this process 155 of the
resin is oozed out only 25% will be remain. Now the bar is unloaded and
checked for final dimensions, sharp corners, depressions, charring, hollow
sounds etc.,

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Gauge suiting is done. I.e. the dimensions are made to compromising with
the design.

Conductive/graphite coating (643) is applied on the straight portion and


semi-conductive coating 642 from end of straight portion to 3rd bend to pre
transition coating on both sides.1st coating for 90mm, 2nd coating for
100mm and 3rd coating for 120mm on both sides.

The bar is allowed for drying and epoxy red gel is applied from the end of
straight portion to the 3rd bend on both sides and allow for drying.

High voltage testing is done at 4 times that of rated voltage and tan
testing, inter strip, inter half testing are done. Tan values must be less
than 2%.
10.
10.1

An overview
ADVANTAGES OF RESIN POOR SYSTEM OF INSULATION:

It has better dielectric strength


Heat transfer coefficient is much better
Maintenance free and core and frame are independent
It gives better capacitance resulting in less dielectric losses due to which the
insulation life will be more
The cost will be less and it is latest technology
Reduction in time cycle and consumption for MW also less and it gives high
quality
10.2

DISADVANTAGES

OF

RESIN

POOR

SYSTEM

OF

INSULATION:
If any short circuit is noticed, the repairing process is difficult and need of
excess resin from outside.
Dependability for basic insulating material on foreign supply
10.3

ADVANTAGES OF RESIN RICH SYSTEM OF INSULATION:

Better quality and reliability is obtained


In case of any fault (phase - ground/ phase phase short) carrying the repair
process is very easy.
Addition of excess resin will be avoided because of using resin rich mica tape
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62

10.4

DISADVANTAGES

OF

RESIN

RICH

SYSTEM

OF

INSULATION:
It is a very long procedure
Due to fully manual oriented process, the cost is more
It is possible to process stator bars only.
Even though the advantages and disadvantages of both the process are
explained above, resin poor process is the best of all, as the resin content used
is almost only 35% compared to resin poor process and also show good
insulation properties
11.

justified later.
Assembly of stator:

The completed core and the copper bars are brought to the
assembly shop for assembly.

11.1

Reception of stator core:

Stator core after the core assembly is checked for the availability of
foreign matter, so coil projections are checked in each slot. HGL gauge is passed
in each and every slot to detect bottom core projections.
11.2

Winding holders assembly:


Assemble all the winding holders on both sides by adapting to the

required design size. Check all the wedge holders by a template and they are
assembled as per the design requirement. Tighten all the bolts relevant to
winding holders and lock them by tag welding. Assemble HGL rings on both the
sides by centring with respect to core. Subject each individual for pressing in
pressing fixture at a pressure of 60 kg/cm2 for 30 minutes. Inter half test is
conducted for each individual bar before assembling into the stator.
Now stator bar assembling is carried out by centring to the core
and check for proper seating of bottom bars with T-gauge and checked for third
bend matching, over hang seating etc.., rein force the overhang portion of stator
bars by inserting glass mat in between the bars and tying them with neoprene

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63
glass sleeve. This process is carried out for all respective bottom bars .now the
pitch matching is checked on both sides both the generator and the exciter side.
Now high voltage testing is carried out on the stator.

11.3

Stiffeners assembly:

Stiffeners are assembled on both sides and then checked for physical
feasibility of top bar by laying into the respective slot. Check for uniform gap in
the over hang and top bar matching to the bottom bar pitch on both sides.
Assemble all the top bars by inserting inner layer inserts and also assemble
relevant RTDs (Resistance Temperature detectors) where ever they are required
as per the design.
After completion of top bars, reinforce overhangs by inserting Glassmat and tying with Neoprene glass sleeve and also check for the third bend
matching on both the sides. Then the core is subjected to high voltage DC test
and inter half short circuit tests.

11.4

Eye formation:

Join bottom conductors and top conductors forming an eye, by brazing


the conductors with silver foil. Segregate eyes into two halves on both sides and
test for inter half shorts. Insert Nomax into two halves and close them.
Brazing makes the electrical connection between the top and bottom bars.
One top bars strand each is brazed to one strand of associated bottom bar so
that beginning of the strand is connected with out any electrical contact with the
remaining strand. This connection offers the advantage of minimising three
circulating currents.

11.5

Connecting rings assembly:

The connecting rings are assembled on exciter side as per the


drawing and connect all the connectors to the phase groovers by joining and
brazing with silver foil. Clean each individual phase groove, insert nomax sheet
and tape with semica folium. Subject the whole stator for HVDC test. Terminate
the three RTDs in the straight portion and the 3-RTDs in the over hang portion
on both turbine and exciter side except one for earthing requirement.
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64

11.6

Phase connectors:

The phase connectors consist of flat copper sections, the cross section of
which results in a low specific current loading. The connections to the stator
winding are of riveted and soldered tape and like wise wrapped with dry
mica/glass fabric tapes. The phase connectors are firmly mounted on the
winding support using clamping pieces and glass fabric tapes.
Thus we have a completed stator here. Now this stator is sent for VPI process
because in there is a chance of damage to the insulation due to the following
reasons

During the stator assembly, the bars are beaten with rubber hammers to
fit into the slots

Also there is a chance of void spaces in between the stator conductors and
the core due to the use of solid insulating materials, which lead to slot
discharges.

So in order to fill these voids and to gain good insulating properties the stator is
VPI processed. Let us start with an introduction to the process and the early
materials used for this process and the advancement of this process to our
present resin poor VPI process.
12.

