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o Compare the Actual measured pressure head with the Ideal pressure head calculated using the
Bernoulli equation. Discuss any disagreement between the two results.

Discussion
From the calculation has shown, the actual pressure head is different than ideal
pressure head this is due to the frictional losses occurred when the water flow
through the convergent-divergent duct. There are two types of frictional losses
occurred in the duct where the first friction is called the skin-friction which is due to
the roughness in the inner part of the where the fluid comes in the contact of the
pipe material. The second one is called form friction which is due to the obstructions
present in the line flow and it may be due to a band and control valve or anything
which changes the course of motion of the flowing fluid.
Furthermore, the fluid is assumed without any eddies of fluid swirled in the venture
duct however, this will only happen in the ideal condition and ideal apparatus only
and in actual case there are frictional losses and eddies of fluid swirled in the
venture duct and caused the results that we obtained is different. Lastly, the
parallax error is also one of the causes that caused actual cases result different with
the expectation results. This phenomenon occurred when we recorded the reading
from the manifolds.

o If the Convergent-Divergent duct is inclined upwards, what will be the changes of the distribution
of the corresponding total head H, the dynamic (v 2/2g) and pressure (p/g) heads?
Discussion
If the Convergent-Divergent duct is inclined upwards, the corresponding total head
H, will stay constant and the pressure head will increase at the upstream due to the
difference in height. The flow will continue until the pressure head at upstream
equals the elevation head at downstream thus velocity head will decrease until zero
when the fluid comes to rest. This is based on the theory of Bernoulli equation
where the velocity of fluid increases when the pressure decreased and vice versa.
Moreover, the velocity of the fluid will get affected by the cross sectional area. From
the graphs has shown it is obvious that the pressure head will decrease from wide
area duct to narrow area duct. This phenomenon is due to the velocity increase
when the water reaches the narrow area than decrease again when it pass through
the wide area duct. Where the velocity increases when the fluid flows through a
small cross sectional area and vice versa.
Few precautions must be taken in this experiment. First of all, the readings must be
taken carefully to prevent parallax error and our eyes must be parallel with the
measurement so that accurate date can be obtained. All the bubbles are make sure
to be removed when adjusting the water flow rate.