The vpi process

12.1
INTRODUCTION TO VACUUM PRESSURE IMPREGNATION
SYSTEM (VPI)

12.2

HISTORY

DR. MEYER brought the VPI system with the collaboration of WESTING
HOUSE in the year 1956. Vacuum Pressure Impregnation has been used for many
years as a basic process for thorough filling of all interstices in insulated
components, especially high voltage stator coils and bars. Prior to development
of Thermosetting resins, a widely used insulation system for 6.6kv and higher
voltages was a Vacuum Pressure Impregnation system based on Bitumen
Bonded Mica Flake Tape is used as main ground insulation. After applying the
insulation coils or bars were placed in an autoclave, vacuum dried and then
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65
impregnated with a high melting point bitumen compound. To allow thorough
impregnation, a low viscosity was essential. This was achieved by heating the
bitumen to about 180C at which temperature it was sufficiently liquid to pass
through the layers of tape and fill the interstices around the conductor stack. To
assist penetration, the pressure in the autoclave was raised to 5 or 6
atmospheres. After appropriate curing and calibration, the coils or bars were
wound and connected up in the normal manner. These systems performed
satisfactorily in service provided they were used in their thermal limitations. In
the late 1930s and early 1940s, however, many large units, principally turbine
generators, failed due to inherently weak thermoplastic nature of bitumen
compound.
Failures were due to two types of problems:
a. Tape separation
b. Excessive relaxation of the main ground insulation.
Much development work was carried out to try to produce new insulation
systems, which didnt exhibit these weaknesses. The first major new system to
overcome these difficulties was basically a fundamental improvement to the
classic Vacuum Pressure Impregnation process. Coils and bars were insulated
with dry mica flake tapes, lightly bonded with synthetic resin and backed by a
thin layer of fibrous material. After taping, the bars or coils were vacuum dried
and pressure impregnated in polyester resin. Subsequently, the resin was
converted by chemical action from a liquid to a solid compound by curing at an
appropriate temperature, e.g. 150C. this so called thermosetting process enable
coils and bars to be made which didnt relax subsequently when operating at full
service temperature. By building in some permanently flexible tapings at the
evolutes of diamond shaped coils, it was practicable to wind them without
difficulty. Thereafter, normal slot packing, wedging, connecting up and bracing
procedures were carried out. Many manufacturers for producing their large coils
and bars have used various versions of this Vacuum Pressure Impregnation
procedure for almost 30 years. The main differences between systems have
been in the types of micaceous tapes used for main ground insulation and the
composition of the impregnated resins. Although the first system available was
styrenated polyester, many developments have taken place during the last two
decades.
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66
Today, there are several different types of epoxy, epoxy-polyester and
polyester resin in common use. Choice of resin system and associated
micaceous tape is a complex problem for the machine manufacturer.
Although the classic Vacuum Pressure Impregnation technique has
improved to a significant extent, it is a modification to the basic process, which
has brought about the greatest change in the design and manufacture of
medium-sized a.c. industrial machines. This is the global impregnation process.
Using this system, significant increases in reliability, reduction in manufacturing
costs and improved output can be achieved. Manufacture of coils follows the
normal process except that the ground insulation consists of low-bond
micaceous tape. High-voltage coils have corona shields and stress grading
applied in the same way as for resin-rich coils, except that the materials must be
compatible with the Vacuum Pressure Impregnation process. Individual coils are
inter turn and high-potential-tested at voltages below those normally used for
resin-rich coils because, at the un- impregnated stage, the intrinsic electric
strength is less than that which will be attained after processing. Coils are wound
into slots lined with firm but flexible sheet material. Care has to be taken to
ensure that the main ground insulation, which is relatively fragile, is not
damaged. After inter-turn testing of individual coils, the series joints are made
and coils connected up into phase groups. All insulation used in low-bond
material, which will soak up resin during the impregnation process. End-winding
bracing is carried out with dry, or lightly treated, glass-and/or polyester-based
tapes, cords and ropes. On completion, the wound stator is placed in the Vacuum
Pressure Impregnation tank, vacuum-dried and pressure-impregnated with
solvent less synthetic resin. Finally, the completed unit is stoved to thermo set
all the resin in the coils and the associated bracing system.
After curing, stator windings are high-potential-tested to the same
standard. Loss-tangent measurements at voltage intervals up to line voltage are
normally made on all stators for over 1kv. A major difference between resin-rich
and vacuum pressure impregnation lies in the importance of this final losstangent test; it is an essential quality-control check to conform how well the
impregnation has been carried out. To interpret the results, the manufacturer
needs to have a precise understanding of the effect of the stress-grading system
applied to the coils. Stress grading causes an increase in the loss-tangent
values. To calculate the real values of the ground insulation loss-tangent, it is
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67
necessary to supply from the readings the effect of the stress grading. For
grading materials based on the materials such as silicon carbide loaded tape or
varnish, this additional loss depends, to a large extent upon the stator core
length and machine voltage.
VPI is a process, which is a step above the conventional vacuum system.
VPI includes pressure in addition to vacuum, thus assuring good penetration of
the varnish in the coil. The result is improved mechanical strength and electrical
properties. With the improved penetration, a void free coil is achieved as well as
giving greater mechanical strength. With the superior varnish distribution, the
temperature gradient is also reduced and therefore, there is a lower hot spot rise
compared to the average rise.
In order to minimise the overall cost of the machine & to reduce the time
cycle of the insulation system vacuum pressure Impregnated System is used.
The stator coils are taped with porous resin poor mica tapes before inserting in
the slots of cage stator, subsequently wounded stator is subjected to VPI
process, in which first the stator is vacuum dried and then impregnated in resin
bath under pressure of Nitrogen gas.
The chemical composition of our resin type and its advantages are
explained in the later sections. Now let us discuss the various stages involved in
VPI process for resin poor insulated jobs.
VPI process is done in the VPI camber. For higher capacity stators of steam
turbine or gas turbine generator stators, horizontal chamber is used where as
vertical chamber is used for smaller capacity systems such as Permanent
Magnet Generator (PMG), coil insulation of small pumps and armature of motors
etc..,

12.3 Vacuum Pressure Impregnation of resin poor


insulated jobs:
VPI process for a stator involves the following stages.
2. Preheating
3. Lifting and shifting
4. Vacuum cycle
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68
5. Vacuum drop test
6. Heating the resin
7. Resin admission.
8. Resin settling
9. Pressure cycle
10.

Aeration.

11.

Post curing cycle

12.

Cleaning

12.3.1

General instructions before VPI

process:
The jobs that are entering tank for Vacuum Pressurised Impregnation shall
not have any oil based coatings. Any such, rust preventive/ corrosion preventive
viz., red oxide etc., shall be eliminated into the tank. Jobs shall be protected with
polyethylene sheet for preventing dust or dirt on jobs, till it is taken up for
impregnation. Resin in the storage tank shall be stored at 10 to 12C and
measured for its viscosity, viscosity rise. Proper functioning of the impregnation
plant and curing oven are to be checked by production and cleared for taking up
of job for impregnation.

12.3.2

Pre heating:

The foremost stage of VPI, the completed stator is placed in the


impregnation vessel and kept in an oven for a period of 12 hours at a
temperature of 60 deg. Six thermocouples are inserted at the back of the core to
measure the temperature. The temperature should not exceed to 85 deg
.Smaller stator can be inserted directly into the impregnation chamber . The job
is to be loaded in the curing oven and heated. The temperature is to be
monitored by the RTD elements placed on the job and the readings are logged
by production. The time of entry into the oven, time of taking out and the
temperature maintained are to be noted. Depending on convenience of
production the jobs can be preheated in impregnation tank by placing them in
tubs.
The impregnation tubs used for impregnation of jobs are to be heated in the
impregnated tank itself, when the jobs are preheated in the curing oven

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69

Insertion of tub with job into the impregnation tank:


The wound stator is lifted and shifted into the tub. By the time, the preheating of job is completed, it
is to be planned in such a way that the heating of tub and tank heating matches with the job. This is
applicable when the job is heated in the curing oven separately. The preheated job is to be transferred
into the tub by crane handling the job safely and carefully with out damage to the green hot insulation
the tub is then pushed in the 140 tank furnace or also called as vacuum tank, after which the lid is
closed and the tank furnace was heated to 60 +/- 3 deg The warm tub with job is inserted into
impregnation tank by sliding on railing, in case of horizontal tank. The thermometer elements are to
be placed at different places on the job. The connection for inlet resin is to be made for collection of
resin into tub. After ensuring all these lid of the impregnation tank is closed. In case of vertical tank
the job along with tub is slinged and inserted carefully into impregnation tank without damage to
insulation
12.3.3
Vacuum cycle:
The pre heated job will be placed in the impregnation chamber by a
hydraulic mechanism. The vessels are kept clean and the resin available in the
vessel is wiped out. Methylene and traces of resin should not be allowed on the
inner side of the tank. Now the vacuum pumps are all

switched on

and a

vacuum pressure of about 0.2 mb is maintained for about 17 HRS, after which
the wound stator is subject to vacuum drop test.
Vacuum drop test:
This drop test is important phase, all the vacuum pumps are switched off
for about 10 mins, and the vacuum drop is measured and it is checked whether
it exceeds 0.06mb, if it exceeds 0.06mb then it is subject to repetition of vacuum
cycle for another 6 to 8 hrs, else it is sent to the next cycle
Drying the job in vacuum
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70
The job is to be dried under vacuum. Drain out the condensed moisture/
water at the exhausts of vacuum pumps for efficient and fast vacuum creation.
Also check for oil replacement at pumps in case of delay in achieving desired
vacuum.

12.4 resin management


Heating the resin in the storage tank
The completion of operations of drying and the heating of the resin in the
storage tank are to be synchronised. The heating of resin in the tank and
pipeline is to be maintained as at preheating temperature .i.e. the temperature
is maintained at 60+/- 3 deg ,including pipeline
Admission of resin into impregnation tank
The resin is allowed into the impregnation tank tub if required from
various storage tanks one after the other, such that the difference in pressure
fills the tank, up to a level of 100mm above the job generally, after which the
resin admission is stopped. After 10mins of resin settling the tank is to be
pressurised by nitrogen. While admitting resin from storage tanks pressurise to
minimum so that nitrogen will not affect resin to spill over in tank.
Resin settling:
The resin is allowed to settle for about 4mins in such a way that bubble
formation ceases
Impregnation Pressurising/gelling
After the resin has settled
the job is subject to pressure
cycle

of

kg/

cm2 of dry

nitrogen into the vacuum tank


after obtaining 4 kg/cm2, this is
subject for 2 hrs. in this stage
the resin is impregnated into
the micro pores of the stator
and is very firmly embedded
into the crevices of the stator
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71
,so thus acting as a tough layer of insulation for the stator ,being indestructible
in the long run.

Fig: vertical VPI tanks for

smaller jobs

Withdrawal of resin from impregnation tank to storage tank


The resin that is pressurised as per pressure cycle is drawn into the tank
by the opening of relevant valves will allow the resin to come back to the
storage tank. The job also shall be allowed for dripping of residue of resin for
about 10min. After dripping, withdrawal of resin in various storage tanks is to be
carried out. This is necessary because resin is a very costly material.
Taking out the tub with job from impregnation tank
The lid is then opened after taking precautions of wearing mask and gloves
for the operating personnel as a protection from fumes. The job is withdrawn
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72
from impregnation tank by sliding on railing for horizontal and slinging on to
crane for vertical impregnation tanks.
12.3.5

Post curing:

The job is post heated. The time and temperature to which the job has to
be scheduled is varies according to the type of

the table.

job and is given in

The time at which the heating is started, achieved and

maintained is to be logged. The wound stator is subject to 140 +/- 5 deg. After
obtaining 140 deg the stator is subject for 32 hrs. The stator is then made to
rotate at 1 rpm up to 120 deg. It is then allowed for cooling without opening the
doors till the temperature reaches 80 deg, after attaining the temperature of 80
deg, the doors are opened and wound stator is sprayed with epoxy red gel on
the overhangs and is allowed for drying.

Cleaning

entire wound stator is cleaned for resin drips, after which its

subjected to HV and tan delta tests


12.3.6 Electrical testing:
All jobs that are impregnated till above process are to be tested for
electrical tests. After ensuring that all the temperature/vacuum conditions
stipulated for drying, impregnation and curing operations have been properly
followed, the job is to be released for this operation.

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73
12.4Global processing:
Processing details depends very much on the machine type, on customers
defined parameters and type of mica tapes.
Generally the VPI system is used in impregnation vessels up to 30T where the
rotor/stator is impregnated at elevated temperatures. Machine parts usually are
preheated (also under vacuum) in order to remove moisture and to reduce
viscosity during impregnation.
12.5Resin management:
After impregnation the VPI bath is pumped into storage tanks and cooled
down to 5-10C and should be stored in dry conditions in order to obtain a long
bath life. Actual bath life depends on additional parameters, e.g., impregnation
temperature

and

impregnation,

duration

impurities

in

of
the

bath, wash-out of catalyst from


mica

tapes

accelerated

into
resin

replenishment

the
system

rate,

un(B),

moisture

exposure etc,. The viscosity of the


bath

should

be

checked

periodically in order to maintain a


suitable

viscosity

for

impregnation.
Impregnated, yet uncured machine parts in unconditioned atmosphere may
pickup moisture. Therefore curing directly after impregnation or storage in
moisture controlled area is recommended. Generally machine parts are rotated
when removed

fig: showing the resin tank in

which resin is stored. from the bath and during the first part of curing in order
to avoid drip off.
Evaporation of hardener during the vacuum cycle leads to a change in the
resin/hardener ratio in the bath and has to be compensated. Therefore
replenishment is mixing ratios of 100-120pbw of hardener HY 1102 per 100pbw
MY 790-1 are generally used. Replenishment mixing ratios depend on actual
processing parameters and conditions and have to be evaluated at the customer
site.
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74
Due to excellent latency of the system (A) MY 790-1/HY 1102/DY 9577/DY073
the replenishment volume to maintain a constant viscosity is comparatively
small, even if impregnation is performed at 40-50C.
On single coils and roebel-bars the mica insulation is normally covered with
a tight glass tape to prevent drainage of the impregnation resin.
12.6Specific Instructions:
Depending on the insulation materials and the accelerating agent in use, a
ramped curing schedule is recommended.
In systems with high reactivity, where the accelerator can be include in
the mica-tape, a fast gelation can be obtain with a temperature-shock, and
draining can so be reduced or avoided.
Standard curing with the standard accelerated mixture (system A) is:
11 at 90C plus 18 h at 140C
12.7Precaution:
To determine whether cross linking has been carried to completion and the
final properties are optimal, it is necessary to carry out relevant
measurements on the actual object or to measure the glass transition
temperature. Different gelling and cure cycles in the manufacturing
process could lead to a different cross linking and glass transition
temperature respectively.
12.8 Features and Benefits:
State-of-the-art process for completely penetrating air pockets in winding
insulation.
Increases voltage breakdown level. (Even under water!)
Proven submergence duty system
Improved heat transfer- windings are cooler, efficiency is improved.
Improves resistance to moisture and chemicals.
Increases mechanical resistance to winding surges.

An overview of entire VPI process with the time taken for each process according
to the type of the job used is given below in a tabular form

Vacuum Pressure Impregnation of resin poor insulated jobs:


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75
Variant

Description

01
stators and

Brushless exciter armature, PMG


Laminated rotors

02

Stator wound with diamond pulled coils.

Preheating

Vacuum to
be
maintained

Vacuum
heating time

Increase in
pressure
Maximum
pressure

Stator with half coils


Variant-01

Variant-02

605C for
3hrs

605C for
12hrs

0.4mbar

3hrs

0.2mbar/0.4m
bar

0.2mbar for
9hrs 0.4mbar
for 17hrs

Variant03
603C for
12hrs
<0.2mbar
(both
together
shall not
exceed
50hrs
including
rising
time)
Stopping
vacuum
pumps for
10min
shall check
17hrs
vacuum
drop. The
vacuum
drop shall
not exceed
by
0.06mbar
for 10min

40min

80min

80min

3bar

4bar

4bar

Pressure
holding

3hrs

3hrs

3hrs

Post curing

At1405C
for 14hrs

At1405C for
32hrs

At1405C
for 32hrs

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Any other
information

76

13.

FACILITIES AVAILABLE IN VPI PLANT IN BHEL:

The major facilities available in VPI plant are:


Steam furnace for preheating
Size of chamber: 2 * 2 * 6.5 M
Maximum temperature: 160C
Electrical power consumption: 75KW
Work place: 1425
Work centre: 3215
Stream inlet: 200-250C
Impregnated tubs for keeping jobs
For vertical impregnation: As per respective tech. Document.
For horizontal impregnation: As per respective tech. Document.
Specifications of plant:

Impregnation medium

(a)

Epoxy resin (class F solvent free) and hardener mix in 1:1 ratio as

per TG34967
(b)

Epoxy resin (class F solvent free) and hardener mix in 1:1 ratio as

per TG34931

Horizontal impregnation chamber


Diameter: 4000mm
Cylindrical length: 9000 mm
Operating over pressure: 6 bar
Operating vacuum: 0.15 mbar
Operating temperature: 90C
Loading weight of impregnation object: maximum of 120 tonnes

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77
Maximum leakage rate: less than 1mbar/lit/sec.
Moving load: 140 tonnes.
Static load: 170 tonnes

Pressure medium for impregnation


Pressure medium: dry nitrogen
Operating pressure: 6 bar.
Nitrogen storage capacity: 52cubic meter at 25 bar.

Resin storage capacity


Total storage: 5*9000L+1*3000L

Operating parameters of each tank


Operating vacuum: 0.5mbar
Operating over pressure: 0.5bar
Operating temperature: 80C

Resin filters(stainless steel washable)


Filter fineness: 150microns
Output (maximum): 1000lits/min

Vacuum system
Root pumps: 2No.s, 5.5KW each
Suction capacity: 2000cubic meter/hr

Vacuum pumps(4No.s, 7.5KW each)


Suction capacity: 250 cubic meter/hr
This system is provided with separator filter with activated carbon filters, to
protect the vacuum pumps from resin and hardener vapours.

Refrigeration system
The resin inside the tanks has to be stored at 102C. this can be stored for
indefinite period with a brine chilling/refrigeration system.
The brine storage capacity: 1*25000L+1*26000L
Composition of brine: 40%Mono Ethylene glycol and 60%water

Heating and cooling system


The heating of resin in the storage tanks and the impregnation chamber is by
circulating the heated brine through the heat exchangers, to heat by
saturated steam. The hot brine is cooled to about 40C by circulating water
through coolers and then the brine is chilled to -10C and stored in the tanks.

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78
Post heating of job
(a)

Explosion proof steam drier and electrical heating superposed.


Size: 7*4.5*4.5M

Maximum weight of job: 80 tonnes


Maximum temperature: 150C
(b)

Indirectly heated hot air circulating oven (gas fired)

Size: 9*4.5*4.5M
Maximum weight of job: 170 T/120T with facility for rotation.
Maximum temperature: 150C

b.2 DATA COLLECTION OF SAMPLES


During the project two jobs have been impregnated in VPI Plant, the data has
been collected and recorded in the project report.
b.2.8 INDO-BHARAT-II ROTOR
Preheating:
Indo Bharat II rotor is loaded for preheating in steam furnace on 30-5-2003 at
18:00hrs.
Date and
time

RTD-I(C)

RTDII(C)

Furnace air
temperatur
e

30.5.2003
19:00

32.0

30.0

45.6

30.5.2003
20:00
30.5.2003
21:00

45.4

48.6

57.9

49.9

50.9

63.4

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Remarks
Rotor
temperature
is reached to
603C at
2:00hrs on
31.5.2003
and it is
maintained
for 4 hrs i.e.,
up to 6:00
on
31.5.2003

79
30.5.2003
22:00
30.5.2003
23:00

52.5

54.3

70.5

53.3

55.1

73.4

30.5.2003
24:00

56.6

57.3

75.6

31.5.2003
1:00
31.5.2003
2:00
31.5.2003
3:00
31.5.2003
4:00
31.5.2003
5:00
31.5.2003
6:00

59.9

60.2

75.1

62.4

63.9

77.0

62.3

64.7

77.0

63.3

64.1

75.0

63.3

64.0

75.6

63.1

63.7

75.6

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Rotor is
switched to
vac 140 tank
at 7:00 hrs
on
31.5.2003

12.3
12.4

D
ate
and
time

12.5

12.7

12.6
R

12.8
R

12.9
Roo
m
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

12.11
12.12 R
emar
ks

12.10
(C)
12.13 3
1.5.2
003
19:3
0

12.14
6

12.15
6

12.16
36.
0

12.17 R
esin
tank
025
is
heat
ed
for
impr
egna
tion

12.18 3
1.5.2
003
21:3
0

12.19
7

12.20
6

12.21
36.
7

12.22

12.23 3
1.5.2
003
23:3
0

12.24
8

12.25
8

12.26
36.
7

12.28 1
.6.20
03
1:30

12.29
1

12.30
9

12.31
35.
6

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12.32 R
esin
admi
ssion
start
ed at
14:1
0 hrs

80

81

12.8.5.1.1
Date and
time
31.5.2003
7:00
31.5.2003
8:00
31.5.2003
9:00
31.5.2003
10:00
31.5.2003
11:00
31.5.2003
12:00
31.5.2003
13:00
31.5.2003
14:00

Vacuum cycle:

Vacuum in
graph
(mbar)
--

Vacuum
in meter
(mbar)
--

Job
temperatur
e (C)
62.2

--

3.0

61.5

0.85

0.86

61.3

0.54

0.55

61.1

0.39

0.4

61.1

0.38

0.4

61.1

0.37

0.4

61.0

0.36

0.39

61.0

Remarks

Vacuum
pump
started at
7:30 hrs on
31.5.2003.

RESIN CYCLE AND POST CURING CYCLE:


b.2.9 INDO-BHARAT-II STATOR:
Preheating:
Indo-Bharat-II stator is loaded for preheating in steam furnace on 7-52003 at 23:30hrs.
Date and Time

RTD-

RTD-

Furnace air

I(C)

II(C)

temperature

12.8.5

(C)
7.5.2003

36.3

36.1

23:30

Stator
temperature is
reached to
60.5C to
62.9C(603C)
at 7:30hrs on
8.5.2003 and it
is maintained for

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82
12hrs i.e., up to
19:30hrs on
8.5.2003
8.5.2003

43.6

42.9

1:30
8.5.2003

52.0

51.74

3:30
8.5.2003

55.9

56.0

5:30
8.5.2003

60.5

62.9

7:30

Stator is loaded
in vac(140) tank
at 21:00hrs on
8.5.2003

8.5.2003

61.3

62.9

9:30
8.5.2003

60.3

62.4

11:30
8.5.2003

60.3

62.6

13:30

Vac. Pump is
started at
2:30hrs on
9.5.2003

8.5.2003

62.5

62.9

15:30
8.5.2003

62.9

62.66

17:30
8.5.2003

62.4

62.1

19:30

Vacuum cycle:

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83
Vacuum in Vacuum in
12.8.5.1.1.1.1.2
graph
meter

8.5.2003

Job
temperatur

(mbar)

(mbar)

e (C)

--

--

54.37

Resin tanks 025,102

22:00

are heated for

8.5.2003

--

--

54.89

impregnation
Viscosity of resin at

0:00
9.5.2003

--

--

59.02

60C is 33CP
Viscosity after aging

2:00
9.5.2003

0.65

0.65

61.6

3:30
9.5.2003

0.41

0.40

63.59

5:30
9.5.2003

0.28

0.29

64.2

7:30
9.5.2003
9:30
9.5.2003

0.22
0.19

0.22
0.19

19:55hrs
Pressurisation

62.3

started at 20:00hrs
Pressurisation of
4kg/sq.cm reached

0.18

0.18

62.1

at 21:20hrs
Pressurisation hold
up for 3hrs is at

0.17

0.17

62.0

15:30
9.5.2003

started at 19:45hrs
Resin admission

63.2

13:30
9.5.2003

10.5.2003
Resin admission

completed at

11:30
9.5.2003

is 36.10CP
9.5.2003 and

0:20hrs
Resin withdrawn to
storage tanks is from

0.14

0.14

61.8

17:30

0:30hrs 1:00hrs
Stator loaded in hot
air furnace from
1:00hrs 1:30hrs on
10.5.2003

9.5.2003

0.14

0.14

61.3

19:30

Post curing:
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84
ESO

TSO

ES

TS

15T

06B

02

13

70.0

76.4

62.4

62.5

126.

131.

4:30hrs
10.5.2003

7
144.

4
154.

7:30hrs
10.5.2003

3
147.

10:30hrs
10.5.2003

Date and
Time
10.5.2003
1:30hrs
10.5.2003

94.7

102.

Cor
e

Room
temperatu
re

63.4

33.1

98.8

31.7

125.

3
134.

1
154.

4
139.

5
145.

1
140.

7
137.

9
144.

9
139.

1
141.

6
140.

13:30hrs
10.5.2003

6
136.

4
144.

3
140.

6
140.

7
140.

16:30hrs
10.5.2003

9
140.

2
143.

0
140.

9
140.

6
140.

19:30hrs

126.

Remarks

31.6
34.8
38.0
38.4
37.2
Job temp. is reached
to 1405C i.e., from
136.2C to 145.6C
at 9:30hrs on
10.5.2003 and it is

10.5.2003

144.

151.

143.

145.

144.

22:30hrs

11.5.2003

143.

146.

145.

145.

145.

1:30hrs
11.5.2003

1
144.

7
151.

2
143.

1
144.

2
144.

4:30hrs
11.5.2003

3
135.

0
142.

6
144.

0
145.

7
145.

7:30hrs
11.5.2003

7
135.

1
135.

3
135.

1
135.

0
135.

10:30hrs
11.5.2003

0
135.

7
141.

1
135.

0
135.

8
135.

13:30hrs

maintained for 32hrs

35.9

i.e. up to 17:30hrs
on 11.5.2003.

33.8
31.1
31.3
34.8
38.3

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85
Furnace is
switched off at
17:30hrs on
11.5.2003 and
circulation fans
kept running till
11.5.2003

148.

149.

142.

142.

142.

17:30hrs

the job

39.8

temperature is
reached from
70C- 75C

12.8.5.1.2

b.2.10
High voltage levels of stator/rotor windings for multi turn
machines:
S.No.

Description

HV level

HV in kv

remarks

18.9/1

RTD,IT test

Stator winding
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

After laying
and wedging
of coils
After OH
spacers and
forming
eyes
Before
impregnatio
n
After
impregnatio
n

18.03/3

Customer
acceptance

RTD,IT test

17.5/1

R, RTD test

26.0/1

R, RTD, Tan,
leakage
reactance
test
Rotor
winding

25.0/1
Rotor winding

1.
2.
3.

After laying
first coil
After laying
second coil
After laying
third coil

UT+1400

2.9

Pole drops

UT+1250

2.75

Pole drops

UT+1100

2.6

Pole drops

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86
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.

After laying
fourth coil
After laying
fifth coil
After laying
sixth coil
After all
connections
After tech.
rings
assembly
After
bandage
After
impregnatio
n
After
excitation
cable
assembly
After
balancing

b.2.11

UT+950

2.45

Pole drops

UT+800

2.3

Pole drops

UT+650

--

Pole drops

--

--

R, Pole drops

--

2.15

--

2.0

R, Pole drops

--

1.9

R, Pole drops

--

1.8

R, Pole drops

UT+200

1.7

R,Z with
50Hz

TESTING RESULTS OF INDO-BHARAT-II ROTOR

Customer name: INDO-BHARAT-II ROTOR


M/c rating: 10.8MW, 12kv, 1500rpm.
Test: Z, R and H.V test.
Stage: after impregnation.
Ambient temperature: 35C
Ohmic resistance: 0.264 (rotor temperature was more)
Voltage( volts)
215.0

Current(amps)
0.5

367.5

1.0

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87
523.0

1.5

High voltage test:


IR value before H.V. test at 15/60 -- 200/300 M
H.V. applied at 1.9kv /1 withstood
IR value after H.V. test at 15/60 -- 200/300 M

b.2.12

TESTING RESULTS OF INDO-BHARAT-II STATOR:

Customer name: INDO-BHARAT-II STATOR


M/c rating: 10.0MW, 12kv, 0.8pf, 650A, 1500rpm.
Test: H.V test.
Stage: after impregnation.
Ambient temperature: 36C
A PHASE:

IR value at 2.5kv

IR value before H.V. test -- 1000/2000 M


H.V. applied at 26-25kv /1 withstood
IR value after H.V. test -- 1000/2000M
B PHASE:

IR value at 2.5kv

IR value before H.V. test -- 1000/2000 M


H.V. applied at 26-25kv /1 withstood
IR value after H.V. test -- 1000/2000M
C PHASE:

IR value at 2.5kv

IR value before H.V. test -- 1000/2000 M


H.V. applied at 26-25kv /1 withstood
IR value after H.V. test -- 1000/2000M

34.5 INDO-BHARAT-II STATOR:


Customer name: INDO-BHARAT-II STATOR
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88
M/c rating: 10.0MW, 12kv, 0.8pf, 650A, 1500rpm.
Test: H.V test-RTD measurement, resistance measurement.
Stage: After impregnation.
Ambient temperature: 36C
Excitation Side:
26
10
62
50
20
38
14

113.8
114.0
113.8
113.8
113.8
113.9
113.8

49
13
25
21
61
37
1

125.0
113.8
113.9
113.8
113.8
113.9
113.8

Turbine Side:

A-A --29.4m
B-B -- 29.3m
C-C -- 29.4m

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89

c. COMPARISION BETWEEN RESIN POOR AND RESIN RICH SYSTEMS:


RESIN POOR SYSTEM
1.

RESIN RICH SYSTEM

The insulation tape used in this

1.

system has 40% resin.


2.

This

The insulation tape used in this is


7% of 40% resin.

method

follows

2.

Same as in resin poor.

There is a need for addition of

3.

Further addition of resin is not

thermosetting process.
3.

resin from outside.

required from outside.

4. Reduction in time cycle for this

4.

process

It

is

time

very

long

process

and

while

at

consuming

processing stage.
5. No tests are carried out while at

5.

Tests are being carried out Stage.

6.

Processing

processing
6. Processing of bars along with
stator and
conductors

with
and

exciter

processing

of

Coils along with

exciter is possible.
7. The cost of repair is more
8. The

overall

cost

is

only

of

possible

stator
in

bars

resin

is
rich

systems.
7.

Repairing work is easy.

8.

The total cost in this process is


more.

less

compared to resin rich system.

Applications:
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90
All critical machines
Equipment exposed to frequent surges/starting
Harsh or moist environments
Motors that run at service factor

c.2

DRAWBACKS OF VPI SYSTEM:

Number of RTDs required are more


The whole operation is time consuming
It depends largely on moisture and season of operation
Maintenance of resin below room temperature about 8-12C is
complicated.

c.3

SUGGESTIONS:

Processed in a Clean Room Environment


To ensure optimum rewind integrity, all rewinds should be conducted in
a clean, temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. It ensures optimum
material performance and prevents dirt or moisture contamination during the
process.

VPI Process Control


Throughout the VPI process, each stator is continuously monitored by
computer to ensure homogenous fill.
How can we say that the present VPI BY RESIN POOR process currently used in
BHEL is a superior process as compared to VPI by resin rich process ? inorder to
find an answer to this question the justification follows:

c.4

JUSTIFICATION

We can say that VPI by resin poor system is more superior to other types of
insulation by conducting h v and tan delta tests, and the results of which are
clearly indicated in the graphs below:

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91

3. High Voltage test:


Equipment
*50

Hz

A.C

High

voltage

transformers

and

its

induction

regulator/input autotransformer.
* Potential transformer (35 or100KV/100V)
* Voltmeter
*Binding wire
* Earthing Rod and Earthing wire/cable
When H.V test is done on one-phase winding, all other phase
windings, rotor winding, instrumentation cables and stator body are
earthed.
The high voltage is applied to winding by increasing gradually to
required value and maintance for 1 minute & reduced gradually to
minutes. The transformer is switched off & winding discharged to
earth by shorting the terminal to earth using earthing rod connected
to earth wire/cable.
The test is conducted on all the phases & rotor winding separately.
HV Test Levels:
Stator winding: (2Ut+1) KV =23 for 11 KV machine
Rotor winding: (10 Up) volts (with min of 1500v & max of 3500v),
Where, Ut= Rated of machine under test Up= Excitation voltage.

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92

TAN TEST:
Equipment: Schering Bridge
This test is conducted to check the presence of impurities
in the insulation & tan value for each phase & also for combined
phases is noted down.
Tan value should be generally less than or equal to 2%.
TESTING RESULTS:
Vph (0.2Un ) Rated KV= 10.5KV , 3000RPM.
Uph
2.1
4.2
6.3
8.4
10.5

Tan
0.815
0.832
0.869
0.903
0.938

Wph
2.1
4.2
6.3
8.4
10.5

Tan
0.806
0.820
0.857
0.899
0.941

Vph
2.1

Tan
0.811

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93

4.2
6.3
8.4

0.830
0.868
0.905

Uph Vph Wph


2.1
4.2
6.3
8.4
10.5

Tan
1.18
1.209
1.230
1.254
1.268

Rating: 31.25, 250 MW, 11KV, 1640A, 0.8pf, 3000rpm.


SCC:
Ia

Ib

%In

337.

337.6

2
664.

If

666.2

Vd

0.01

20.57
40.5

94.7
187.

559.0
515.95
516.04

Id

Dm

404.58

O/P
226.1

443.1

6
228.6

481.4

0
248.4

1005

1006.

.8
1324

1
1326.

.9
1495

5
1496.

.2

61.34

281.

516.52

533.6

275.6

80.84

51
369.

516.54

651.25

336.3

91.2

16
415.

690.3

5
356.3

516.18

OCC:
Vab
35.3

Vbc
35.3

Vca
35.3

%En
35.32

If
0.01

Vd
512.4

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Id

Dm

419.8

O/P
215.1

94

2281.

2282.

2281.

2
4447.

5
4441.

8
4448.

42
6662.

4
6665.

2
6663.

0
8845.

0
8849.

0
8846.

20.74
40.44

40.44

512.9

423.1

216.6

77.05

3
512.4

5
442.4

2
226.7

512.3

5
466.4

1
288.9
5
256.6

66.58

116.6

80.4

5
160.3

512.1

3
501.0

0
0
0
10015 10019 10017 91.06

186.5

9
512.2

8
517.2

4
264.9

.0

.0

.0

Graphs

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95

Resistance Measurement:
Instrument: Micro ohm meter
Resistance
Rotor

at

25c Resistance at 20c

(m)
264

(m)
258.92

R75 = (( 235+75)/(235+20)) x R20= (310/255) x (0.2587)=0.3147


Rotor current = 562 A
Efficiency = (output)/(output+losses)
Losses = 99.532 + 9.9532 + 39.39 + 385.15 + 286. 38 = 820.40
Efficiency= (25000/25000 + 820 .40 ) = 96.82%

d. PRESENT INSULATION SYSTEMS IN THE WORLD


Four major manufacturing processes have been and are still widely used to
form and consolidate insulation systems for form-wound stators. They are:
1. Vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) of individual coils and bars
2. Global VPI of complete stators
3. Hydraulic molding of individual coils and bars using resin-rich tapes
4. Press curing of individual coils and bars, also using resin-rich tapes
There are some combinations of these methods also in use. The binder
resins can be categorized as high- or low-solvent-containing and solvent less, as
well as by their chemical nature. Although no longer manufactured for coils in
new stators, there are many machines still in service, and expected to remain in
use for several more decades, that are insulated with asphaltic mica splitting.
There are four principal drivers that govern the selection of the insulation
systems currently being manufactured. They are:
1. Good service experience with earlier versions of the same basic system
2. Commercial availability of the materials to be used
3. Relative costs of the raw materials and processes in the competitive machinesales environment
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96
4. Design advantages or limitations each insulation system and process brings to
the final generator or motor for its expected service life and economy of
operation
New insulating materials may require the development of new or significantly
modified manufacturing processes to obtain the insulation system improvements
inherent in the materials. By the 1990s, the major insulation suppliers were
offering full insulation systems, including the basic processing know-how, to their
customers. For smaller OEMs and most repair shops, the insulation suppliers
materials, other acceptable materials, and processing specifications are all that
is needed to support work. The final insulation system may use the materials
suppliers trade name, e.g., VonRoll ISOLAs Samicatherm and Samicabond.
Larger OEMs still work with insulation suppliers to optimize both the materials
and processes for new or changed insulation systems.
The first consideration in using modern insulation systems is the method of
applying the ground-wall materials to form-wound stator coils and bars.

discussed

in

Section

the

3.10,

As

Haefley process was widely


used decades ago to apply
wide sheets of insulation
material to coils.
Presently,
virtually
are

all

ground-walls

fabricated

application

however,

of

by

the

relatively

narrow (23 cm wide) tapes. When tapes were first introduced, and for many
decades thereafter, they were applied with hand by skilled tradesmen. There are
many

companies

insulation

into

manufacture,

mainly all the companies


have

these

insulation

Fig: A modern stator bar taping machine that


applies tape both in the slot and end winding
portions of the bar.

systems as a trade secrets. So one cannot point out which is the best insulation
system as there are many factors such as availability in a particular country, so
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97
insulation systems are given different names ,though the composition just differs
a wee bit, so let us have a brief overview

d.2 Westinghouse Electric Co.: Thermalastic


Westinghouse

Thermalastic,

the

first

modern

synthetic

insulation

system. The first Thermalastic insulated generator went into service in 1950, in
the 1960s minor changes that were made included introduction of glass cloth as
a backing material for the mica, resin modifications to help VPI resin tank
stability, and improvements in the partial discharge suppression treatments on
generator coil surfaces. Although large turbine generators continue to use the
individual bar impregnation and cure method, motors and smaller generators
shifted to the global VPI method in the early 1970s

[4.4]. The hybrid epoxy

VPI resin used for turbine generators was optimized for the previously developed
processing equipment and insulation requirements. It is comprised of a modified
epoxy resin, prepared in a resin cooker to create polyester linkages, and is
compatible with styrene for viscosity control. The final resin cure was achieved
by cross-linking through the epoxy or oxirane group.
After Siemens acquired Westinghouse in the late 1990s, the Thermalastic
system underwent many refinements in materials and processing while
maintaining the same resin system. Now a days there are not much changes
though.

d.3 General Electric Co. :


Micapals
hydromat

and

II,

Epoxy

Mica

Mat,

Micapal

HT,

and

It was introduced to the industry in an IEEE Technical paper [4.5] in 1958,


after several years of limited production. Micapal 1 contained approximately
50% GE Micamat (paper), made with calcined muscovite, and 50% muscovite
splitting.
winding operation.
After a 12-year development program, General Electric announced the MICAPAL
II insulation for large turbine generator stator windings in 1978 [4.8]. This
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98
solvent less, resin-rich, second-generation epoxy mica paper insulation system
has been used on most large steam turbine generators since that time.
In 1999, GE began to offer a reduced-build strand-and-turn insulation,
using similar metal oxide fillers in the large-motor business. These machines use
the global epoxy VPI process to make the glass-fabric-supported Mica-mat
insulation systems for machines at least up to 13.8 kV ratings. Several
generations of VPI resins have been used by GE for motor manufacture. Two of
these epoxy resin systems have been based on controlled reactivity chemistry.
The most recent improvement creates polyether linkages in cured di-glycidyl
ether bis-phenol, an epoxy resin provides high reactivity at curing temperatures
with excellent shelf life at room temperature.

d.4 Alsthom, GEC Alsthom, Alstom Power: Isotenax, Resitherm,


Resiflex, Resivac, and Duritenax
During the 1950s, Alsthom licensed the resin technology used in the GE Micapal
I system to create the first Isotenax system. There were several differences in
materials and processes between the two systems. Isotenex used only mica
paper, not mica splittings. The resin-rich impregnating epoxy contained
significant amounts of a solvent mixture that had to be removed after the glassbacked mica paper tape was wrapped around the stator bars. Since the 1980s
the UK operations of Alsthom have also worked with global VPI processing and
an insulation system called Resivac. Recent advances in the VPI system have
used bisphenol epoxy resins with a latent Lewis acid catalyst system

d.5 Siemens AG, KWU: Micalastic


Siemens began using the individual-bar VPI process with polyester resins and
mica splittings as early as 1957 for hydro and steam turbine generators, with
initial help from Westinghouse. This system was trade named Micalastic.
Production continued with this combination of resins and processes for at least
10 years. Except for indirect cooled generators and direct-cooled generators
rated at more than about 300 MVA or so, which still use the individual bar epoxy
VPI methods, the global VPI process has been standard for all motor and turbo
generator stators since 1986

[4.18].

For its large global VPI stators, this

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99
manufacturer avoids difficulties due to shear stress at the interface of the bar to
the stator core

(Section 8.2)

by employing a slip plane. The slip plane

consists of mica splitting sandwiched between two semi conductive tapes.

d.6 ABB

Industrie

AG:

Micadur,

Micadur

Compact,

Micapact and Micarex


Brown Boveri AG started changing from resin-rich asphalt mica flake ground-wall
insulation about 1953, first using modified polyester resins and then switching to
epoxy resins to make resin-rich tapes. The ABB Group name for bars and coils
manufactured from the epoxy resin-rich system is Micarex . Initially, these tapes
were applied by hand and later by machine taping, followed by hot-press
consolidation and curing. New machine production with this system will stop with
the end of turbo generator production in Sweden, although some repair
licensees will continue using Micarex for some time.
The Micadur insulation system was introduced in 1955 by Brown Boveri
as an individual bar VPI method before the merger of ASEA with Brown Boveri to
form ABB in the mid 1980s, ASEA also developed the technology for individual
bar VPI production, using similar materials. The result was Micapact , introduced
in 1962 for the stator insulation of large rotating machines. It was made with
glass-backed mica paper, impregnated with a special mixture of an epoxy resin,
curing agent, and additives. Unlike most other VPI tapes, the glass backing and
mica paper lack any impregnant or bonding resin. The adhesion between mica
paper and glass was accomplished by an extremely thin layer of material, which
was melted at a high temperature during formation of the tape. The tape did not
contain any volatile matter, which means that the completed machine taped bar
insulation was more easily evacuated and impregnated.

d.7 Toshiba Corporation: Tosrich and Tostight- I


The

Toshiba

Tosrich

insulation

system

for

low-voltage,

small-capacity

generators with a relatively small number of insulation layers was based on a


resin-rich mica paper tape. The solvent containing synthetic resin was
impregnated into the mica tape, wound onto a coil and cured in a mold.
Although used successfully for many years for smaller machines, its replacement
with a solvent less epoxy, resin-rich mica paper tape during the 1990s allowed
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the improved Tosrich to be applied to medium-capacity generators; it is still
gaining manufacturing and service experience.
For larger machines, the Tostight-I insulation system was developed.A new
generation of the Tostight-I VPI insulation system was introduced in 1998. It has
been optimized to improve heat resistance and to be environmentally friendly in
materials, equipment, production methods, and disposal of waste. The mica
paper has been changed to replace the aramid fibrids with short glass fibers. The
new impregnating resin is principally a high-purity, heat-resistant epoxy resin,
employing a complex molecular capsule, latent hardening catalyst that is
activated

by

heat

to

quickly

cure

and

produce

high-heat-resistant,

mechanically and electrically strong filling material for the mica. The revised
system is manufactured using new production equipment, including a fully
automatic taping machine and a new vacuum pressure impregnation facility and
curing oven. The VPI tank is equipped to control vacuum and impregnation as a
parameter of the coil capacitance. The new Tostight-I is intended to be usable for
all types of medium and large generators.

d.8 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation


The ground-wall insulation systems employed by Mitsubishi until the 1990s
were largely based on licenses obtained from Westinghouse. During the late
1990s, Mitsubishi introduced a new global VPI insulation system for air-cooled
generators up to 250 MVA. The new system supplemented an older global VPI
system, used for air-cooled generators of up to 50 MVA rating. The new system
uses a glass-fabric-backed mica paper tape, bonded with a very small amount of
hardener-free epoxy resin as an adhesive. The global VPI resin is an epoxy
anhydride.

d.9 Hitachi, Ltd.: Hi-Resin, Hi-Mold, and Super Hi-Resin


Hitachi also introduced a pre impregnated or resin-rich mica paper
insulation, called the Hi-Mold coil in 1971 This press-cured system uses an
epoxy resin to impregnate glass-cloth-backed mica paper, which is partially
cured to the B stage. The high-performance resin was selected to obtain superior
electric and thermal characteristics for use in machines rated for up to Class F
insulation performance. The Hi-Mold system is used for hydro and gas turbine
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peaking generators and for heavy duty or other unfavorable environments in
synchronous and induction motors.

d.10 Summary of Present-Day Insulation Systems:


A review of subsections 4.2.1 through 4.2.8 shows that all of the worlds
larger OEMs are currently using various mixtures and types of epoxy resins and
mica paper to make their stator coil ground-wall insulation systems. The
compositions are adjusted or tailored to accommodate the exact process used in
their manufacture. The end results are comparable in terms of inherent
insulation quality as related to the machine and insulation design parameters,
provided that consistent quality control practices are routinely carried out. This
fact is recognized by some large suppliers of rotating machines, who will, in
times of extraordinary demand, out-source or purchase generators to their own
design from competitors, while allowing the supplier to use their own insulation
systems. We presented here the most efficient and reliable system of insulation,
the micalastic insulation

e. A NEW FLUSH IN INSULATION SYSTEM


e.2
MICALASTIC
Of

all

these

insulation
processes

the

insulation which
was

preferred

by ITAIPU power
plant

was

the

MICALASTIC the
features
which

of
will

be

briefed below:
As

central

components
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of hydroelectric power plants, generators are subjected to operating
stresses which influence the long-term performance of the winding
insulation. Failure of the insulation can lead to lengthy downtimes. The
un surpassed reliability of products such as MICALASTIC insulation is
therefore of great economic significance
The capacity of a hydroelectric power plant is determined by the available water
flow and head. Both of these parameters vary widely, and generators can be
dimensioned for any rating between 10 kW and 800 MW. The head determines
the turbine type as well as the speed, which can lie between 50 and 1500 rpm.
Additional parameters include the generator voltage, the rotor s moment of
inertia, the runaway speed of the turbine, the physical design of the generator
(horizontal or vertical) and various requirements imposed by the grid.
Hydroelectric generators are therefore always custom designed. Dimensions and
weights can assume enormous proportions External diameters of up to nearly 23
meters are possible, and total weight can amount to as much as 3500 metric
tons. Generators of this size cannot be assembled and tested at the factory.
Nevertheless, the generators can be expected to operate well right after their
initial installation at the power plant. It was once correctly stated that the
construction of a hydroelectric generator can be compared to making a tailor
made suit without trying it on.
To date, Siemens has manufactured more than 1200 large hydroelectric
generators with a combined capacity in excess of 80,000 MVA. Of these, 360
generators (over 50,000 MVA) have MICALASTIC windings. These machines are
characterized by their outstanding reliability, which can be attributed in large
measure to their high quality MICALASTIC insulation system.

e.3

The MICALASTIC Insulation in itaipu

MICALASTIC is the registered trademark for Siemens insulation systems for highvoltage windings of rotating electrical machines. These systems use mica, a
material capable of withstanding high electrical and thermal loads, together with
curable, elastic epoxy resins as bonding material. Since the early days of
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electrical machine construction, the naturally occurring, inorganic mineral mica
has been an indispensable constituent of high voltage insulation systems. The
most important criterion for the use of mica is its ability to durably withstand the
partial electrical discharges which can occur inside the insulation due to high
electrical stresses.
Manufacturing and Design
As early as 1957, Siemens-Dynamo werk in Berlin manufactured the first stator
windings that made use of mica tape and a vacuum-pressure impregnation
process. With this method, single coils and Roebel bars for hydroelectric
generators are continuously wrapped with mica tape in the slot and end
sections. The taped winding elements are then dried out and degassed in a
vacuum impregnation tank, and flooded with low-viscosity, curable synthetic
resin. High nitrogen pressure applied to the impregnating bath completely
impregnates the mica tape. After being placed in accurately sized, portable
pressing molds, the insulation is cured at high temperatures in large chamber
ovens. Continued development of this insulation technology ultimately led to the
use of a film of ground mica on mechanically strong glass fabric as the carrier
material with epoxy resin as the impregnant, which produced a very durable
electrically,

thermally and mechanically),modern insulation system. Long

duration tests in a slot model were unnecessary, since the desired voltage
endurance had already been achieved in the previous development stages (Fig.
2) using lower-quality carrier materials. Short-duration tests were performed,
however, for verification.
Fitting of Roebel Bars into Slots:
Winding elements with cured MICALASTIC insulation are secured in the slots
by filling up the tolerances between the slot wall and the conductive surface (coil
side corona shielding) of the bar insulation. Initially, Siemens used graphitetreated paper as filler material. Since about 1969, however a special bar fitting
procedure has been used for hydroelectric generators. The main features of this
procedure are U-shaped slot liners made of polyester fleece impregnated with a
conductive material, and a conductive, curable synthetic resin paste between
the surface of the bar insulation and the slot liner (Fig. 3). Therefore, the
insulation does not stick to the stator core, and the option of removing the bars,
even though seldom required, is retained. In the radial direction, the slot portion
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of the winding elements is secured by means of various packing strips or ripple
springs, and slot wedges. Bracing the end windings and jumpers by using glass
fiber reinforced spacers and epoxy-resin impregnated cording makes the winding
resistant to electro dynamic forces during operation and to possible short-circuit
faults. This resistance is also aided considerably by the mechanical stiffness of
the MICALASTIC insulation, which is also cured within the end winding.

Thermal Stability
The MICALASTIC insulation system was developed strictly for a continuous
load in accordance with temperature class F (155C). Nevertheless, generator
design engineers generally guarantee compliance with class B (130C)
temperature limits for nominal operating conditions, as is also required in most
invitations to tender. In practice, the stator windings of hydroelectric generators
are frequently dimensioned for even lower operating temperatures, because the
stators will usually be optimized for good efficiency by adding electrically active
material (winding copper and core lamination). Particularly low operating
temperatures can be expected in the case of stator windings with direct water
cooling. With an appropriately

dimensioned de mineralized-water cooling

system, the maximum winding temperature can be reduced to 70C and lower.
Thermal aging of the insulation is therefore essentially eliminated, and thermo
mechanical stresses are also substantially reduced. The resulting increase in
operational reliability makes a real difference in the case of hydroelectric
generators which are essential to safe grid operation

f. CONCLUSION:
Hence Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation technology can be used in a wide range of
applications from insulating electrical coil windings to sealing porous metal
castings. It normally produces better work in less time and at a lower cost than
other available procedures.
Our VPI systems can be configured in a variety of ways, depending on the size
and form of the product to be impregnated, the type of impregnant used and
other production factors. System packages include all necessary valves, gauges,
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instruments and piping. These systems can be large or small, simple or highly
sophisticated and equipped with manual, semi-automatic or automatic controls.
Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) yields superior results with better
insulating properties, combined with flexible rigidity, resulting in greater
overall reliability and longer life. VPI reduces coil vibration by serving as an
adhesive between coil wires, coil insulation, and by bonding coils to their slots.
g. Bibliography

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